WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental stewardship econ

  1. The organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2012-01-01

    How is the organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship groups related to the diverse ways that civic stewardship is taking place in urban settings? The findings of the limited number of studies that have explored the organisational structure of civic environmentalism are combined with the research on civic stewardship to answer this question. By...

  2. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  3. Environmental Stewardship: A Conceptual Review and Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J.; Whitty, Tara S.; Finkbeiner, Elena; Pittman, Jeremy; Bassett, Hannah; Gelcich, Stefan; Allison, Edward H.

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.

  4. Environmental Stewardship: A Conceptual Review and Analytical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Whitty, Tara S; Finkbeiner, Elena; Pittman, Jeremy; Bassett, Hannah; Gelcich, Stefan; Allison, Edward H

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.

  5. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume II which consists of Appendices A through H

  6. Improving Wellbeing and Environmental Stewardship Through Volunteering in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Townsend, Mardie

    2016-03-01

    Environmental volunteering (EV) can provide a unique way to optimise the wellbeing of participants while fostering environmental stewardship. However, the potential of EV to create human health benefits remains an under-researched area. This study provides evidence for improved wellbeing and mood state for 32 participants from diverse backgrounds undertaking EV activities. Most participants also reported improved environmental stewardship with a greatly improved understanding of the environment and the need to conserve it. Other benefits included: 31% of those seeking work obtained it; and 50% joined a volunteer group at program completion. EV provides a unique mechanism to enhance the wellbeing of the participants, while conserving the environment.

  7. Eco-Visualization: Promoting Environmental Stewardship in the Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Eco-visualizations are artworks that reinterpret environmental data with custom software to promote stewardship. Eco-visualization technology offers a new way to dynamically picture environmental data and make it meaningful to a museum population. The questions are: How might museums create new projects and programs around place-based information?…

  8. Volunteer Environmental Stewardship and Affective Labour in Philadelphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Foster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has critically evaluated the rapid growth of volunteer urban environmental stewardship. Framings of this phenomenon have largely focused upon environmentality and/or neoliberal environments, unfortunately often presenting a totalising picture of the state and/or market utilising power from above to create environmental subjects with limited agency available to local citizens. Based upon qualitative research with volunteer urban environmental stewards in Philadelphia, affective labour is proposed as an alternative explanation for participation. Stewards volunteered their time and labour due to the intense emotional attachments they formed with their neighbourhoods, neighbours, and nonhuman others in relationships of affective labour. Volunteer urban environmental stewardship as affective labour provides room for agency on the part of individuals and groups involved in volunteer urban environmental reproduction and opens up new ways of relating to and being with human and nonhuman others.

  9. Responsible energy planning and environmental stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the idea that operating in the best interests of the environment is also in the best interests of shareholders. Topics discussed include utility environmental policy, cost-effective recycling of materials, environmental impact of new power sources, and energy efficiency. The author states that being environmentally responsible goes beyond good business, it is the right thing to do

  10. Organizing urban ecosystem services through environmental stewardship governance in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    How do stewardship groups contribute to the management of urban ecosystem services? In this paper, we integrate the research on environmental stewardship with the social-ecological systems literature to explain how stewardship groups serve as bridge organizations between public agencies and civic organizations, working across scales and sectors to build the flexible...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  12. Economic framework for integrating environmental stewardship into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of agricultural production technologies (based on natural resource management principles) exist that offer opportunities for achieving the two seemingly divergent goals because they have the characteristics to produce joint multiple outputs, i.e, they produce food and provide environmental services. However ...

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No name listed on publication

    2011-08-01

    Land and facility use planning and decisions at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site are guided by a comprehensive site planning process in accordance with Department of Energy Policy 430.1, 'Land and Facility Use Policy,' that integrates mission, economic, ecologic, social, and cultural factors. The INL Ten-Year Site Plan, prepared in accordance with Department of Energy Order 430.1B, 'Real Property Asset Management,' outlines the vision and strategy to transform INL to deliver world-leading capabilities that will enable the Department of Energy to accomplish its mission. Land use planning is the overarching function within real property asset management that integrates the other functions of acquisition, recapitalization, maintenance, disposition, real property utilization, and long-term stewardship into a coordinated effort to ensure current and future mission needs are met. All land and facility use projects planned at the INL Site are considered through a formal planning process that supports the Ten-Year Site Plan. This Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report describes that process. The land use planning process identifies the current condition of existing land and facility assets and the scope of constraints across INL and in the surrounding region. Current land use conditions are included in the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report and facility assets and scope of constraints are discussed in the Ten-Year Site Plan. This report also presents the past, present, and future uses of land at the INL Site that are considered during the planning process, as well as outlining the future of the INL Site for the 10, 30, and 100-year timeframes.

  14. Promoting Environmental Stewardship through Project Based Learning (PBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borhan, Mohamad Termizi Bin; Ismail, Zurida

    2011-01-01

    of our fellow communities: human, plant or animal. It is grounded in an understanding of the importance of environmental quality and natural resources to the human race and the effects of human actions on the environment. Thus, it is important to provide relevant educational experiences that involve......Environmental stewardship is living responsibly as a caretaker of the environment for the benefit of present and future generations and is quickly becoming one of the most pressing public priorities for communities today. As stewards, we are personally responsible for the care and preservation......-service teachers enrolled in a chemistry teaching methods course participated in this study. The pre-service teachers were in their third year of the teacher education program. Data were collected through questionnaires containing Likert-type items designed to assess the degree of environmental concern...

  15. Antecedents and consequences of environmental stewardship in boundary-spanning B2B teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine antecedents and consequences of environmental stewardship in frontline business-to-business teams. On the basis of data from members of 34 teams organized into regional networks, they demonstrate the differential impact of team environmental stewardship on customer satisfaction

  16. What is urban environmental stewardship? Constructing a practitioner-derived framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Romolini; W. Brinkley; K.L. Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Agencies and organizations deploy various strategies in response to environmental challenges, including the formulation of policy, programs, and regulations. Citizen-based environmental stewardship is increasingly seen as an innovative and important approach to improving and conserving landscape health. A new research focus on the stewardship of urban natural resources...

  17. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials

  18. Planning for quality stewardship: The sitewide environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy is responsible for managing many large tracts of Federal land throughout this country. These sites host the nation's nuclear weapons complex, national laboratories, environmental restoration facilities, and serve other uses. The Department faces unique problems in administering this land. Many have multiple activities taking place at the same time; for example, a site may simultaneously be used for energy research, technology development, waste disposal and wildlife habitat. The sites often use radioactive and other hazardous materials and many are contaminated as a result of past management practices. In 1992 the Department institutes a policy, as stated in its National Environmental Policy Act regulations [10 CFR 1021], to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements for its large, multipurpose sites. For the first time, through the sitewide environmental impact statement process, the Department has an effective tool to plan for quality stewardship of the lands and resources entrusted to its care. The sitewide environmental impact statement is a specialized type of programmatic environmental impact statement which allows the Department to look at the geographically connected actions taking place at a given site. The sitewide statement allows a comprehensive look at the operational baseline for the entire site to determine the total cumulative impact of ongoing operations at the site. The Department can identify areas where a change in management practices would mitigate undesirable impacts; areas not at issue could continue under existing practices. As a result, an environmentally-sound operating envelope can be established. This, in turn, can serve in the future as a threshold to decide if new proposals would result in significant impacts to the site as a whole, to simplify future National Environmental Policy Act reviews

  19. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  20. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  1. Environmental stewardship for gold mining in tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Isahak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining has gained strong popularity in recent years due to the increase in global demand for metals and other industrial raw material derived from the ground. However, information and good governance regarding activities related to mining is still very much lacking especially in underdeveloped and developing countries in the tropics. In Malaysia, the importance of environmental stewardship in mining is a new phenomenon. The new National Mineral Policy 2 calls for compliance with existing standards and guidelines, stresses on progressive and post mining rehabilitation as well as promotes the gathering and dissemination of information, best mining practices, public disclosure and corporate social responsibility. Our preliminary studies however have shown that its implementation may have been hampered by inadequate legal and administrative structures, lack of freedom of information, physical inaccessibility, lack of information and public participation. In this presentation, the above issues and measures to reduce the impact of mining, particularly that of gold on the environment with a special focus on Malaysia is discussed. These measures include alternative gold extraction methods, appropriate tailing dam construction and management, health risk assessment and risk management, compliance with the Cyanide Code and liberalization of access to information, facilitation of access to justice, the strengthening of legal and administrative structures as well as corporate accountability to the public as part of corporate social responsibility.

  2. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed Stockpile Stewardship and Maintenance Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume I of the PEIS

  3. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis of the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management PEIS describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program

  4. Integration of environmental stewardship and local economic development to enhance community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.

  5. Integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of agri-environmental schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher Mark; Reed, Mark; Bieling, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES...... to the reduced amount of funding available for entry-level and higher-level stewardship schemes in the UK since 2008, changing funding priorities, perceived overstrict compliance and lack of support for farm succession and new entrants into farming. However, there were differences in concerns across...... understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged...

  6. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document consists of Volume III, Appendix I entitled ''National Ignition Facility Project-Specific Analysis,'' which investigates the environmental impacts resulting from constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility

  7. Science and society: the role of long-term studies in environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles T. Driscoll; Kathleen F. Lambert; F. Stuart Chapin; David J. Nowak; Thomas A. Spies; Frederick J. Swanson; David B. Kittredge; Clarisse M. Hart

    2012-01-01

    Long-term research should play a crucial role in addressing grand challenges in environmental stewardship. We examine the efforts of five Long Term Ecological Research Network sites to enhance policy, management, and conservation decisions for forest ecosystems. In these case studies, we explore the approaches used to inform policy on atmospheric deposition, public...

  8. Aspen's Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009-2010--Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…

  9. Saint Joseph's University Institute for Environmental Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Micahel P. [Saint Joseph' s Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Springer, Clint J. [Saint Joseph' s Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-03

    terms of percent ground coverage and plant spread and reproduction). Interestingly, plant growth in all four of the test plots was reduced relative to the lower areas of the roof (the lower area was ca. 2 inches lower than the test plots, due to the space needed for sensors under the plots. The lower roof area uses an aggregate drain layer comparable to that in the third test plot), even when accounting for the north to south differences. The reasons for these differences are not clear and studies are underway to examine the impact of wind scour, drainage rates, temperature, and other factors. This information will be of value to planners of extensive vegetative roof systems in the Philadelphia (and broader) region, since plant growth and roof system overall performance is influenced by local climate, making broad generalizations of performance difficult. Task C: Education and community outreach efforts by the IES involving conferences at SJU, presentations by faculty and students off campus, and educational signage. The Institute for Environmental Stewardship hosted three storm water management workshops on the SJU campus in Philadelphia, in collaboration with the Lower Merion Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization located in Montgomery County, PA. These workshops were free and open to the public. The three workshops (held each year in March) drew more than 200 participants total. The presenters included local and state government agencies, not for profit organizations involved in storm water and open space preservation, designers, engineers, planners and others. Feedback was uniformly positive and we plan to continue the workshops for the foreseeable future. Educational signage has been installed at four locations on campus to explain campus infrastructure related to storm water (rain gardens, vegetative roof and green facades), as well as detailed signage installed on the Science Center roof for the vegetative roof system. More than 100 people (from in and

  10. A Unified Framework for Measuring Stewardship Practices Applied to Digital Environmental Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stewardship maturity assessment model in the form of a matrix for digital environmental datasets. Nine key components are identified based on requirements imposed on digital environmental data and information that are cared for and disseminated by U.S. Federal agencies by U.S. law, i.e., Information Quality Act of 2001, agencies’ guidance, expert bodies’ recommendations, and users. These components include: preservability, accessibility, usability, production sustainability, data quality assurance, data quality control/monitoring, data quality assessment, transparency/traceability, and data integrity. A five-level progressive maturity scale is then defined for each component associated with measurable practices applied to individual datasets, representing Ad Hoc, Minimal, Intermediate, Advanced, and Optimal stages. The rationale for each key component and its maturity levels is described. This maturity model, leveraging community best practices and standards, provides a unified framework for assessing scientific data stewardship. It can be used to create a stewardship maturity scoreboard of dataset(s and a roadmap for scientific data stewardship improvement or to provide data quality and usability information to users, stakeholders, and decision makers.

  11. Integration of Cloud Technologies for Data Stewardship at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. S.; Hausman, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the last year, the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and its siblings, the National Climatic Data Center and National Geophysical Data Center, were merged into one organization, the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Combining its expertise under one management has helped NCEI accelerate its efforts to embrace and integrate private, public, and hybrid cloud environments into its range of data stewardship services. These services span a range of tiers, from basic, long-term preservation and access, through enhanced access and scientific quality control, to authoritative product development and international-level services. Throughout these tiers of stewardship, partnerships and pilot projects have been launched to identify technological and policy-oriented challenges, to establish solutions to these problems, and to highlight success stories for emulation during operational integration of the cloud into NCEI's data stewardship activities. Some of these pilot activities including data storage, access, and reprocessing in Amazon Web Services, the OneStop data discovery and access framework project, and a set of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements under the Big Data Project with Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and the Open Cloud Consortium. Progress in these efforts will be highlighted along with a future vision of how NCEI could leverage hybrid cloud deployments and federated systems across NOAA to enable effective data stewardship for its oceanographic, atmospheric, climatic, and geophysical Big Data.

  12. Going wild: Environmental stewardship in the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    When Consumers Power Co., Michigan's largest utility, bought the lake plain acreage in St. Clair County, the company valued the land for what was underneath--potential gas storage fields. But that was before the state informed them that they owned the largest remaining stand of old-growth plain forest in Michigan. Growth rings date one hickory tree to 1796, in George Washington's administration; one white oak may date to 1752, one year before the Liberty Bell was hung in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia. Today, while Consumers still owns the site, land preservation management is in the hands of the Michigan Nature Association under a conservation, nondevelopment easement. The industry is making way for wildlife for pragmatic as well as idealistic reasons: Conservation, some say, persuades key audiences of a company's good corporate citizenship, which in turn saves the company time and money when it needs public and/or government support. Other proponents stress that land preservation allows wildlife to flourish and stems the current trend of species extinction. Still another group points to the large-sized carrot coming from environmental groups, which have rolled out the welcome mat to business

  13. Data Stewardship: Environmental Data Curation and a Web-of-Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researchers today frequently package measurements and associated metadata as digital datasets in anticipation of storage in data repositories. Through the lens of environmental data stewardship, we consider the data repository as an organizational element central to data curation. One aspect of non-commercial repositories, their distance-from-origin of the data, is explored in terms of near and remote categories. Three idealized repository types are distinguished – local, center, and archive - paralleling research, resource, and reference collection categories respectively. Repository type characteristics such as scope, structure, and goals are discussed. Repository similarities in terms of roles, activities and responsibilities are also examined. Data stewardship is related to care of research data and responsible scientific communication supported by an infrastructure that coordinates curation activities; data curation is defined as a set of repeated and repeatable activities focusing on tending data and creating data products within a particular arena. The concept of “sphere-of-context” is introduced as an aid to distinguishing repository types. Conceptualizing a “web-of-repositories” accommodates a variety of repository types and represents an ecologically inclusive approach to data curation.

  14. Assessing the distribution of environmental stewardship organizations and their relationship to the demographics of Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystle M. Golly

    2017-01-01

    An equal distribution of environmental stewardship organizations across the urban landscape provides an environment that facilitates community empowerment. The systemic issues found in Los Angeles County play an important role in the social development of the area. Through the utilization of modern technology and geographical mapping software, spatial distribution of...

  15. Networked governance and the management of ecosystem services: The case of urban environmental stewardship in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J.T. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship groups have become an essential component of the governance structure that regulates ecosystem services in cities. New York City is one example where these groups have grown rapidly in number, size, and visibility since the 1970s. In this article, we combine quantitative survey data with qualitative interview data to examine the...

  16. Environmental stewardship practices of veterinary professionals and educators related to use and disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Chan, Samuel S; Conway, Flaxen D L; Stone, David

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To document the environmental stewardship practices (decisions and actions regarding use and disposal) of pet and human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among pet-owning veterinary-care professionals (practicing veterinarians, veterinary students, and veterinary technicians and trainees) and environmental educators. DESIGN Internet-based cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 191 pet owners (103 veterinary-care professionals and 88 environmental educators). PROCEDURES Study participants were recruited by means of a 2-part internet survey distributed to veterinary-care professional and environmental educator networks of individuals residing in Washington state, Oregon, and southern California. Survey questions addressed motivators for environmental stewardship practices (ie, decisions and actions regarding use and disposal of pet and human PPCPs). RESULTS Data were collected from 191 respondents; the response rate for individuals who self-selected to opt in was 78% (191/246). Of the 191 respondents, 42 (22%) stored pet pharmaceuticals indefinitely. The most common disposal method was the garbage (88/191 [46%]). Veterinary-care professionals counseled clients infrequently regarding environmental stewardship practices for PPCPs. Fifty-five percent (105/191) of all respondents preferred more environmentally friendly and clinically effective PPCPs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present survey emphasized the urgent need for improved educational resources to minimize environmental contamination from improper disposal of PPCPs. Environmental and economic motivations among pet owners in the veterinary-care and education professions indicate further opportunities for outreach and institutional support.

  17. Lessons from White Lake - Connecting Students to their Community through Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Susan

    2014-05-01

    White Lake and its surrounding community have been negatively affected by shoreline degradation and wildlife habitat loss caused primarily by historical logging practices, and reduced water quality from industrial pollution and storm water runoff. This led to the lake being identified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern by the United States Environmental Protection Agency three decades ago. Local community partners have worked diligently in recent years to reverse habitat loss, and repair damaged ecosystems. The "H2O White Lake" (Healthy Habitats On White Lake) project has involved over seven hundred middle school students in grades six through eight over the course of the last five years. Students begin by researching the environmental history of the watershed and then they monitor six tributaries of the lake for nutrient pollution and habitat degradation. Students use the field experience as a community inventory to identify stewardship needs, for which they then identify solutions that take into account land usage and community behaviors. Class projects have focused on stream bank restoration, storm water management, eradication of invasive species, shoreline clean-up, and community outreach and education. This year, the project culminated in the first ever White Lake Environmental Film Festival, for which students had the opportunity to create their own short documentary. This multiple year place based education project allows students to apply their classroom studies of surface water and groundwater dynamics to an authentic, real-world situation, conduct themselves as scientists, and feel valuable through connections with community partners.

  18. Environmental Stewardship at the Savannah River Site: Generations of Success - 13212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B.; Bergren, Christopher L.; Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Guevara, Karen C.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Hennessey, Brian T.; Mills, Gary L.; Blake, John I. [Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808, 773-42A (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Approximately sixty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. SRS production operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology, and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a commitment to environmental stewardship. The Site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major Department of Energy (DOE) facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early generation of work set the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS pro-actively identified environmental problems and developed and implemented effective and efficient environmental management and remediation solutions. This second generation, spanning the 1980's through the 2000's, is exemplified by numerous large and small cleanup actions to address metals and radionuclides, solvents and hydrocarbons, facility and area decommissioning, and ecological restoration. Recently, a third generation of environmental management was initiated as part of Enterprise SRS. This initiative to 'Develop and Deploy Next Generation Cleanup Technologies' formalizes and organizes the major technology matching, development, and implementation processes associated with historical SRS cleanup success as a resource to support future environmental management missions throughout DOE. The four elements of the current, third generation, effort relate to: 1) transition from active to passive cleanup, 2) in situ decommissioning of large nuclear facilities, 3) new long term monitoring paradigms, and 4) a major case study related to support for recovery and restoration of the Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant and surrounding environment. (authors)

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management. Comment response document. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis on the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management PEIS describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program

  20. "Nuestra Tierra Dinamica" Global Climate Change STEM Education Fostering Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grave, M.; de Valenzuela, M.; Russell, R.

    2012-12-01

    CLUB ECO LÓGICO is a democratic and participatory program that provides active citizenship in schools and community, placing climate change into context for the Latino Community. The program's objectives focus on: 1. The Environment. Reducing the school and community impact on the environment through environmental footprint through stewardship actions. 2. Empowerment. Engaging participants through project and service learning and make decisions about how to improve their schools, their homes and their community's environment. 3. Community and Research Partnerships. Fostering collaborations with local community, stakeholders, government, universities, research organizations, and businesses that have expertise in environmental research, management, education and climate change. 4. Awareness. Increasing environmental and climate science knowledge of participants through STEM activities and hands-on access to technology. 5. Research and evaluation. Assessing the relevance of program activities through the engagement of the Latino community in planning and the effectiveness and impact of STEM activities through formative and summative evaluation. To address these objectives, the program has several inter related components in an after school setting: SUN EARTH Connections: Elementary (grades K to 2) students learn the basic climate change concepts through inquiry and hands on STEM activities. Bilingual 8 facilitators adapt relevant NASA educational resources for use in inquiry based, hands on activities. Drama and the arts provide unique experiences as well as play a key role in learning, participation and facilitation. GREEN LABS: Elementary students (grades 3 to 5) participate in stations where each Lab is staffed by at least two professionals: a College level fully bilingual Latin American Professional and a stakeholder representing either a research organization or other relevant environmental organization. Our current Green Lab themes include: Air, Soils, Water

  1. Rural Community-Based Tourism and its Impact on Ecological Consciousness, Environmental Stewardship and Social Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raftopoulos, Malayna

    2018-01-01

    Since rural community-based tourism (RCBT) emerged, it has been widely considered to be an effective means of promoting development and conserving natural resources. Through a political ecology approach, this article explores the potential of RCBT to foster long-term stewardship and transformations...

  2. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  3. Toward an Understanding of Citywide Urban Environmental Governance: An Examination of Stewardship Networks in Baltimore and Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romolini, Michele; Morgan Grove, J; Ventriss, Curtis L; Koliba, Christopher J; Krymkowski, Daniel H

    2016-08-01

    Efforts to create more sustainable cities are evident in the proliferation of sustainability policies in cities worldwide. It has become widely proposed that the success of these urban sustainability initiatives will require city agencies to partner with, and even cede authority to, organizations from other sectors and levels of government. Yet the resulting collaborative networks are often poorly understood, and the study of large whole networks has been a challenge for researchers. We believe that a better understanding of citywide environmental governance networks can inform evaluations of their effectiveness, thus contributing to improved environmental management. Through two citywide surveys in Baltimore and Seattle, we collected data on the attributes of environmental stewardship organizations and their network relationships. We applied missing data treatment approaches and conducted social network and comparative analyses to examine (a) the organizational composition of the network, and (b) how information and knowledge are shared throughout the network. Findings revealed similarities in the number of actors and their distribution across sectors, but considerable variation in the types and locations of environmental stewardship activities, and in the number and distribution of network ties in the networks of each city. We discuss the results and potential implications of network research for urban sustainability governance.

  4. 2008 stewardship report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers prepares an annual stewardship report as part of the industry's commitment to stewardship through the open and transparent reporting of progress on environmental, health and safety, and social issues. These reports also serve to provide annual benchmarking targets for the industry to surpass. This report presented the eighth annual stewardship report for 2008 and discussed indicators relating to several areas. The first involved air quality as it relates to climate change and greenhouse gases and technological solutions such as toe-to-heel air injection; geothermal energy; and carbon capture and sequestration. The issues of releasing greenhouse gases through flaring and venting were also examined along with other issues such as returning the land to a sustainable landscape; using water to produce oil and gas; ensuring the workplace is safe; and maintaining positive relationships. It was concluded that while greenhouse gas intensity has dropped, overall emissions have increase. Surface water use has also slightly increased. figs

  5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2005-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  7. Vertically Differentiating Environmental Standards: The Case of the Marine Stewardship Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the externally-led vertical differentiation of third-party certification standards using the case of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC. We analyze this process in two dimensions. First, fisheries employ strategies to capture further market value from fishing practices that go beyond their initial conditions for certification and seek additional recognition for these activities through co-labelling with, amongst others, international NGOs. Second, fisheries not yet able to meet the requirements of MSC standards are being enrolled in NGO and private sector sponsored Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs, providing an alternative route to global markets. In both cases the credibility and authority of the MSC is challenged by new coalitions of market actors opening up new strategies for capturing market value and/or improving the conditions of international market access. Through the lens of global value chains, the results offer new insights on how such standards not only influence trade and markets, but are also starting to change their internal governance in response to threats to their credibility by actors and modes of coordination in global value chains.

  8. 76 FR 11243 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection... inform the national framework for electronics stewardship that is being developed by the Interagency Task Force on Electronics Stewardship. On November 15, 2010, President Obama signed a presidential...

  9. Report: Ongoing Management Improvements and Further Evaluation Vital to EPA Stewardship and Voluntary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2005-P-00007, February 17, 2005. We asked stakeholders to define stewardship, list motivators and obstacles to participating in stewardship programs, and outline key roles for EPA to play to foster participating in environmental stewardship.

  10. Making SENS: exploring the antecedents and impact of store environmental stewardship climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, N.J.B.; Keeling, D.I.; de Ruyter, J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; de Jong, A.

    Retailers increasingly recognize that environmental responsibility is a strategic imperative. However, little research has investigated or identified the factors that facilitate the successful implementation of environmentally responsible strategies across a network of customer-facing sales units

  11. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  12. Stockpile stewardship and management programmatic environmental impact statement data for the no action and phase-out alternatives at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Alternatives for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are being considered under the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSM). The three alternatives under consideration include: continuing the secondary manufacturing operations in a down-sized footprint; no action; and phasing out the secondary manufacturing operations at Y-12. This report provides specific environmental data requested for the Y-12 Plant alternatives of no action and phase out

  13. Environmental Management Welcomes a New Face and Reinforces Its Focus on Science-Based Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT is pleased to announce that Rebecca Efroymson will join Virginia Dale as Co-Editors-in-Chief of the journal. Dr. Efroymson brings extensive expertise in risk assessment and environmental toxicology. Her work has focused on land management, natural resources, water quality, and rare species, with recent work on benefits and risks of energy alternatives. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT has been publishing research on the management and conservation of natural resources and habitats since 1976. Articles discuss implications for an international audience and examine a scientific or management hypothesis. As a premier scientific journal in applied and cross-cutting areas, articles come from a variety of disciplines including biology, botany, climatology, earth sciences, ecology, ecological economics, environmental engineering, fisheries, forest sciences, geography, information science, law, management science, politics, public affairs, social sciences, and zoology, most often in combinations determined by the interdisciplinary topic of the study. The journal strives to improve cross-disciplinary communication by making ideas and results available to environmental practitioners from other backgrounds. The goal of ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT is to present a wide spectrum of viewpoints and approaches, and to this end the journal consists of four main sections. Forum contains addresses, editorials, comments, and opinions about environmental matters. Articles in the Profile section describe and evaluate particular case histories, events, policies, problems, or organizations and their work. Papers in the Research section present the methods and findings from empirical and model-based scientific studies. The section on Environmental Assessment is for articles that cover methods of appraisal, measurement, and comparison. Generally, the debates published in the journal's Forum help construct better environmental research or policies; Research and Assessment

  14. Assessing and comparing relationships between urban environmental stewardship networks and land cover in Baltimore and Seattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Romolini; J. Morgan Grove; Dexter H. Locke

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of urban sustainability policies often requires collaborations between organizations across sectors. Indeed, it is commonly agreed that governance by environmental networks is preferred to individual organizations acting alone. Yet research shows that network structures vary widely, and that these variations can impact network effectiveness. However,...

  15. Testing tools for outdoor recreation, environmental education, and stewardship: Allowing children to choose the rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Baird; Logan O. Park

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in natural settings enhances learning, promotes early childhood development, and makes use of protected natural areas. Unfortunately, many schoolchildren, especially from economically disadvantaged areas, lack support for environmental education (EE) to develop skills and attitudes that increase rates of appropriate outdoor behaviors. Improved access...

  16. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  17. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts : hospitality, tradition, environmental stewardship and energy savings go hand in hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, K. [Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, Toronto, ON (Canada). Design and Construction

    2003-06-01

    Headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc. operates 81 world-class luxury hotels and resorts in Canada, United States, Mexico, Bermuda, Barbados and the United Arab Emirates. In 1990, Fairmont Hotels launched a green program for all its Canadian hotels as part of its commitment to become a world leader in establishing environmental practices for the hotel industry. Fairmont's policies for energy efficiency, water conservation, purchasing and waste minimization have won international awards. The energy efficiency measures benefit both the company and society through savings in operating costs and reducing carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping Canada meets its international obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Electricity makes up the greatest part of the hotel chain's huge energy bills, costing more than $29 million annually. The remainder of the energy bill consists of natural gas, propane, water, steam and kitchen fuel costs. Many of Fairmont's hotels are historic properties whose physical layout present greater challenges than retrofitting new construction. The retrofits so far have included improvements in lighting fixtures, laundry facilities, HVAC systems, parking garages and boiler rooms. Since 1998, energy retrofits at Fairmont hotels across Canada have resulted in substantial energy savings. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management: Volume 3, Appendix I, Appendix J, Appendix K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, United States is no longer producing new nuclear weapons. Instead, the US nuclear weapons program is reducing the size of the nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing weapons. DOE has been directed to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground testing. Therefore, DOE has developed a stewardship and management program to provide a single highly integrated technical program. The stockpile stewardship portion of the PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of three proposed facilities: the National Ignition Facility, the Contained Firing facility, and the Atlas Facility. This volume contains appendices for these 3 facilities; alternatives affecting LANL, LLNL, SNL, and NTS are addressed. Impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air qualaity, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural resources, etc., are evaluated. This PEIS presents unclassified information only

  19. Best Practices for Curriculum, Teaching, and Evaluation Components of Aquatic Stewardship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, William F.

    This paper reviews the literature to outline principles and best practices for aquatic stewardship education. Stewardship education develops an internalized stewardship ethic and the skills needed for decision making and environmentally responsible actions. Successful stewardship education programs are designed to influence beliefs, values,…

  20. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    For more than a decade, scientists and space mission planners have recognized the importance of collaborative information exchange with the Antarctic research community to address their many shared exploration challenges, from drilling methods, remote sample collection, and data interpretation, to concerns about cross contamination that could adversely impact both the environment and interpretation of scientific data. Another shared concern exists in the regulatory realm; both the Antarctic and outer space environments are subject to separate international treaties that impose regulatory controls and oversight with serious implications for exploration planning. In recent years, both communities have faced the need to adjust their regulatory controls in light of fast-paced advances in scientific understanding of extreme environments, particularly related to potential microbial life. Both communities have sought and received advice from the National Research Council (NRC) through studies that suggested ways to update their respective oversight and regulatory systems while allowing for continued scientific exploration. A recently completed NRC study "Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship" provided a suite of recommendations to address1) 'cleanliness' levels necessary for equipment and devices used in exploration of subglacial aquatic environments, as well as 2) the scientific basis for contamination standards, and 3) the steps for defining an overall exploration strategy conducive to sound environmental management and scientific stewardship. This talk will present the findings of the recent multinational NRC study, which is likely to translate into useful information for analogue studies that proceed to test techniques and capabilities for exploring an Europan ocean, other icy celestial locations, and related science targets on Earth. As the science and exploration of subglacial environments grows beyond its

  1. Effect of a wildlife conservation camp experience in China on student knowledge of animals, care, propensity for environmental stewardship, and compassionate behavior toward animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexell, Sarah M.

    The goal of conservation education is positive behavior change toward animals and the environment. This study was conducted to determine whether participation in a wildlife conservation education camp was effective in positively changing 8-12 year old students': (a) knowledge of animals, (b) care about animals, (c) propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship, and (d) compassionate behavior toward animals. During the summer of 2005, 2 five-day camps were conducted at 2 zoological institutions in Chengdu, China. The camp curriculum was influenced by theory and research on the following: conservation psychology, social learning theory, empathy and moral development theory, socio-biological theory, constructivist theory, and conservation science. Camp activities were sensitive to Chinese culture and included Chinese conservation issues. Activities were designed to help children form bonds with animals and care enough about them to positively change their behavior toward animals and the environment. This mixed methods study triangulated quantitative and qualitative data from six sources to answer the following: (1) Did camp increase student knowledge of animals? (2) Did camp increase student caring about animals? (3) Did camp increase student propensity for environmental and wildlife stewardship? (4) Did camp affect student compassionate behavior toward animals? A conservation stewards survey revealed significant increases on pre-post, self-report of knowledge, care, and propensity. Pre-post, rubric-scored responses to human-animal interaction vignettes indicated a significant increase in knowledge, and stable scores on care and propensity. Qualitative data from student journals, vignettes, and end-of-camp questionnaires demonstrated knowledge, caring, and propensity, and revealed the emergent theme empathy. To address question 4, instructors tallied campers' behavior toward animals using a student behavior ethogram. Occurrence of positive behaviors was

  2. Coupling landscape water storage and supplemental irrigation to increase productivity and improve environmental stewardship in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture must expand production for a growing population while simultaneously reducing its environmental impacts. These goals need not be in tension with one another. Here we outline a vision for improving both the productivity and environmental performance of agriculture in the US Corn Belt. Mea...

  3. NOAA's Scientific Data Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The NOAA mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet the Nation's economic, social and environmental needs. NOAA has responsibility for long-term archiving of the United States environmental data and has recently integrated several data management functions into a concept called Scientific Data Stewardship. Scientific Data Stewardship a new paradigm in data management consisting of an integrated suite of functions to preserve and exploit the full scientific value of NOAA's, and the world's, environmental data These functions include careful monitoring of observing system performance for long-term applications, the generation of authoritative long-term climate records from multiple observing platforms, and the proper archival of and timely access to data and metadata. NOAA has developed a conceptual framework to implement the functions of scientific data stewardship. This framework has five objectives: 1) develop real-time monitoring of all satellite observing systems for climate applications, 2) process large volumes of satellite data extending up to decades in length to account for systematic errors and to eliminate artifacts in the raw data (referred to as fundamental climate data records, FCDRs), 3) generate retrieved geophysical parameters from the FCDRs (referred to as thematic climate data records TCDRs) including combining observations from all sources, 4) conduct monitoring and research by analyzing data sets to uncover climate trends and to provide evaluation and feedback for steps 2) and 3), and 5) provide archives of metadata, FCDRs, and TCDRs, and facilitate distribution of these data to the user community. The term `climate data record' and related terms, such as climate data set, have been used for some time, but the climate community has yet to settle on a concensus definition. A recent United States National Academy of Sciences report recommends using the

  4. Seed Balls and the Circle of Courage: A Decolonization Model of Youth Development in an Environmental Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger-Schulman, A. R. S.; Hoffman, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Middle School 88 in Brooklyn, New York serves a community of students often considered at high risk for dropping out of high school and other socially undesirable behaviors. In this high-need setting, the authors designed and implemented an environmental education program designed to meet the needs of urban youth of color. The approach they used,…

  5. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  6. Neighborhood change and the role of environmental stewardship: a case study of green infrastructure for stormwater in the City of Portland, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of cities, the ecological landscape has often been buried, removed, or taken for granted. A recent recognition that humans are part of the global ecosystem, and that human actions both cause and are affected by ecological change, brings with it an awareness of the value of nature in cities and of natural systems on which cities depend. The feedbacks between humans and their environment within an urban context can have profound implications for the growth of and change in cities, yet there is a limited understanding of the interactions between biophysical changes in cities and the implications of these changes on the quality of life for residents. The application of a coupled human and natural systems (CHANS framework provides a timely and fruitful opportunity to enrich the theory, methods, and understanding of these feedbacks and interconnections. Here, I integrated biophysical and social dimensions relevant to managing urban stormwater by examining a case study of Portland, Oregon, USA. I used empirical data from a pre-post survey (2-yr span of residents in eight urban neighborhoods to describe feedbacks and interactions between a localized biophysical change in the form of a large-scale decentralized stormwater program and the resulting changes in resident's perceptions in neighborhoods undergoing rapid change. My findings corroborate earlier findings suggesting that people with higher income and education levels are more likely to participate in stewardship actions. The results also suggest an overall and initial negative perception of neighborhoods facilities and services immediately following the construction of decentralized stormwater facilities, but conversely, high levels of anticipation for their construction. By describing these findings through a CHANS framework, I make explicit the importance of integrating scientific understanding, governance efforts, and human behaviors to address acute urban environmental

  7. Fostering science literacy, environmental stewardship, and collaboration: Assessing a garden-based approach to teaching life science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley B.

    Recently, schools nationwide have expressed a renewed interest in school gardens (California School Garden Network, 2010), viewing them as innovative educational tools. Most of the scant studies on these settings investigate the health/nutritional impacts, environmental attitudes, or emotional dispositions of students. However, few studies examine the science learning potential of a school garden from an informal learning perspective. Those studies that do examine learning emphasize individual learning of traditional school content (math, science, etc.) (Blaire, 2009; Dirks & Orvis, 2005; Klemmer, Waliczek & Zajicek, 2005a & b; Smith & Mostenbocker, 2005). My study sought to demonstrate the value of school garden learning through a focus on measures of learning typically associated with traditional learning environments, as well as informal learning environments. Grounded in situated, experiential, and contextual model of learning theories, the purpose of this case study was to examine the impacts of a school garden program at a K-3 elementary school. Results from pre/post tests, pre/post surveys, interviews, recorded student conversations, and student work reveal a number of affordances, including science learning, cross-curricular lessons in an authentic setting, a sense of school community, and positive shifts in attitude toward nature and working collaboratively with other students. I also analyzed this garden-based unit as a type curriculum reform in one school in an effort to explore issues of implementing effective practices in schools. Facilitators and barriers to implementing a garden-based science curriculum at a K-3 elementary school are discussed. Participants reported a number of implementation processes necessary for success: leadership, vision, and material, human, and social resources. However, in spite of facilitators, teachers reported barriers to implementing the garden-based curriculum, specifically lack of time and content knowledge.

  8. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  9. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  10. Agrotóxicos: eficiência econômica e injustiça socioambiental Pesticides: economic efficiency and social and environmental injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Motta Veiga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou a relação inversa entre eficiência econômica e justiça socioambiental na utilização de agrotóxicos. A utilização de agrotóxicos tenderia a maximizar a eficiência econômica através de ganhos de produtividade; no entanto, poderia agravar a injustiça socioambiental. Inferiu-se essa relação inversa, uma vez que a eficiência econômica pela utilização de agrotóxicos estaria associada a alguma injustiça socioambiental. Este estudo analisou, ainda, o impacto de instrumentos regulatórios no controle da utilização e do manejo de agrotóxicos. Uma legislação que reduza compulsoriamente a utilização de agrotóxicos poderia agravar diversos problemas socioeconômicos, especialmente em pequenas comunidades rurais. Concluiu-se que eventuais restrições na utilização de agrotóxicos em sistemas produtivos que dependam dessas matérias-primas para sustentar sua economia poderia ser bastante prejudicial. Quanto à necessidade de intervenção estatal para regular a utilização de agrotóxicos, este estudo concluiu que a questão não deveria ser sobre a necessidade ou não de legislação, mas sim como deve ser a forma dessa intervenção.This study analyzed the inverse relationship between economic efficiency and social and environmental justice in the use of pesticides. The use of pesticides tends to improve economic efficiency by increasing agricultural productivity, however, it can also increase social and environmental injustice. This inverse relationship was inferred since the economic efficiency gained with the use of pesticides is [usually] associated with some kind of social and environmental injustice. This study also analyzed the impact of regulatory measures to control the use and handling of pesticides. Strict pesticide regulations could jeopardize agricultural competitiveness, especially in some small rural communities; therefore, the cost-benefit results of pesticides regulations could be

  11. Stewardship of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    A trustee is someone who cares for a resource on behalf of another. In the case of climate, one generation cares for the climate and the myriad things climate effects on behalf of subsequent generations. This article offers reasons for accepting trusteeship as a framework for thinking about climate change; discusses what trustee duties are: considers their implications for the construction of an economics of stewardship; shows how tradeoffs would be assessed within this framework, and points towards a reconceptualization of international relations based on these ideas. 1 ref

  12. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come

  13. Urban ecological stewardship: understanding the structure, function and network of community-based urban land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika s. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based...

  14. Antimicrobial stewardship: Limits for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) is a multifaceted approach to improve patients' clinical outcomes, prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and reduce hospital costs by prudent and focused antimicrobial use. Development of local treatment guidelines according to local ecology, rapid

  15. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  16. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  17. A broader view of stewardship to achieve conservation and sustainability goals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Barendse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stewardship is a popular term for the principles and actions aimed at improving sustainability and resilience of social-ecological systems at various scales and in different contexts. Participation in stewardship is voluntary, and is based on values of altruism and long-term benefits. At a global scale, "earth stewardship" is viewed as a successor to earlier natural resource management systems. However, in South Africa, stewardship is narrowly applied to biodiversity conservation agreements on private land. Using a broader definition of stewardship, we identify all potentially related schemes that may contribute to sustainability and conservation outcomes. Stewardship schemes and actors are represented as a social network and placed in a simple typology based on objectives, mechanisms of action and operational scales. The predominant type was biodiversity stewardship programmes. The main actors were environmental non-governmental organisations participating in prominent bioregional landscape partnerships, together acting as important "bridging organisations" within local stewardship networks. This bridging enables a high degree of collaboration between non-governmental and governmental bodies, especially provincial conservation agencies via mutual projects and conservation objectives. An unintended consequence may be that management accountability is relinquished or neglected by government because of inadequate implementation capacity. Other stewardship types, such as market-based and landscape initiatives, complemented primarily biodiversity ones, as part of national spatial conservation priorities. Not all schemes related to biodiversity, especially those involving common pool resources, markets and supply chains. Despite an apparent narrow biodiversity focus, there is evidence of diversification of scope to include more civic and community-level stewardship activities, in line with the earth stewardship metaphor.

  18. United States Department of Energy Nuclear Materials Stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy launched the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in January 2000 to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of the Department's nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. Management of nuclear materials is a fundamental and enduring responsibility that is essential to meeting the Department's national security, nonproliferation, energy, science, and environmental missions into the distant future. The effective management of nuclear materials is important for a set of reasons: (1) some materials are vital to our national defense; (2) the materials pose physical and security risks; (3) managing them is costly; and (4) costs are likely to extend well into the future. The Department currently manages nuclear materials under eight programs, with offices in 36 different locations. Through the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative, progress was during calendar year 20 00 in achieving better coordination and integration of nuclear materials management responsibilities and in evaluating opportunities to further coordinate and integrate cross-program responsibilities for the treatment, storage, and disposition of excess nuclear materials. During CY 2001 the Departmental approach to nuclear materials stewardship changed consistent with the business processes followed by the new administration. This paper reports on the progress of the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in evaluating and implementing these opportunities, and the remaining challenges in integrating the long-term management of nuclear materials

  19. Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Stewardship » Environmental Protection » Environmental Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the

  20. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance it is crucial that clinicians use antibiotics wisely, which largely means following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Treatment of various types of wounds is one of the more common reasons for prescribing...... of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document...

  1. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A

    2013-01-01

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  2. Evaluación económica y toma de decisiones en salud ambiental Avaliação econômica e tomada de decisão em saúde ambiental Economic evaluation and decision-making in environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gutiérrez Zúñiga

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Ante el creciente deterioro ambiental y sus posibles consecuencias en la salud de la población resulta una prioridad indiscutible el diseño e instrumentación de políticas que controlen las actividades económicas bajo el criterio de protección a la salud humana y al ambiente mismo. Es preciso que dichas políticas consideren la factibilidad económica de las alternativas de protección existentes. Sin embargo, por la cantidad de intereses dentro del área ambiental, otros factores como el social y el político deben también ser considerados. La evaluación económica ha sido vista como un promisorio fundamento para la toma de decisiones en esta materia. Los autores analizan la capacidad de esta herramienta para organizar en forma sistemática y comparable los costos y los beneficios de alternativas para la solución de problemas ambientales. Se resumen las principales características de los estudios de costo-beneficio y costo-efectividad, las formas de evaluación económica del ambiente, y las particularidades de esta área para la aplicación de dichas técnicas de análisis. Se señalan los límites encontrados en estas herramientas para cuantificar los costos no monetarios de los riesgos ambientales y de los consecuentes daños a la salud, tales como el dolor, el sufrimiento ó la incapacidad de personas económicamente inactivas, constituyendo estos aspectos el reto metodológico de la evaluación económica en el área. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia de ampliar los insumos informativos para la toma de decisiones en materia de salud ambiental en aspectos como la distribución de los costos y los beneficios entre los distintos grupos sociales. Por último se señala tanto la creciente politización del tema ambiental, como la posibilidad técnica de manipulación de estas herramientas de análisis. Partiendo de estos elementos se señala la necesidad, por parte de los evaluadores, de ser conscientes sobre las implicaciones pol

  3. A flare for decommissioning : a push to close flare pits in B.C. earns Petro-Canada an industry award for environmental stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2009-01-15

    Flaring is widely used to dispose of natural gas liberated during oil production and processing in remote areas where there is no pipeline on site to make use of the gas. Sources of flaring include well testing, solution gas from oil wells, underbalanced drilling, gas gathering systems and gas processing plants. Flaring is a source of pollution and a waste of energy. This article described Petro-Canada's efforts to eliminate flaring. In the late 1990s, the company began environmental assessments of its flare pits in British Columbia (BC). Since 2005, the producer has decommissioned 106 of its 108 pits in the province and ring-fenced the other 2. As the staff advanced the task of decommissioning, it often consolidated flaring hardware, installing a single, vertical flare stack to serve where 3 or 4 flare pits had previously served as many well sites. Before decommissioning began, Petro-Canada carried out its own environmental protocol and assessed its pits for the presence of contaminants and for their potential to leach into local waterways. Monitoring of groundwater through wells drilled on the company's BC flare pit sites will continue for some time, particularly on sites with bodies of water. BC's Oil and Gas Commission estimated that between 1996 and 2006, conservation of solution gas rose from 87 to 97 per cent among the province's producers. Petro-Canada was commended for being among the first to secure all flare pits under its control in BC. It was estimated that 49 per cent of all flare pits decommission in BC by 2007 were completed by Petro-Canada. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Water appropriation and ecosystem stewardship in the Baja desert

    OpenAIRE

    de las Heras Alejandro; Rodriguez Mario A.; Islas-Espinoza Marina

    2014-01-01

    The UNESCO San Francisco Rock Paintings polygon within El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in the Baja California Peninsula derives its moisture from the North American monsoon. There, ranchers have depended on the desert since the 18th century. More recently, the desert has depended on the environmental stewardship of the ranchers who have allayed mining exploitation and archaeological looting. Using a Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP), climate data, and geographical informa...

  5. Bienestar Social, Económico y Ambiental para las Presentes y Futuras Generaciones Social, Economic and Environmental Welfare for Present and Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Fernández; Mirella Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar la diferencia entre desarrollo sostenible y sustentable, aclarando cual describe el desarrollo humano social, económico y ambiental, respetando al ambiente. Es un trabajo de reflexión documentada que arroja en sus hallazgos el uso del término "sustainable" en la literatura Inglesa conforme al informe Brundtland. Su traducción al castellano como sostenible, la incorrecta traducción al castellano por sustentable y el concepto Latinoamericano de los térmi...

  6. The Six Principles of Facilities Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Harvey H.; Klein, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Facilities stewardship means high-level and pervasive commitment to optimize capital investments, in order to achieve a high-functioning and attractive campus. It includes a major commitment to capital asset preservation and quality. Stewardship is about the long view of an institution's past and future. It ultimately forms the backdrop for…

  7. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; van Dijk, Kimo C; Neset, Tina-Simone S; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H; Schoumans, Oscar F; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.

  8. Animal suffering should not trump environmental stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantassel, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Andrew Linzey contends that our treatment of children should act as a model for our treatment of animals: just as we use our power to prevent the suffering of children, so should we restrict our behavior to protect animals from human-originated suffering. While not ignoring the role theology and emotion play in his ethical view, Linzey endeavors to provide a rational argument for the moral consideration of animals. In addition, Linzey explains how humans have created institutions to help them justify the continuance of animal suffering, followed by a plan to replace those institutions with animal-friendly ones. Linzey then applies his thinking to three contemporary institutions he believes cause animal suffering in an unjustifiable manner, namely hunting with dogs, fur farming, and commercial sealing. This review offers a detailed account of several significant weaknesses of Linzey's argument, ranging from the theological to the scientific, that should be considered before adopting his views.

  9. Economic framework for integrating environmental stewardship into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    after the removal of farm inputs subsidies and the collap- se of para-state ... ortant land use system suitable for carbon sequestration strategy ... of carbon and contribute more to improved climate change, taking land ... ing Striga species which limit cereal crop production. (Kwesiga et ... Reduction of free grazing area during.

  10. STEWARDSHIP: A Conceptual Imperative For Managerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resources for the management of the health sector. (Stewardship of ... of health sector development and performance. Examples of ... attempt at health sector decentralization and improving ... organizations could create inherent limitations on.

  11. Measuring the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Hendrix, Ron; Poelman, Randy; Niesters, Hubert G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are being implemented worldwide to optimize antimicrobial therapy, and thereby improve patient safety and quality of care. Additionally, this should counteract resistance development. It is, however, vital that correct and timely diagnostics are performed in

  12. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  13. Stockpile Stewardship at Los Alamos(U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    Stockpile stewardship is the retention of nuclear weapons in the stockpile beyond their original design life. These older weapons have potential changes inconsistent with the original design intent and military specifications. The Stockpile Stewardship Program requires us to develop high-fidelity, physics-based capabilities to predict, assess, certify and design nuclear weapons without conducting a nuclear test. Each year, the Lab Directors are required to provide an assessment of the safety, security, and reliability our stockpile to the President of the United States. This includes assessing whether a need to return to testing exists. This is a talk to provide an overview of Stockpile Stewardship's scientific requirements and how stewardship has changed in the absence of nuclear testing. The talk is adapted from an HQ talk to the War college, and historical unclassified talks on weapon's physics.

  14. FY 2015 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  15. FY 2016 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  16. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country's nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  17. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  18. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  19. Urban Ecological Stewardship: Understanding the Structure, Function and Network of Community-based Urban Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based urban land managers, an assessment was conducted in 2004 by the research subcommittee of the Urban Ecology Collaborative. The goal of the assessment was to better understand the role of stewardship organizations engaged in urban ecology initiatives in selected major cities in the Northeastern U.S.: Boston, New Haven, New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. A total of 135 active organizations participated in this assessment. Findings include the discovery of a dynamic social network operating within cities, and a reserve of social capital and expertise that could be better utilized. Although often not the primary land owner, stewardship groups take an increasingly significant responsibility for a wide range of land use types including street and riparian corridors, vacant lots, public parks and gardens, green roofs, etc. Responsibilities include the delivery of public programs as well as daily maintenance and fundraising support. While most of the environmental stewardship organizations operate on staffs of zero or fewer than ten, with small cohorts of community volunteers, there is a significant difference in the total amount of program funding. Nearly all respondents agree that committed resources are scarce and insufficient with stewards relying upon and potentially competing for individual donations, local foundations, and municipal support. This makes it a challenge for the groups to grow beyond their current capacity and to develop long-term programs critical to resource management and education. It also fragments groups, making it difficult for planners and

  20. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  1. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather McMillen; Lindsay Campbell; Erika Svendsen; Renae Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has received increased attention from researchers across a range of disciplines who have developed frameworks and articulated categories of indicators; however, there has been less discussion of how to recognize, and therefore support, social resilience at the community level, especially in urban areas. The value of urban environmental stewardship for...

  2. Place-Based Stewardship Education: Nurturing Aspirations to Protect the Rural Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Erin; Marckini-Polk, Lisa; Schroeder, Brandon; Flanagan, Constance

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we examine the potential of place-based stewardship education (PBSE) for nurturing rural students' community attachment and aspirations to contribute to the preservation of the environmental "commons." Analyzing pre- and post-experience surveys (n = 240) and open-ended responses (n = 275) collected from…

  3. Antibiotic stewardship in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viasus, Diego; Vecino-Moreno, Milly; De La Hoz, Juan M; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes. In this regard, antibiotic de-escalation, duration of antibiotic treatment, adherence to CAP guidelines recommendations about empirical treatment, and switching from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy may each be relevant in this context. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies, such as prospective audit with intervention and feedback, clinical pathways, and dedicated multidisciplinary teams, that have included some of these elements have demonstrated improvements in antimicrobial use for CAP without negatively affecting clinical outcomes. Expert commentary: Although there are a limited number of randomized clinical studies addressing antimicrobial stewardship strategies in CAP, there is evidence that antibiotic stewardship initiatives can be securely applied, providing benefits to both healthcare systems and patients.

  4. Valoração econômica da área de proteção ambiental estadual da Cachoeira das Andorinhas - MG Economic valuation of the state environmental protection area of Cachoeira das Andorinhas - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cotta Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A valoração econômica dos ativos ambientais é importante critério que subsidia a tomada de decisões na definição de políticas que gerenciam os recursos naturais. Nesse sentido, buscou-se valorar a Área de Proteção Ambiental Estadual da Cachoeira das Andorinhas (APAE/CA, importante Unidade de Conservação do Município de Ouro Preto, MG, com 18.700 ha de extensão. Apesar de possuir importante patrimônio natural, tal ativo ambiental possui áreas degradadas, além de ainda não ter o respaldo necessário dos órgãos gestores para o seu efetivo manejo. Como área de estudo, definiu-se a sub-bacia do Rio das Velhas, na qual a APAE/CA está inserida, abrangendo distritos localizados em Ouro Preto e Itabirito. Utilizando a Valoração Contingente, através da abordagem de Hanemann (1984 e do método do bootstrapping, obteve-se a disposição a pagar (DAP mensal mediana por habitante dos distritos envolvidos pela melhoria e preservação da APAE/CA de R$15,43. O valor econômico calculado para o ativo ambiental foi de R$10.398.030,12, representando os benefícios anuais fornecidos pela APAE/CA e que são percebidos pelos entrevistados. Conjuntamente com a valoração, utilizaram-se variáveis de percepção ambiental, a fim de verificar seu impacto sobre a DAP em estudo. Os resultados encontrados apontaram que a percepção e a valoração ambiental são positivamente correlacionadas.The economic valuation of environmental assets is an important criterion that subsidizes the decision-making in the policies definition that manage natural resources. Therefore, it was aimed to valuing the Área de Proteção Ambiental Estadual da Cachoeira das Andorinhas (APAE/CA - State Environmental Protection Area of Cachoeira das Andorinhas, an important Conservation Unit in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, with 18,700 hectares of extension. Despite having an important natural heritage, such environmental asset has degraded areas in addition to the lack

  5. 2015 Stewardship Science Academic Programs Annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Terri [NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Washington, DC (United States); Mischo, Millicent [NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Stockpile Stewardship Academic Programs (SSAP) are essential to maintaining a pipeline of professionals to support the technical capabilities that reside at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) national laboratories, sites, and plants. Since 1992, the United States has observed the moratorium on nuclear testing while significantly decreasing the nuclear arsenal. To accomplish this without nuclear testing, NNSA and its laboratories developed a science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain and enhance the experimental and computational tools required to ensure the continued safety, security, and reliability of the stockpile. NNSA launched its academic program portfolio more than a decade ago to engage students skilled in specific technical areas of relevance to stockpile stewardship. The success of this program is reflected by the large number of SSAP students choosing to begin their careers at NNSA national laboratories.

  6. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  7. Towards Materials Sustainability through Materials Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials sustainability requires a concerted change in philosophy across the entire materials lifecycle, orienting around the theme of materials stewardship. In this paper, we address the opportunities for improved materials conservation through dematerialization, durability, design for second life, and diversion of waste streams through industrial symbiosis.

  8. Stewardship, Learning, and Memory in Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidball, Keith G.; Krasny, Marianne E.; Svendsen, Erika; Campbell, Lindsay; Helphand, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose and explore the following hypothesis: civic ecology practices, including urban community forestry, community gardening, and other self-organized forms of stewardship of green spaces in cities, are manifestations of how memories of the role of greening in healing can be instrumentalized through social learning to…

  9. Stewardship, learning, and memory in disaster resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith G. Tidball; Marianne E. Krasny; Erika Svendsen; Lindsay Campbell; Kenneth. Helphand

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose and explore the following hypothesis: civic ecology practices, including urban community forestry, community gardening, and other self-organized forms of stewardship of green spaces in cities, are manifestations of how memories of the role of greening in healing can be instrumentalized through social learning to foster social-ecological...

  10. Earth Stewardship: An initiative by the Ecological Society of America to foster engagement to sustain Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. Stuart; Pickett, S.T.A.; Power, Mary E.; Collins, Scott L.; Baron, Jill S.; Inouye, David W.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological Society of America (ESA) has responded to the growing commitment among ecologists to make their science relevant to society through a series of concerted efforts, including the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative (1991), scientific assessment of ecosystem management (1996), ESA’s vision for the future (2003), Rapid Response Teams that respond to environmental crises (2005), and the Earth Stewardship Initiative (2009). During the past 25 years, ESA launched five new journals, largely reflecting the expansion of scholarship linking ecology with broader societal issues. The goal of the Earth Stewardship Initiative is to raise awareness and to explore ways for ecologists and other scientists to contribute more effectively to the sustainability of our planet. This has occurred through four approaches: (1) articulation of the stewardship concept in ESA publications and Website, (2) selection of meeting themes and symposia, (3) engagement of ESA sections in implementing the initiative, and (4) outreach beyond ecology through collaborations and demonstration projects. Collaborations include societies and groups of Earth and social scientists, practitioners and policy makers, religious and business leaders, federal agencies, and artists and writers. The Earth Stewardship Initiative is a work in progress, so next steps likely include continued nurturing of these emerging collaborations, advancing the development of sustainability and stewardship theory, improving communication of stewardship science, and identifying opportunities for scientists and civil society to take actions that move the Earth toward a more sustainable trajectory.

  11. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antifungal stewardship considerations for adults and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Rana F; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Seo, Susan K

    2017-08-18

    Antifungal stewardship refers to coordinated interventions to monitor and direct the appropriate use of antifungal agents in order to achieve the best clinical outcomes and minimize selective pressure and adverse events. Antifungal utilization has steadily risen over time in concert with the increase in number of immunocompromised adults and children at risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). Challenges in diagnosing IFI often lead to delays in treatment and poorer outcomes. There are also emerging data linking prior antifungal exposure and suboptimal dosing to the emergence of antifungal resistance, particularly for Candida. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can take a multi-pronged bundle approach to ensure suitable prescribing of antifungals via post-prescription review and feedback and/or prior authorization. Institutional guidelines can also be developed to guide diagnostic testing in at-risk populations; appropriate choice, dose, and duration of antifungal agent; therapeutic drug monitoring; and opportunities for de-escalation and intravenous-to-oral conversion.

  13. Antimicrobial stewardship: Strategies for a global response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grunwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing antimicrobial resistance worldwide, combined with dwindling antimicrobial armamentarium, has resulted in a critical threat to the public health and safety of patients. To combat this hazard, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs have emerged. Antimicrobial stewardship programs prevent or slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance by coordinated interventions designed to optimize antimicrobial use to achieve the best clinical outcomes and limiting selective pressures that drive the emergence of resistance. This also reduces excessive costs attributable to suboptimal antimicrobial use. Even though an ideal effective ASP should incorporate more than one element simultaneously, it also requires a multidisciplinary team, which should include an infectious diseases physician, a clinical pharmacist with infectious diseases training, infection control professionals, hospital epidemiologist, a clinical microbiologist and an information specialist. However, for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS programs to be successful, they must address the specific needs of individual institutions, must be built on available resources, the limitations and advantages of each institution, and the available staffing and technological infrastructure.

  14. Local Government Implementation of Long-Term Stewardship at Two DOE Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pendergrass; Roman Czebiniak; Kelly Mott; Seth Kirshenberg; Audrey Eidelman; Zachary Lamb; Erica Pencak; Wendy Sandoz

    2003-08-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up the radioactive and chemical contamination that resulted from the production of nuclear weapons. At more than one hundred sites throughout the country DOE will leave some contamination in place after the cleanup is complete. In order to protect human health and the environment from the remaining contamination DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state environmental regulatory agencies, local governments, citizens and other entities will need to undertake long-term stewardship of such sites. Long-term stewardship includes a wide range of actions needed to protect human health in the environment for as long as the risk from the contamination remains above acceptable levels, such as barriers, caps, and other engineering controls and land use controls, signs, notices, records, and other institutional controls. In this report the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) and the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) examine how local governments, state environmental agencies, and real property professionals implement long-term stewardship at two DOE facilities, Losa Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Reservation.

  15. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.

  16. Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: getting nutrients in the “right” place

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced in 2009 by International Plant Nutrition Institute to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but to also to provide desirable social and environmental ben...

  17. Stewardship Reporting in the DOD Agency-Wide Financial Statements for FY 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...; heritage assets, stewardship land, and stewardship investments were presented on the financial statements accurately and in accordance with generally accepted accounting standards for Federal agencies...

  18. US antibiotic stewardship and penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kara J; Calhoun, Karen H

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to improve otolaryngologists' antibiotic stewardship by detailing current approaches to penicillin allergy. Although up to 15% of hospitalized patients in the United States have a penicillin allergy recorded on their charts, fewer than 10% of these have a true penicillin allergy. Using a combination of a detailed allergy history, skin testing and graded-dose administration, many patients whose charts say 'penicillin-allergic' can safely be treated with penicillin and cross-reacting antibiotics. This permits use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics and saves money.

  19. Intergenerational equity and long-term stewardship plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    For an untold number of contaminated sites throughout the world, stewardship will be inevitable. For many such sites, stewardship will be a reasonable approach because of the uncertainties associated with present and future site conditions and site contaminants, the limited performance of available technologies, the nonavailability of technologies, and the risk and cost associated with complete cleanup. Regardless of whether stewardship is a realistic approach to site situations or simply a convenient default, it could be required at most contaminated sites for multiple generations. Because the stewardship plan is required to protect the release of hazardous contaminants to the environment, some use restrictions will be put in place to provide that protection. These use restrictions will limit access to resources for as long as the protection is required. The intergenerational quality of long-term stewardship plans and their inherent limitations on resource use require that they be designed to achieve equity among the affected generations. Intergenerational equity, defined here as the fairness of access to resources across generations, could be achieved through a well-developed stewardship plan that provides future generations with the information they need to make wise decisions about resource use. Developing and implementing such a plan would take into account the failure mechanisms of the plan's components, feature short stewardship time blocks that would allow for periodic reassessments of the site and of the stewardship program's performance, and provide present and future generations with necessary site information

  20. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  1. Environmental and stewardship implications for the large scale conversion of municipal and agricultural organic waste to energy in Canada[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falletta, P.; Zhu, H. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre; Oleszkiewicz, J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The move towards environmental sustainability in the Canadian industrial, agricultural and municipal sectors coupled with the requirements for Canada to meet its Kyoto obligations for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to the need to examine the feasibility of harvesting the energy contained in waste biomass. This paper discussed the current and projected Canadian inventories of municipal biosolids, municipal solid waste, food industry wastes and animal manure; anaerobic digestion; considerations and challenges in the management of waste biomass; and current technologies available for energy recovery for each of these waste streams. The paper also discussed the environmental, technical, economic, societal and regulatory issues which are likely to be triggered as alternative methods to traditional disposal practices. The research and action needed to bring Canada to the forefront of environmental sustainability in waste biomass management was also discussed. The paper made several recommendations in terms of regulations, demonstration projects and public education. It was concluded that the biggest factor in the adoption of technologies for waste management is cost. It was concluded that there is no one perfect solution to the management of organic wastes in Canada. A detailed analysis that takes into consideration all of the technical, societal, environmental, economic, and regulatory issues must be performed to determine the right choice of technology. 4 tabs.

  2. The Roles of the Accountant and Auditor in Stewardship and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While much attention has been given to accountability in public sector which has not even yielded the desired result, the same can not be said of organised private sector. ... Keywords: Stewardship, corporate governance, accountability,

  3. Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.K.; Nickelson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified

  4. Airport Capital Improvement Planning: Stewardship for Airport Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    "Airport Capital Improvement Planning: Stewardship for Airport Development", was : originally written in October, 1995. It documented an effort to implement the : concept of capital improvement planning with the airport development industry. : Airpor...

  5. An integrated stewardship model : Antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  6. An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant N.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Niesters, Hubert G.M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2015-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  7. FY 2014 - Stockpile and Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  8. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  9. 78 FR 4135 - Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Training Mission and Mission Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Gene Zirkle at (270) 798-9854, during normal working business hours Monday through.... This includes the formalization of environmental stewardship best management practices (BMPs...

  10. Desempenho econômico e evidenciação ambiental: análise das empresas que receberam o Prêmio Rumo à Credibilidade 2010 = Economic performance and environmental disclosure: an analysis of companies that received the award "rumo à credibilidade 2010"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas cresce o interesse da sociedade em questionar o desempenho ecológico das organizações, oportunamente por defender e preservar o meio ambiente para a geração contemporânea e futura. Diante do exposto, as empresas preocupam-se em evidenciar suas informações referentes às ações sociais e ambientais. Nesse contexto, este estudo objetiva analisar o desempenho econômico e a evidenciação ambiental de organizações brasileiras. A amostra compõese de dez empresas que apresentaram os melhores relatórios de sustentabilidade no ano de 2009, segundo a pesquisa "Rumo à Credibilidade 2010", excetuando a instituição financeira Itaú e a empresa de saneamento Sabesp, em virtude da dificuldade de se encontrar os índices-padrão dos respectivos setores. A metodologia empregada classifica-se como empírica, básica, quanti-qualitativa, descritoexploratória e documental. A amostra foi selecionada pela qualidade na evidenciação de informações ambientais e pelas demonstrações contábeis publicadas pelas empresas. Para atingir os objetivos estabelecidos utilizou-se indicadores econômicos, o ROI (Return On Investment e o ROE (Return On Equity. Comparou-se os índices de rentabilidade de cada empresa dos anos de 2008, 2009 e 2010 com índices-padrão de empresas do mesmo ramo de atividade. Constatou-se que apesar da crise financeira vivenciada nesse período, as empresas que evidenciam informações ambientais possuem um desempenho econômico favorável, com indicadores econômicos suficientes para tal, ou seja, são empresas rentáveis, capazes de se manter competitivas no mercado. Com os resultados da pesquisa, verificou-se que é possível adotar práticas sustentáveis, sem agredir a rentabilidade da empresa. During the last decades the interest of society in questioning the environmental performance of organizations, as appropriate for defending and preserving the environment for the present and future generation

  11. Interoperability Across the Stewardship Spectrum in the DataONE Repository Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Vieglais, D.; Wilson, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of earth and environmental science repositories serve many researchers and communities, each with their own community and legal mandates, sustainability models, and historical infrastructure. These repositories span the stewardship spectrum from highly curated collections that employ large numbers of staff members to review and improve data, to small, minimal budget repositories that accept data caveat emptor and where all responsibility for quality lies with the submitter. Each repository fills a niche, providing services that meet the stewardship tradeoffs of one or more communities. We have reviewed these stewardship tradeoffs for several DataONE member repositories ranging from minimally (KNB) to highly curated (Arctic Data Center), as well as general purpose (Dryad) to highly discipline or project specific (NEON). The rationale behind different levels of stewardship reflect resolution of these tradeoffs. Some repositories aim to encourage extensive uptake by keeping processes simple and minimizing the amount of information collected, but this limits the long-term utility of the data and the search, discovery, and integration systems that are possible. Other repositories require extensive metadata input, review, and assessment, allowing for excellent preservation, discovery, and integration but at the cost of significant time for submitters and expense for curatorial staff. DataONE recognizes these different levels of curation, and attempts to embrace them to create a federation that is useful across the stewardship spectrum. DataONE provides a tiered model for repositories with growing utility of DataONE services at higher tiers of curation. The lowest tier supports read-only access to data and requires little more than title and contact metadata. Repositories can gradually phase in support for higher levels of metadata and services as needed. These tiered capabilities are possible through flexible support for multiple metadata standards and services

  12. Computadores y democracia económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allin Cottrell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El colapso del socialismo anteriormente existente obedeció a causas integradas en su mecanismo económico, que no son inherentes a todos los socialismos posibles. El artículo muestra que la teoría económica marxista, junto con la informática, proporciona el fundamento para adelantar un programa económico socialista viable y que el desarrollo de la informática y de Internet hace posible la planificación económica. Además, argumenta que el movimiento socialista nunca desarrolló un programa constitucional correcto y que la tecnología moderna abre nuevas oportunidades para la democracia. Por último, revisa los argumentos austriacos contra la posibilidad del cálculo socialista a la luz de la nueva capacidad informática y de las limitaciones del Protocolo de Kyoto.

  13. Sustainable Stewardship of the Landrace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tokatlidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landraces are heterogeneous populations and their variability goes through continuous alterations because of physical, genetic, and epigenetic procedures exacerbated by the ongoing climatic changes. Appropriate stewardship of landrace diversity is pivotal to promote its longevity in a manner that is sustainable from the farming perspective. A seed multiplication procedure is presented based on the assumption that in order to improve effectiveness in resource use and increase seed productivity, landraces should comprise genotypes which minimize intra-species competition. These aforementioned genotypes should be of the “weak competitor” ideotype, which are selected so as to alleviate the interplant competition and reach as high as possible crop stand uniformity. Stand uniformity is essential to ensure the same growing conditions for each plant. Reduced intra-crop inequality and equal use of inputs by individual plants will optimize crop performance. Precisely, the “weak competitor” is most often of high yield potential due to a negative association between yielding and competitive ability. Therefore, the suggested procedure involves initial reproduction at nil-competition (widely spaced plants to preclude any plant-to-plant interference for inputs where “off-type” and low yielding plants are omitted, followed by subsequent multiplication at dense stands. This may represent an effective cultural practice to improve also the landrace health status concerning seed-borne diseases in the absence of certification systems.

  14. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  15. Implementation of Rapid Molecular Infectious Disease Diagnostics: the Role of Diagnostic and Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Parker, Sarah K; Todd, James K; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    New rapid molecular diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases enable expedited accurate microbiological diagnoses. However, diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship are necessary to ensure that these technologies conserve, rather than consume, additional health care resources and optimally affect patient care. Diagnostic stewardship is needed to implement appropriate tests for the clinical setting and to direct testing toward appropriate patients. Antimicrobial stewardship is needed to ensure prompt appropriate clinical action to translate faster diagnostic test results in the laboratory into improved outcomes at the bedside. This minireview outlines the roles of diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship in the implementation of rapid molecular infectious disease diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. A boundary-spanning organization for transdisciplinary science on land stewardship: The Stewardship Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although people and organizations in the Great Lakes region, USA take seriously their role as stewards of natural resources, many lack capacity to fulfill that role in a meaningful way. Stepping into that gap, The Stewardship Network (TSN envisions "a world of empowered, connected communities caring for land and water, now and forever," and fulfills that vision through its mission to "connect, equip, and mobilize people and organizations to care for land and water in their communities." TSN uses a scalable model of linked local and regional capacity building, science communication, civic engagement, and on-the-ground stewardship activities to achieve these goals. The model engages local and regional groups in an ongoing process of learning around conservation and restoration that improves social and ecological knowledge. I share the story of TSN to demonstrate how transdisciplinary science can take hold locally and expand regionally to bring people from diverse disciplines and functional roles together to solve common problems. I demonstrate how researchers and practitioners can collaborate to create enduring mechanisms of social and ecological change.

  17. Mapping educational opportunities for healthcare workers on antimicrobial resistance and stewardship around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Jones, Sara L; Hoffman, Steven J

    2018-02-05

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important global issue facing society. Healthcare workers need to be engaged in solving this problem, as advocates for rational antimicrobial use, stewards of sustainable effectiveness, and educators of their patients. To fulfill this role, healthcare workers need access to training and educational resources on antimicrobial resistance. To better understand the resources available to healthcare workers, we undertook a global environmental scan of educational programs and resources targeting healthcare workers on the topic of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship. Programs were identified through contact with key experts, web searching, and academic literature searching. We summarized programs in tabular form, including participating organizations, region, and intended audience. We developed a coding system to classify programs by program type and participating organization type, assigning multiple codes as necessary and creating summary charts for program types, organization types, and intended audience to illustrate the breadth of available resources. We identified 94 educational initiatives related to antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship, which represent a diverse array of programs including courses, workshops, conferences, guidelines, public outreach materials, and online-resource websites. These resources were developed by a combination of government bodies, professional societies, universities, non-profit and community organizations, hospitals and healthcare centers, and insurance companies and industry. Most programs either targeted healthcare workers collectively or specifically targeted physicians. A smaller number of programs were aimed at other healthcare worker groups including pharmacists, nurses, midwives, and healthcare students. Our environmental scan shows that there are many organizations working to develop and share educational resources for healthcare workers on antimicrobial

  18. Evaluation of pharmacy generalists performing antimicrobial stewardship services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Joseph J; Kenney, Rachel M; Bloome, Mary; McDonnell, Jane; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Weinmann, Allison; Kilgore, Paul E; Davis, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in medication use achieved by pharmacy generalists using a care bundle approach to antimicrobial stewardship are reported. A six-month prospective, repeated-treatment, quasi-experimental study involving three month-long intervention periods and three month-long control periods was conducted in the setting of an existing antimicrobial stewardship program at a large hospital. The intervention involved prospective audit and feedback conducted by pharmacy generalists who were trained in an antimicrobial stewardship care bundle approach. During control months, a pharmacy generalist who was not trained in antimicrobial stewardship rounded with the multidisciplinary team and provided standard-of-care pharmacy services. The primary endpoint was compliance with a care bundle of four antimicrobial stewardship metrics: documentation of indication for therapy in the medical record, selection of empirical therapy according to institutional guidelines, documented performance of indicated culture testing, and deescalation of therapy when indicated. Two-hundred eighty-six patients were enrolled in the study: 124 in the intervention group and 162 in the control group. The cumulative rate of full compliance with all care bundle components during the six-month study was significantly greater during intervention months than during control months (68.5% versus 45.7%, p management. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Daily Practice: Managing an Important Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Le Saux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is a recent concept that embodies the practical, judicious use of antimicrobials to decrease adverse outcomes from antimicrobials while optimizing the treatment of bacterial infections to reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. The objectives of the present statement are to illustrate the principles of antimicrobial stewardship and to offer practical examples of how to make antimicrobial stewardship part of everyday hospital and outpatient practice. Vital components of antimicrobial stewardship include appropriate testing to diagnose whether infections are viral or bacterial, and using clinical follow-up rather than antibiotics in cases in which the child is not very ill and uncertainty exists. Other specific, important actions include questioning whether positive urine cultures are contaminated when there is no evidence of pyuria or inflammatory changes, and obtaining a chest radiograph to support a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. Optimizing the choice and dosage of antimicrobials also reduces the probability of clinical failures and subsequent courses of antimicrobials. A list of common clinical scenarios to promote stewardship is included.

  20. Cultivating health and well-being through environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika. Svendsen

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to long-standing and ongoing scientific research and community engagement, we widely appreciate the health benefits of a clean environment. Trees, native vegetation, parks, and open spaces are valued throughout the world. After a century of urban park development, we are still uncovering the importance of these spaces to a wide range of social and cultural...

  1. Without Testing: Stockpile Stewardship in the Second Nuclear Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Joseph C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-07

    Stockpile stewardship is a topic dear to my heart. I’ve been fascinated by it, and I’ve lived it—mostly on the technical side but also on the policy side from 2009 to 2010 at Stanford University as a visiting scholar and the inaugural William J. Perry Fellow. At Stanford I worked with Perry, former secretary of defense, and Sig Hecker, former Los Alamos Lab director (1986–1997), looking at nuclear deterrence, nuclear policy, and stockpile stewardship and at where all this was headed.

  2. A system simulation to enhance stockpile stewardship (ASSESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, A.S.; Plantenga, T.D.; Napolitano, L.M.; Johnson, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the ASSESS project, whose goal is to construct a policy driven enterprise simulation of the DOE nuclear weapons complex (DOE/NWC). ASSESS encompasses the full range of stockpile stewardship activities by incorporating simulation component models that are developed and managed by local experts. ASSESS runs on a heterogeneous distributed computing environment and implements multi-layered user access capabilities. ASSESS allows the user to create hypothetical policies governing stockpile stewardship, simulate the resulting operation of the DOE/NWC, and analyze the relative impact of each policy

  3. Applying a Data Stewardship Maturity Matrix to the NOAA Observing System Portfolio Integrated Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Austin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and prioritization of targeted user community needs are not always considered until after data has been created and archived. Gaps in data curation and documentation in the data production and delivery phases limit data's broad utility specifically for decision makers. Expert understanding and knowledge of a particular dataset is often required as a part of the data and metadata curation process to establish the credibility of the data and support informed decision-making. To enhance curation practices, content from NOAA's Observing System Integrated Assessment (NOSIA) Value Tree, NOAA's Data Catalog/Digital Object Identifier (DOI) projects (collection-level metadata) have been integrated with Data/Stewardship Maturity Matrices (data and stewardship quality information) focused on assessment of user community needs. This results in user focused evidence based decision making tools created by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) through identification and assessment of data content gaps related to scientific knowledge and application to key areas of societal benefit. Through enabling user need feedback from the beginning of data creation through archive allows users to determine the quality and value of data that is fit for purpose. Data gap assessment and prioritization are presented in a user-friendly way using the data stewardship maturity matrices as measurement of data management quality. These decision maker tools encourages data producers and data providers/stewards to consider users' needs prior to data creation and dissemination resulting in user driven data requirements increasing return on investment. A use case focused on need for NOAA observations linked societal benefit will be used to demonstrate the value of these tools.

  4. Study of a comparative analysis model of environmental and economic costs on a façade based on the life cycle approach = Estudio de modelo de análisis comparativo de costes ambientales y económicos de una fachada basado en el enfoque del ciclo de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García Horcajo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change has come and sustainability has become a global priority. Sustainability in building sector means not only new construction but also refurbishment of existing buildings. Gas emissions reduction goes necessarily through to enhace environmental and energetic characteristics of existing buildings. So, the use of renewable energy is necessary as well as sustainable refurbshiments. Many issues have a direct impact on the sustainability of a refurbishment, (environmental, social, economic, energetic, etc. This study proposes a model to weight or measure economic, environmental and energetic costs in refurbishing a façade of building, with verifiable and comparable results as a first approach to get the best model to a global evaluation in building sector. To get this model, the author study eight different refurbishment proposals for a choosen façade of building setting two different types of actions. This model is based on life cycle analysis and shows cuantitative and comparables results expressed in graphics to get a better understanding. Resumen El cambio climático es ya una realidad y la sostenibilidad se ha convertido en una prioridad a nivel mundial. Dicha sostenibilidad, aplicada al sector de la construcción, significa no solo lo relativo a la nueva construcción sino también en lo referente a la reforma de la edificación existente. La reducción en la emisión de gases de efecto invernadero pasa necesariamente por la mejora de las características ambientales y energéticas de los edificios existentes. En este sentido se hace necesario el uso de energías renovables así como una mejora de la edificación existente para que sea sostenible. Son muchos los aspectos que tienen un impacto directo en la sostenibilidad a la hora de acometer una actuación de rehabilitación, ambientales, sociales y económicos. Este trabajo propone un modelo que mida los costes económicos y medioambientales a la hora de reformar la

  5. Valoração Econômica Ambiental: um estudo analítico e teórico dos métodos e suas multi-aplicabilidades = Environmental economic valuation: an analytical and theoretical study of methods and their multi applicabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro dos Santos Portugal Júnior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento sustentável, nos dias atuais, age diretamente nas decisões administrativas e econômicas dos agentes da sociedade. Baseado neste fato o presente estudo tem por objetivo geral analisar teoricamente alguns métodos de valoração econômica ambiental, suas características e aplicações. De maneira específica pretende-se demonstrar a possibilidade de aplicar tais métodos de uma forma múltipla para uma valoração ambiental mais profunda e completa, somando-se a isso a apresentação de dois novos métodos desenvolvidos pelos autores desse artigo que complementam outros já existentes. O contexto abordado permeia inicialmente os fatores de produção e suas características específicas, passando posteriormente a analisar os componentes do valor econômico total dos recursos naturais, em seguida são abordados alguns métodos de valoração econômica ambiental e ao final apresenta-se a possibilidade de aplicar diferentes métodos para a análise ambiental de um mesmo caso específico. Utiliza-se o método dedutivo e a técnica de pesquisa bibliográfica como forma de atingir os objetivos traçados. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de nível teórico e exploratória. O estudo permite concluir positivamente sobre a possibilidade de multi-aplicabilidade de métodos de valoração de danos ambientais como forma de tornar essa análise mais abrangente e completa. Os resultados apontaram ainda que os novos métodos apresentados permitem uma análise ambiental pormenorizada e com fundamentos matemáticos mais profundos. Soma-se a isso o fato de que o principal complicador da utilização do sistema de multiaplicabilidade é a determinação dos níveis de ponderação dos diferentes métodos adotados na análise ambiental, o que deverá ser feita considerando-se as especificidades dos danos ambientais analisados e as informações disponíveis, necessitando-se para isso de novos estudos sobre essa temática. Sustainable development

  6. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-01-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  7. Antimicrobial stewardship in long term care facilities: what is effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-02-12

    Intense antimicrobial use in long term care facilities promotes the emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant organisms and leads to adverse effects such as C. difficile colitis. Guidelines recommend development of antimicrobial stewardship programs for these facilities to promote optimal antimicrobial use. However, the effectiveness of these programs or the contribution of any specific program component is not known. For this review, publications describing evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programs for long term care facilities were identified through a systematic literature search. Interventions included education, guidelines development, feedback to practitioners, and infectious disease consultation. The studies reviewed varied in types of facilities, interventions used, implementation, and evaluation. Comprehensive programs addressing all infections were reported to have improved antimicrobial use for at least some outcomes. Targeted programs for treatment of pneumonia were minimally effective, and only for indicators of uncertain relevance for stewardship. Programs focusing on specific aspects of treatment of urinary infection - limiting treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria or prophylaxis of urinary infection - were reported to be effective. There were no reports of cost-effectiveness, and the sustainability of most of the programs is unclear. There is a need for further evaluation to characterize effective antimicrobial stewardship for long term care facilities.

  8. Stewardship - De nieuwe facilitaire werkelijkheid, Facto Magazine, nr. 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Voor het succesvol besturen van organisaties bestaan in de managementliteratuur diverse modellen en theorieën. Het lijkt er op dat de stewardship-theorie, die uitgaat van wederzijds vertrouwen, beter past bij de ontwikkeling die FM op dit moment doormaakt dan de agencytheorie

  9. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  10. A state-stewardship view on executive compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Li Sun, Sunny; Choi, J.; Powers, M.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    We take a state-stewardship view on the corporate governance model and executive compensation policies in economies with strong political involvement. In such a highly politically-oriented institutional environment, the business elites are not just professional managers but are also de facto

  11. 76 FR 17180 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... area components of the draft NRP and the benefits and challenges stemming from such programs. 5. Public... and will be called on during the public comment period. Handout materials should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Resource Stewardship...

  12. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives Throughout Europe: Proven Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberje, E.J.M.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a key component to stop the current European spread of antimicrobial resistance. It has also become evident that antimicrobial resistance is a problem that cannot be tackled by single institutions or physicians. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance needs

  14. Antimicrobial stewardship: attempting to preserve a strategic resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Van Schooneveld, Md

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials hold a unique place in our drug armamentarium. Unfortunately the increase in resistance among both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens coupled with a lack of new antimicrobial agents is threatening our ability to treat infections. Antimicrobial use is the driving force behind this rise in resistance and much of this use is suboptimal. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP have been advocated as a strategy to improve antimicrobial use. The goals of ASP are to improve patient outcomes while minimizing toxicity and selection for resistant strains by assisting in the selection of the correct agent, right dose, and best duration. Two major strategies for ASP exist: restriction/pre-authorization that controls use at the time of ordering and audit and feedback that reviews ordered antimicrobials and makes suggestions for improvement. Both strategies have some limitations, but have been effective at achieving stewardship goals. Other supplemental strategies such as education, clinical prediction rules, biomarkers, clinical decision support software, and institutional guidelines have been effective at improving antimicrobial use. The most effective antimicrobial stewardship programs have employed multiple strategies to impact antimicrobial use. Using these strategies stewardship programs have been able to decrease antimicrobial use, the spread of resistant pathogens, the incidence of C. difficile infection, pharmacy costs, and improved patient outcomes.

  15. 36 CFR 230.6 - Landowner forest stewardship plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manage soil, water, aesthetic qualities, recreation, timber, and fish and wildlife resources in a manner... sells or otherwise conveys land covered by a landowner forest stewardship plan, such plan shall remain... plan. 230.6 Section 230.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. Considerations for Future Climate Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P. T.; Chapman, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, we will describe the lessons learned based on processing and generating a decade of gridded AIRS and MODIS IR sounding data. We describe the challenges faced in accessing and sharing very large data sets, maintaining data provenance under evolving technologies, obtaining access to legacy calibration data and the permanent preservation of Earth science data records for on demand services. These lessons suggest a new approach to data stewardship will be required for the next decade of hyper spectral instruments combined with cloud resolving models. It will not be sufficient for stewards of future data centers to just provide the public with access to archived data but our experience indicates that data needs to reside close to computers with ultra large disc farms and tens of thousands of processors to deliver complex services on demand over very high speed networks much like the offerings of search engines today. Over the first decade of the 21st century, petabyte data records were acquired from the AIRS instrument on Aqua and the MODIS instrument on Aqua and Terra. NOAA data centers also maintain petabytes of operational IR sounders collected over the past four decades. The UMBC Multicore Computational Center (MC2) developed a Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance gridding system (SOAR) to allow users to select IR sounding instruments from multiple archives and choose space-time- spectral periods of Level 1B data to download, grid, visualize and analyze on demand. Providing this service requires high data rate bandwidth access to the on line disks at Goddard. After 10 years, cost effective disk storage technology finally caught up with the MODIS data volume making it possible for Level 1B MODIS data to be available on line. However, 10Ge fiber optic networks to access large volumes of data are still not available from CSFC to serve the broader community. Data transfer rates are well below 10MB/s limiting their usefulness for climate studies. During

  17. Sharing Responsibility for Data Stewardship Between Scientists and Curators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Data stewardship is becoming increasingly important to support accurate conclusions from new forms of data, integration of and computation across heterogeneous data types, interactions between models and data, replication of results, data governance and long-term archiving. In addition to increasing recognition of the importance of data management, data science, and data curation by US and international scientific agencies, the National Academies of Science Board on Research Data and Information is sponsoring a study on Data Curation Education and Workforce Issues. Effective data stewardship requires a distributed effort among scientists who produce data, IT staff and/or vendors who provide data storage and computational facilities and services, and curators who enhance data quality, manage data governance, provide access to third parties, and assume responsibility for long-term archiving of data. The expertise necessary for scientific data management includes a mix of knowledge of the scientific domain; an understanding of domain data requirements, standards, ontologies and analytical methods; facility with leading edge information technology; and knowledge of data governance, standards, and best practices for long-term preservation and access that rarely are found in a single individual. Rather than developing data science and data curation as new and distinct occupations, this paper examines the set of tasks required for data stewardship. The paper proposes an alternative model that embeds data stewardship in scientific workflows and coordinates hand-offs between instruments, repositories, analytical processing, publishers, distributors, and archives. This model forms the basis for defining knowledge and skill requirements for specific actors in the processes required for data stewardship and the corresponding educational and training needs.

  18. La coyuntura económica nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Huerta González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los problemas de contracción económica que enfrenta nuestro país como resultado de la política económica predominante, que lo ha llevado a depender de la economía estadounidense. Cuando ésta enfrentó problemas de crecimiento también frenó el crecimiento de la economía nacional. El gobierno mexicano no instrumenta política fiscal anticíclica (expansión del gasto para contrarrestar la caída de exportaciones y recuperar la dinámica económica por considerar que ello originaría presiones sobre precios y el sector externo y pudiera llevar a un contexto de especulación y crisis. Es por esto que se opta por seguir priorizando políticas contraccionistas para evitar la inflación, como si éste fuese el principal problema del país. Asimismo, el gobierno insiste en las reformas estructurales (apertura eléctrica, petrolera, reforma fiscal y laboral para ampliar la esfera de influencia del sector privado nacional y extranjero y para consolidar el saneamiento fiscal y abaratar el costo de la fuerza de trabajo, impulsando así la dinámica económica. Sin embargo, tales reformas ya las hemos vivido —desde el gobierno de Salinas de Gortari a la fecha— y sus resultados han sido crecimientos espurios que han desembocado en crisis y en el actual estancamiento. Mientras prosiga la actual política económica seguirá deteriorándose la esfera productiva y aumentando el desempleo, sin que se logre un crecimiento sostenido y menos vulnerable de la economía

  19. Uso racional de recursos naturais não-renováveis: aspectos biológicos, econômicos e ambientais Rational use of non renewable natural resources: biological, economical and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Devido à limitação de novas terras para a agricultura, o seu desenvolvimento tem ocorrido com base em aumento de índices de produtividade na produção animal e de plantas. Entretanto, efeitos negativos têm emergido, como a excessiva utilização de recursos naturais não renováveis e a poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar a possibilidade do uso de modelos de saturação cinética na agricultura (produção de plantas e produção animal para melhorar a eficiência do uso dos recursos naturais não renováveis, evitar a completa depleção dos mesmos e minimizar os problemas relacionados à poluição ambiental.Due to limitations of new land areas for agriculture, its development has being based on increase in productive indexes in animal and plant production. However, negative effects have being emerged, as excessive utilization of non renewable natural resources and environmental pollution. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of use of models of saturation kinetics in agriculture (plant and animal production to improve efficiency of use of non renewable natural resources, avoid complete depletion of them and minimize the problems related to environmental pollution.

  20. Aspectos económicos del aislamiento acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilla, Beatriz C.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to analyze the soundproofing/cost ratio with different building alternatives for interior walls and floors. This technical-economic study was divided into three parts: — Dividing walls (environmental noises — Floors (impact noises — Special Solutions (double walls, floating floors, etcetera The results show that in developing countries the most costly solutions are not always the best for housing, as far as soundproofing is concerned. A good knowledge of the economic aspects related to this matter allows obtaining a good quality at a moderate cost, which is a priority in this type of country.

    El objetivo general de este trabajo fue el de analizar el comportamiento de la relación costo-aislamiento acústico en soluciones constructivas alternativas para muros interiores y entrepisos. Este estudio técnico-económico comprende tres partes: * Muros divisorios (ruidos aéreos. * Entrepisos (ruidos de impacto. * Soluciones especiales (muros de doble hoja, pisos flotantes, etc. Se llega a la conclusión que, en los países en desarrollo, no siempre las mejores soluciones para la vivienda, desde el punto de vista acústico, son las de mayor costo. Conocer en profundidad los aspectos económicos de esta cuestión significa poder lograr una buena calidad con costos moderados, lo cual constituye una prioridad en este tipo de países.

  1. Spatially explicit data: stewardship and ethical challenges in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J; Mackenzie, Catrina A; Parker, John N; Strasser, Carly A

    2013-09-01

    Scholarly communication is at an unprecedented turning point created in part by the increasing saliency of data stewardship and data sharing. Formal data management plans represent a new emphasis in research, enabling access to data at higher volumes and more quickly, and the potential for replication and augmentation of existing research. Data sharing has recently transformed the practice, scope, content, and applicability of research in several disciplines, in particular in relation to spatially specific data. This lends exciting potentiality, but the most effective ways in which to implement such changes, particularly for disciplines involving human subjects and other sensitive information, demand consideration. Data management plans, stewardship, and sharing, impart distinctive technical, sociological, and ethical challenges that remain to be adequately identified and remedied. Here, we consider these and propose potential solutions for their amelioration.

  2. Science-based stockpile stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immele, J.

    1995-01-01

    I would like to start by working from Vic Reis's total quality management diagram in which he began with the strategy and then worked through the customer requirements-what the Department of Defense (DoD) is hoping for from the science-based stockpile stewardship program. Maybe our customer's requirements will help guide some of the issues that we should be working on. ONe quick answer to open-quotes why have we adopted a science-based strategyclose quotes is that nuclear weapons are a 50-year responsibility, not just a 5-year responsibility, and stewardship without testing is a grand challenge. While we can do engineering maintenance and turn over and remake a few things on the short time scale, without nuclear testing, without new weapons development, and without much of the manufacturing base that we had in the past, we need to learn better just how these weapons are actually working

  3. Leveraging best practices to promote health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D

    2013-08-01

    Strategically leveraging health and safety initiatives with sustainability and stewardship helps organizations improve profitability and positively impact team member and customer attachment to the organization. Collective efficacy enhances the triple bottom line: healthy people, healthy planet, and healthy profits. The HS(3)™ Best Practice Exchanges group demonstrated that collective efficacy can leverage the social cohesion, communication channels, and activities within workplaces to promote a healthy, sustainable work culture. This in turn (1) protects the health and safety of workers, (2) preserves the natural environment, and (3) increases attachment to the organization. Community-based participatory research using the Attach21 survey assessed the progress of these companies in their efforts to integrate health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. Monthly Best Practice Exchanges promoted collective efficacy by providing support, encouragement, and motivation to share and adopt new ideas. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Antimicrobial stewardship in long term care facilities: what is effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Intense antimicrobial use in long term care facilities promotes the emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant organisms and leads to adverse effects such as C. difficile colitis. Guidelines recommend development of antimicrobial stewardship programs for these facilities to promote optimal antimicrobial use. However, the effectiveness of these programs or the contribution of any specific program component is not known. For this review, publications describing evaluation of antimicro...

  5. Antibiotic stewardship er etableret på Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpi, Magnus; Gjørup, Ida; Boel, Jonas Bredtoft

    2014-01-01

    A high incidence of Clostridium difficile and multiresistant organisms and increasing consumption of cephalosporins and quinolones have required an antibiotic stewardship programme, and antibiotic audits with feedback, revised guidelines and stringent prescription rules have been successful....... The hospital intervention was managed by an antibiotic team combined with contact persons in all departments, a pocket edition of the guideline was available, and monthly commented reports about antibiotic consumption in each department were presented on the intranet. Declining use of restricted antibiotics...

  6. Sobre lo económico de la Historia Económica: Dos concepciones contrapuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Mohaded

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias a incrementar las contribuciones interdisciplinarias no son ajenas a la ciencia económica. Desde distintas vertientes teóricas gran cantidad de autores han intentado lograr explicaciones más comprehensivas sobre la realidad social a partir de la confluencia de disciplinas. El caso de la historia económica como conjunción de la economía y la historia puede dar cuenta de ello. Sin embargo, no existe una única manera de enfocar el análisis en esta dirección. En este sentido, este trabajo presenta dos corrientes teóricas distintas en relación a la historia económica. Por un lado el enfoque neo-institucionalista de North y Thomas y por otro el enfoque marxista de Dobb. Se plantean las distintas perspectivas teóricas que cada uno de estos dos aparatos analíticos proponen, particular-mente en lo referido a lo económico de la historia económica, y sus implicancias sobre el análisis de la realidad social.

  7. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 2003 Stewardship progress report : committed to continuous improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The stewardship initiative is a mandatory requirement for members of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). It involves performance management and benchmarking, voluntary audits and verification, as well as training and improved communication inside and outside the industry. This fourth annual progress report describes the environment, health, safety and socio-economic stewardship initiative. This report presents an aggregate of industry performance. Stewardship of Excellence awards were presented in 2003, celebrating outstanding performance by members who demonstrated their commitment to responsible development and continuous improvement within a business framework. The awards were presented in three categories, namely environment, health and safety, and socio-economic. Northrock Resources was presented with the award in the environment category for its voluntary waste gas reduction. The health and safety recognition went to Burlington Resources Canada Ltd. for superior office ergonomics, while the award in the socio-economic category was presented to Suncor Energy Inc. for Aboriginal business development. A brief overview of the achievements of each of these three companies was presented. tabs., figs.

  9. Avaliação econômica e ambiental da energia atômica no Brasil = Economical and environmental evaluation of the atomic energy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bento

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar se a energia nuclear pode contribuir para geração de energia elétrica de maneira sustentável no território nacional. O estudo foi realizado a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental do setor energético, com levantamento de custos e impactos ambientais no processo de geração de energia elétrica, nas usinas termonucleares. A emissão de gases na atmosfera é elevada, e uma das principais causas de mudanças climáticas são as usinas de carvão. Já no caso das usinas termonucleares,a emissão é controlada, não afetando o meio ambiente e a saúde humana. Inúmeras melhorias ainda são necessárias para que seu ingresso flua como uma alternativa viável, de modo que sane problemas de escassez de matéria-prima, torne-se potencial fonte geradorade energia elétrica, não coloque em risco a sobrevivência da humanidade e garanta a preservação dos recursos naturais.The objective of this research is to analyze whether nuclear energy can contribute to the generation of electric power in a sustainable way in Brazil. The study was accomplished starting from a bibliographical and documental research of the energy sector,with a study of costs and environmental impacts in the process of electric power generation, in nuclear power plants. The emission of gases in the atmosphere is elevated, and one of the main causes of climatic changes is coal plants. In the case of nuclear power plants the emission is already controlled, not affecting the environment and human health. Countless improvements are still necessary so that it can become a viable alternative, solving problems of shortage of raw materials, becoming a potential generating source of electric power, not putting at risk the survival of humanity and guaranteeing the preservation of natural resources.

  10. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial s...

  12. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Miyake Okumura; Bruno Salgado Riveros; Monica Maria Gomes-da-Silva; Izelandia Veroneze

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardshi...

  13. Characteristics of Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Current Status of the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Christopher; Lee, Brian R; Terrill, Cindy; Hersh, Adam L; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Kronman, Matthew P; Newland, Jason G

    2018-01-25

    In response to the growing epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) have been rapidly implemented in the United States (US). This study examines the prevalence of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) seven core elements of a successful ASP within a large subset of US Children's Hospitals. In 2016, a survey was conducted of 52 pediatric hospitals assessing the presence of the seven core elements: leadership commitment, accountability, drug expertise, action, tracking, reporting, and education. Forty-nine hospitals (94%) had established ASPs and 41 hospitals (79%) included all seven core elements. Physician accountability (87%) and a dedicated ASP pharmacist or drug expert (88%) were present in the vast majority of hospitals. However, substantial variability existed in the financial support allotted to these positions. This variability did not predict program actions, tracking, reporting, and education. When compared with previous surveys, these results document a dramatic increase in the prevalence and resources of pediatric stewardship programs, although continued expansion is warranted. Further research is required to understand the feasibility of various core stewardship activities and the impact on patient outcomes in the setting of finite resources.

  14. Characteristics of Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Current Status of the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS Collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McPherson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP have been rapidly implemented in the United States (US. This study examines the prevalence of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC seven core elements of a successful ASP within a large subset of US Children’s Hospitals. In 2016, a survey was conducted of 52 pediatric hospitals assessing the presence of the seven core elements: leadership commitment, accountability, drug expertise, action, tracking, reporting, and education. Forty-nine hospitals (94% had established ASPs and 41 hospitals (79% included all seven core elements. Physician accountability (87% and a dedicated ASP pharmacist or drug expert (88% were present in the vast majority of hospitals. However, substantial variability existed in the financial support allotted to these positions. This variability did not predict program actions, tracking, reporting, and education. When compared with previous surveys, these results document a dramatic increase in the prevalence and resources of pediatric stewardship programs, although continued expansion is warranted. Further research is required to understand the feasibility of various core stewardship activities and the impact on patient outcomes in the setting of finite resources.

  15. Case studies in geographic information systems for environmental streamlining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    This 2012 summary report addresses the current use of geographic information systems (GIS) and related technologies by State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) for environmental streamlining and stewardship, particularly in relation to the National...

  16. Influência dos investimentos ambientais e dos indicadores econômico-financeiros na seleção de empresas para compor o Índice De Sustentabilidade Empresarial (ISE = Influence of environmental investments and financial performance indicators to compose the Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Beirão Tonolli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral do trabalho é verificar a influência dos investimentos ambientais e de indicadores econômico-financeiros na seleção das empresas para compor o Índice de Sustentabilidade Empresarial (ISE no ano de 2014. Com relação à metodologia, esta pesquisa é classificada como descritiva, e, explicativa quanto aos objetivos, com abordagem metodológica quantitativa e qualitativa. A coleta foi realizada por meio de dados secundários e, quanto aos procedimentos, é uma pesquisa documental. A amostra da pesquisa compreende 178 empresas elegíveis ao ISE do período de 2015, ano base 2014. Foram coletados os relatórios de sustentabilidade do ano de 2014 para identificar os investimentos ambientais. Do total de empresas, 95 apresentaram relatórios, sendo que 93 delas divulgaram investimentos ambientais de forma qualitativa e 49, quantitativa. A média dos investimentos ambientais totalizou R$ 158.028.447,36. A técnica estatística utilizada para verificar que variáveis influenciam na seleção de empresas para compor o ISE foi a regressão logística, tendo como variáveis explicativas: ativo total, rentabilidade do ativo, liquidez corrente, grau de endividamento, Novo Mercado, investimentos ambientais de forma qualitativa e quantitativa. Pela análise dos resultados, concluiu-se que tamanho, rentabilidade do ativo, grau de endividamento e investimento ambiental quantitativo influenciam as companhias a serem selecionadas para compor o ISE. A variável tamanho foi significativa ao nível de 1%, grau de endividamento e investimentos ambientais quantitativos ao nível de 5% e rentabilidade ao nível de 10%. This study aims to investigate the influence of environmental investments and financial performance indicators in 2014’s Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE. This research is classified as descriptive, with a quantitative and qualitative approach. It is a documentary research, based on procedures and sourced by secondary data. The

  17. Concursos de los conjuntos económicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegbert Rippe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La concentración empresaria es un fenómeno económicoque se desarrolla en este siglo y se proyecta convigor para el próximo. Múltiples factores permiten la formación de este fenómeno, en especial la producción en masa de servicios y de productos industriales, la especialización de las empresas, la racionalización dela producción y la internacionalización del mercado (...Contenido: Grupos y conjuntos económicos. Nociones. Responsabilidad de los integrantes de un conjunto económico. El concordato del conjunto económico. Jurisprudencia. Doctrina. La quiebra del conjunto económico. Jurisprudencia. Doctrina. La quiebra del conjunto económico. Jurisprudencia. Doctrina.Nuestra posición. Conclusiones

  18. Optimizing Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes Through Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Huslage, Kirk; Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  19. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, Emelie C.; Hulscher, Marlies E. J. L.; Mouton, Johan W.; Verduin, Cees M.; Stuart, James W. T. Cohen; Overdiek, Hans W. P. M.; van der Linden, Paul D.; Natsch, Stephanie; Hertogh, Cees M. P. M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes: clinical outcomes,

  20. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, Emelie C.; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Mouton, Johan W.; Verduin, Cees M.; Stuart, James W T Cohen; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van der Linden, Paul D.; Natsch, Stephanie; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes:

  1. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, E.C.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Mouton, J.W.; Verduin, C.M.; Stuart, J.W.; Overdiek, H.W.; Linden, P.D. van der; Natsch, S.S.; Hertogh, C.M.; Wolfs, T.F.; Schouten, J.A.; Kullberg, B.J.; Prins, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes:

  2. Communicating the value and benefits of silviculture through partnerships and collaborative stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Opening comments to this session share observations on the current management climate within the USDA Forest Service. Partnerships and collaborative stewardship as agency philosophy are discussed. Silviculturists roles, as scientists and managers are compared, and the need for internal and external cooperation stressed as we strive to meet forest stewardship goals....

  3. Otra ciencia económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Innerarity

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor hace una crítica a la pretensión de la ciencia económica de constituirse como un saber exacto e hiperespecializado al considerar que esta pretensión se ha traducido en una pérdida de la capacidad que es necesaria para comprender la complejidad social de las realidades económicas. Seducida por el objetivo de la exactitud, la economía parece haber olvidado su carácter de construcción social. Además, la economía ha olvidado que es una más entre las ciencias sociales y el largo periodo en el que se ha separado de ellas reivindicando su plena autonomía no ha sido satisfactorio ni para ella ni para el resto de las ciencias sociales. Según el autor la crítica al capitalismo contemporáneo, si quiere ser más radical que moralizante, debe dirigirse a combatir el supuesto realismo de la ciencia económica dominante.The author criticizes the pretension of economic sciences of being an exact science and its tendency to specialization. The consequences of those pretensions are a loss of its capacity to understand the social complexity of the economic realities. The economy, seduced by its aim of exactitude, seems to forget that it is a social construction. Moreover, economy seems to forget that it is just a social science, and for a long period of time economy evolved as a separated and autonomous science; that time was not good neither for economic science neither for social sciences in general. According to the author, if we want to build a more radical and not only moralizing critique to contemporary capitalism, we must criticize the hypothetical realism of the economic science. 

  4. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  5. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  6. The Changing Role of Data Stewardship in Creating Trustworthy, Interdisciplinary High Performance Data Platforms for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. J.; Evans, B. J. K.; Wyborn, L. A.; Wang, J.; Trenham, C. E.; Druken, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has ingested over 10PB of national and international environmental, Earth systems science and geophysics reference data onto a single platform to advance high performance data (HPD) techniques that enable interdisciplinary Data-intensive Science. Improved Data Stewardship is critical to evolve both data and data services that support the increasing need for programmatic usability and that prioritises interoperability rather than just traditional data download or portal access. A data platform designed for programmatic access requires quality checked collections that better utilise interoperable data formats and standards. Achieving this involves strategies to meet both the technical and `social' challenges. Aggregating datasets used by different communities and organisations requires satisfying multiple use cases for the broader research community, whilst addressing existing BAU requirements. For NCI, this requires working with data stewards to manage the process of replicating data to the common platform, community representatives and developers to confirm their requirements, and with international peers to better enable globally integrated data communities. It is particularly important to engage with representatives from each community who can work collaboratively to a common goal, as well as capture their community needs, apply quality assurance, determine any barriers to change and to understand priorities. This is critical when managing the aggregation of data collections from multiple producers with different levels of stewardship maturity, technologies and standards, and where organisational barriers can impact the transformation to interoperable and performant data access. To facilitate the management, development and operation of the HPD platform, NCI coordinates technical and domain committees made up of user representatives, data stewards and informatics experts to provide a forum to discuss

  7. Antimicrobial stewardship initiatives throughout Europe: proven value for money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J.M. Oberjé

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a key component to stop the current European spread of antimicrobial resistance. It has also become evident that antimicrobial resistance is a problem that cannot be tackled by single institutions or physicians. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance needs rigorous actions at ward level, institution level, national level and at supra-national levels. Countries can learn from each other and possibly transplant best practices across borders to prevent antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to highlight some of the success stories of proven cost-effective interventions, and to describe the actions that have been taken, the outcomes that have been found, and the difficulties that have been met. In some cases we came across substantial scope for real-life cost savings. Although the best approach to effectively hinder the spread of antimicrobial resistance remains unclear and may vary significantly among settings, several EU-wide examples demonstrate that cost-effective antimicrobial stewardship is possible. Such examples can encourage others to implement (the most cost-effective elements in their system.

  8. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Call to Action for Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Therese M.; Catena, Fausto; Tessier, Jeffrey M.; Coccolini, Federico; Kao, Lillian S.; De Simone, Belinda; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; May, Addison K.; Ansaloni, Luca; Mazuski, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite current antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) being advocated by infectious disease specialists and discussed by national and international policy makers, ASPs coverage remains limited to only certain hospitals as well as specific service lines within hospitals. The ASPs incorporate a variety of strategies to optimize antimicrobial agent use in the hospital, yet the exact set of interventions essential to ASP success remains unknown. Promotion of ASPs across clinical practice is crucial to their success to ensure standardization of antimicrobial agent use within an institution. To effectively accomplish this standardization, providers who actively engage in antimicrobial agent prescribing should participate in the establishment and support of these programs. Hence, surgeons need to play a major role in these collaborations. Surgeons must be aware that judicious antibiotic utilization is an integral part of any stewardship program and necessary to maximize clinical cure and minimize emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The battle against antibiotic resistance should be fought by all healthcare professionals. If surgeons around the world participate in this global fight and demonstrate awareness of the major problem of antimicrobial resistance, they will be pivotal leaders. If surgeons fail to actively engage and use antibiotics judiciously, they will find themselves deprived of the autonomy to treat their patients. PMID:27828764

  9. Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska von Heland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship. We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  10. Revisión de la metodología empleada y resultados alcanzados en la investigación sobre actuación medioambiental de la empresa y rendimiento económico (1972-2009 || Review of Methodology and Results of Research on Environmental Management of the Firm and Economic Performance (1972-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Orbegozo, Unai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La variable “medio ambiente" ha cobrado una creciente importancia en la gestión empresarial. Durante las dos últimas décadas la investigación empírica sobre la relación existente entre la actuación medioambiental de la empresa y su rendimiento económico ha sido uno de los temas recurrentes. No obstante, se detectan diversas lagunas en este ámbito de estudio, como la falta de conformación de un marco teórico y de una metodología de investigación fiable que permita contrastar y comparar los resultados obtenidos, al objeto de orientar adecuadamente a investigadores o decisores empresariales interesados por la gestión medioambiental. Así, la evidencia empírica sobre dicha relación presenta, a veces, resultados contradictorios. Por ello, el objetivo perseguido en este trabajo es doble. Por una parte, se realiza una profunda revisión de la literatura a fin de identificar y tratar de sistematizar el tipo de estudios realizados, las técnicas de análisis empleadas, los factores clave de dicha relación, las carencias de tales estudios, etc., identificando el signo predominante de la relación objeto de estudio. Por otra, se intenta fomentar la reflexión crítica sobre la investigación realizada y se plantean algunas sugerencias para futuras investigaciones. || The `environment' factor has become increasingly important in business management. The relationship between the environmental behavior of the company and its economic performance has been one of the recurring themes of research, especially in the last two decades. However, many gaps still exist in this field of study, such as the lack of a theoretical framework and a methodology that allow reliable research in order to empirically contrast and compare the results of the different studies. Thus, we found that the empirical evidence on this relationship sometimes presents contradictory results. Therefore, this work has two objectives. On the one hand, we review the existing

  11. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jody K. [Stoller LMS Team, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several

  12. Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry, and later (COLTO linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR. The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding social-ecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes.

  13. Controlling endemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Units using antimicrobial stewardship and infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Shinhye; Kim, Mi-Ja; Yun, Seon-Jin; Moon, Jae Young; Kim, Yeon-Sook

    2016-03-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii have become public-health problem. However, few studies have evaluated the control of endemic MDR A. baumannii in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship and comprehensive intensified infection control measures for controlling endemic MDR A. baumannii in ICUs at a tertiary care center. Carbapenem use was strictly restricted through antimicrobial stewardship. Environmental cleaning and disinfection was performed at least 3 times per day in addition to basic infection control measures. Isolation using plastic curtains and contact precautions were applied to patients who were colonized or infected with MDR A. baumannii. The outcome was measured as the incidence density rate of hospital-onset MDR A. baumannii among patients in the ICUs. The incidence density rate of hospital-onset MDR A. baumannii decreased from 22.82 cases per 1,000 patient-days to 2.68 cases per 1,000 patient-days after the interventions were implemented (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.4; p baumannii in our ICUs within 1 year.

  14. Medical table: A major tool for antimicrobial stewardship policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P-M; Demonchy, E; Risso, K; Courjon, J; Leroux, S; Leroux, E; Cua, É

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases are unpredictable, with heterogeneous clinical presentations, diverse pathogens, and various susceptibility rates to anti-infective agents. These features lead to a wide variety of clinical practices, which in turn strongly limits their evaluation. We have been using a medical table since 2005 to monitor the medical activity in our department. The observation of heterogeneous therapeutic practices led to drafting up our own antibiotic guidelines and to implementing a continuous evaluation of their observance and impact on morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, including adverse effects of antibiotics, duration of hospital stay, use of intensive care, and deaths. The 10-year analysis of medical practices using the medical table is based on more than 10,000 hospitalizations. It shows simplified antibiotic therapies and a reduction in infection-related morbidity and mortality. The medical table is a major tool for antimicrobial stewardship, leading to constant benefits for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiscale science for science-based stockpile stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, L.; Sharp, D.

    2000-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project has been to develop and apply the methods of multi scale science to the problems of fluid and material mixing due to instability and turbulence, and of materials characterization. Our specific focus has been on the SBSS (science-based stockpile stewardship) issue of assessing the performance of a weapons with off-design, aged, or remanufactured components in the absence of full-scale testing. Our products are physics models, based on microphysical principles and parameters, and suitable for implementation in the large scale design and assessment codes used in the nuclear weapons program.

  16. OPTIMIZING ANTIMICROBIAL PHARMACODYNAMICS: A GUIDE FOR YOUR STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Kuti, PharmD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacodynamic concepts should be applied to optimize antibiotic dosing regimens, particularly in the face of some multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Although the pharmacodynamics of most antibiotic classes used in the hospital setting are well described, guidance on how to select regimens and implement them into an antimicrobial stewardship program in one's institution are more limited. The role of the antibiotic MIC is paramount in understanding which regimens might benefit from implementation as a protocol or use in individual patients. This review article outlines the pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline, vancomycin, and polymyxins with the goal of providing a basis for strategy to select an optimized antibiotic regimen in your hospital setting.

  17. Investigating the ways in which health information technology can promote antimicrobial stewardship: a conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Coleman, Jamie J; Pontefract, Sarah K; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a threat to health worldwide. Antimicrobial stewardship aims to promote the responsible use of antibiotics and is high on international and national policy agendas. Health information technology has the potential to support antimicrobial stewardship in a number of ways, but this field is still poorly characterised and understood. Building on a recent systematic review and expert roundtable discussions, we take a lifecycle perspective of antibiotic use in hospitals and identify potential targets for health information technology-based interventions to support antimicrobial stewardship. We aim for this work to help chart a future research agenda in this critically important area.

  18. Product Stewardship in Uranium: A Way for the Industry to Demonstrate its High Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Product stewardship is an means for communicating the high performance on health, safety and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle including uranium mining. • It has been effective with other products and is appropriate for uranium. • Can be a vehicle for addressing public concerns across the industry. • Due to uranium’s unique characteristics it has the potential to be a best practice example of product stewardship. • Work is underway in the international arena to progress uranium product stewardship and it represent a unique opportunity to provide whole of industry benefits

  19. Sulimar Queen environmental restoration project closure package Sandia environmental stewardship exemplar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, Jack B.

    2008-09-01

    In March 2008, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, Roswell Field Office, completed its responsibilities to plug and abandon wells and restore the surface conditions for the Sulimar Queens Unit, a 2,500 acre oil field, in Chaves County, Southeast New Mexico. Sandia assumed this liability in an agreement to obtain property to create a field laboratory to perform extensive testing and experimentation on enhanced oil recovery techniques for shallow oil fields. In addition to plugging and abandoning 28 wells, the project included the removal of surface structures and surface reclamation of disturbed lands associated with all plugged and abandoned wells, access roads, and other auxiliary facilities within unit boundaries. A contracting strategy was implemented to mitigate risk and reduce cost. As the unit is an important wildlife habitat for prairie chickens, sand dune lizards, and mule deer, the criteria for the restoration and construction process were designed to protect and enhance the wildlife habitat. Lessons learned from this project include: (1) extreme caution should be exercised when entering agreements that include future liabilities, (2) partnering with the regulator has huge benefits, and (3) working with industry experts, who were familiar with the work, and subcontractors, who provided the network to complete the project cost effectively.

  20. NCDC International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) Project, Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) dataset was developed by the NOAA National Climatic Data Center, which took the initial step...

  1. Antimicrobial stewardship: a review of prospective audit and feedback systems and an objective evaluation of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gladys W; Wu, Jia En; Yeo, Chay Leng; Chan, Douglas; Hsu, Li Yang

    2013-02-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship is an emerging field currently defined by a series of strategies and interventions aimed toward improving appropriate prescription of antibiotics in humans in all healthcare settings. The ultimate goal is the preservation of current and future antibiotics against the threat of antimicrobial resistance, although improving patient safety and reducing healthcare costs are important concurrent aims. Prospective audit and feedback interventions are probably the most widely practiced of all antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Although labor-intensive, they are more easily accepted by physicians compared with formulary restriction and preauthorization strategies and have a higher potential for educational opportunities. Objective evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship is critical for determining the success of such programs. Nonetheless, there is controversy over which outcomes to measure and there is a pressing need for novel study designs that can objectively assess antimicrobial stewardship interventions despite the limitations inherent in the structure of most such programs.

  2. 77 FR 6820 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Creating Stewardship Through Biodiversity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Creating Stewardship Through Biodiversity Discovery in National Parks... collection (IC) described below. This collection will survey participants of Biodiversity Discovery efforts... Biodiversity Discovery refers to a variety of efforts to discover living organisms through public involvement...

  3. Participatory eHealth development to support nurses in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van Velsen, Lex; van Limburg, Maarten; de Jong, Nienke; Karreman, Joyce; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pi, Julia Elisabeth Wilhelmina Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put

  4. Participatory eHealth development to support nurses in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, M.J.; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; van Limburg, A.H.M.; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Karreman, Joyce; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put

  5. Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, Maarten; Sinha, Bhanu; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to patient safety and care. In response, hospitals start antibiotic stewardship programs to optimise antibiotic use. Expert-based guidelines recommend strategies to implement such programs, but local implementations may differ per hospital.

  6. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David; Feist, Ella; Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi 2 on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km 2 (98 mi 2 ) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one of the six (6

  7. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David [Mission Support Alliance, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Feist, Ella [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland WA (United States); Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie [US Department of Energy, Richland Operations, Richland WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another

  8. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site-13019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi 2 on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km 2 (98 mi 2 ) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one

  9. Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kinne

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

  10. New Developments in NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Morris, J. S.; Carter, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) is part of the NOAA strategic goal of Climate Adaptation and Mitigation that gives focus to the building and sustaining of key observational assets and data archives critical to maintaining the global climate record. Since 2002, CLASS has been NOAA's enterprise solution for ingesting, storing and providing access to a host of near real-time remote sensing streams such as the Polar and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (POES and GOES) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since October, 2011 CLASS has also been the dedicated Archive Data Segment (ADS) of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). As the ADS, CLASS receives raw and processed S-NPP records for archival and distribution to the broad user community. Moving beyond just remote sensing and model data, NOAA has endorsed a plan to migrate all archive holdings from NOAA's National Data Centers into CLASS while retiring various disparate legacy data storage systems residing at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). In parallel to this data migration, CLASS is evolving to a service-oriented architecture utilizing cloud technologies for dissemination in addition to clearly defined interfaces that allow better collaboration with partners. This evolution will require implementation of standard access protocols and metadata which will lead to cost effective data and information preservation.

  11. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned In Developing The Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.

    2003-04-24

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  12. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of

  13. Environmental Impact from Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs: Effects of Frequent Stream Classes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossley, Jon P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stewardship is an underlying theme in outdoor education (OE) and environmental education (EE), but maintaining natural areas in a sustainable balance between conservation and preservation requires knowledge about how natural areas respond to anthropogenic disturbance. My five-part study investigated the effects of disturbance on…

  14. Effective antibiotic stewardship in spinal cord injury: Challenges and a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Felicia; Suda, Katie; Evans, Charlesnika; Trautner, Barbara

    2018-01-11

    Context Antibiotic stewardship, defined as a multidisciplinary program to reduce the misuse of antibiotics, and in turn, antibiotic resistance, is a high priority. Persons with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D) are vulnerable to receiving multiple courses of antibiotics over their lifetime given frequent healthcare exposure, and have high rates of bacterial infection with multi-drug resistant organisms. Additional challenges to evaluating appropriate use of antibiotics in this population include bacterial colonization in the urine and the differences in the presenting signs and symptoms of infection. Therefore, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities with SCI/D centers need effective antibiotic stewardship programs. Results We analyzed the results of a 2012 VHA-wide survey evaluating available antibiotic stewardship resources, and compared the resources present at facilities with SCI/D (n=23) versus non-SCI/D facilities (n=107). VHA facilities with SCI/D centers are more likely to have components of an antibiotic stewardship program that have led to reduced antibiotic use in previous studies. They are also more likely to have personnel with infectious diseases training. Conclusion VHA facilities with SCI/D centers have the resources needed for antibiotic stewardship. The next step will be to determine how to implement effective antibiotic stewardship tailored for this patient care setting.

  15. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Miyake Okumura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70, however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective.

  17. Defining antimicrobial stewardship competencies for undergraduate health professional education in the United Kingdom: A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Molly; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; Lim, Rosemary; Morris, Gary; Reeves, Scott; Weiss, Marjorie

    2018-04-16

    Multi-drug resistant infections have been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health. Healthcare professionals are involved in an array of patient care activities for which an understanding of antimicrobial stewardship is important. Although antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship competencies have been developed for healthcare professionals who adopt the role of a prescriber, competencies do not exist for other medicine-related stewardship activities. Undergraduate education provides an ideal opportunity to prepare healthcare professionals for these roles and activities. This report presents a protocol for a study designed to provide national consensus on antimicrobial stewardship competencies appropriate for undergraduate healthcare professional education. A modified Delphi process will be used in which a panel of Experts, comprising members from across the United Kingdom, with expertise in prescribing and medicines management with regard to the education and practice of healthcare professionals, and antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, will be invited to take part in two survey rounds. The competencies developed will be applicable to all undergraduate healthcare professional education programmes. They will help to standardise curricula content and enhance the impact of antimicrobial stewardship education.

  18. Analysis and improvement of the process of economic, social, and environmental impact assessment of technologies from Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste Análise e melhoria do processo de avaliação dos impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais de tecnologias da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to use the business process management methodology to strengthen the process of "Economic, social, and environmental impact assessment of technologies from Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste". A methodology based on the PDCA cycle was used, which allowed the indication of the key point (inventory of technology, the critical success factor (selection of the adopted technologies, the main problem (non-assessment of technology, and major causes of the problem. The advantages obtained with the implementation of the BPM are: providing information to process managers and quality work since this analysis clearly defined the objective, customers, performance indicators, products, and expected results. The importance of an organized and available database that provides information on demands, research results, and the development stage of technologies was verified. Internal clients were made aware of the process importance. The process also proved a useful tool for the R&D management stages: 1 demand establishment, 2 development and implementation of projects, 3 dissemination, transfer, and innovation, and 4 impact assessment. There are several discontinuities in the management of R & D. The BPM can be assimilated and implemented by public research institutions and its use should be constantly encouraged.O objetivo deste estudo foi, a partir da análise e melhoria do processo, fortalecer o processo de "Avaliação dos impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais de tecnologias da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste". Utilizou-se uma metodologia baseada no ciclo PDCA, que possibilitou a indicação do ponto-chave (inventário das tecnologias, do fator crítico de sucesso (seleção das tecnologias adotadas, do principal problema (não avaliação das tecnologias, e das principais causas do problema. Com a implantação das ações de melhoria, detectaram-se as vantagens do uso da metodologia, que são: a disponibilização de informa

  19. Long-Term Stewardship At DOE's Hanford Site - 12575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R.J.; Grindstaff, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)(1), which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation

  20. FY 2017 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan - Biennial Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    This year’s summary report updates the Fiscal Year 2016 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (FY 2016 SSMP), the 25-year strategic program of record that captures the plans developed across numerous NNSA programs and organizations to maintain and modernize the scientific tools, capabilities, and infrastructure necessary to ensure the success of NNSA’s nuclear weapons mission. The SSMP is a companion to the Prevent, Counter, and Respond: A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2017-2021) report, the planning document for NNSA’s nuclear threat reduction mission. New versions of both reports are published each year in response to new requirements and challenges. Much was accomplished in FY 2015 as part of the program of record described in this year’s SSMP. The science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program allowed the Secretaries of Energy and Defense to certify for the twentieth time that the stockpile remains safe, secure, and effective without the need for underground nuclear explosive testing. The talented scientists, engineers, and technicians at the three national security laboratories, the four nuclear weapons production plants, and the national security site are primarily responsible for this continued success. Research, development, test, and evaluation programs have advanced NNSA’s understanding of weapons physics, component aging, and material properties through first-of-a-kind shock physics experiments, along with numerous other critical experiments conducted throughout the nuclear security enterprise. The multiple life extension programs (LEPs) that are under way made progress toward their first production unit dates. The W76-1 LEP is past the halfway point in total production, and the B61-12 completed three development flight tests. Critical to this success is the budget. The Administration’s budget request for NNSA’s Weapons Activities has increased for all but one of the past seven years, resulting in a total increase of

  1. Antibiotic stewardship programs and the internist’s role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giusti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR is a worldwide issue, but with significant epidemiological diversity in different countries. A recently observed phenomenon is represented by the diffusion of AMR, initially confined to intensive-care units, to medical wards. This was predictable, since patients hospitalized in medical units are made up of more than 70% of elderly people (over 75 years of age in 1 case out of 2. They are fragile patients, with significant comorbidity (over a half with at least 3 diseases, weakened immune systems, and consequently a higher risk of infection. Given such a scenario, it becomes therefore both necessary and urgent to adopt a multifaceted approach of antimicrobial stewardship programs in order to prevent, detect and control the emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms. The ideal antimicrobial program is led by an infectious diseases (ID physician and clinical pharmacist with ID training, together with a list of other important staff: clinical microbiologist, information systems specialist, infection control professional, and hospital epidemiologist. In real life, not all the Italian hospitals have got an ID physician and therefore the best canditates for antimicrobial management practices are internists if provided with a specific expertise in ID and antibiotic therapy. Adhering to the principles of optimal antimicrobial therapy in their clinical practice, the internist is able to improve the care and help to reduce the resistance of a patient at his bedside. At the same time, he can achieve other key goals reducing the length of stay and reducing the cost and utilization of health care resources.

  2. Financial evaluations of antibiotic stewardship programs - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem Hendrik Dik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere is an increasing awareness to counteract problems due to incorrect antimicrobial use. Interventions that are implemented are often part of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs. Studies publishing results from these interventions are increasing, including reports on the economical effects of ASPs. This review will look at the economical sections of these studies and the methods that were used. MethodsA systematic review was performed of articles found in the PubMed and EMBASE databases published from 2000 until November 2014. Included studies found were scored for various aspects and the quality of the papers was assessed following an appropriate check list (CHEC criteria list.Results1233 studies were found, of which 149 were read completely. 99 were included in the final review. Of these studies, 57 only mentioned the costs associated with the antimicrobial medication. Others also included operational costs (n=23, costs for hospital stay (n=18 and/or other costs (n=19. 9 studies were further assessed for their quality. These studies scored between 2 and 14 out of a potential total score of 19.ConclusionsThis review gives an extensive overview of the current financial evaluation of ASPs and the quality of these economical studies. We show that there is still major potential to improve financial evaluations of ASPs. Studies do not use similar nor consistent methods or outcome measures, making it impossible draw sound conclusions and compare different studies. Finally, we make some recommendations for the future.

  3. Antimicrobial Stewardship for a Geriatric Behavioral Health Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern. Antimicrobial stewardship and multi-disciplinary intervention can prevent inappropriate antimicrobial use and improve patient care. Special populations, especially older adults and patients with mental health disorders, can be particularly in need of such intervention. The purpose of this project was to assess the impact of pharmacist intervention on appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit (GPU. Patients ≥18 years old prescribed oral antibiotics during GPU admission were included. Antimicrobial appropriateness was assessed pre- and post-pharmacist intervention. During the six-month pre- and post-intervention phase, 63 and 70 patients prescribed antibiotics were identified, respectively. Subjects in the post-intervention group had significantly less inappropriate doses for indication compared to the pre-intervention group (10.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.02, and significantly less antibiotics prescribed for an inappropriate duration (15.8% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.01. There were no significant differences for use of appropriate drug for indication or appropriate dose for renal function between groups. Significantly more patients in the post intervention group had medications prescribed with appropriate dose, duration, and indication (51% vs. 66%, p = 0.04. Pharmacist intervention was associated with decreased rates of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit.

  4. Designing behaviourally informed policies for land stewardship: A new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don W Hine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the case for a new approach to the stewardship of land resources that uses behavioural science theory to support the design and application of policies that facilitate changes in behaviour by those who develop policy and the farmers who implement it. Current approaches have: focused on legally-based expert system; and have been devised by national and international bureaucracies with little or no knowledge of how land owners and managers are motivated, and how they think, behave and operate as stewards of their natural resources. A review of current approaches from the social scientific literature is provided, with a particular focus on principles from social psychology. This is followed by an examination of how these principles can be applied to influence behaviour related to land restoration and soil conservation. Examples of the problems with traditional approaches and the evolution of new approaches with full engagement of farmers as the delivery agents are provided from within the European Union, Iceland and Scotland. In the light of these examples and emerging thinking in other parts of the world, the paper sets out the basis for a new approach based on behavioural science theory and application, reinforcing the arguments already made in the literature for a social license for farming.

  5. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  6. Transformative leadership: an ethical stewardship model for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cam; Voelker, Carolyn; Dixon, Rolf D; LeJeune, Adena

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective leadership is a compelling priority for those who would choose to govern in public, private, and nonprofit organizations, and applies as much to the healthcare profession as it does to other sectors of the economy (Moody, Horton-Deutsch, & Pesut, 2007). Transformative Leadership, an approach to leadership and governance that incorporates the best characteristics of six other highly respected leadership models, is an integrative theory of ethical stewardship that can help healthcare professionals to more effectively achieve organizational efficiencies, build stakeholder commitment and trust, and create valuable synergies to transform and enrich today's healthcare systems (cf. Caldwell, LeJeune, & Dixon, 2007). The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of Transformative Leadership and to explain how this model applies within a healthcare context. We define Transformative Leadership and identify its relationship to Transformational, Charismatic, Level 5, Principle-Centered, Servant, and Covenantal Leadership--providing examples of each of these elements of Transformative Leadership within a healthcare leadership context. We conclude by identifying contributions of this article to the healthcare leadership literature.

  7. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Zaidi, Syed Tabish Razi; Dhingra, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March–April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Results A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8%) believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%). Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%), a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2%) rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years) held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05). Conclusion The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and

  8. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship.A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March-April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data.A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8% believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%. Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%, a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2% rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05.The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and improve their perception and

  9. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  10. La elite económica Argentina, 1810-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Hora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los principales rasgos del sector más poderoso de la elite económica argentina del período 1810-1914. El trabajo discute las principales interpretaciones sobre las características y naturaleza de este grupo, pone de relieve algunas de limitaciones de los enfoques más habituales sobre el tema, y sugiere de qué manera conceptualizarlo de forma productiva. Aunque el objeto de este trabajo es la elite económica, todo análisis de este actor supone a la vez una manera de concebir las características del sistema de poder y del entorno económico en el que se desenvuelve la acción de los hombres de fortuna. Por este motivo, este trabajo formula algunas consideraciones generales sobre las características del Estado (argentino y el capitalismo (pampeano, con el fin de precisar mejor qué tipo de elite económica dominó la producción rural y la economía argentina en el período de crecimiento exportador que se extendió desde la Independencia hasta la Primera Guerra Mundial. El trabajo toma distancia de los estudios que enfatizan la importancia de la dimensión política para explicar el proceso de constitución y reproducción de esta elite económica, enfatizando en cambio los determinantes económicos de este proceso. El ensayo no aporta nueva evidencia empírica, sino una reflexión a partir de la literatura existente.

  11. Integrated Stewardship of NASA Satellite and Field Campaign Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, J.; Tsontos, V. M.; Hardman, S. H.

    2016-02-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is NASA's archive, steward and distributor for physical oceanographic satellite data. Those data are typically organized along the lines of single parameters, such as Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Winds, Salinity, etc. However there is a need supplement satellite data with in situ and various other remote sensing data to provide higher spatial and temporal sampling and information on physical processes that the satellites are not capable of measuring. This presentation will discuss how PO.DAAC is creating a stewardship and distribution plan that will accommodate satellite, in situ and other remote sensing data that can be used to solve a more integrated approach to data access and utilization along thematic lines in support of science and applications, specifically those posed by Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) and Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) projects. SPURS used shipboard data, moorings and in situ instruments to investigate changes in salinity and how that information can be used in explaining the water cycle. OMG is studying ice melt in Greenland and how it contributes to changes in sea level through shipboard measurements, airborne and a variety of in situ instruments. PO.DAAC plans on adapting to stewarding and distributing these varieties of data through applications of file format and metadata standards (so data are discoverable and interoperable), extend the internal data system (to allow for better archiving, collection generation and querying of in situ and airborne data) and integration into tools (visualization and data access). We are also working on Virtual Collections with ESDWG, which could provide access to relevant data across DAACs/Agencies along thematic lines. These improvements will improve long-term data management and make it easier for users of various background, regardless if remote sensing or in situ, to discover and use the data.

  12. Antimicrobial stewardship education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufel, Wesley D; Jeffres, Meghan N; MacDougall, Conan; Cho, Jonathan C; Marx, Ashley H; Williams, Dennis M

    2018-05-28

    Pharmacists are key members of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) teams. It is unknown if and how US colleges and schools of pharmacy incorporate AS into their Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. This study was a cross-sectional, multicentre, electronic survey distributed to infectious diseases faculty or department chairs of 137 accredited and candidate-status PharmD programmes. One hundred and sixteen programmes participated, representing an 84.7% response rate. AS education was integrated into the required didactic, elective didactic and experiential education components of the curricula in 79 (68.1%), 43 (37.1%) and 97 (83.6%) PharmD programmes, respectively. The most common AS topics in required and elective didactic curricula were AS definitions, principles and purpose (98.7% and 86.0%) and the pharmacist's role in AS (93.7% and 83.7%). In the required and elective didactic curricula, lecture (93.7% and 86.0%) and case-based instruction (57.0% and 83.7%) were the most common instructional methods. For experiential education, the pharmacist's role in AS (96.9%), de-escalation of antimicrobials (96.9%) and antimicrobial dose optimization (95.9%) were the most common AS topics. PharmD programmes employing a faculty member who specializes in AS were more likely to offer AS experiential education than programmes without AS faculty (88.1% versus 71.9%, P = 0.049). Integration of AS education in US PharmD curricula is variable and there are considerable differences in the AS activities and topics delivered. PharmD programmes should attempt to expose students to AS education to prepare future pharmacists for AS practice. Efforts should be made to incorporate interprofessional collaboration into AS education.

  13. Importance of antimicrobial stewardship to the English National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jill Dixon, Christopher JA Duncan Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Antimicrobials are an extremely valuable resource across the spectrum of modern medicine. Their development has been associated with dramatic reductions in communicable disease mortality and has facilitated technological advances in cancer therapy, transplantation, and surgery. However, this resource is threatened by the dwindling supply of new antimicrobials and the global increase in antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS to protect our remaining antimicrobials for future generations. AMS emphasizes sensible, appropriate antimicrobial management for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. Within the English National Health Service (NHS, a series of recent policy initiatives have focused on all aspects of AMS, including best practice guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing, enhanced surveillance mechanisms for monitoring antimicrobial use across primary and secondary care, and new prescribing competencies for doctors in training. Here we provide a concise summary to clarify the current position and importance of AMS within the NHS and review the evidence base for AMS recommendations. The evidence supports the impact of AMS strategies on modifying prescribing practice in hospitals, with beneficial effects on both antimicrobial resistance and the incidence of Clostridium difficile, and no evidence of increased sepsis-related mortality. There is also a promising role for novel diagnostic technologies in AMS, both in enhancing microbiological diagnosis and improving the specificity of sepsis diagnosis. More work is needed to establish an evidence base for interventions to improve public and patient education regarding the role of antibiotics in common clinical syndromes, such as respiratory tract infection. Future

  14. DOE's Stewardship of Government-Owned Uranium Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J. Dale; Donaldson, Dale E.

    2002-01-01

    Beginning in the 1980's, a significant number of Department of Energy facilities have been shut down and are in the decommissioning process. The shutdown of additional facilities is planned. In addition, during the past several decades, the Department of Energy has loaned nuclear material to a wide variety of private and governmental institutions for research and educational purposes. Subsequent changes in the Department's priorities have reduced the need for nuclear materials to support the Department's programs. Similarly, there has been a reduction in the need for borrowed nuclear materials by organizations and institutions using nuclear materials 'on loan' from the Department. As a result, inventories of uranium material from the Department's facilities and 'on loan' must be removed and returned to the Department. This material is in the form of low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. This uranium material is located at over one hundred sites within the United States and overseas, including universities and laboratories. Much of this uranium is not needed to support national priorities and programs. The Department of Energy has assumed a stewardship role in managing nuclear materials throughout their life cycle, from acquisition to storage. Surplus uranium has created challenges for DOE in managing and storing the material as well as identifying opportunities for its further use. On behalf of the Department, the Oak Ridge Operations Office has been given the responsibility to implement the Department responsibilities in meeting these challenges and managing the Department's uranium materials. To support this effort, the Office of Nuclear Fuel Security and Uranium Technology within the ORO complex coordinates uranium management functions across the Department of Energy. This coordination provides DOE with a number of important benefits, among which are: consolidated management and storage of uranium; improved

  15. El liberalismo económico y la crisis

    OpenAIRE

    De Vroey, Michel

    2009-01-01

    En los numerosos debates que evocan el liberalismo económico, éste se presenta como una realidad monolítica; el objetivo de este artículo consiste en poner de manifiesto que distintos grados de liberalismo deben distinguirse: el pleno liberalismo, el liberalismo mitigado y el antiliberalismo mitigado, con subdistinciones al interior de las dos primeras categorías. En la primera parte se recuerdan las características que marcan el liberalismo económico en general. En la segunda se menciona la ...

  16. Funciones Económicas en un Entorno Incierto

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzari, Luisa L; Chiodi, Jorge A; Moulia, Patricia I

    2015-01-01

    El mundo está atravesando una de las crisis económicas más profundas de los últimos tiempos. Los escenarios actuales y futuros están plagados de incertidumbre que, en general, no se considera en el análisis de las distintas funciones económicas de interés para el desarrollo del negocio, y la realidad se representa mediante modelos estáticos y casi perfectos del comportamiento de los mercados. La teoría de conjuntos borrosos permite construir modelos adecuados a partir de realidades inciertas ...

  17. Sistema financiero y productividad económica

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Torrero Mañas

    2012-01-01

    La crisis financiera que estalla en el otoño del 2007 ha inducido a reflexionar sobre los efectos económicos de las finanzas. De manera muy especial se están analizando las consecuencias de la expansión de mercados, instituciones y volumen de transacciones financieras. Las finanzas se han extendido en todas las facetas de la vida económica, con las familias como protagonista esencial. La actuación de Gobiernos y Bancos Centrales ha tenido muy en cuenta la experiencia de la Gran Depresión, ...

  18. Health, environmental, and economic costs from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Avaliação dos custos econômicos, ambientais e de saúde pública devido ao uso de mistura diesel/etanol estabilizada por um aditivo comercial na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Georges El Khouri Miraglia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution. Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and vehicle engines. The current study thus simulated the environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the bus and truck fleet in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo. The evaluation showed reductions in air pollutants, mainly PM10, which would help avert a number of disease events and deaths, as estimated through dose-response functions of epidemiological studies on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Valuation of the impacts using an environmental cost-benefit analysis considered operational installation, job generation, potential carbon credits, and health costs, with an overall positive balance of US$ 2.851 million. Adding the estimated qualitative benefits to the quantitative ones, the project's benefits far outweigh the measured costs. Greater Metropolitan São Paulo would benefit from any form of biodiesel use, producing environmental, health and socioeconomic gains, the three pillars of sustainability.A poluição atmosférica na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, é devida principalmente à queima de combustíveis fósseis utilizados no sistema de transportes. A fim de melhorar a qualidade do ar, são necessárias políticas e melhorias tecnológicas em combustíveis e motores veiculares. Neste sentido, foi realizada uma avaliação dos impactos ambientais e sociais da mistura estabilizada do uso de diesel/etanol na frota de ônibus e caminhões na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Essa avaliação mostrou reduções nos poluentes atmosféricos, especialmente o MP10, o que contribuiu para um número de eventos de morbidade e mortalidade evitáveis estimados por meio de funções dose-resposta de estudos epidemiológicos em termos de doen

  19. Optimizing adherence to advice from antimicrobial stewardship audit and feedback rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Matthew D M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Ingram, Paul R; McLellan, Duncan G J; Crawford, Colin; D'Orsogna, Luca; Dyer, John

    2018-02-01

    We examined adherence to antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds in a rehabilitation service compared with the remainder of the acute hospital, and explored the reasons for this. Between October 2014 and December 2015, we retrospectively assessed the rate of non-adherence to advice from antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds between the rehabilitation service and the acute hospital, along with the source of the patient referral. Compared with the rehabilitation service, acute hospital medical staff were almost twice as likely to not adhere to advice provided on antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds (13.8% vs. 7.6%, p risk 1.8 [95% confidence interval 1.3, 2.5]). In the rehabilitation service, referrals were more likely to come from medical staff (61.9% vs. 16.3%, p model potentially applicable to other settings.

  20. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-11-26

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  1. Practical implications of understanding the influence of motivations on commitment to voluntary urban conservation stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asah, Stanley T; Blahna, Dale J

    2013-08-01

    Although the word commitment is prevalent in conservation biology literature and despite the importance of people's commitment to the success of conservation initiatives, commitment as a psychological phenomenon and its operation in specific conservation behaviors remains unexplored. Despite increasing calls for conservation psychology to play a greater role in meeting conservation goals, applications of the psychological sciences to specific conservation behaviors, illustrating their utility to conservation practice, are rare. We examined conservation volunteers' motivations and commitment to urban conservation volunteering. We interviewed key informant volunteers and used interview findings to develop psychometric scales that we used to assess motivations and commitment to volunteer. We surveyed 322 urban conservation volunteers and used factor analysis to reveal how volunteers structure their motivations and commitment to volunteer for urban conservation activities. Six categories of motivations and 2 categories of commitment emerged from factor analysis. Volunteers were motivated by desires to help the environment, defend and enhance the ego, career and learning opportunities, escape and exercise, social interactions, and community building. Two forms of commitment, affective and normative commitment, psychologically bind people to urban conservation volunteerism. We used linear-regression models to examine how these categories of motivations influence volunteers' commitment to conservation volunteerism. Volunteers' tendency to continue to volunteer for urban conservation, even in the face of fluctuating counter urges, was motivated by personal, social, and community functions more than environmental motivations. The environment, otherwise marginally important, was a significant motivator of volunteers' commitment only when volunteering met volunteers' personal, social, and community-building goals. Attention to these personal, social, and community

  2. The National Map hydrography data stewardship: what is it and why is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) were designed and populated by a large consortium of agencies involved in hydrography across the United States. The effort was led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The high-resolution NHD dataset, completed in 2007, is based on the USGS 7.5-minute series topographic maps at a scale of 1:24,000. There are now 26 million features in the NHD representing a 7.5 million mile stream network with over 6.5 million waterbodies. The six-level WBD, completed in 2010, is based on 1:24,000 scale data and contains over 23,000 watershed polygons. The NHD’s flow network, attribution, and linear referencing are used to conduct extensive scientific analyses. The NHD is ideal for cartographic applications such as the US Topo topographic map series, and also is available on the Geospatial Platform, which provides shared and trusted geospatial data, services, and applications for use by government agencies, their partners, and the public. The WBD watersheds are used by scientists and managers to identify discrete drainage areas. The ongoing maintenance of the NHD and WBD is essential for improving these datasets to meet the ever increasing demand for currency, additional detail, and more significant attribution. The best source of information about changes in local hydrography are users closest to the data, such as State and local governments, as well as Federal land management agencies, and other users of the data. The need for local knowledge has led to the creation of a collaborative data stewardship process to revise and maintain the NHD.

  3. Principles and principals : do customer stewardship and agency control compete or complement when shaping frontline employee behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J.J.L.; Falk, T.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.; Hammerschmidt, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces customer stewardship control to the marketing field. This concept represents a frontline employee’s felt ownership of and moral responsibility for customers’ overall welfare. In two studies, the authors show that customer stewardship control is a more encompassing construct

  4. Crecimiento económico e inequidades en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Tapia Granados

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la relación entre la inequidad en salud y el crecimiento económico. Se revisa el significado general de estos y otros conceptos relacionados (desarrollo económico, desigualdades en salud, se presentan algunos estudios que ilustran las diferentes hipótesis sobre la evolución histórica de la inequidad en salud y se analizan tres casos -EE. UU. en 1920-1940 y en años recientes, y Finlandia durante la expansión de los años 80 y la recesión de los 90- para mostrar la evolución de las inequidades en salud durante los periodos de expansión y recesión en economías de mercado sometidas al denominado ciclo económico. Las inequidades en salud entre grupos étnicos y entre clases sociales son frecuentes en sociedades modernas y algunas de estas inequidades parecen estar aumentando. Al parecer, los períodos de expansión económica no son favorables para la disminución de las inequidades en salud. Por el contrario, y en contra de lo que podría intuirse, los datos sugieren que es durante los períodos de recesión cuando tienden a reducir las inequidades en salud entre grupos privilegiados y desfavorecidos.

  5. Herencia política y económica

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    Wesley C. Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca resaltar la relevancia de la vida política de Hilferding en el actual contexto de la crisis financiera global y la probablemente alta radicalización de las posiciones políticas de los países dominantes como resultado de aquella. Como se argumenta, había un alto grado de coherencia entre el pensamiento económico de Hilferding y su actuación política. Justamente por el hecho de que el proyecto socialista alemán durante la Republica Weimar no logró sus objetivos, el pensamiento político y económico de su líder intelectual es altamente relevante en el escenario global actual, donde la crisis económica y descomposición social y política que la acompañen reclaman a los principales políticos del mundo un entendimiento económico más amplio y profundo para que las tragedias de Europa central de los años treinta y cuarenta del siglo XX no se reproduzcan.

  6. El pensamiento económico de Caldas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Publio Restrepo Jaramillo

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available Solamente hasta el año de 1821, cuando se reunió el Congreso de Cúcuta, se vino a tener en Colombia un principio cierto de legislación en materia de moneda para regular las relaciones económicas del hombre americano que acababa de salir a la vida libre.

  7. 3 Colleges' Different Approaches Shape Learning in Econ 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrett, Dan

    2012-01-01

    No matter the college, a class in the principles of microeconomics is likely to cover the discipline's greatest hits. The author attends three economics courses at three colleges, and finds three very different approaches. In this article, the author discusses three colleges' different approaches that shape learning in Econ 101.

  8. Capital emprendedor y crecimiento económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Audretsch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra cómo y por qué el modelo de crecimiento de Solow es útil para relacionar capital emprendedor y crecimiento económico. El filtro del conocimiento impide la transmisión de conocimiento para su comercialización y por consiguiente debilita el impacto de las inversiones en conocimiento sobre el crecimiento económico. La actividad emprendedora es un importante mecanismo para la transmisión del conocimiento, que permite traspasar el filtro del conocimiento. La actividad emprendedora es el eslabón perdido entre las inversiones en nuevo conocimiento y el crecimiento económico. La cada vez más importante política de fomento de la actividad emprendedora promueve el crecimiento económico a través del capital emprendedor o de la capacidad de una economía para crear nuevas empresas o facilitar el crecimiento de las mismas.

  9. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean L; Kasaie, Parastu; Anderson, Deverick J; Rubin, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Mathematical modeling is a valuable methodology used to study healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, particularly when more traditional study approaches are infeasible, unethical, costly, or time consuming. We focus on 2 of the most common types of mathematical modeling, namely compartmental modeling and agent-based modeling, which provide important advantages-such as shorter developmental timelines and opportunities for extensive experimentation-over observational and experimental approaches. We summarize these advantages and disadvantages via specific examples and highlight recent advances in the methodology. A checklist is provided to serve as a guideline in the development of mathematical models in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  10. Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Loria A; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2014-10-15

    The proven benefits of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) for optimizing antibiotic use and minimizing adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance, have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that all hospitals have an ASP. This article summarizes Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, a recently released CDC document focused on defining the infrastructure and practices of coordinated multidisciplinary programs to improve antibiotic use and patient care in US hospitals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Treatment Modalities and Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives in the Management of Intra-Abdominal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hoffmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs commonly results in the empiric use of broad spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems that can select for resistant organisms. This review will discuss the management of uncomplicated and complicated IAIs as well as highlight stewardship initiatives focusing on the proper use of broad spectrum antibiotics.

  12. Government stewardship of the for-profit private health sector in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Harry E; Sayedi, Omarzaman; Irani, Laili; Archer, Lauren C; Sears, Kathleen; Sharma, Suneeta

    2017-04-01

    Since 2003, Afghanistan's largely unregulated for-profit private health sector has grown at a rapid pace. In 2008, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) launched a long-term stewardship initiative to oversee and regulate private providers and align the sector with national health goals. We examine the progress the MoPH has made towards more effective stewardship, consider the challenges and assess the early impacts on for-profit performance. We reviewed publicly available documents, publications and the grey literature to analyse the development, adoption and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations. We carried out a series of key informant/participant interviews, organizational capacity assessments and analyses of hospital standards checklists. Using a literature review of health systems strengthening, we proposed an Afghan-specific definition of six key stewardship functions to assess progress towards MoPH stewardship objectives. The MoPH and its partners have achieved positive results in strengthening its private sector stewardship functions especially in generating actionable intelligence and establishing strategic policy directions, administrative structures and a legal and regulatory framework. Progress has also been made on improving accountability and transparency, building partnerships and applying minimum required standards to private hospitals. Procedural and operational issues still need resolution and the MoPH is establishing mechanisms for resolving them. The MoPH stewardship initiative is notable for its achievements to date under challenging circumstances. Its success is due to the focus on developing a solid policy framework and building institutions and systems aimed at ensuring higher quality private services, and a rational long-term and sustainable role for the private sector. Although the MoPH stewardship initiative is still at an early stage, the evidence suggests that enhanced stewardship functions in the MoPH are leading to a

  13. Organizational ethics in Catholic health care: honoring stewardship and the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, G

    2001-04-01

    Organizational ethics refers to the integration of values into decision making, policies, and behavior throughout the multi-disciplinary environment of a health care organization. Based upon Catholic social ethics, stewardship is at the heart of organizational ethics in health care in this sense: stewardship provides the hermeneutic filter that enables basic ethical principles to be realized practically, within the context of the Catholic theology of work, to concerns in health care. This general argument can shed light on the specific topic of non-executive compensation programs as an illustration of organizational ethics in health care.

  14. A probabilistic approach to assess antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments and its application to an intensive aquaculture production scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Jacobs, Rianne; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Tello, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Estimating antibiotic pollution and antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments is important to design management strategies that advance our stewardship of antibiotics. In this study we propose a modelling approach to estimate the risk of antibiotic resistance development

  15. A probabilistic approach to assess antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments and its application to an intensive aquaculture production scenario.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Jacobs, Rianne; Van den Brink, Paul J; Tello, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Estimating antibiotic pollution and antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments is important to design management strategies that advance our stewardship of antibiotics. In this study we propose a modelling approach to estimate the risk of antibiotic resistance development

  16. Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship: An approach for end-to-end data management and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzayus, K. M.; Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, L.; Michael, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the designated Federal permanent oceanographic data center in the United States, NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has been providing scientific stewardship for national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data for over 50 years. NODC is supporting NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program and the science community by providing end-to-end scientific data management of ocean acidification (OA) data, dedicated online data discovery, and user-friendly access to a diverse range of historical and modern OA and other chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic data. This effort is being catalyzed by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, but the intended reach is for the broader scientific ocean acidification community. The first three years of the project will be focused on infrastructure building. A complete ocean acidification data content standard is being developed to ensure that a full spectrum of ocean acidification data and metadata can be stored and utilized for optimal data discovery and access in usable data formats. We plan to develop a data access interface capable of allowing users to constrain their search based on real-time and delayed mode measured variables, scientific data quality, their observation types, the temporal coverage, methods, instruments, standards, collecting institutions, and the spatial coverage. In addition, NODC seeks to utilize the existing suite of international standards (including ISO 19115-2 and CF-compliant netCDF) to help our data producers use those standards for their data, and help our data consumers make use of the well-standardized metadata-rich data sets. These tools will be available through our NODC Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship (OADS) web page at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/oceanacidification. NODC also has a goal to provide each archived dataset with a unique ID, to ensure a means of providing credit to the data provider. Working with partner institutions, such as the

  17. Los métodos de valoración económica del medio ambiente: conceptos preliminares / Economic valuation methods of the environment: preliminary concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Castiblanco Rozo, Carmenza

    2003-01-01

    En el capítulo se plantea la importancia de la valoración económica en el diseño de política ambiental; se presentan las herramientas conceptuales básicas, que provee la economía neoclásica, para estudiar los métodos de valoración económica de bienes y servicios ambientales y se plantean los alcances y limitaciones de cada una de las técnicas. / Abstract.The chapter discusses the importance of economic valuation in the design of environmental policy, presents the basic conceptual tools, which...

  18. La contribución del turismo al crecimiento económico de Oaxaca

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    Nitzia Marisol Soriano Virafuentes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El turismo es una de las actividades económicas que han cobrado cada vez mayor relevancia como posible motor de crecimiento económico. Sin embargo, la relación que existe entre el turismo y el crecimiento económico a nivel regional ha sido poco estudiada. En este trabajo se presenta la metodología propuesta por Ivanov y Webster para medir la contribución del turismo al crecimiento económico, la cual consiste en la desagregación del crecimiento económico generado por el turismo y el crecimiento económico generado por el resto de las actividades económicas. Este método es aplicado para el estado de Oaxaca durante el periodo 2004-2011. Los resultados muestran que el turismo no ha contribuido al crecimiento económico de Oaxaca.

  19. Impact of Environmental Education on the Knowledge and Attitude of Students towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhabor, Norris I.; Don, Juliet U.

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally aware and empowered youths are potentially the greatest agent of change for the long term protection and stewardship of the environment. Thus environmental education which promotes such change will enable these youths to have a greater voice on environmental issue if effectively implemented in Nigeria. Hence, this study was…

  20. Technology to support integrated Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs : a user centered and stakeholder driven development approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Wentzel, M.J.; Hendrix, Ron; Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth

    2017-01-01

    The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a severe global health problem. Tackling this problem requires the prudent prescribing of antimicrobials. This is promoted through Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs). In this position paper we describe i) how a socio-technical multidisciplinary

  1. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  2. The global wilderness seminar for government agencies: a meeting at the crossroads of wildlands stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Roeper; Peter Landres; Don Fisher

    2006-01-01

    Two days before the 8th World Wilderness Congress began in Alaska, nearly 200 government wildlands managers from 17 countries met to share ideas about common challenges and to explore ways to improve wildland stewardship globally. The goal for this Global Wilderness Seminar for Government Agencies was to lay the foundation for an operating peer network of government...

  3. Development of effective hospital-based antibiotic stewardship program. The role of infectious disease specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Chrysos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive antibiotic consumption and misuse is one of the main factors responsible for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and has been associated with increased health care costs. Active intervention is necessary in changing antimicrobial prescribing practices. The Infection Control Committee and the administration of our hospital decided to implement an antibiotic stewardship program beginning in January 2016 in order to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use and to combat antibiotic resistance through improved prescribing practices. The antimicrobial stewardship team includes an ID specialist, physicians, infection control nurses, a microbiologist and a pharmacist who are responsible for the implementation of the program. Preauthorization by an ID specialist and prospective review is necessary for all pharmacy orders of antibiotics under restriction. Pre-intervention, we collected Pharmacy and hospital data regarding antibiotic consumption and numbers of patient-days for the years 2013-2015. We calculated antibiotic use in Defined Daily Doses (DDDs/100 patient-days. After one year, the antibiotic stewardship program was effective in reducing consumption of most antibiotics. The result of the implementation of the program in our hospital was a reduction about 17% of antibiotic DDDs/100 patient-days and about 21% of the antibiotic cost/100 patient-days. Education is an essential element of our program in order to influence prescribing behavior. Lectures and brochures are used to supplement strategies. Antibiotic stewardship programs have been shown from many studies to improve patient outcomes, reduce antibiotic resistance and save money.

  4. Enhancing Ecosystem Stewardship in Small-Scale Fisheries: Prospects for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite recognition of small-scale fisheries (SSF contribution to livelihood diversity and food security worldwide, a better understanding of their social and ecological dynamics is required. This paper is a synthesis of the main findings from the special issue “Enhancing ecosystem stewardship in small-scale fisheries” published in this journal. Contributors explored ecosystem stewardship in three dimensions: impacts, monitoring and stewardship. Results suggested that ecosystem stewardship encompasses collaborative action to foster: i new perspectives on SSF management; ii a broader perspective on managers and stakeholders – as stewards for implementing these new perspectives; and iii enabling environments through partnership, networking, communication and collective action. This special issue is an output from the Too Big to Ignore (TBTI Working Group 4 - “Enhancing the Stewardship”. TBTI is a global research network and knowledge mobilization partnership intended to better comprehend SSF contributions on issues such as food security and poverty alleviation, as well as the associated impacts of global changes, through the efforts of diverse partners around the world.

  5. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry - Wilderness science and its role in wilderness stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan F. Fox

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of America’s National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...

  6. The Critical Role of Stewardship in Fund Raising: The Coaches vs. Cancer Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Debra A.; Little, Jennifer K.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the critical role of stewardship in the process of fund raising. Uses the Coaches vs. Cancer campaign to illustrate the limitations of the public relations ROPE (research, objectives, planning, and evaluation) model in explaining fund raising success, and supports K.S. Kelly's contention that addition of a fifth step to the model, the…

  7. Little Book, Big Waves: The Epistle of James and Global Stewardship in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Jean Brake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics.  Stewardship concerns both a Christian’s care and management of time, talents, and treasures.  Faithful use of the resources God has given demonstrates the fruitful faith that James writes of in his epistle. The idea of global stewardship, though “stewardship” is grounded in a distinctly Christian ethic, reflects an emerging discussion in bioethics regarding the need to address the inequities present between the money and time spent on biotechnology in some of the world in proportion to the money spent on meeting the basic healthcare needs of the poor of the entire world.  This New Testament epistle gives clear indications of how the Christian is to view wealth and how the Christian is to respond to poverty.  James, though a comparatively small book, sends a crucial message across the years that should greatly impact how Christians view stewardship in terms of global healthcare needs. 

  8. Wilderness stewardship in America today and what we can do to improve it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Cordell; Chris Barns; David Brownlie; Tom Carlson; Chad Dawson; William Koch; Garry Oye; Chris Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article are recently retired wilderness professionals from universities or federal agencies. We were asked to share our observations about how wilderness stewardship is being managed in America today. We based our observations on our many years of combined professional wilderness career experience as managers, trainers, scientists, educators, and...

  9. Strategies and challenges of antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, O J; Pagani, L; Pulcini, C

    2015-01-01

    As people are living longer the demand for long-term care facilities (LTCFs) continues to rise. For many reasons, antimicrobials are used intensively in LTCFs, with up to a half of this use considered inappropriate or unnecessary. Over-use of antimicrobials can have direct adverse consequences for LTCF residents and promotes the development and spread of resistant bacteria. It is therefore critical that LTCFs are able to engage in antimicrobial stewardship programmes, which have the potential to minimize the antibiotic selective pressure, while improving the quality of care received by LTCF residents. To date, no antimicrobial stewardship guidelines specific to LTCF settings have been published. Here we outline the scale of antimicrobial use in LTCFs and the underlying drivers for antibiotic over-use. We further describe the particular challenges of antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs, and review the interventional studies that have aimed to improve antibiotic use in these settings. Practical recommendations are then drawn from this research to help guide the development and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean small-scale fisheries : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasalla, M.A.; de Castro, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thematic series, entitled “Enhancing Stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean Small-Scale Fisheries”, emerged as part of a joint effort to bridge Latin-American scholars interested in networking on small-scale fisheries in the region. Built on results presented at two meetings (‘Too Big to

  11. The value of participatory development to support antimicrobial stewardship with a clinical decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Wentzel, Jobke; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily

  12. The value of participatory development to support antimicrobial stewardship with a clinical decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Wentzel, M.J.; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    Background Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily

  13. Understanding micro-processes of institutionalization: stewardship contracting and national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Moseley; Susan Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines micro-processes of institutionalization, using the case of stewardship contracting within the US Forest Service. Our basic premise is that, until a new policy becomes an everyday practice among local actors, it will not become institutionalized at the macro-scale. We find that micro-processes of institutionalization are driven by a mixture of large-...

  14. Wilderness stewardship challenges in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja Krüger

    2007-01-01

    The location of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park wilderness areas along an international border and within a World Heritage Site and Transfrontier Conservation Area, provides unique opportunities and challenges for the stewardship of these areas. Although the wilderness areas were proclaimed more than 30 years ago, wilderness-specific planning, management and monitoring...

  15. Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, A.H.M.; Sinha, Bhanu; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to patient safety and care. In response, hospitals start antibiotic stewardship programs to optimise antibiotic use. Expert-based guidelines recommend strategies to implement such programs, but local implementations may differ per hospital. Earlier

  16. Law for Country: the Structure of Warlpiri Ecological Knowledge and Its Application to Natural Resource Management and Ecosystem Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles C. C. Holmes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK is deeply encoded in social processes. Our research shows that from an Indigenous perspective, IEK is a way of living whose core aim is to sustain the healthy functioning of people and country through relationships of reciprocity. However, IEK is often portrayed more prosaically as a body of knowledge about the environment. We introduce a framework, called ngurra-kurlu, that enables appreciation of indigenous perspectives on IEK. The framework was identified from the collaborative work of the authors with Warlpiri aboriginal elders in the Tanami Desert region of central Australia. Ngurra-kurlu facilitates cross-cultural understanding by distilling, from a complex cultural system, the five distinct conceptual categories that comprise IEK: law, skin, ceremony, language, and country. The framework enables engagement with nuanced environmental knowledge because it synthesizes, for cross-cultural audiences, all the key areas of knowledge and practice in which IEK is located. In particular, the framework highlights how social systems mediate the transmission, deployment, and regulation of environmental knowledge in on-ground situations, including collaborative natural resource management. Although the framework was generated in relation to one indigenous group, the epistemological structure of Warlpiri IEK is relevant throughout Australia, and the framework can be applied internationally to the emerging interest in fostering ecosystem stewardship in which the cultural connections between people and place are an integral part of ecosystems management.

  17. Antimicrobial stewardship activities: a survey of Queensland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Minyon L; Hall, Lisa; Davis, Louise; Allen, Michelle; Roberts, Jason A; Unwin, Sean; McIntosh, Kylie A; Thursky, Karin; Buising, Kirsty; Paterson, David L

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) recommended that all hospitals in Australia must have an Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) program by 2013. Nevertheless, little is known about current AMS activities. This study aimed to determine the AMS activities currently undertaken, and to identify gaps, barriers to implementation and opportunities for improvement in Queensland hospitals. The AMS activities of 26 facilities from 15 hospital and health services in Queensland were surveyed during June 2012 to address strategies for effective AMS: implementing clinical guidelines, formulary restriction, reviewing antimicrobial prescribing, auditing antimicrobial use and selective reporting of susceptibility results. The response rate was 62%. Nineteen percent had an AMS team (a dedicated multidisciplinary team consisting of a medically trained staff member and a pharmacist). All facilities had access to an electronic version of Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, with a further 50% developing local guidelines for antimicrobials. One-third of facilities had additional restrictions. Eighty-eight percent had advice for restricted antimicrobials from in-house infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists. Antimicrobials were monitored with feedback given to prescribers at point of care by 76% of facilities. Deficiencies reported as barriers to establishing AMS programs included: pharmacy resources, financial support by hospital management, and training and education in antimicrobial use. Several areas for improvement were identified: reviewing antimicrobial prescribing with feedback to the prescriber, auditing, and training and education in antimicrobial use. There also appears to be a lack of resources to support AMS programs in some facilities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The ACSQHC has recommended that all hospitals implement an AMS program by 2013 as a requirement of Standard 3 (Preventing and Controlling Healthcare

  18. Role of the hospitalist in antimicrobial stewardship: a review of work completed and description of a multisite collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeffrey M; Jacobsen, Diane; Rosenberg, David J

    2013-06-01

    Historically, antimicrobial stewardship programs have been led by infectious-disease physicians and pharmacists. With the growing presence of hospitalists in health and hospital systems, combined with their focus on quality improvement and patient safety, this emerging medical specialty has the potential to fill essential roles in antimicrobial stewardship programs. The goal of this article was to present the reasons hospitalists are ideally positioned to fill antimicrobial-stewardship roles, a narrative review of previously reported hospitalist-led antibiotic-stewardship projects, and a description of an ongoing multisite collaborative by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A review of the published literature was performed, including an extensive review of the abstracts submitted to the Society of Hospital Medicine annual meetings. A number of examples of hospitalists developing and leading antimicrobial-stewardship programs are described. The details of a current multisite IHI/CDC hospitalist-focused initiative are discussed in detail. Hospitalists are actively involved with, and even lead, a variety of antimicrobial-stewardship programs in several different hospital systems. A large, multisite collaborative focused on hospitalist-led antimicrobial stewardship is currently in progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A global call from five countries to collaborate in antibiotic stewardship: united we succeed, divided we might fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Debra A; Kullar, Ravina; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Gilchrist, Mark; Nathwani, Dilip; Cheng, Allen C; Cairns, Kelly A; Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Brink, Adrian; van den Bergh, Dena; Mendelson, Marc

    2017-02-01

    In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK. Although each country's approach differed, when nurtured, individual efforts can positively affect local and national antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Government advocacy, national guidelines, collaborative research, online training programmes, mentoring programmes, and social media in stewardship all played a role. Personal relationships and willingness to learn from each other's successes and failures continues to foster collaboration. We recommend that antibiotic stewardship models need to evolve from infection specialist-based teams to develop and use cadres of health-care professionals, including pharmacists, nurses, and community health workers, to meet the needs of the global population. We also recommend that all health-care providers who prescribe antibiotics take ownership and understand the societal burden of suboptimal antibiotic use, providing examples of how countries can learn, act globally, and share best antibiotic stewardship practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs at Veterans Affairs Hospitals: Results of a Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ann F; Graber, Christopher J; Jones, Makoto; Zhang, Yue; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Madaras-Kelly, Karl; Samore, Matthew; Kelly, Allison; Glassman, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are variably implemented. OBJECTIVE To characterize variations of antimicrobial stewardship structure and practices across all inpatient Veterans Affairs facilities in 2012 and correlate key characteristics with antimicrobial usage. DESIGN A web-based survey regarding stewardship activities was administered to each facility's designated contact. Bivariate associations between facility characteristics and inpatient antimicrobial use during 2012 were determined. SETTING Total of 130 Veterans Affairs facilities with inpatient services. RESULTS Of 130 responding facilities, 29 (22%) had a formal policy establishing an ASP, and 12 (9%) had an approved ASP business plan. Antimicrobial stewardship teams were present in 49 facilities (38%); 34 teams included a clinical pharmacist with formal infectious diseases (ID) training. Stewardship activities varied across facilities, including development of yearly antibiograms (122 [94%]), formulary restrictions (120 [92%]), stop orders for antimicrobial duration (98 [75%]), and written clinical pathways for specific conditions (96 [74%]). Decreased antimicrobial usage was associated with having at least 1 full-time ID physician (P=.03), an ID fellowship program (P=.003), and a clinical pharmacist with formal ID training (P=.006) as well as frequency of systematic patient-level reviews of antimicrobial use (P=.01) and having a policy to address antimicrobial use in the context of Clostridium difficile infection (P=.01). Stop orders for antimicrobial duration were associated with increased use (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS ASP-related activities varied considerably. Decreased antibiotic use appeared related to ID presence and certain select practices. Further statistical assessments may help optimize antimicrobial practices. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:647-654.

  1. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  2. Choosing Wisely Canada Students and Trainees Advocating for Resource Stewardship (STARS) campaign: a descriptive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Franco; Cheung, Daphne; Han, Angela; Born, Karen B; Alexander, Lisa; Levinson, Wendy; Wong, Brian M

    2017-12-19

    Resource stewardship is being increasingly recognized as an essential competency for physicians, but medical schools are just beginning to integrate this into education. We describe the evaluation of Choosing Wisely Canada's Students and Trainees Advocating for Resource Stewardship (STARS) campaign, a student-led campaign to advance resource stewardship education in medical schools across Canada. We evaluated the campaign 6 months after its launch, in November 2015. STARS students were administered a telephone survey eliciting a description of the initiatives that they had implemented or planned to implement at their schools to promote resource stewardship, and exploring their perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to successful implementation of their initiatives. We used a mixed-methods approach to analyze and summarize the data. Twenty-seven (82%) of the 33 eligible students representing all 17 medical schools responded. In 14 schools (82%), students led various local activities (e.g., interest groups, campaign weeks) to raise awareness about resource stewardship among medical students and faculty. Students contributed to curriculum change (both planned and implemented) at 10 schools (59%). Thematic analysis revealed key program characteristics that facilitated success (e.g., pan-Canadian student network, local faculty champion) as well as barriers to implementing change (e.g., complex processes to change curriculum, hierarchical nature of medical school). This student-led campaign, with support from local faculty and Choosing Wisely Canada staff, led to awareness-building activities and early curricula change at medical schools across Canada. Future plans will build on the initial momentum created by the STARS campaign to sustain and spread local initiatives. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  3. Relaciones económicas bilaterales entre Ecuador y Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Díaz, Stefany Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Dentro de la dinámica mundial actual, resulta de especial interés para Ecuador el análisis de sus relaciones económicas bilaterales con Brasil, debido al papel protagónico que ha alcanzado este país tanto a nivel regional como mundial. A nivel regional, varios de los países vecinos han delineado, incluso, su política exterior en función de potenciar sus relaciones políticas y económicas con él, y a nivel internacional, su participación en la geopolítica mundial es cada vez mayor. En términos ...

  4. Planning for the Transition to Long-Term Stewardship at Three U.S. Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L. P.; Ditmars, J. D.; Heston, S. L.; Granzen, G. A.; Holzemer, M. J.; Bennett, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study that resulted in the generation of draft planning documents for the upcoming transition from remediation construction to long-term stewardship at three national laboratories managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Chicago Operations Office (CH). The remediation construction work at these facilities is being completed under the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) Program. Once the remediation is complete, the responsibility for long-term stewardship (LTS) of the closed waste sites is expected to be transferred to the DOE organization responsible for managing each of the three facilities (i.e., the site landlord). To prepare for this transfer, an extensive planning effort is required. This pilot study utilized the DOE guidance in effect at the time to (1) develop a series of documents identifying applicable requirements that the LTS Programs will need to satisfy, issues that need to be resolved before the transfer can proceed, and criteria to be used to determine when active remediation is complete and a given site is ready for transfer to the LTS Program; (2) examine alternate structures for possible LTS Programs; and (3) develop draft LTS Implementation Plans. This advanced planning effort yielded a number of observations and lessons learned that are applicable to any facility approaching the end of its remediation construction phase

  5. Teoria da adequação econômica da conduta: significado econômico da conduta em face da tutela penal antitruste

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz da Silva, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Essa tese tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento da teoria da adequação econômica da conduta no direito penal econômico. Vale-se de uma abordagem interdisciplinar abrangendo a Economia, o direito econômico e o direito penal. Para alcançar o desiderato a investigação analisou a intervenção do direito penal em face da atividade econômica e, em especial, os fundamentos da tutela penal antitruste, para fins de estabelecer os contornos teóricos necessários à aplicação das premissas fund...

  6. Consideraciones económicas-sociales "El memorial de agravios"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Umaña Luna

    1959-12-01

    Full Text Available A los 150 años de la producción de "El Memorial de Agravios", las tesis de don Camilo Torres mantienen una extraordinaria vigencia, ya que en el presente momento hispanoamericano, que incide con la crisis de secular es sistemas del itinerario universal, los planteamientos sociales, políticos y económicos del famoso documento del prócer payanés, corresponden a mucho de nuestra realidad.

  7. Premio Nobel de ciencias Económicas 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Amartya

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Real de Ciencias de Suecia ha decidido otorgar el premio Banco de Suecia 1998 en Ciencias Económicas, en Memoria de Alfred Nobel, al Profesor Amartya Sen, del Trinity College, Reino Unido, y ciudadano indio, por sus contribuciones a la economía del bienestar.

     

     

     

  8. Crecimiento Económico y Calidad Institucional

    OpenAIRE

    Fabro Esteban, Gema; Aixalá Pastó, José; Simón Fernández, Blanca

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es, mediante cuatro aportaciones empíricas, con diferentes técnicas econométricas, contribuir al debate generado en torno a qué factores determinan la calidad institucional de una muestra amplia de países, con niveles de renta muy diversos, así como a la cuantificación del impacto que la misma ejerce sobre su crecimiento económico

  9. Contabilidad de un ejercicio económico

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Bernal, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo consiste en un primer lugar en comentar los “Principios generales de contabilidad” para su comprensión a la hora de hacer la parte práctica, que corresponde a la elaboración y desarrollo del ciclo contable de una empresa, donde se expresa el ejercicio económico de 2016 de la empresa Estufas S.A. Grado en Relaciones Laborales y Recursos Humanos

  10. 76 FR 32258 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... developing an accompanying Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in which TVA will evaluate the preferred... stakeholder group throughout the development of the NRP to advise TVA on the issues, tradeoffs, and focus of...

  11. Desarrollo económico local: leyendas y realidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mauricio Cuervo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La visión del desarrollo económico local propuesta en este artículo se contrapone a la práctica corriente de identificación de patrones y generalizaciones de pretendida validez universal. A través de la contraposición de experiencias nacionales intenta, más bien, identificar los grandes dilemas u opciones definitorias de las trayectorias particulares. Las tajantes distinciones hechas por la teoría son desdichas por la práctica del desarrollo económico local donde se entremezclan conceptos y estrategias falsamente concebidas como irreconciliables. En el estado actual de conocimiento de las experiencias, las recetas y fórmulas de validez universal son poco recomendables. El autoconocimiento de la historia, la cultura, la idiosincrasia y la institucionalidad local deberá orientar la manera peculiar de resolver los dilemas, esos sí universales, del desarrollo económico local: el de las competencias territoriales, el de la combinación de responsabilidades público-privadas, y el de los nuevos desequilibrios socioespaciales y las formas de afrontarlos

  12. Los componentes económicos de governance (gobernancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vicher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las palabras que mayor influencia ha tenido y continúa en boga es governance, que hoy día se acompaña con cualquier calificativo como empresarial, económica, global, mundial, metropolitana, de las tecnologías de la información, e incluso como sinónimo de gobernabilidad. La diversidad de significados usos ha generado un laberinto. En este trabajo se ofrece una revisión a los planteamientos económicos neoinstitucionales y de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (OCDE, desde los que se generó una de las tantas versiones del uso actual de gobernancia. De aquí que se ubica su origen, planteamientos centrales y vinculación con otras ideas de gobernancia que han utilizado para reformar al Estado y la administración pública.

  13. A crise econômica de 2014/2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Holanda Barbosa Filho

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo mostra que a crise de 2014/2017 é fruto de uma combinação de choques de oferta e demanda resultado de erros de política econômica. Esses choques produziram uma redução da capacidade de crescimento da economia brasileira e risco de insolvência das finanças públicas. A solução da crise fiscal, através da PEC do teto dos gastos, fará que o país retome o crescimento econômico a partir de 2017, utilizando a capacidade ociosa da economia. No entanto, a taxa de crescimento do produto potencial não recuperará o ritmo anterior devido aos efeitos duradouros das políticas da Nova Matriz Econômica (NME que reduziram o produto potencial nacional. Recomenda-se, portanto, a adoção de políticas que induzam uma recuperação da produtividade da economia brasileira.

  14. Perspectivas sobre el desarrollo económico localizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. J. (Bert Helmsing

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La creciente movilidad de la producción y de los factores de producción puede haber generado una reversión de la polarización. Sin embargo, el desarrollo económico se localiza crecientemente en aglomeraciones económicas. La globalización es un fenómeno muy localizado. El propósito de este artículo es revisar tres perspectivas parcialmente sobrepuestas sobre el desarrollo económico local. Estas perspectivas corresponden en gran medida a tres factores que refuerzan la naturaleza localizada del desarrollo económico, es decir externalidades, aprendizaje colectivo y gobernabilidad. Las externalidades se refieren a fenómenos conocidos asociados con aglomeración. Más nuevo es el hecho de que constituyen una fuente de retornos crecientes. Se revisará esta nueva escuela de economía geográfica. Al mismo tiempo surgió una nueva geografía económica en base a agrupamientos y distritos industriales. Las externalidades se extienden y cambian de forma. La dinámica del desarrollo económico local puede ser vista desde la perspectiva de la economía evolucionaria. El aprendizaje en general y el aprendizaje colectivo en particular son conceptos centrales a nivel de las empresas y también a nivel de las instituciones territoriales. El aprendizaje aumenta y renueva las competencias locales para formular e implementar políticas económicas. La complejización de las relaciones entre empresas y entre empresas e instituciones territoriales es una fuente importante de sinergias y economías externas pero requiere nuevas formas de gobernabilidad, tanto a nivel industrial como territorialThe growing mobility of production and production factors could have contributed to a polarization reversal. However, it appears that economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. Globalization is a localized phenomenon. The purpose of this article is to review three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development

  15. Sustentabilidade: mantra ou escolha moral? uma abordagem ecológico-econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qual é o tamanho ótimo da escala econômica que a natureza pode admitir? A questão requer que se esteja falando de uma situação em que a economia seja vista como subsistema do ecossistema. É assim que a economia ecológica percebe a realidade e é nessa óptica que se configura o conceito de sustentabilidade ecológica. O impacto ambiental do crescimento sobre os recursos e sumidouros da natureza tem que ser contido dentro de limites. A noção usual de sustentabilidade, porém, dá a impressão de se ter convertido numa espécie de mantra da atualidade, sem maior compromisso. Mudanças no sistema econômico são inevitáveis como forma de adaptação às restrições que o processo econômico confronta. Cabe indagar o que é que se deseja sustentar e em que escala de tempo. À sociedade cumpre escolher a mudança a se fazer: uma escolha moral.What is the optimum scale of the economy compatible with nature? This question asks for consideration of the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem. Ecological economics adopts that perspective permitting that the concept of environmental sustainability be established. This implies that the environmental impact of growth on the source and sink functions of nature be contained within limits. The usual notion of sustainability, however, gives the impression of having been transformed into a kind of today's mantra, without serious obligations. Changes in the economic system are unavoidable as a means of adaptation to the restrictions that the economic process encounters. This requires knowing what it is to be sustained and in within which time scale. The duty of choosing the changes to be made must be ascribed to society: a moral choice.

  16. Behavioral approach to appropriate antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals: the Dutch Unique Method for Antimicrobial Stewardship (DUMAS) participatory intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkens, J.J.; Agtmael, M.A. van; Peters, E.J.G.; Lettinga, K.D.; Kuip, M. van der; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Wagner, C.; Kramer, M.H.H.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing leads to antimicrobial resistance and suboptimal clinical outcomes. Changing antimicrobial prescribing is a complex behavioral process that is not often taken into account in antimicrobial stewardship programs. Objective: To examine whether an

  17. Liberalización económica y crecimiento económico. Modelo Logit Multinomial aplicado a la metodología de "Doing Business"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez Mejía

    2011-01-01

    de Doing Business explican cómo, cuando un país implementa estos criterios, incrementa las posibilidades de pasar a un nivel de ingreso per cápita superior, lo cual implica mayor crecimiento económico y potencial desarrollo económico.

  18. Píldora de Crecimiento Económico: Modelos de crecimiento económico con tasas de ahorro constantes

    OpenAIRE

    López Díaz, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Claves para obtener, con carácter genérico, la ecuación fundamental de crecimiento en un modelo con tasa de ahorro constante. Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico e Historia e Instituciones Económicas

  19. Relational responsibility, and not only stewardship, a Roman Catholic view on voluntary euthanasia for dying and non-dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Paul T

    2003-01-01

    The Roman Catholic theological approach to euthanasia is radically prohibitive. The main theological argument for this prohibition is the so-called "stewardship argument": Christians cannot escape accounting to God for stewardship of the bodies given them on earth. This contribution presents an alternative approach based on European existentialist and philosophical traditions. The suggestion is that exploring the fullness of our relational responsibility is more apt for a pluralist--and even secular--debate on the legitimacy of euthanasia.

  20. Engaging the Bible in GCSE and A Level Religious Studies: Environmental Stewardship as a Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, David G.; Davis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential for critical and informed engagement with biblical texts to form a key element of the study of Christian perspectives on ethical issues at GCSE and A level. Given the current dominance of philosophical and ethical topics, and weaknesses in the engagement with biblical texts within existing curriculum materials,…

  1. Naturalness and beyond: Protected area stewardship in an era of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Laurie Yung; Erika S. Zavaleta; Gregory H. Aplet; F. Stuart III Chaplin; David M. Graber; Eric S. Higgs; Richard J. Hobbs; Peter B. Landres; Constance I. Millar; David J. Parsons; John M. Randall; Nathan L. Stephenson; Kathy A. Tonnessen; Peter S. White; Stephen Woodley

    2008-01-01

    FOR MOST LARGE U.S. PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, enabling legislation and management policy call for preservation of these protected areas unimpaired in perpetuity. Central to the notions of protection, preservation, and unimpairment has been the concept of maintaining "naturalness," a condition imagined by many to persist over time in the absence of human...

  2. Indigenous experiences in the U.S. with climate change and environmental stewardship in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karletta Chief; John J. Daigle; Kathy Lynn; Kyle Powys Whyte

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of climate change issues facing tribal communities and indigenous peoples in the United States is growing, and understanding its impacts is rooted in indigenous ethical perspectives and systems of ecological knowledge. This foundation presents a context and guide for contemporary indigenous approaches to address climate change impacts that are...

  3. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... compliance with Sec. 4(d)(5) of the Wilderness Act. The WSP will reevaluate existing wilderness-related plans... the Web site (to assist in reducing costs, the public is strongly encouraged to accept compact disks... available at any time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal identifying...

  4. Community-based memorials to September 11, 2001: environmental stewardship as memory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates how people use trees, parks, gardens, and other natural resources as raw materials in and settings for memorials to September 11, 2001. In particular, we focus on 'found space living memorials', which we define as sites that are community-managed, re-appropriated from their prior use, often carved out of the public right-of-way, and...

  5. Centered On The Pole: NCEI Interdisciplinary Arctic Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweng, M.

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, NOAA's data centers (National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanographic Data Center, National Geophysical Data Center and its affiliated program within the National Snow and Ice Data Center, and the National Coastal Data Development Center) merged to form NCEI, the National Centers for Environmental Information- the largest repository of publicly accessible earth system science data in the world. The merger has forced a reconciling of different workflows, data types, and cultures. However, the Arctic has emerged as a common area where the different centers can integrate their expertise, data assets, and services, and use this information to better align the entire organization. The centers face a unique challenge as they move forward: how to archive, steward and provide access to environmental data to fulfil their mission of providing the best information to help protect life and property. A pressing national need for information that supports policy decisions drives our work.

  6. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...

  7. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    2013-01-01

    We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...

  8. Antibiotic stewardship and empirical antibiotic treatment: How can they get along?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Valentina; Columpsi, Paola; Sacchi, Paolo; Lucà, Maria Grazia; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Bruno, Raffaele

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the recent knowledge on antibiotic stewardship and empiric antibiotic treatment in cirrhotic patients. The application of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) rules appears to be the most appropriate strategy to globally manage cirrhotic patients with infectious complications: indeed they represent a unique way to provide both early diagnosis and appropriate therapy in order to avoid not only antibiotic over-prescription but, more importantly, selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, cirrhotic patients must be considered "frail" and susceptible to healthcare associated infections: applying AMS policies would assure a cost reduction and thus contribute to the improvement of public health strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Faith community nursing demonstrates good stewardship of community benefit dollars through cost savings and cost avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ameldia R; Coppola, Patricia; Giacona, Marian; Petriches, Anne; Stockwell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Health systems seeking responsible stewardship of community benefit dollars supporting Faith Community Nursing Networks require demonstration of positive measurable health outcomes. Faith Community Nurses (FCNs) answer the call for measurable outcomes by documenting cost savings and cost avoidances to families, communities, and health systems associated with their interventions. Using a spreadsheet tool based on Medicare reimbursements and diagnostic-related groupings, 3 networks of FCNs have together shown more than 600 000 (for calendar year 2008) healthcare dollars saved by avoidance of unnecessary acute care visits and extended care placements. The cost-benefit ratio of support dollars to cost savings and cost avoidance demonstrates that support of FCNs is good stewardship of community benefit dollars.

  10. Evaluation of Penicillin Allergy in the Hospitalized Patient: Opportunities for Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Khan, David A

    2017-06-01

    Penicillin allergy is often misdiagnosed and is associated with adverse consequences, but testing is infrequently done in the hospital setting. This article reviews historical and contemporary innovations in inpatient penicillin allergy testing and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship. Adoption of the electronic medical record allows rapid identification of admitted patients carrying a penicillin allergy diagnosis. Collaboration with clinical pharmacists and the development of computerized clinical guidelines facilitates increased testing and appropriate use of penicillin and related β-lactams. Education of patients and their outpatient providers is the key to retaining the benefits of penicillin allergy de-labeling. Penicillin allergy testing is feasible in the hospital and offers tangible benefits towards antimicrobial stewardship. Allergists should take the lead in this endeavor and work towards overcoming personnel limitations by partnering with other health care providers and incorporating technology that improves the efficiency of allergy evaluation.

  11. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Emprendimiento, factor clave para el crecimiento económico

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Benítez, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Arcila, Oscar Gonzalo; Martínez Peña, Blanca Isabel

    2015-01-01

    El emprendimiento y sus efectos sobre la economía y los negocios es un asunto de gran interés en la actualidad nacional e internacional. El presente texto pretende abordar el emprendimiento empresarial como una estrategia para el desarrollo económico, y toma como referente el caso del emprendimiento en Colombia y especialmente en Antioquia. El abordaje se hace desde una aproximación al marco normativo colombiano, el análisis de algunos tipos de emprendimiento desde los planteamientos internac...

  13. El equilibrio económico en los contratos administrativos

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    Libardo Rodriguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio aborda el principio del equilibrio en los contratos administrativos como prinicipio específico de esa clase de contratos, tanto en el Derecho comparado como en el Derecho colombiano. Para el efecto se precisa el concepto y se analizan los antecedentes históricos y el origen de la figura, la justificación e la existencia de principio, las condiciones generales para la procedencia de su aplicación, los instrumentos jurídicos existentes para su efectividad y las causales específicas que dan lugar a la ruptura del equilibrio económico.

  14. Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG): development and impact of the Scottish National Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, Dilip; Sneddon, Jacqueline; Malcolm, William; Wiuff, Camilla; Patton, Andrea; Hurding, Simon; Eastaway, Anne; Seaton, R Andrew; Watson, Emma; Gillies, Elizabeth; Davey, Peter; Bennie, Marion

    2011-07-01

    In 2008, the Scottish Management of Antimicrobial Resistance Action Plan (ScotMARAP) was published by the Scottish Government. One of the key actions was initiation of the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG), hosted within the Scottish Medicines Consortium, to take forward national implementation of the key recommendations of this action plan. The primary objective of SAPG is to co-ordinate and deliver a national framework or programme of work for antimicrobial stewardship. This programme, led by SAPG, is delivered by NHS National Services Scotland (Health Protection Scotland and Information Services Division), NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, and NHS National Education Scotland as well as NHS board Antimicrobial Management Teams. Between 2008 and 2010, SAPG has achieved a number of early successes, which are the subject of this review: (i) through measures to optimise prescribing in hospital and primary care, combined with infection prevention measures, SAPG has contributed significantly to reducing Clostridium difficile infection rates in Scotland; (ii) there has been engagement of all key stakeholders at local and national levels to ensure an integrated approach to antimicrobial stewardship within the wider healthcare-associated infection agenda; (iii) development and implementation of data management systems to support quality improvement; (iv) development of training materials on antimicrobial stewardship for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving clinical management of infections (e.g. community-acquired pneumonia) through quality improvement methodology. The early successes achieved by SAPG demonstrate that this delivery model is effective and provides the leadership and focus required to implement antimicrobial stewardship to improve antimicrobial prescribing and infection management across NHS Scotland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Acute Care Centres: A Survey of 68 Hospitals in Quebec

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    Vincent Nault

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and quantitative monitoring of antimicrobial use are required to ensure that antimicrobials are used appropriately in the acute care setting, and have the potential to reduce costs and limit the spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile. Currently, it is not known what proportion of Quebec hospitals have an ASP and/or monitor antimicrobial use.

  16. Identifying and Predicting Profiles of Medical Noncompliance: Pediatric Caregivers' Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Kim, Youllee; M'Ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2018-05-14

    Sometimes compliance with medical recommendations is problematic. We investigated pediatric caregivers' (N = 606) patterns of noncompliance with antibiotic stewardship based on the obstacle hypothesis. We tested predictors of noncompliance framed by the obstacle hypothesis, dissonance theory, and psychological reactance. The results revealed four profiles of caregivers' stewardship: one marked by compliance (Stewards) and three marked by types of noncompliance (Stockers, Persuaders, and Dissenters). The covariate analysis showed that, although psychological reactance predicted being noncompliant, it was types of obstacles and discrepant experiences that predicted caregivers' patterns of noncompliance with antibiotic stewardship. Campaign planning often focuses on identifying the belief most associated with the targeted outcome, such as compliance. Noncompliance research, however, points out that persuaders may be successful to the extent to which they anticipate obstacles to compliance and address them in their influence attempts. A shift from medical noncompliance to patient engagement also affords an opportunity to consider how some recommendations create obstacles for others and to find positive ways to embrace conflicting needs, tensions, and reasons for refusal in order to promote collective goals.

  17. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  18. The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform

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    Tania Herrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role

  19. Impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Antibiotic Use at a Nonfreestanding Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Brigg; Valcarlos, Elena; Loeffler, Ann M; Gilbert, Michael; Chan, Dominic

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric stewardship programs have been successful at reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. Data from nonfreestanding children's hospitals are currently limited. This study is an analysis of antibiotic use after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program at a community nonfreestanding children's hospital. In April 2013, an antimicrobial stewardship program that consisted of physician-group engagement and pharmacist prospective auditing and feedback was initiated. We compared antibiotic use in the preintervention period (April 2012 to March 2013) with that in the postintervention period (April 2013 to March 2015) in all units except the neonatal intensive care unit and the emergency department. In addition, drug-acquisition costs, antibiotic-specific use, death, length of stay, and case-mix index were examined. Antibiotic use decreased by 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 18.0% to -9.2%; P antibiotic use without an overt negative impact on overall clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that nonfreestanding children's hospitals can achieve substantial reductions in antibiotic use despite limited resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Undergraduates as Environmental Educators: The Pedal and Paddle Pollution Tour Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, Ruth Johnson; Neff, Paula Kleintjes; Mowry, Donald; Running, Garry L.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduates can become effective agents of environmental outreach when challenged to produce evidence-based messages to inform the public about local environmental issues. We recount our experience partnering our undergraduate students with community organizations dedicated to water stewardship to create a "Pedal and Paddle Pollution…

  1. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  2. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  3. The cost-benefit of federal investment in preventing Clostridium difficile infections through the use of a multifaceted infection control and antimicrobial stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, Rachel B; Scott, R Douglas; Baggs, James; Lessa, Fernanda C; McDonald, L Clifford; Jernigan, John A

    2015-06-01

    To determine the potential epidemiologic and economic value of the implementation of a multifaceted Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) control program at US acute care hospitals Markov model with a 5-year time horizon Patients whose data were used in our simulations were limited to hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old. CDI is an important public health problem with substantial associated morbidity, mortality, and cost. Multifaceted national prevention efforts in the United Kingdom, including antimicrobial stewardship, patient isolation, hand hygiene, environmental cleaning and disinfection, and audit, resulted in a 59% reduction in CDI cases reported from 2008 to 2012. Our analysis was conducted from the federal perspective. The intervention we modeled included the following components: antimicrobial stewardship utilizing the Antimicrobial Use and Resistance module of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), use of contact precautions, and enhanced environmental cleaning. We parameterized our model using data from CDC surveillance systems, the AHRQ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, and literature reviews. To address uncertainty in our parameter estimates, we conducted sensitivity analyses for intervention effectiveness and cost, expenditures by other federal partners, and discount rate. Each simulation represented a cohort of 1,000 hospitalized patients over 1,000 trials. RESULTS In our base case scenario with 50% intervention effectiveness, we estimated that 509,000 CDI cases and 82,000 CDI-attributable deaths would be prevented over a 5-year time horizon. Nationally, the cost savings across all hospitalizations would be $2.5 billion (95% credible interval: $1.2 billion to $4.0 billion). The potential benefits of a multifaceted national CDI prevention program are sizeable from the federal perspective.

  4. El sector inmobiliario y las crisis económicas

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    Antonio Daher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La creciente urbanización de la economía y la doble concentración -económica y territorial- de los sectores inmobiliario y financiero en las metrópolis, fundamentan la relación entre los ciclos inmobiliarios y las crisis económicas detonadas por sus burbujas, la alta incidencia macroeconómica del sector inmobiliario y su rol articulador entre el sector financiero y la economía real. Antes de la última crisis (2008, las instituciones financieras y fondos de inversión inmobiliaria transnacionales encontraron en la financiarización y titulización una vía eficaz para su diversificación geográfica y distribución del riesgo hipotecario. Fue también la vía expedita del contagio de una crisis con ubicuidad financiera, aunque no social ni territorial. Las hipotecas subprime fueron para las minorías marginadas en los barrios con más hispanos, negros, inmigrantes y pobres: la vivienda social estadounidense, financiarizada, "inmobiliarizó" al sector financiero y desfinanciarizó la banca internacional, en una crisis global con dramáticas consecuencias sociales y políticas.

  5. Crisis global, económica, social y ambiental

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    Araceli Damián

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene la finalidad de explorar la compleja crisis del sistema capita - lista actual retomando diversos ángulos de su manifestación: económica, social y am - biental. El trabajo está dirigido a examinar las crisis del capitalismo actual a partir de la crisis inmobiliaria y financiera de 2008, que fue considerada como la más grave en el ámbito mundial después de la de 1929. Para ello se examinan, en primer término, las explicaciones que desde la teoría marxista y keynesiana se han ofrecido en torno a las crisis económicas propias del capitalismo. En segundo lugar se analizan algunas de las consecuencias de las crisis padecidas en los últimos cincuenta años, sobre todo en relación con los cambios en las relaciones de poder entre capital y trabajo; ello ha producido un deterioro en las condiciones de vida de la mayoría de la población, que se manifiesta en una creciente pobreza, desigualdad, persistencia del hambre y deterioro ambiental en el mundo.

  6. Las Asignaturas Pendientes del Liberalismo Económico

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    Gustavo Marqués

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo compararé las tesis básicas del liberalismo económico clásico con los nuevos argumentos pro mercado de la escuela Austriaca de economía e identificaré algunos de los argumentos principales que los nuevos liberales ofrecen en favor de la libre competencia. Al proceder de esta manera no hago más que adoptar la postura crítica proveniente de John Stuart Mill en On liberty (y retomada luego por Karl Popper, según la cual es necesario discutir la mejor versión disponible de la postura criticada. En particular, examinaré críticamente el impacto que las modificaciones teóricas introducidas por estos últimos tienen en su defensa del orden de mercado, y sostendré que, aún tomando en cuenta aquella versión del liberalismo económico más conveniente para el doctrinario liberal (e incluso aceptando algunos de sus argumentos, subsisten serios problemas internos no resueltos por dicha doctrina. He aquí los principales: 1 defensa a-crítica del sistema de valores que requiere el funcionamiento del mercado, subvalorando la preferencia por el presente y la estabilidad, 2 carencia de políticas de corto plazo, 3 carencia de políticas asistenciales y 4 tendencia a adoptar un sesgo autoritario.

  7. Los nuevos dominios de la ciencia económica

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    Bejarano Jesús Antonio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace algo más de diez años, siendo Decano de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional, tuve el honor de ser el primer expositor en el primer congreso de estudiantes de economía del país. Once años después, recae de nuevo en mí ese honor, y por ello debo expresar mi gratitud a los estudiantes organizadores de este cuento. Entre aquel primer congreso y éste se transformó no sólo el panorama del quehacer profesional sino también el panorama global de la ciencia económica, y creo que en forma radical. En poco más de veinte años, desde comienzos de los años setenta, se abrieron nuevos rumbos que, sin duda, quienes hoy son estudiantes seguirán en el futuro.

  8. Las cooperativas: Una alternativa económica y social frente a la crisis

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    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Cooperativismo nació como alternativa económica y social, impulsado por la piedad religiosa y reglado bajo los principios democráticos. La solidaridad y la democracia económica hacen de las cooperativas  sociedades especialmente resistentes frente a las dificultades económicas.Recibido: 29.05.2013Aceptado: 26.06.2013

  9. Alfabetización económica y actitudes hacia la compra en universitarios posterior a un programa de educación económica

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    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2016-01-01

    después de participar en el programa de Educación Económica se les aplicó la Escala de Actitudes hacia la Compra y el Consumo y el Test de Alfabetización Económica para adultos (TAE-A. Los resultados indican una menor tendencia hacia la impulsividad en la compra y el consumo en los estudiantes después de participar en la intervención. Las implicancias de este estudio enfatizan la necesidad de crear tempranamente programas de formación económica para favorecer el cambio actitudinal y el consumo reflexivo.

  10. The Capacity-Building Stewardship Model: assessment of an agricultural network as a mechanism for improving regional agroecosystem sustainability

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    Alison J. Duff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working lands have potential to meet agricultural production targets while serving as reservoirs of biological diversity and as sources of ecological services. Yet agricultural policy creates disincentives for this integration of conservation and production goals. While necessary, the development of a policy context that promotes agroecosystem sustainability will take time, and successful implementation will depend on a receptive agricultural audience. As the demands placed on working lands grow, there is a need for regional support networks that build agricultural producers' capacity for land stewardship. We used a social-ecological system framework to illustrate the Healthy Grown Potato Program as an agricultural network case study. Our Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reflects a 20-year experience working in collaboration with potato growers certified under an ecolabel in Wisconsin, USA. The model applies an evolving, modular farm stewardship standard to the entire farm - croplands and noncroplands. The model demonstrates an effective process for facilitating communication and shared learning among program participants, including agricultural producers, university extension specialists, nonprofit conservation partners, and industry representatives. The limitation of the model in practice has been securing funding to support expansion of the program and to ensure that the ecolabel standard is responsive to changes in the social-ecological system. Despite this constraint, the Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reveals an important mechanism for building regional commitment to conservation, with agricultural producers in a leadership role as architects, adopters, and advocates for stewardship behavior. Our experience provides important insight for the application of agri-environment schemes on private lands. The durability of a conservation ethic on working farms is likely to be enhanced when networks engage and support producers in an

  11. Riesgo argentino y ciclo económico

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila, Jorge C.

    1998-01-01

    El propósito del ensayo es múltiple. En la primera sección se evalúa econométricamente la relación entre la prima de riesgo-país y el consumo privado, la inversión fija y el PBI. En la segunda sección se asigna un significado preciso a la prima de riesgo-país, variable que forma parte de la tasa de interés relevante en la explicación de aquellos agregados económicos. En la tercera sección se construye un modelo que muestra a la prima de riesgo-país como parte orgánica del equilibrio macroecon...

  12. Psicologia econômica: origens, modelos, propostas

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vera Rita de Mello

    2007-01-01

    Esta tese tem como objetivo fornecer subsídios para a construção e instalação da Psicologia Econômica no Brasil, partindo-se da hipótese de que o conhecimento deste campo possa despertar o in teresse por ele e facilitar a constituição de uma rede de pesquisadores com colaboração interdisciplinar. Desenvolvida a partir de uma perspectiva histórica, adota o método analítico-descritivo. A apresentação da área, situada na interface Psicologia-Economia, tem início com uma visão pano...

  13. Desenvolvimento econômico, desigualdade e saúde

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    Prata Pedro Reginaldo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor se refere a dimensão socioeconômica, individual e coletiva do fenômeno saúde-doença. Refere-se também ao fato das populações estarem sobre a influência desigual de fatores de risco e de proteção à saúde. Discute as desigualdades no desenvolvimento e a relação entre desenvolvimento, riqueza, saúde e justiça social. Questiona as teorias de desenvolvimento econômico, diferenciando desenvolvimento de crescimento. Cunha os conceitos de armadilha do desenvolvimento e refugiados sociais. Define uma comunidade saudável. Propõe a necessidade de mudança no modelo de desenvolvimento. Baliza o papel e as limitações do setor saúde no que diz respeito a iniqüidade social.

  14. Lauchlin Currie: Desarrollo y crecimiento económico

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    Álvaro Montenegro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una guía de las ideas de Lauchlin Currie sobre los procesos de desarrollo y de crecimiento económico. El crecimiento es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo y un mínimo de ley y orden es una condición necesaria para el crecimiento. Para Currie, la causa del crecimiento no son los factores tradicionales sino la interacción social que provoca en los individuos el deseo de tener lo que otros tienen. Ese deseo los impulsa a trabajar más, abrir nuevos mercados, inventar productos, recortar gastos; todo lo cual aumenta la producción per cápita

  15. Ciclos econômicos na agricultura Brasileira

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    Cassiano Bragagnolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar o papel dos choques de produtividade para a agricultura brasileira. Os choques de produtividade foram subdivididos em dois tipos, choques de produtividade advindos de avanços tecnológicos e choques não tecnológicos, devidos a variações climáticas. O referencial teórico tem como base um modelo de Small Open Economy fundamentado na teoria RBC. Na estimação do modelo fez-se uso de econometria bayesiana. Os resultados demonstram que um maior grau de endividamento do setor agrícola geraria um estoque de capital superior, o que poderia ter potencializado os choques de produtividade e melhorado o desempenho econômico da agricultura.

  16. Modelo económico extractivo en Colombia

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    Mónica Castañeda Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El extractivismo, y particularmente la actividad minera se ha convertido en los últimos años en una de las actividades económicas más relevantes para la acumulación de capital, así como una de las actividades más polémicas donde confluyen diversos actores (Estado, sector privado [principalmente de carácter transnacional],y las comunidades o habitantes de los territorios en una lucha permanente mediados por la correlación de fuerza que expresa la existencia y plena vigencia de las clases sociales, es decir, de los que tienen el dominio y control de los medios de producción y los que no.

  17. Desarrollo sostenible: enfoques desde las ciencias económicas

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    Carlos Andrés Vergara Tamayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de desarrollo sostenible ha sido objeto de gran discusión y controversia durante décadas, de cuestionamientos y debates teórico–prácticos en el ámbito disciplinar económico. Las teorías que soportan esta diversidad conceptual permiten identificar en el tiempo no solo la construcción del concepto, sino también la transformación que este sufre, ya sea por parte de enfoques disciplinares o también multidisciplinares, como una diversidad de posturas frente a la evolución del mismo. A partir de allí surge la necesidad de relacionar algunos elementos clave, así como los diferentes puntos del desarrollo sostenible, dadas las condiciones que dieron origen a este desde la economía como ciencia social.

  18. Inseguridad, violencia y actividad económica

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    jesús Antonio Bejarano

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Solo muy recientemente aparecen, en Colombia, estudios que procuran evaluar el significado económico de la inseguridad y la violencia. En ellos se establece que los efectos directos de la criminalidad común y del conflicto armado sobre la economía son de magnitud alarmantes, si bien la opinión pública no parece percatarse de ello. Por otra parte, un mapa del estado del conflicto armado muestra la notable expansión de la guerrilla, su fortalecimiento financiero y el desarrollo acelerado de grupos paramilitares independientes del poder del Estado y de la acción de las fuerzas armadas. Además, las condiciones de una solución política son imposibles bajo las circunstancias actuales.

  19. Entorno económico y desarrollo empresarial

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    Javier Montes

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente artículo tiene como objetivo central mostrar algunos elementos teóricos acerca de la importancia del Desarrollo Empresarial. Definimos el entorno como aquello que tiene que ver con todo lo exógeno que afecta la dinámica y funcionamiento de cualquier sistema. Se parte de la base económica  y las teorías que de ella se derivan (sin desconocer los aspectos  históricos, políticos e ideológicos como punto de referencia para analizar la interrelación entre el medio externo y la organización interna de la firma.

  20. EconBiz — Meeting User Needs with New Technology

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    Tamara Pianos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual libraries try to combine traditional library services with new document types and services. The first generation of virtual libraries mostly tried to offer services based on a library-centric view of information retrieval systems. New virtual libraries try to concentrate on user's needs, but this is often easier said than done. Restrictions like copyright laws, technical limitations and the like often make it difficult to meet user requirements. A number of studies documented these needs: easy-to-use, comprehensive yet focussed search, and easy access to print and online documents, subject specific, yet not too restricted to specific areas. The new EconBiz-portal, relaunched in August 2010, has a disciplinary focus on business and economics and related subjects. It includes about 6 million records from different databases. Based on search-engine technology Lucene/Solr, combined with a metadata framework developed by the ZBW, it allows fast, convenient and complex searches. The integration of the Standard-Thesaurus-for Economics supports researchers by suggesting key words and related terms. Information on the availability of the documents is also included. Documents can either be accessed online or ways are shown to material that is available in print only. Journals Online & Print, a service developed by the German Electronic Journals Library (EZB and the German Union Catalogue of Serials (ZDB is included to provide easy access to all forms of journals. In addition, services like an event calendar, a tutorial on how to find information and an online-reference desk help to cater to the user's complex needs. The new EconBiz-portal was developed by the ZBW in close cooperation with the USB Cologne. Major parts of the search engine framework were developed by a company specialized in information technology. This paper elaborates on the extraction of users' requirements from different studies, the deduction of functional requirements, and

  1. Socialização econômica: conhecendo o mundo econômico das crianças Economic Socialization: knowing the children's economic world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iani Dias Lauer-Leite

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O aprendizado de conceitos econômicos e os comportamentos econômicos de crianças são objetos de estudo da Socialização Econômica, uma área que tem atraído a atenção de pesquisadores, tanto da Psicologia do Desenvolvimento quanto da Psicologia Econômica. Os estudos têm aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos em outros países, mas no Brasil poucas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas. Este artigo objetiva apresentar a socialização econômica como uma área de pesquisa promissora e em franco desenvolvimento, mediante a discussão de três questões fundamentais inerentes à área: 1 As fases de desenvolvimento do pensamento econômico, 2 Variáveis que interferem na socialização econômica e 3 Comportamentos econômicos de crianças. No decorrer do artigo são evidenciados os principais resultados que pretendem responder às questões citadas e são mencionadas as lacunas a preencher, como possibilidades de pesquisas a realizar. Finaliza-se com sugestões para uma agenda brasileira de pesquisas.The child's learning of economic concepts and economic' behaviors are subjects of economic socialization. The research in this area is increasing in the recent years but in Brazil there are a few studies only. This article aims to introduce economic socialization as a promising research area, through discussion of three questions: 1 stages of economic reasoning development, 2 variables that interfere in economic socialization and 3 children's economic behaviors. The article shows the most important results that try to answer those questions, points out some lacks to filled in and future investigations. Finally suggestions are presented for a Brazilian research agenda.

  2. Curva ambiental de Kuznets e desenvolvimento econômico sustentável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo A. Arraes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A motivação deste artigo se baseia na controvérsia existente na literatura recente sobre crescimento econômico, desenvolvimento sustentável e proteção ambiental, gerada a partir da evidência empírica mostrada inicialmente por Grossman e Krueger (1995, 1996, onde a relação entre PIB per capita e emissão de poluentes toma a forma de um U-invertido, denominada na literatura como Curva Ambiental de Kuznets (CAK. Este artigo se distingue por contribuir com a explicação de fatores ligados ao desenvolvimento econômico. Como essa relação tem sido recentemente contestada, muitas interpretações estruturais da CAK têm permanecido fortemente sob o amparo ad hoc. A questão sobre tal fato estilizado é se o crescimento econômico gera por si só uma proteção automática ao meio ambiente, vis a vis ao desenvolvimento sustentável. A partir de dados em painel para países, verifica-se que as variáveis que denotam desenvolvimento sustentável apresentam uma relação fraca com o PIB per capita, quanto a sua representação para uma CAK. Há evidências para curvas ambientais com formato cúbico, indicando que o fenômeno pode ser cíclico, rejeitando-se assim as CAK originais, além de todos os indicadores de desenvolvimento selecionados apontarem para divergências entre países, exceção apenas para o indicador relacionado à educação.The motivation of this article bases on the controversy in the recent literature about economic growth, sustainable development and environmental protection, started with the empirical evidences presented by Grossman and Krueger (1995, 1996, where the relationship between per capita GDP and emission of pollutants takes the shape of an inverted-U, denominated in the literature as Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC. This article differs from others by contributing with further explanation stemming from economic development indicators. Despite being contested by many authors, several structural

  3. A construção social do mercado de madeiras certificadas na Amazônia brasileira: a atuação das ONGs ambientalistas e das empresas pioneiras The social construction of the Brazilian certified wood market in the Amazon Region: the performance of the environmental NGOs and Pioneer Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o processo de construção de um mercado de madeiras certificadas pelo selo do Forest Stewardship Council (FSC na Amazônia brasileira. A certificação florestal pode ser compreendida como uma estratégia, desenvolvida a partir dos anos 90, por um conjunto de ONGs ambientalistas para tentar modificar o padrão de funcionamento da indústria mundial de madeiras. Como mostram alguns trabalhos de Sociologia Econômica, o processo de construção de um mercado requer um conjunto diverso de investimentos, de forma a permitir o estabelecimento e o funcionamento das trocas mercantis. No caso em questão, procuramos mostrar como esse processo se desenrolou, através da constituição de mecanismos de apoio à emergência da produção de madeiras certificadas e da atuação de empresas pioneiras (na obtenção do selo do FSC no interior do campo econômico da indústria de madeiras tropicais.This text studies the process of construction of a market for Forest Stewardship Council (FSC certified timber in the Brazilian Amazon. Forestry certification can be understood as a strategy developed from the 1990s by some environmental non-governmental organizations in an attempt to modify the working patterns of the world timber industry face the relative failure of the previous boycott policy of tropical timber. The process of construction of a market, as shown by several works in economic Sociology, always demand investments that facilitate the mechanism of commodity exchange. We try to show that, in the case of certified timber products, market construction unfolds from the criticism of the traditional market for tropical wood products and from the promotion of mechanisms that supported the growth of certified timber production. We also highlight the trajectory of the first firms who obtained the stamp of forestry certification in order to try to understand the likelihood that this market becomes dominant and therefore redirects forest

  4. Managing the Grey Literature of a Discipline through Collaboration: AgEcon Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Julia; Letnes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    AgEcon Search, http://www.agecon.lib.umn.edu, is an important and ground-breaking example of an alternative method of delivering current research results to many potential users. AgEcon Search, through a distributed model, collects and disseminates the grey literature of the fields of agricultural and resource economics. The development of this…

  5. Development and impact of a massive open online course (MOOC) for antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Jacqueline; Barlow, Gavin; Bradley, Sally; Brink, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Nathwani, Dilip

    2018-04-01

    The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice. In total, 32 944 people, 70% of them healthcare professionals, from 163 countries joined the course from Europe (49%), Asia (16%), Africa (13%), North America (9%), Australia (8%) and South America (5%). Between 33% and 37% of joiners in each run completed at least one step in any week of the course and 219 participants responded to a post-course survey. The course was rated good or excellent by 208 (95%) of the participants, and 83 (38%) intended to implement stewardship interventions in their own setting. A follow-up survey 6 months later suggested that 49% had implemented such interventions. The MOOC has addressed a global learning need by providing education free at the point of access, and learning from its development will help others embarking upon similar educational solutions. Initial quantitative and qualitative feedback suggests it has engaged participants and complements traditional educational methods. Measuring its real impact on clinical practice remains a challenge. The FutureLearn© platform offers flexibility for MOOCs to be sustainable through modification to remove educator facilitation but maintain active participant discussion.

  6. Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Scyphers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide coastal societies with a vast array of ecosystem services, but are also destructively harvested as an economically and culturally important fishery resource, exemplifying a complex social-ecological system (SES. Historically, societal demand for oysters has led to destructive and unsustainable levels of harvest, which coupled with multiple other stressors has placed oyster reefs among the most globally imperiled coastal habitats. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that large-scale restoration is possible and that healthy oyster populations can be sustained with effective governance and stewardship. However, both of these require significant societal support or financial investment. In our study, we explored relationships among how coastal societies (1 perceive and value oyster ecosystem services, (2 recognize and define problems associated with oyster decline, and (3 perceive or support stewardship initiatives. We specifically focused on the SES of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and coastal societies in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region identified as offering among the last and best opportunities to sustainably balance conservation objectives with a wild fishery. We found that, in addition to harvest-related benefits, oysters were highly valued for providing habitat, mitigating shoreline erosion, and improving water quality or clarity. Our results also showed that although most respondents recognized that oyster populations have declined, many respondents characterized the problem differently than most scientific literature does. Among a variety of initiatives for enhancing sustainability, spawning sanctuaries and reef restoration were well supported in all states, but support for harvest reductions was less consistent. Our study suggests that public support for maintaining both harvest and ecosystem services exists at societal levels and that enhancing public awareness regarding the extent and causes

  7. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  8. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaee, J.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances

  9. ESIP's Emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard Use Cases: Developing Examples and Models for Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.; Hills, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science data collections range from individual researchers' private collections to large-scale data warehouses, from computer-generated data to field or lab based observations. These collections require stewardship. Fundamentally, stewardship ensures long term preservation and the provision of access to the user community. In particular, stewardship includes capturing appropriate metadata and documentation--and thus the context of the data's creation and any changes they underwent over time --to enable data reuse. But scientists and science data managers must translate these ideas into practice. How does one balance the needs of current and (projected) future stakeholders? In 2011, the Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) began developing the Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). As an emerging standard, PCCS provides a framework for 'what' must be captured or preserved as opposed to describing only 'how' it should be done. Originally based on the experiences of NASA and NOAA researchers within ESIP, the standard currently provides data managers with content items aligned to eight key categories. While the categories and content items are based on data life cycles of remote sensing missions, they can be generalized to cover a broader set of activities, for example, preservation of physical objects. These categories will include the information needed to ensure the long-term understandability and usability of earth science data products. In addition to the PCCS, the DSC is developing a series of use cases based on the perspectives of the data archiver, data user, and the data consumer that will connect theory and practice. These cases will act as specifications for developing PCCS-based systems. They will also provide for examination of the categories and content items covered in the PCCS to determine if any additions are needed to cover the various use cases, and also provide rationale and

  10. Impact of formulary restriction with prior authorization by an antimicrobial stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Erica E; Stevenson, Kurt B; West, Jessica E; Bauer, Karri A; Goff, Debra A

    2013-02-15

    In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance and few antimicrobials in the developmental pipeline, many institutions have developed antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to help implement evidence-based (EB) strategies for ensuring appropriate utilization of these agents. EB strategies for accomplishing this include formulary restriction with prior authorization. Potential limitations to this particular strategy include delays in therapy, prescriber pushback, and unintended increases in use of un-restricted antimicrobials; however, our ASP found that implementing prior authorization for select antimicrobials along with making a significant effort to educate clinicians on criteria for use ensured more appropriate prescribing of these agents, hopefully helping to preserve their utility for years to come.

  11. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship – Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.; Braun, Barbara I.; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt non-randomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into three major types: interrupted time series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. PMID:27267457

  12. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaee, J.

    2002-05-16

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances.

  13. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaee, Jila

    2002-08-01

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances.

  14. El Derecho de Competencia Económica en la Constitución del Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo permite establecer las bases de la Constitución Económica y del Derecho de Competencia Constitucionalizado.  También analiza si las normas de Derecho de la Competencia Económica y su doctrina están acorde y son adecuadas frente a la Constitución del Ecuador. El Derecho de la Competencia Económica tiene normas para investigar y sancionar las Prácticas colusorias; los Abusos de posición de dominio; las normas  para el control de concentraciones económicas; las conductas de Abuso de dependencia económica, y las conductas  de competencia desleal.  Siempre la Autoridad de Competencia analizará estas conductas en función del bienestar del mercado y del consumidor.

  15. económica. Algunos elementos de análisis para precisar los conceptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Cruz Soto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo responde a una serie de inquietudes del autor con respecto al carácter conceptual del neoliberalismo y su relación con la globalización económica. Para ello se ofrecen algunos elementos de estudio para distinguir el significado de la democracia liberal y el liberalismo económico. Posteriormente, se exponen los principales principios del liberalismo económico clásico y una breve semblanza histórica de éste, así como una enunciación de los elementos que originaron el surgimiento del neoliberalismo económico. Finalmente, se define el carácter global del neoliberalismo en el contexto de la globalización económica

  16. O conceito histórico de desenvolvimento econômico

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luiz C. Bresser

    2006-01-01

    Uma Análise do Conceito de Desenvolvimento Econômico. o Crescimento Econômico, ou Desenvolvimento Econômico, é Visto como um Fenômeno Histórico como Resultado da Revolução Capitalista, E, Consequentemente, da Revolução Comercial, da Industrial E, no Meio Delas, da Revolução Nacional. Assim, é Necessário um Conceito Histórico de Crescimento Econômico, e não um Conceito Normativo. Visto sob este Aspecto, o Desenvolvimento Econômico é Intrinsecamente Relacionado ao Surgimento do Estado-Nação M...

  17. Diagnóstico y tendencias económicas del Corredor Tijuana-Rosarito-Ensenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrido Ruiz Ochoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se proponen estrategias que pudieran implementarse para romper con un escenario económico inercial adverso que, hipotéticamente, pudiera restarle viabilidad económica a futuro al Corredor Costero Tijuana- Rosarito-Ensenada. Esto, a partir de un diagnóstico económico sustentado en índices multidimensionales, en el que se aporta información censal sobre el perfil sectorial y espacial del corredor, así como de sus tendencias de crecimiento para 2030. Sobre esta base se elaboran propuestas para afrontar la desaceleración económica reciente de la zona, mediante la identificación de sus vocaciones económicas y de algunos proyectos estratégicos.

  18. El ciclo político - económico en Colombia, 1925-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio López González, , Christian Fresard Briones

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de los ciclos político-económicos ha mostrado su capacidad de explicar los ciclos económicos originados por las autoridades económicas de acuerdo con intereses políticos, electorales o ideológicos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de la evidencia empírica de esta teoría en Colombia entre 1925 y 1998. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que en el país se han presentado tanto ciclos de tipo oportunista como partidista, ampliando los resultados obtenidos en estudios anteriores. En consecuencia, se concluye que en Colombia las autoridades económicas han manejado las variables económicas con el fin de conseguir resultados políticos favorables en las elecciones.

  19. Monitoring, documenting and reporting the quality of antibiotic use in the Netherlands: a pilot study to establish a national antimicrobial stewardship registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrevoets, M.A.H.; Oever, J. ten; Sprong, T.; Hest, R.M. van; Groothuis, I.; Heijl, I. van; Schouten, J.A.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the

  20. Monitoring, documenting and reporting the quality of antibiotic use in the Netherlands: a pilot study to establish a national antimicrobial stewardship registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrevoets, Marvin Ah; ten Oever, Jaap; Sprong, Tom; van Hest, Reinier M.; Groothuis, Ingeborg; van Heijl, Inger; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Hulscher, Marlies E.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the quality of

  1. Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Donald F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial stewardship has been promoted as a key strategy for coping with the problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile. Despite the current call for stewardship in community hospitals, including smaller community hospitals, practical examples of stewardship programs are scarce in the reported literature. The purpose of the current report is to describe the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital employing a core strategy of post-prescriptive audit with intervention and feedback. Methods For one hour twice weekly, an infectious diseases physician and a clinical pharmacist audited medical records of inpatients receiving systemic antimicrobial therapy and made non-binding, written recommendations that were subsequently scored for implementation. Defined daily doses (DDDs; World Health Organization Center for Drug Statistics Methodology and acquisition costs per admission and per patient-day were calculated monthly for all administered antimicrobial agents. Results The antimicrobial stewardship team (AST made one or more recommendations for 313 of 367 audits during a 16-month intervention period (September 2009 – December 2010. Physicians implemented recommendation(s from each of 234 (75% audits, including from 85 of 115 for which discontinuation of all antimicrobial therapy was recommended. In comparison to an 8-month baseline period (January 2009 – August 2009, there was a 22% decrease in defined daily doses per 100 admissions (P = .006 and a 16% reduction per 1000 patient-days (P = .013. There was a 32% reduction in antimicrobial acquisition cost per admission (P = .013 and a 25% acquisition cost reduction per patient-day (P = .022. Conclusions An effective antimicrobial stewardship program was implemented with limited resources on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital.

  2. Long-Term Stewardship at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Riverton, Wyoming WM2017-17090

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gil, Dr. April [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is responsible for maintaining protective public health and environmental conditions at former uranium mill tailings sites nationwide via long-term stewardship. One of these sites, a former uranium mill near Riverton, Wyoming, is within the boundary of the Wind River Indian Reservation and operated from 1958 to 1963. Tailings and contaminated material associated with mill operations were removed and transported to an offsite disposal cell in 1989. The remedial action was completed under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Milling operations, which included an unlined tailings impoundment and an unlined evaporation pond, contaminated the shallow groundwater, resulting in a downgradient groundwater plume that discharges to the Little Wind River. A natural flushing compliance strategy was implemented in 1998. This strategy allows contaminants of concern to naturally flush from the groundwater, provided that contaminants flush below US Environmental Protection Agency maximum concentration limits within 100 years. As part of the compliance strategy, LM has implemented a groundwater monitoring program along with institutional controls that include the installation of an alternate water supply, continued sampling of private wells, and restrictions on well drilling and gravel pit construction. LM works closely with local stakeholders and community members to ensure that these institutional controls are in place and maintained. The Riverton site provides an interesting case study where contaminant remobilization due to river flooding prompted a reevaluation of the conceptual site model to verify if the current compliance strategy would remain protective of human health and the environment. Concentrations of groundwater contaminants, which include sulfate, molybdenum, and uranium, were transiently elevated following flooding of the Little Wind River in 2010 and 2016. These flood

  3. Revising Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Light of Stewardship: The Need for a Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Solazzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA highlighted the importance of ecosystem services for human well-being, the payments for such services have increasingly been drawing the attention of governments, the private sector and academia. Nonetheless, there is not yet a specific legal framework which is able to capture the complexity of managing natural resources and, at the same time, deal with the numerous drawbacks that have been identified by critics, who are opposed to using financialisation of the environment as a tool. This paper, after briefly summarizing some of the main features and criticisms of the Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES, will critically assess the understanding of property rights over natural resources as stewardship, rather than as entitlement, because this interpretation is more coherent with the inherent characteristics of natural resources and, consequently, of ecosystem services. The novel usage of a stewardship dimension to property rights underlines the necessity for a legal framework for PES, constituted by “property-liability rules”.

  4. Developing core elements and checklist items for global hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes: a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, C; Binda, F; Lamkang, A S; Trett, A; Charani, E; Goff, D A; Harbarth, S; Hinrichsen, S L; Levy-Hara, G; Mendelson, M; Nathwani, D; Gunturu, R; Singh, S; Srinivasan, A; Thamlikitkul, V; Thursky, K; Vlieghe, E; Wertheim, H; Zeng, M; Gandra, S; Laxminarayan, R

    2018-04-03

    With increasing global interest in hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, there is a strong demand for core elements of AMS to be clearly defined on the basis of principles of effectiveness and affordability. To date, efforts to identify such core elements have been limited to Europe, Australia, and North America. The aim of this study was to develop a set of core elements and their related checklist items for AMS programmes that should be present in all hospitals worldwide, regardless of resource availability. A literature review was performed by searching Medline and relevant websites to retrieve a list of core elements and items that could have global relevance. These core elements and items were evaluated by an international group of AMS experts using a structured modified Delphi consensus procedure, using two-phased online in-depth questionnaires. The literature review identified seven core elements and their related 29 checklist items from 48 references. Fifteen experts from 13 countries in six continents participated in the consensus procedure. Ultimately, all seven core elements were retained, as well as 28 of the initial checklist items plus one that was newly suggested, all with ≥80% agreement; 20 elements and items were rephrased. This consensus on core elements for hospital AMS programmes is relevant to both high- and low-to-middle-income countries and could facilitate the development of national AMS stewardship guidelines and adoption by healthcare settings worldwide. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support Application to Augment Local Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian M; Ford, Diana C; Ince, Dilek; Ernst, Erika J; Livorsi, Daniel J; Heintz, Brett H; Masse, Vincent; Brownlee, Michael J; Ford, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Medical applications for mobile devices allow clinicians to leverage microbiological data and standardized guidelines to treat patients with infectious diseases. We report the implementation of a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) application to augment local antimicrobial stewardship. We detail the implementation of our mobile CDS application over 20 months. Application utilization data were collected and evaluated using descriptive statistics to quantify the impact of our implementation. Project initiation focused on engaging key stakeholders, developing a business case, and selecting a mobile platform. The preimplementation phase included content development, creation of a pathway for content approval within the hospital committee structure, engaging clinical leaders, and formatting the first version of the guide. Implementation involved a media campaign, staff education, and integration within the electronic medical record and hospital mobile devices. The postimplementation phase required ongoing quality improvement, revision of outdated content, and repeated staff education. The evaluation phase included a guide utilization analysis, reporting to hospital leadership, and sustainability and innovation planning. The mobile application was downloaded 3056 times and accessed 9259 times during the study period. The companion web viewer was accessed 8214 times. Successful implementation of a customizable mobile CDS tool enabled our team to expand beyond microbiological data to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and antimicrobial stewardship, broadening our influence on antimicrobial prescribing and incorporating utilization data to inspire new quality and safety initiatives. Further studies are needed to assess the impact on antimicrobial utilization, infection control measures, and patient care outcomes.

  6. Carbon stewardship: land management decisions and the potential for carbon sequestration in Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failey, Elisabeth L; Dilling, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of carbon stocks, such as vegetation type and management regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for carbon sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land management decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the 'carbon stewardship landscape'-that is, the decision making context for carbon sequestration. We examine the carbon stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use management to help mitigate carbon emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.

  7. Estimating landholders' probability of participating in a stewardship program, and the implications for spatial conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Adams

    Full Text Available The need to integrate social and economic factors into conservation planning has become a focus of academic discussions and has important practical implications for the implementation of conservation areas, both private and public. We conducted a survey in the Daly Catchment, Northern Territory, to inform the design and implementation of a stewardship payment program. We used a choice model to estimate the likely level of participation in two legal arrangements--conservation covenants and management agreements--based on payment level and proportion of properties required to be managed. We then spatially predicted landholders' probability of participating at the resolution of individual properties and incorporated these predictions into conservation planning software to examine the potential for the stewardship program to meet conservation objectives. We found that the properties that were least costly, per unit area, to manage were also the least likely to participate. This highlights a tension between planning for a cost-effective program and planning for a program that targets properties with the highest probability of participation.

  8. Redes económicas y desigualdades sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO FERNÁNDEZ ENGUITA

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un marco general para la interpretación de las desigualdades sociales según el cual éstas, o las más relevantes de éstas, se configuran en torno a redes económicas de carácter inclusivo (hogares y estados o voluntario (organizaciones y mercados. Organizaciones y mercados movilizan los medios de producción, la fuerza de trabajo y la ciencia y la técnica, y el control diferencial sobre estos factores toma respectivamente la forma de propiedad, autoridad y cualificación. Hogares y estados son el origen de las diferencias genéricas y generacionales, los primeros, y comunitarias y étnicas, los segundos. En la economía abierta, formada por organizaciones y mercados, la propiedad, la autoridad y la cualificación sirven de base a relaciones de explotación (transferencia de excedente y dividen a la sociedad en clases, mientras que el género, la generación y la etnia sirven de base a relaciones de privilegio (oportunidades desiguales y la dividen en categorías.

  9. Ingeniería y apertura económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amaya Pulido

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento resume la posición de los autores respecto a la función de los ingenieros y el de las Facultades de Ingeniería en el marco de la intemacionalización de la economía y su nivel de competitividad. Se presenta una descripción de las principales tendencias que están dando lugar a cambios en productos, servicios, y en las organizaciones. Se resalta el papel que tiene la ingeniería en el incremento del valor agregado a la producción y, por lo tanto, su función estratégica en el crecimiento económico de una sociedad. Finalmente se proponen los elementos básicos para el desarrollo de una estrategia nacional en la ingeniería, haciendo énfasis en la importancia de la investigación y con ella del diseño para poder generar un tipo de profesional pueda realmente incidir en la generación de conocimientos propios.

  10. Efectos económicos y ambientales del impuesto especial sobre determinados medios de transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Freire González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de la reforma del Impuesto Especial sobre Determinados Medios de Transporte (IEDMT, que entró en vigor en enero de 2008, fue incentivar un progresivo cambio en el parque automovilístico español hacia vehículos menos contaminantes. La presente investigación realiza una estimación, a partir de técnicas econométricas, de los efectos económicos y ambientales de la nueva configuración del IEDMT. La reforma del impuesto ha tenido un efecto positivo y significativo sobre la reducción de las emisiones de CO2 de los nuevos vehículos matriculados. The main objective of the reform of the Vehicle Registration Tax (IEDMT in Spain, which came into force in January 2008, was to encourage a gradual change in the Spanish fleet towards less polluting vehicles. This research estimates the economic and environmental effects of the new configuration of IEDMT using econometric techniques. The tax reform had a positive and significant effect on the reduction of CO2 emissions of new registered vehicles.

  11. Desigualdad económica y bienestar: tres modelos de justicia social

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Barragué Calvo

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN La crisis económica que comenzó en el verano de 2007 ha provocado que tanto la tasa de desempleo como el porcentaje de personas que se encuentran por debajo del umbral de la pobreza relativa en España ronden el 20%. Si bien en los últimos quince años España ha experimentado fases de crecimiento económico importante, la proporción de personas en riesgo de pobreza se ha mantenido constante. Es probable por tanto que unas tasas negativas o muy escasamente positivas de crecimiento económi...

  12. Psicología, psicología social y asuntos económicos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Eduardo Cruz

    1994-01-01

    La comprensión, desde una perspectiva psicológica, de los fenómenos económicos es un propósito que han perseguido varios e importantes investigadores de diferentes disciplinas científicas. Al interior de la psicología, sin embargo, tales esfuerzos han sido por varios años muy aislados, y sólo recientemente han permitido la configuración de nuevas especialidades como la Psicología Económica (PE) y la Psicología Social de los Asuntos Económicos (PSE). El presente artículo mues...

  13. Diagnóstico y tendencias económicas del Corredor Tijuana-Rosarito-Ensenada

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ochoa, Wilfrido; Vázquez León, Carlos Israel; Ruiz Ortega, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se proponen estrategias que pudieran implementarse para romper con un escenario económico inercial adverso que, hipotéticamente, pudiera restarle viabilidad económica a futuro al Corredor Costero Tijuana-Rosarito-Ensenada. Esto, a partir de un diagnóstico económico sustentado en índices multidimensionales, en el que se aporta información censal sobre el perfil sectorial y espacial del corredor, así como de sus tendencias de crecimiento para 2030. Sobre esta base se elaboran p...

  14. Diagnóstico y tendencias económicas del Corredor Tijuana-Rosarito-Ensenada

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfrido Ruiz Ochoa; Carlos Israel Vázquez León; Rafael Ruiz Ortega

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se proponen estrategias que pudieran implementarse para romper con un escenario económico inercial adverso que, hipotéticamente, pudiera restarle viabilidad económica a futuro al Corredor Costero Tijuana- Rosarito-Ensenada. Esto, a partir de un diagnóstico económico sustentado en índices multidimensionales, en el que se aporta información censal sobre el perfil sectorial y espacial del corredor, así como de sus tendencias de crecimiento para 2030. Sobre esta base se elabo...

  15. Sociomaterial Movement Learning in Evangelical Student Activism: A Case Study in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sherrie

    2016-01-01

    What began as a professor's classroom illustration to encourage students to take climate change seriously sparked a student movement that transformed Eastern University into a leader in environmental stewardship and social responsibility. How did this happen at an evangelical university in a conservative coal state that, at the time, was producing…

  16. Framework for Springs Stewardship Program and proposed action development: Spring Mountains National Recreation Area, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Coles-Ritchie; Stephen J. Solem; Abraham E. Springer; Burton Pendleton

    2014-01-01

    In the desert Southwest, springs are an important ecological feature and serve as a focal point for both biological and human interactions on the landscape. As a result, attention has been placed on the stewardship and protection of these important resources. Management has traditionally focused on the more accessible and heavily used eastern canyons within the Spring...

  17. O capital humano e o desenvolvimento econômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maria Witkowski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Um ambiente competitivo de negócios é decorrência cada vez maior de uma administração eficaz do capital humano. Estrutura, tecnologia, recursos financeiros e materiais são aspectos meramente físicos e inertes que precisam ser administrados inteligentemente por meio das pessoas que constituem a organização. A Teoria do Capital Humano é uma derivação da Teoria Econômica Neoclássica e, ao mesmo tempo, uma atualização, do axioma liberal do indivíduo livre, soberano e racional. Ressurgiu com a crise do modelo tayloris ta-fordis ta, associada à redefinição das relações de trabalho na empresa e do papel do sistema educacional. A qualidade dos funcionários de uma organização, seus conhecimentos e habilidades, entusiasmo e satisfação com seus cargos, seu senso de iniciativa para gerar riqueza, tudo isso tem forte impacto na produtividade da organização, no nível de serviço ao cliente, na reputação e na competitividade. Para qualquer que seja a área empresarial escolhida, o futuro administrador necessita ter uma visão sobre como lidar com assuntos relacionados com pessoas para alcançar o seu sucesso profissional e levar a sua organização rumo à excelência e à competitividade. Em seu conjunto, as pessoas constituem o capital humano da organização. Esse capital pode valer mais ou valer menos, na medida em que contenha talentos capazes de agregar valor à organização e torná-la mais ágil e competitiva. Portanto, esse capital vale mais na medida em que consiga influenciar as ações e os destinos da organização. A era da informação torna o trabalho menos físico e mais mental, pois as pessoas deixaram de ser fornecedoras de mão-de-obra para serem alçadas à categoria de fornecedoras de conhecimento e de competências. Do mesmo modo que o capital humano é relevante para a sociedade e para as organizações, observa-se que o desenvolvimento econômico também possui um papel de suma importância. Define

  18. Contabilidade ambiental e Geografia econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Robert Moraes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A perspectiva própria da análise geográfica pode fornecer uma importante contribuição ao debate sobre as formas de avaliar o valor do patrimônio natural existente em cada localidade terrestre. Ao analisar de modo integrado o uso social dos lugares, a geografia econômica propicia equacionar a naturalidade do meio em termos históricos, isso é, tal como se apresentam para a sociedade numa dada época (submetidos à mentalidade e aos interesses imperantes. Equacionando o valor em função das técnicas, do poder e da percepção social, é possível adotar uma ótica que não dissocie a valoração do espaço de sua valorização prática, o que permite enfocá-lo enquanto materialidade, mas também como representação já inserida numa legitimação ou proposta de uso. Esse enfoque possibilita contabilizar a apropriação de um lugar em face da base de recursos da natureza que a sociedade identifica como ali presentes, sejam produtos ou condições. A distinção entre recursos naturais e ambientais, trabalhada pela economia do meio ambiente, é resgatada nessa teoria geográfica que fornece uma possibilidade de avaliação contábil sintética do potencial e uso de um dado território, inventariando os materiais e fontes existentes e os usos praticados e seus impactos sobre estoques e condições naturais. Com isso pode-se fornecer um subsídio importante para as políticas de ordenamento territorial e o planejamento ambiental em particular.

  19. Complexo Econômico-Industrial da Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Nunes da SILVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apontar a importância do CEIS tanto em termos sociossanitário quanto econômico. Ademais, pretende-se apresentar as principais medidas adotadas pelo governo federal para fomentar o CEIS, além de identificar alguns desafios que ainda persistem nessa área. Um CEIS nacional, associado com os estímulos e a regulamentação do Estado, tende a: i estar mais próximo das necessidades em saúde da população; ii fixar internamente recursos humanos de elevado capital humano; iii ter efeitos positivos na renda interna, pela criação de empregos e geração de renda; iv reduzir o déficit comercial crônico na balança comercial na rubrica da saúde; v mitigar a dependência científica, visto que geralmente não há transferência tecnológica do exterior para instituições brasileiras. As políticas públicas adotadas pelo governo federal evidenciam que há um esforço articulado para fomentar o CEIS do país, a exemplo da Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior (2003, Política de Desenvolvimento Produtivo (2008, Plano Brasil Maior (2011, Decreto n. 7.546/11 entre outras. A despeito das políticas adotadas até então, permanecem dois desafios no âmbito do CEIS: i padrão de inserção produtiva no cenário mundial e na divisão internacional do trabalho; ii e baixa geração de conhecimento com pouca densidade de pesquisa e desenvolvimento.

  20. Venezuela ante la crisis económica global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Villegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis que estalló en agosto de 2007 en Estados Unidos se gestó en el mercado de los préstamos hipotecarios de alto riesgo de ese país, sin embargo, se transformó en una crisis económica global, ya que por efecto contagio se trasladó a la eurozona y a Japón con un fuerte impacto en el crecimiento de las economías emergentes. El objetivo de la presente investigación consiste en analizar los canales de transmisión de esa crisis a la economía venezolana. El estudio es de tipo descriptivo-documental recurriendo a fuentes de información secundarias. Se concluye que en el caso venezolano, desde el canal real, la disminución del precio del petróleo tiene una doble incidencia: por una parte deteriora la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos y, por otra, la posición fiscal. Desde el canal financiero, las consecuencias se evidencian en la evolución negativa que toma la percepción de riesgo soberano y con una caída en el saldo neto de la inversión en activos fijos proveniente del resto del mundo. El agotamiento del modelo rentístico y la desaceleración del sector privado, combinado con una espiral inflacionaria, se convierten en la verdadera fuente de vulnerabilidad externa en la economía venezolana

  1. Crecimiento económico, convergencia y concentración económica espacial en las entidades federativas de México 1970-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Normand Asuad Sanén; Luis Quintana Romero

    2010-01-01

    El propósito principal del presente trabajo es identificar la formación de clubes o núcleos de convergencia y divergencia que el crecimiento económico ha propiciado en las entidades federativas de México y el papel e importancia de los factores geo-espaciales en dichas formaciones. El estudio se realiza mediante un análisis comparativo entre el crecimiento económico y las hipótesis de convergencia, a partir de un modelo de regresión espacial de corte transversal. Los resultados obtenidos sugi...

  2. Hacia una teoría económica más humana: el aprendizaje económico del homo viator

    OpenAIRE

    Ullate, M. (Minerva)

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es mostrar que la consideración de un nuevo agente económico, caracterizado por la perfectibilidad del conocimiento y de la voluntad, permite reintegrar de un modo natural la Economía con la moral; de ahí que la Economía no se pueda entender ya como la ciencia de los "puros medios". Una de las consecuencias de este planeamiento es la mejor comprensión del cambio y del aprendizaje económico.

  3. Inflación y crecimiento económico: determinantes del desempleo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelsón Manolo Chávez Muñoz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento pretende establecer si la tasa de desempleo en Colombiaes explicada por la inflación esperada y por la tasa de crecimiento económicopara los años comprendidos entre 2001 y 2009, suponiendo que los agentes económicos tienen expectativas adaptativas. Por otra parte, se intenta determinar si el crecimiento económico causa menores tasas de desempleo, comprobando así la Ley de Okun. Se utilizaron series de tiempo trimestralizadas del DANE, usando la metodología de la cointegración de Johansen (1995, estimando un vector de corrección de error y funciones de impulso-respuesta. Los resultados muestran que la tasa de desempleo para el periodo analizado disminuye si se incrementan las expectativas de inflación más que si se aumenta la tasa de crecimiento económico.

  4. Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Barthel, Stephan; Borgström, Sara; Colding, Johan; Elmqvist, Thomas; Folke, Carl; Gren, Åsa

    2014-05-01

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  5. Specialist trainees on rotation cannot replace dedicated consultant clinicians for antimicrobial stewardship of specialty disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Chay Leng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our prospective-audit-and-feedback antimicrobial stewardship (AS program for hematology and oncology inpatients was switched from one led by dedicated clinicians to a rotating team of infectious diseases trainees in order to provide learning opportunities and attempt a “de-escalation” of specialist input towards a more protocol-driven implementation. However, process indicators including the number of recommendations and recommendation acceptance rates fell significantly during the year, with accompanying increases in broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription. The trends were reversed only upon reverting to the original setup. Dedicated clinicians play a crucial role in AS programs involving immunocompromised patients. Structured training and adequate succession/contingency planning is critical for sustainability.

  6. Carbapenem stewardship: does ertapenem affect Pseudomonas susceptibility to other carbapenems? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, David P; Carmeli, Yehuda; Crank, Christopher W; Goff, Debra A; Graber, Christopher J; Lima, Ana Lucia L; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2012-01-01

    The group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and, more recently, doripenem) have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with serious hospital infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and other difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens as well as mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections. When ertapenem, a group 1 carbapenem, was introduced, questions were raised about the potential for ertapenem to select for imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas. Results from ten clinical studies evaluating the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas to carbapenems have uniformly shown that ertapenem use does not result in decreased Pseudomonas susceptibility to these antipseudomonal carbapenems. Here we review these studies evaluating the evidence of how ertapenem use affects P. aeruginosa as well as provide considerations for ertapenem use in the context of institutional stewardship initiatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future.

  8. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) Facility Stewardship Plan: Revision 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Juan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Art [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has established the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) on the campus of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and has designated it as a DOE user facility. This 182,500-ft2 research facility provides state-of-the-art laboratory and support infrastructure to optimize the design and performance of electrical, thermal, fuel, and information technologies and systems at scale. This Facility Stewardship Plan provides DOE and other decision makers with information about the existing and expected capabilities of the ESIF and the expected performance metrics to be applied to ESIF operations. This plan is a living document that will be updated and refined throughout the lifetime of the facility.

  9. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship: Use of Administrative and Surveillance Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Marci; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Daniel J; Lee, Grace M

    2016-11-01

    Administrative and surveillance data are used frequently in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship (HE&AS) research because of their wide availability and efficiency. However, data quality issues exist, requiring careful consideration and potential validation of data. This methods paper presents key considerations for using administrative and surveillance data in HE&AS, including types of data available and potential use, data limitations, and the importance of validation. After discussing these issues, we review examples of HE&AS research using administrative data with a focus on scenarios when their use may be advantageous. A checklist is provided to help aid study development in HE&AS using administrative data. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-10.

  10. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Quasi-Experimental Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L; Braun, Barbara I; Milstone, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt, nonrandomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into 3 major types: interrupted time-series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  11. Considering a new domain for antimicrobial stewardship: Topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David; Spencer, Maureen; Truitt, Karen; Litz Fauerbach, Loretta; Graham, Denise; Johnson, Helen Boehm

    2017-11-01

    The global push to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance has led to the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), which were recently mandated by The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. However, the use of topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound is often not monitored by these programs nor is it subject to any evidence-based standardization of care. Survey results indicate that the practice of using topical antibiotics intraoperatively, in both irrigation fluids and powders, is widespread. Given the risks inherent in their use and the lack of evidence supporting it, the practice should be monitored as a core part of ASPs, and alternative agents, such as antiseptics, should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urine culture guided antibiotic interventions: A pharmacist driven antimicrobial stewardship effort in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Rowan, Nicole; Pflugeisen, Bethann Mangel; Alajbegovic, Sanjin

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are overprescribed for abnormal urine tests including asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), contributing to rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Pharmacists reviewed urine cultures daily from emergency department (ED) encounters to assess antibiotic appropriateness. We studied antibiotic prescribing practices and assessed compliance to national guidelines, correlations with urine analysis (UA) components, and opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in the ED. This quality improvement project (QIP) was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital ED, with data collected from finalized urine cultures resulting October 30, 2014 through January 5, 2015. Analyses were conducted using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests and stepwise multiple logistic regression. Urine cultures from 457 encounters were reviewed, of which 136 met the inclusion criteria as non-pregnant and asymptomatic for urinary tract infection (UTI). 43% of 136 patients were treated with antibiotics, for a total of 426 antibiotic days. Pharmacist interventions for these patients resulted in 122/426 (29%) of potential antibiotic days saved. Factors found to significantly increase the odds of antibiotic prescribing in asymptomatic patients included presence of leukocyte esterase (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-17.2; p=0.03) or nitrites (OR=10.8, 95% CI: 1.7-68.1; p=0.01) in the urine and age≥75 (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-9.6, p=0.02). Pharmacist intervention in discontinuing or modifying antibiotics for asymptomatic patients with urine cultures reduced unnecessary antibiotic exposure and was a first step in antimicrobial stewardship efforts in the ED. Future work includes limiting urine tests and subsequent antibiotic therapy for non-pregnant asymptomatic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The resistance tsunami, antimicrobial stewardship, and the golden age of microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F

    2014-07-16

    Modern medicine is built on antibiotics. Antibiotics are something that we take for granted. We have however spent over 60 years educating bacteria to become resistant, and the global resistance tsunami has caught everyone unawares. Since bacteria have changed, we also have to change, and to change most of the practices of how we use antibiotics. Because the development of new antibiotics is so expensive, a stewardship approach may help to preserve those that we have now while we work to develop new antibiotics and to develop other approaches to controlling and treating infections. We need to adopt the ethic of Good Stewardship Practice (GSP) as an active and dynamic process of continuous improvement in antibiotic use, a process with many steps of different sizes involving everyone involved in antibiotic use. All antibiotic users have an important role to play in GSP. Although the resistance situation is pessimistic, and the future of antibiotics looks uncertain, we are fortunately entering what may be seen as the golden age of microbiology. This encompasses an astonishing array of technologies for rapid pathogen and resistance gene detection, for clone identification by genome sequencing, for identification of novel bacterial genes and for identification of the Achilles' heels of different pathogens. Future antibiotics may have to be far more targeted to the individual pathogen and the site of infection. A global tax on antibiotics might reduce their use while funding the cost of developing new antibiotics and new approaches to control of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Outcomes of a Pharmacy-Led Blood Factor Stewardship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueg, Anne O; Lowe, Christopher; Kiel, Patrick J

    To report the results of a pharmacist-directed blood factor stewardship program targeting off-label utilization designed to limit use to established organizational guidelines in high-risk populations. Prospective evaluation of recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate orders beginning June 2013 through May 2014 and a matched retrospective cohort from June 2012 to May 2013. Matched cohorts were evaluated for 28-day mortality, change in international normalized ratio (INR), adverse events, concurrent blood product use, and cost savings. Forty-two orders for blood factor were ordered between June 2013 and May 2014, 70 orders in the year before (N = 112). Twenty eight-day mortality was not different between the cohorts: 53.9% versus 50% (P = 0.77). Blood factor use with underlying liver failure and active bleeding was strongly associated with 28-day mortality: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 2.9 (1.5-7.14) and 2.91 (0.01-2.91), respectively. Blood products dispensed increased over the year with plasma products the most significant (1 vs. 4 P = 0.004). All other clinical outcomes were nonsignificant. An annual cost savings of $375,539 was achieved, primarily through a significant reduction in recombinant factor VIIa and avoidance in high-risk patients. Use of off-label blood factors can be controlled through a pharmacist-led stewardship program. Twenty eight-day mortality was not different between the 2 cohorts; however, identification of risk factors for death associated with blood factor use allows for restriction in high-risk populations, creates a discussion of futile care, and yields cost savings.

  15. Antimicrobial stewardship through telemedicine and its impact on multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rodrigo P; Dalmora, Camila H; Lukasewicz, Stephani A; Carvalho, Otávio; Deutschendorf, Caroline; Lima, Raquel; Leitzke, Tiago; Correa, Nilson C; Gambetta, Marcelo V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine technologies are increasingly being incorporated into infectious disease practice. We aimed to demonstrate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship through telemedicine on bacterial resistance rates. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental study in a 220-bed hospital in southern Brazil. An antimicrobial stewardship program incorporating the use of telemedicine was implemented. Resistance and antimicrobial consumption rates were determined and analysed using a segmented regression model. Results After the intervention, the rate of appropriate antimicrobial prescription increased from 51.4% at baseline to 81.4%. Significant reductions in the consumption of fluoroquinolones (level change, β = -0.80; P change, β = -0.01; P = 0.98), first-generation cephalosporins (level change, β = -0.91; P change, β = +0.01; P = 0.96), vancomycin (level change, β = -0.47; P = 0.04; trend change, β = +0.17; P = 0.66) and polymyxins (level change, β = -0.15; P = 0.56; trend change, β = -1.75; P change, β = +0.84; P change, β = +0.14; P = 0.41) and cefuroxime (level change, β = +0.21; P = 0.17; trend change, β = +0.66; P = 0.02). A significant decrease in the rate of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolation (level change, β = +0.66; P = 0.01; trend change, β = -1.26; P resistance.

  16. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Maricela; Muñoz, Patricia; Rodríguez-González, Carmen; Sanjurjo, María; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly in most tertiary centers. However, antifungal stewardship has received very little attention. The objective of this article was to assess the knowledge of prescribing physicians in our institution as a first step in the development of an antifungal stewardship program. Attending physicians from the departments that prescribe most antifungals were invited to complete a questionnaire based on current guidelines on diagnosis and therapy of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis (IA). The survey was completed by 60.8% (200/329) of the physicians who were invited to participate. The physicians belonged to the following departments: medical (60%), pediatric (19%), intensive care (15.5%), and surgical (5.5%). The mean (±SD) score of correct responses was 5.16±1.73. In the case of candidiasis, only 55% of the physicians clearly distinguished between colonization and infection, and 17.5% knew the local rate of fluconazole resistance. Thirty-three percent knew the accepted indications for antifungal prophylaxis, and 23% the indications for empirical therapy. However, most physicians knew which antifungals to choose when starting empirical therapy (73.5%). As for aspergillosis, most physicians (67%) could differentiate between colonization and infection, and 34.5% knew the diagnostic value of galactomannan. The radiological features of IA were well recognized by 64%, but only 31.5% were aware of the first line of treatment for IA, and 36% of the recommended duration of therapy. The usefulness of antifungal levels was known by 67%. This simple, easily completed questionnaire enabled us to identify which areas of our training strategy could be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Traducción Económica, Comercial y Financiera II. Tarea 2: Elaboración de BDT del ámbito económico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Sierra, Chelo

    2011-01-01

    El uso de textos comparables y/o paralelos recogidos en la tarea 1 y la elaboración de fichas terminológicas, glosarios y bases de datos relacionados con la traducción económica, financiera y comercial constituyen las actividades fundamentales de este segundo bloque.

  18. Fire as a long-term stewardship issue for soils contaminated with radionuclides in the western U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, David S.; DuBois, David; Etyemezian, Vic; Kavouras, Ilias; Miller, Julianne J.; Nikolich, George; Stone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    On both U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Defense sites in the southwestern United States (U.S.), significant areas of surface soils are contaminated with radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear testing, and with depleted uranium, primarily from military training. At DOE sites in Nevada, the proposed regulatory closure strategy for most sites is to leave contaminants in place with administrative controls and periodic monitoring. Closure-in-place is considered an acceptable strategy because the contaminated sites exist on access-restricted facilities, decreasing the potential risk to public receptor, the high cost and feasibility of excavating contaminated soils over large areas, and the environmental impacts of excavating desert soils that recover very slowly from disturbance. The largest of the contaminated sites on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada covers over 1,200 hectares. However, a factor that has not been fully investigated in the long-term stewardship of these sites is the potential effects of fires. Because of the long half-lives of some of the contaminants (e.g., 24,100 years for 239 Pu) and changes in land-cover and climatic factors that are increasing the frequency of fires throughout the western U.S., it should be assumed that all of these sites will eventually burn, possibly multiple times, during the time frame when they still pose a risk. Two primary factors are contributing to increased fire frequency. The first is the spread of invasive grasses, particularly cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens), which have out-competed native annuals and invaded inter-spaces between shrubs, allowing fires to burn easier. The second is a sharp increase in fire frequency and size throughout the western U.S. beginning in the mid-1980's. This second factor appears to correlate with an increase in average spring and summer temperatures, which may be contributing to earlier loss of soil moisture and longer periods of dry plant biomass

  19. El crecimiento económico y la supervivencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Lauchlin

    1993-12-01

    our times.Currie, Lauchlin, El crecimiento económico y la supervivencia", cuadernos de Economía, vol. XIII, Números 18 -19, Bogotá, 1993, pp. 301-312. En este artículo Currie alerta score los peligros inminentes de un crecimiento no dirigido ni planeado, el cual puede llegar a tornase inmanejable, constituyéndose en una seria amenaza para la supervivencia misma de la humanidad. Pese a que los países en desarrollo aún deben procurar alcanzar tasas mayores de crecimiento, dados los inmensos niveles de pobreza de la mayoría de su población, Currie alerta sobre los peligros inherentes al crecimiento mismo. En efecto, el increíble cambio tecnológico suscitado en los dos últimos siglos carece de dirección básica, crece el armamentismo, se destruye el medio ambiente y se profundiza la especialización. El cambio tecnológico y el crecimiento económico han creado al mismo tiempo peligrosas amenazas para la supervivencia humana en condiciones satisfactorias, Deben buscarse maneras de moldear el medioambiente y la cultura, para así escapar a las amenazas, o al menos, reducirlas. Se está ensanchando la brecha entre nuestra capacidad técnica y nuestra percepción  humanística, debe buscarse por tanto un control consciente que permita multiplicar, desde las universidades, una formación más generalista, única capaz de permitir una reflexión profunda sobre el futuro y de llevarnos a proponer eficaces soluciones. Si queremos sobrevivir, no debemos esperar que estas soluciones vengan de los especialistas de los distintos campos de las ciencias. Se concluye que, puesto que el problema esencial es como emplear la intel

  20. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, G. Levy; Kanj, S.S.; Pagani, L.; Abbo, L.; Endimiani, A.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Amabile-Cuevas, C.; Tattevin, P.; Mehtar, S.; Cardoso, F.; Unal, S.; Gould, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results:

  1. Compreensão econômica de estudantes entre 10 e 15 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bessa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos 50 anos, ocorreram significativas mudanças sociais, culturais, políticas, econômicas e tecnológicas que afetam o comportamento de pré-adolescentes e jovens. Essa faixa etária necessita de investigações sobre sua compreensão do mundo econômico e o papel da família no processo de socialização econômica. Por isso, a presente pesquisa tem por objetivo principal caracterizar a compreensão econômica de 830 estudantes de 10 a 15 anos de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos, moradores da cidade de São Paulo. O instrumento utilizado foi o Teste de Alfabetização Econômica para crianças, TAE-N. Com abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa, utilizou-se o desenho descritivo-comparativo e correlacional. Apresenta-se a frequência das variáveis categóricas; valores de frequência absoluta, percentual; média e desvio-padrão; utilizou-se o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach; teste Qui-Quadrado. Para a comparação de medidas contínuas ou ordenáveis, valeu-se dos testes Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Os resultados demonstram uma socialização econômica insuficiente para lidar com as exigências do mundo econômico.

  2. Crecimiento económico de China durante la crisis financiera mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Villezca Becerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito global, China se sigue haciendo cada vez más fuerte. La evidencia más contundente proviene de su sobresaliente desempeño económico durante los años 2008 y 2009 en el entorno de la crisis financiera mundial más grave desde la Gran Depresión de los años treinta. Aun cuando algunos de sus principales indicadores económicos muestran un crecimiento más lento durante estos años, la economía china experimentó una rápida recuperación, revirtiendo los efectos negativos de la crisis. En este contexto, el presente trabajo revisa los logros económicos y el manejo de su política económica para enfrentar la crisis e intenta explicar las razones de su éxito. El gobierno central implementó políticas fiscales y monetarias expansivas y aplicó un conjunto de incentivos económicos, a fin de impulsar la demanda interna y sostener el crecimiento económico frente a la reducción de la demanda externa. Como resultado, los aspectos fundamentales de la economía: el crecimiento económico, la producción industrial, el comercio internacional y la inversión extranjera directa, estuvieron mucho mejor que los del resto de las economías del mundo. La evidencia indica que las diferencias se deben a las características distintivas de su modelo de desarrollo, entre las que resalta el papel que juega la intervención del gobierno para implementar una economía dirigida, o guiada de mercado, en contraste con el libre mercado occidental.

  3. Development of an Evidence-Based Antimicrobial Stewardship Smartphone App in a Tertiary Academic Pediatric and Women’s Health Centre in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Slayter, Kathryn; Turple, Jennifer; Comeau, Jeannette L; Top, Karina A; Langley, Joanne M; Mailman, Tim; Halperin, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smart phone use by medical professionals is ubiquitous. In a recent survey, > 90% of health care providers were interested in locally developed antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infectious diseases applications (“apps”). We describe the process by which our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) developed an app to provide guidance regarding empiric antimicrobial choice, and education about antimicrobials and pathogens, integrating local laboratory data. We also describ...

  4. Successful control of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using antibiotic stewardship and infection control programs at a Chinese university hospital: a 6-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu L

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lei Liu,1 Bin Liu,1 Yu Li,2 Wei Zhang1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is emerging as a highly multidrug-resistant (MDR nosocomial pathogen. Data on the efficacy of infection control measures in endemic situations are lacking. We investigated the effect of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS and infection control programs (ICPs in controlling the resistance of P. aeruginosa at a tertiary hospital center.Methods: Susceptibility and resistance were investigated using broth microdilution, as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Antibiotic use was restricted through AMS, which included a classification management system for antibiotic use. The ICPs included environmental cleaning and disinfection, hand hygiene, active surveillance of P. aeruginosa, and education about infection control.Results: A total of 2,241 P. aeruginosa isolates were evaluated between 2012 and 2017. Sensitivity and resistance of the isolates to the antipseudomonal antimicrobials colistin and tigecycline were stable. The sensitivity and resistance to other antipseudomonal antimicrobials improved after 2014, after the AMS and ICPs were implemented in 2013. The use of alcohol-based hand gel significantly increased from 0.6 to 10.9 L per 1,000 patient-days (PD during the study period (P=0.005. The incidence rates of extensively drug-resistant (XDR and MDR P. aeruginosa showed a sustained decrease from 2013 (4.9 and 22% to 2017 (1 and 15%, respectively. The yearly consumption of antimicrobial agents also showed a sustained and significant decrease from 45 defined daily doses (DDDs per 1,000 PD to 38.15 DDDs per 1,000 PD (P=0.04. A significant correlation was found between the incidence rate of MDR P. aeruginosa and the

  5. Challenges in the Management and Stewardship of Airborne Observational Data at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, J.; Daniels, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) funding for the operation, maintenance and upgrade of two research aircraft: the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Gulfstream V and the NSF/NCAR Hercules C-130. A suite of in-situ and remote sensing airborne instruments housed at the EOL Research Aviation Facility (RAF) provide a basic set of measurements that are typically deployed on most airborne field campaigns. In addition, instruments to address more specific research requirements are provided by collaborating participants from universities, industry, NASA, NOAA or other agencies (referred to as Principal Investigator, or PI, instruments). At the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, a poster (IN13B-3639) was presented outlining the components of Airborne Data Management included field phase data collection, formats, data archival and documentation, version control, storage practices, stewardship and obsolete data formats, and public data access. This talk will cover lessons learned, challenges associated with the above components, and current developments to address these challenges, including: tracking data workflows for aircraft instrumentation to facilitate identification, and correction, of gaps in these workflows; implementation of dataset versioning guidelines; and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to data and instrumentation to facilitate tracking data and facility use in publications.

  6. 1999 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENGEL-COX,J.; ZIMMERMAN,E.; LEE,R.; WILLIAMS,J.; GREEN,T.; PAQUETTE,D.; HOODA,B.; SCARPITTA,S.; GENZER,P.; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    Throughout the scientific community, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is renowned for its leading-edge research in physics, medicine, chemistry, biology, materials, and the environment. BNL is committed to supporting its world-class scientific research with an internationally recognized environmental protection program. The 1999 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes the status of the Laboratory's environmental programs and performance, including the steady progress towards cleaning up the site and fully integrating environmental stewardship into all facets of the Laboratory's mission. BNL is located on 5,265 acres of pine barrens in Suffolk County in the center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated above a sole source aquifer at the headwaters of the Peconic River; therefore, protecting ground and surface water quality is a special concern. Approximately 3,600 acres of the site are undeveloped and serve as habitat for a wide variety of animals and plants, including one New York State endangered species, the tiger salamander, and two New York State threatened species, the banded sunfish and the stiff goldenrod. Monitoring, preserving, and restoring these ecological resources is a high priority for the Laboratory.

  7. 2002 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2003-10-01

    The 2002 Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting'', and summarizes the status of Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) environmental programs and performance and restoration efforts, as well as any impacts, both past and present, that Laboratory operations have had on the environment. The document is intended to be technical in nature. A summary of the report is also prepared as a separate document to provide a general overview and includes a CD version of the full report. Operated by Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA) for the Department of Energy (DOE), BNL manages its world-class scientific research with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. BNL's motto, ''Exploring Life's Mysteries...Protecting its Future'', reflects BNL's management philosophy to fully integrate environmental stewardship into all facets of its missions, with a health balance between science and the environment.

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2008-04-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  11. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on antibiotic usage and resistance in a tertiary hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-G; Chen, F; Ou, Y

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial misuse has been commonly observed in China. This phenomenon can cause antibiotic resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme implemented in a tertiary hospital in China from 2011 to 2014. The antimicrobial stewardship programme began in 2011. Data on the consumption of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance between 2011 and 2014 were collected. Comparison of the 2011 data with those of 2014 showed that antibiotic defined daily doses/per 100 patient-days decreased from 92.5±2.8 to 35.8±1.2 (Padministrative management, especially information management, was effective in reducing antibiotic consumption and lessening antibiotic resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Designing Program Roadmaps to Catalyze Community Formation: A Case Study of the Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmapword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Brent; Hanson, Duane; Matthern, Gretchen

    2003-01-01

    A number of broad perspective technology roadmaps have been developed in the last few years as tools for coordinating nation-wide research in targeted areas. These roadmaps share a common characteristic of coalescing the associated stakeholder groups into a special-interest community that is willing to work cooperatively in achieving the roadmap goals. These communities are key to roadmap implementation as they provide the collaborative energy necessary to obtain the political support and funding required for identified science and technology development efforts. This paper discusses the relationship between roadmaps and special-interest communities, using the recently drafted Department of Energy's Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap as a case study. Specific aspects this roadmap's design facilitated the development of a long-term stewardship community while specific realities during roadmap development impacted the realization of the design

  13. The GridEcon Platform: A Business Scenario Testbed for Commercial Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Marcel; Altmann, Jörn; Guo, Li; Fleming, Alan; Courcoubetis, Costas

    Within this paper, we present the GridEcon Platform, a testbed for designing and evaluating economics-aware services in a commercial Cloud computing setting. The Platform is based on the idea that the exact working of such services is difficult to predict in the context of a market and, therefore, an environment for evaluating its behavior in an emulated market is needed. To identify the components of the GridEcon Platform, a number of economics-aware services and their interactions have been envisioned. The two most important components of the platform are the Marketplace and the Workflow Engine. The Workflow Engine allows the simple composition of a market environment by describing the service interactions between economics-aware services. The Marketplace allows trading goods using different market mechanisms. The capabilities of these components of the GridEcon Platform in conjunction with the economics-aware services are described in this paper in detail. The validation of an implemented market mechanism and a capacity planning service using the GridEcon Platform also demonstrated the usefulness of the GridEcon Platform.

  14. A racionalidade econômica - abordagem histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Benevides Pinho

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto Os estudos de comportamento econômico estão ligados, de modo geral, tanto à análise da racionalidade intencional, buscada pelos agentes econômicos, para atingir os fins a que se propõem, como à análise da racionalidade não-intencional dos diferentes sistemas econômicos, na medida em que estes procuram assegurar o aumento dos meios de produção, a elevação do padrão de vida da população, etc. Neste sentido, pode-se dizer que a análise do comportamento econômico está relacionada com a confrontação, quer de sistemas econômicos diferentes, quer das doutrinas e teorias que tentam explicar seus respectivos mecanismos de ação e suas possibilidades de atingir os objetivos visados.

  15. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on appropriateness of prescribing for community-acquired pneumonia in an Australian regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stuart E; Boutlis, Craig S; Yeo, Wilfred W; Miyakis, Spiros

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. The effectiveness of agricultural stewardship for improving water quality at the catchment scale: Experiences from an NVZ and ECSFDI watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Grayson, Richard; Phillips, Martin; Stanley, Karen; Dodsworth, Alan; Hanson, Ann; Walker, Andrew; Foulger, Miles; McDonnell, Iain; Taylor, Simon

    2012-02-01

    SummaryAgriculture is estimated to be responsible for 70% of nitrate and 30-50% of phosphorus pollution, contributing to ecological and water treatment problems. Despite the fact that significant gaps remain in our understanding, it is known that agricultural stewardship can be highly effective in controlling water pollution at the plot and field scales. Knowledge at the catchment scale is, to a large extent, entirely lacking though and this is of paramount concern given that the catchment is the management unit used by regulatory authorities. The few studies that have examined the impact of agricultural stewardship at the catchment scale have found that Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) in the UK have resulted in little improvement in water quality which concurs with the current catchment study. In addition to NVZs, there was little evidence to suggest that the England Catchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative had impacted water quality and suggestions have been made for improvements, such as ensuring that stewardship measures are used in key pollution source areas and their implementation and impacts are monitored more closely. This will be essential if agricultural catchment management schemes are going to provide the benefits expected of them. Nevertheless, more intensive monitoring than that carried out by regulators showed a significant trend in decreasing winter nitrate peaks in some streams which is hypothesised to be due to recent reduced inorganic fertiliser application as a result of increasing prices. It was concluded that, collectively, these findings indicate that agricultural stewardship measures have the potential to improve water quality at the catchment scale but that voluntary schemes with insufficient financial reward or regulatory pressure are unlikely to be successful.

  17. Fish stakes: the pros and cons of the Marine Stewardship Council initiative: a debate from the pages of SAMUDRA Report

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The recent effort by two global organizations, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Anglo-Dutch multinational, Unilever, to establish an independent Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as a conservation partnership to create market incentives for sustainable fishing has attracted a great deal of attention-as well as controversy. In this dossier, the pros and cons of the SC initiative are argued out in a series of articles that first appeared in SAMUDRA Report, the triannual publication o...

  18. Next Generation Cloud-based Science Data Systems and Their Implications on Data and Software Stewardship, Preservation, and Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Starch, M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's upcoming missions are expected to be generating data volumes at least an order of magnitude larger than current missions. A significant increase in data processing, data rates, data volumes, and long-term data archive capabilities are needed. Consequently, new challenges are emerging that impact traditional data and software management approaches. At large-scales, next generation science data systems are exploring the move onto cloud computing paradigms to support these increased needs. New implications such as costs, data movement, collocation of data systems & archives, and moving processing closer to the data, may result in changes to the stewardship, preservation, and provenance of science data and software. With more science data systems being on-boarding onto cloud computing facilities, we can expect more Earth science data records to be both generated and kept in the cloud. But at large scales, the cost of processing and storing global data may impact architectural and system designs. Data systems will trade the cost of keeping data in the cloud with the data life-cycle approaches of moving "colder" data back to traditional on-premise facilities. How will this impact data citation and processing software stewardship? What are the impacts of cloud-based on-demand processing and its affect on reproducibility and provenance. Similarly, with more science processing software being moved onto cloud, virtual machines, and container based approaches, more opportunities arise for improved stewardship and preservation. But will the science community trust data reprocessed years or decades later? We will also explore emerging questions of the stewardship of the science data system software that is generating the science data records both during and after the life of mission.

  19. Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A

    2017-01-01

    The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS program is vital for the improvement of patient care. Almost all of respondents agreed that pharmacists can play a prominent role in AMS and infection prevention (93.2%, median = 5; IQR = 2–5. However, only 26.5% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS should be practiced at community pharmacy level (median = 4, IQR = 1–3 and more than half of community pharmacists (59.9% often/always dispense antimicrobial without a prescription. Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement.

  1. Resilience design: toward a synthesis of cognition, learning, and collaboration for adaptive problem solving in conservation and natural resource stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Curtin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the resilience design approach, I propose to extend the resilience paradigm by re-examining the components of adaptive decision-making and governance processes. The approach can be divided into three core components: (1 equity design, i.e., the integration of collaborative approaches to conservation and adaptive governance that generates effective self-organization and emergence in conservation and natural resource stewardship; (2 process design, i.e., the generation of more effective knowledge through strategic development of information inputs; and (3 outcome design, i.e., the pragmatic synthesis of the previous two approaches, generating a framework for developing durable and dynamic conservation and stewardship. The design of processes that incorporate perception and learning is critical to generating durable solutions, especially in developing linkages between wicked social and ecological challenges. Starting from first principles based on human cognition, learning, and collaboration, coupled with nearly two decades of practical experience designing and implementing ecosystem-level conservation and restoration programs, I present how design-based approaches to conservation and stewardship can be achieved. This context is critical in helping practitioners and resources managers undertake more effective policy and practice.

  2. Campaign Preparation for Complex Initiatives: A Person-Centered Approach to Audience Segmentation of Parents' Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; MacGeorge, Erina L; Hackman, Nicole M; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2017-10-25

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance is outpacing the speed at which new antibiotics will reach the marketplace. To slow the rate of resistance, people need to engage in antibiotic stewardship, which includes acts to prevent the spread of bacteria and judicious use of antibiotics to treat infections. This study identified the patterns and predictors of antibiotic stewardship behaviors of parents (N = 516) related to their children. The latent class analysis revealed three profiles of parental stewardship, labeled Stewards, Requesters, and Non-Stewards. The findings implied different campaign goals: to encourage Stewards to follow through on their intentions, to encourage Requesters to stop asking providers for antibiotics when their children have ear infections, and to influence Non-Stewards to accept medical advice when an antibiotic is not indicated and to dispose of leftover antibiotics. The covariate analysis provided theoretical insight into the strategies to pursue in campaigns targeting these three groups. For example, parents who perceived antibiotic-resistant infections as less serious health conditions, felt less worry when thinking about their child getting an antibiotic-resistant infection, and had stronger misattributions of antibiotics' efficacy to treat multiple symptoms were more likely to be Requesters and Non-Stewards, instead of Stewards.

  3. Proposta de metodologia para análise dos grupos econômicos

    OpenAIRE

    Rabelo, Flávio Marcílio

    1996-01-01

    Este artigo discute importantes questões metodológicas relacionadas ao projeto "Grupos econômicos da indústria brasileira e a política econômica: estrutura, estratégias e desafios", pesquisa conjunta entre o Instituto de Economia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas e a Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo da Fundação Getúlio Vargas (EAESP/FGV). Analisa as estratégias corporativas dos grupos econômicos baseando-se nos conceitos de sinergia, competências básicas e produtos básicos....

  4. ESPÍRITU EMPRESARIAL como estrategia de competitividad y desarrollo económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Crissien Castillo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos el tema del desarrollo económico basado en ventajas competitivas ha tomado suma importancia. Se han planteado modelos para lograr estos objetivos. Tradicionalmente se propone que el gobierno sea el generador de políticas de bienestar. En este artículo se presenta un modelo que aborda el desarrollo económico y por ende el bienestar desde otro punto de vista: el espíritu empresarial que propicia una cultura empresarial. De individuos con espíritu empresarial surgen los empresarios, los verdaderos iniciadores del progreso económico, los generadores de riqueza. Diversos estudios internacionales plantean que los empresarios se hacen gracias a dos perspectivas: la necesidad y la oportunidad. En nuestro país la gran mayoría ha surgido y siguen surgiendo por necesidad.

  5. Necesidad e importancia de las matemáticas en las Ciencias Económicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Viedma

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de responder la pregunta: ¿qué función ejercen las matemáticas en las ciencias económicas? Se hace, entonces, un recorrido por las etapas del conocimiento humano: la mítica, la intuitiva, la experimental y la racional y, luego, se describe el proceso de elaboración de un modelo económico abstracto en el que las matemáticas juegan un papel fundamental so pena de que el economista quiera construir una ciencia de juguete. Para apoyar la idea de que las matemáticas son importantes y necesarias en la economía, se presenta un resumen de una encuesta dirigida por Paul Samuelson a economistas notables, publicada en 1954. Los resultados apuntan, precisamente, a señalar que las matemáticas tienen una función fundamental en las Ciencias Económicas.

  6. Keynes: o liberalismo econômico como mito Keynes: the economic liberalism as a myth

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cezar Dutra Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    O artigo tem por objetivo recuperar os principais argumentos de Keynes em suas críticas ao liberalismo econômico, este entendido como as teorias e práticas de política econômica adotadas pelo mainstream no campo da Ciência Econômica e simbolicamente respaldado na máxima do laissez-faire. Embora as obras de maior fôlego de Keynes situem-se no campo da economia teórica, há trabalhos seus que permitem detectar sua ideologia e, mais explicitamente, o teor de sua crítica ao liberalismo clássico. O...

  7. Gestão econômica de investimentos em ativos fixos

    OpenAIRE

    Catelli,Armando; Parisi,Cláudio; Santos,Edilene Santana

    2003-01-01

    Num ambiente global de intensas mudanças competitivas, a mensuração dos ativos, especificamente dos ativos fixos, requer a superação da rigidez dos custos históricos e da depreciação linear, próprios da contabilidade tradicional, e a adoção de critérios que permitam avaliar adequadamente a realidade econômica desses ativos. Partindo da premissa de que o patrimônio líquido deve representar o valor da empresa, e de que sua variação expressa o resultado econômico, o Sistema de Gestão Econômica -...

  8. La gerencia emprendedora innovadora como catalizador del emprendimiento económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Emilia Petit Torres

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analizó la gerencia emprendedora innovadora como catalizador del emprendimiento económico. La metodología empleada fue cualitativa basada en la aplicación del método interpretativo, propuesto por Joseph Kockelmans (1975. En el contenido se desarrollan los siguientes aspectos:1 La importancia económica de la innovación como variable endógena, 2 La cultura de la innovación como elemento para la aceleración del progreso endógeno, 3 La gestión de la Transferencia de Innovación para el Desarrollo Regional, 4 Naturaleza y alcance del Emprendimiento, 5 El Emprendimiento Económico, 6 Alcance social del Emprendimiento y su impacto en el Proceso de Desarrollo Endógeno Sustentable y 7 El Capital Social y Emprendimiento en el ámbito local y en el ámbito regional. Se interpretó que la gerencia emprendedora innovadora como conocimiento útil, se constituye en la disciplina que dinamiza recursos, capacidades y competencias para la generación de conocimiento y perspectiva estratégica y organizacional funda la tecnología o conocimiento aplicado para explotar nuevas oportunidades que económicamente generen valor. Se concluye que el emprendimiento económico constituye la nueva tecnología de la gerencia empresaria innovadora que acelera el surgimiento de nuevas iniciativas e impulsa el crecimiento y desarrollo económico de los países.

  9. Política econômica e Estado Economic policy and State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Clark

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca, pela óptica do direito econômico, as influências das políticas econômicas privadas (basicamente do capital transnacional e dos entes internacionais sobre as políticas econômicas públicas, especialmente as realizadas pelos Estados em desenvolvimento. Enfatiza a mutação do neoliberalismo de regulamentação para o de regulação como exigência dos poderes econômicos privados, identificando entre os seus resultados o enfraquecimento do Estado e a descrença na democracia. E, ainda, defende a existência de espaços para a execução de ações econômicas endógenas por parte dos Estados Nacionais, a fim de viabilizar a eficácia de suas Constituições econômicas e suprir as carências de seus povos.This paper deal with, by Economical Law view, the effects of private economic policy, essentially of foreign capital, and the international organizations above the public economic policy, mainly that politics performed by the development nations. Lay emphasis on the mutation of the regulatory New Liberalism to the regulation as demand of private economic powers, recongnized enter their results: The decline of the State and the unbelief of democracy. Defends existence of spaces for the execution of endogenous economic actions by part of National States, for the purpose of execute effectiveness of their economical constitution and supply the shortage of their people.

  10. Economic policy and state Política econômica e estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Clark

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with, by Economical Law view, the effects of private economic policy, essentially of foreign capital, and the international organizations above the public economic policy, mainly that politics performed by the development nations. Lay emphasis on the mutation of the regulatory New Liberalism to the regulation as demand of private economic powers, recongnized enter their results: The decline of the State and the unbelief of democracy. Defends existence of spaces for the execution of endogenous economic actions by part of National States, for the purpose of execute effectiveness of their economical constitution and supply the shortage of their people.O artigo enfoca, pela ótica do Direito Econômico, as influências das políticas econômicas privadas (basicamente do capital transnacional e dos entes internacionais sobre as políticas econômicas públicas, principalmente as realizadas pelos Estados em desenvolvimento. Enfatiza a mutação do Neoliberalismo de Regulamentação para o de Regulação como exigência dos poderes econômicos privados, identificando entre os seus resultados: o enfraquecimento do Estado e a descrença na Democracia. E ainda, defende a existência de espaços para a execução de ações econômicas endógenas por parte dos Estados nacionais, a fim de viabilizar a eficácia de suas Constituições Econômicas e suprir as carências de seus povos.

  11. Crecimiento económico, convergencia y concentración económica espacial en las entidades federativas de México 1970-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Asuad Sanén

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal del presente trabajo es identificar la formación de clubes o núcleos de convergencia y divergencia que el crecimiento económico ha propiciado en las entidades federativas de México y el papel e importancia de los factores geo-espaciales en dichas formaciones. El estudio se realiza mediante un análisis comparativo entre el crecimiento económico y las hipótesis de convergencia, a partir de un modelo de regresión espacial de corte transversal. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la existencia de distintos procesos de convergencia en las entidades federativas del país, identificándose la presencia de núcleos de convergencia, los cuales tienden a diferentes estados estacionarios, manteniéndose las diferencias en el ingreso per cápita y en el desarrollo de los estados del país. Además se revela la importancia y estrecha relación entre la localización geo-espacial y la formación de núcleos de convergencia en el crecimiento económico de las entidades federativas del país.

  12. Marco regulatorio para la competencia de agentes económicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Zarama S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo procura llevar a cabo una aproximación preliminar al vínculo existente entre las ciencias jurídicas y las ciencias económicas. Partiendo de la compilación normativa, explora la incidencia que tiene elcomportamiento del mercado y sus agentes en la producción de normas, y asu vez, cómo la regulación desde el ámbito del derecho establece límites a laactuación de los agentes económicos.

  13. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Sánchez, Ana; Zerpa López, Leiniz; Martínez Ramírez, Marle

    2008-01-01

    En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, se muestra la aplicabilidad de dicho modelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal...

  14. Derechos de propiedad y bienestar: una aproximación económica

    OpenAIRE

    Aizpurua Agirre, José María

    2004-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en el III Symposium celebrado en Donostia-San Sebastián en diciembre de 2003, dedicado a la propiedad pública y privada en los territorios de Vasconia. En este trabajo se presentan las explicaciones que economistas e historiadores del crecimiento económico occidental han dado sobre los efectos que los derechos de propiedad mantenidos en una sociedad, tienen sobre los incentivos económicos de los individuos que la componen y sus consecuencias en la asunción de iniciativa...

  15. Crecimiento económico y equidad en Boyacá durante 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Rodríguez Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento económico no trae consigo mejoras inmediatas en la distribución del ingreso. Las políticas redistributivas pueden contribuir a corregir la inequidad social. El autor analiza cuál ha sido la incidencia del crecimiento de la economía boyacense, durante el periodo 2000-2011, en aspectos tales como pobreza, equidad distributiva, desarrollo humano y desempeño delmercado laboral, determinando que no existe una asociación positiva concluyente entre el dinamismo económico y sus correlatos sociales.

  16. La planificacion económica en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Rodero Franganillo

    2006-01-01

    RESUMEN Se analiza la política económica y social de la Junta de Andalucía durante el período autonómico, en cuanto a los planes de distinto carácter. En concreto, se estudian los planes económicos, los planes de desarrollo regional, los acuerdos de concertación social y los programas sectoriales y horizontales. En cada uno de ellos, se expone, en lo posible, la historia de los planes, su elaboración y tramitación, la estrategia seguida, los objetivos, las prioridades sectoriales, la financi...

  17. Comunidades virtuales y producción de inteligencia económica y competitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Andrea Vasconcelos

    2007-01-01

    CARVALHO, Andréa Vasconcelos . Comunidades virtuales y producción de inteligencia económica y competitiva. Inteligencia y Seguridad: revista de análisis y prospectiva, v. 3, p. 13-45, 2007 Se defiende que las comunidades virtuales ofrecen información útil para la generación de inteligencia económica y competitiva. Así, se identifican y describen las principales aplicaciones de las comunidades virtuales para la producción de estos tipos de inteligencia. Sin embargo, no se disponen...

  18. La filosofía de la integración económica internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Villegas Galarza

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los estudios consagrados a definir el concepto de "integración económica internacional". La definición debe plantear tres preguntas, a las cuales trataremos de hallar respuesta, o, a lo menos, encontrar algunos elementos de definición. Ellas son: 1 ¿Existen mecanismos de integración internacional? 2 ¿Cómo se resuelve el problema del comando económico en un conjunto de vías de integración? 3 ¿Qué representa la idea de integración para la actual economía del mundo?

  19. Experience With Rapid Microarray-Based Diagnostic Technology and Antimicrobial Stewardship for Patients With Gram-Positive Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Elizabeth A; Pallotta, Andrea M; Lam, Simon W; Stowe, David; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. METHODS Before the intervention, no rapid diagnostic technology was used or antimicrobial stewardship intervention was undertaken, except for the use of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and MRSA agar to identify staphylococcal isolates. After the intervention, all Gram-positive blood cultures underwent BC-GP microarray and the antimicrobial stewardship intervention consisting of real-time notification and pharmacist review. RESULTS In total, 513 patients with bacteremia were included in this study: 280 patients with S. aureus, 150 patients with enterococci, 82 patients with stretococci, and 1 patient with L. monocytogenes. The number of antimicrobial switches was similar in the pre-BC-GP (52%; 155 of 300) and post-BC-GP (50%; 107 of 213) periods. The time to antimicrobial switch was significantly shorter in the post-BC-GP group than in the pre-BC-GP group: 48±41 hours versus 75±46 hours, respectively (P<.001). The most common antimicrobial switch was de-escalation and time to de-escalation, was significantly shorter in the post-BC-GP group than in the pre-BC-GP group: 53±41 hours versus 82±48 hours, respectively (P<.001). There was no difference in mortality or hospital length of stay as a result of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS The combination of a rapid microarray diagnostic test with an antimicrobial

  20. Controversies in Antimicrobial Stewardship: Focus on New Rapid Diagnostic Technologies and Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wenzler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs are challenged with ensuring appropriate antimicrobial use while minimizing expenditures. ASPs have consistently demonstrated improved patient outcomes and significant cost reductions but are continually required to justify the costs of their existence and interventions due to the silo mentality often adopted by hospital administrators. As new technologies and antimicrobials emerge, ASPs are in a constant tug-of-war between providing optimal clinical outcomes and ensuring cost containment. Additionally, robust data on cost-effectiveness of new rapid diagnostic technologies and antimicrobials with subsequent ASP interventions to provide justification are lacking. As the implementation of an ASP will soon be mandatory for acute care hospitals in the United States, ASPs must find ways to justify novel interventions to align themselves with healthcare administrators. This review provides a framework for the justification of implementing a rapid diagnostic test or adding a new antimicrobial to formulary with ASP intervention, reviews approaches to demonstrating cost-effectiveness, and proposes methods for which ASPs may reduce healthcare expenditures via alternative tactics.

  1. Examining the concept of convenient collection: an application to extended producer responsibility and product stewardship frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2013-03-01

    Increasingly, Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Product Stewardship (PS) frameworks are being adopted as a preferred policy approach to promote cost-effective diversion and recovery of post-consumer solid waste. Because the application of EPR/PS generally requires the creation of a separate and often parallel collection and/or management system, key to increasing the amount of waste recovered is to maximize the convenience of the collection system to maximize consumer participation. Convenient collection is often mandated in EPR/PS laws, however it is not defined. Convenience is a subjective construct rendering it extremely difficult to define. However, based on a dissection of post-consumer collection efforts under a generic EPR/PS system, this paper identifies and examines five categories of convenience - knowledge requirements, proximity to a collection site, opportunity to drop-off materials, the draw of the collection site, and the ease of the process-and the various factors of convenience within each of these categories. By using a simplified multiple criteria decision analysis, this paper proposes a performance matrix of criteria of convenience. Stakeholders can use this matrix to assist in the design, assessment, and/or implementation of a convenient post-consumer collection system under an EPR/PS framework. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergence of a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well. PMID:28784792

  3. Implementation of the long term stewardship model of decommissioning power reactors. Update on the Zion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.; Hess, J.; Moloney, B.P. [EnergySolutions EU, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Several countries have announced programmes to phase out nuclear power. Many NPPs built in the 1960s-80s are in any case reaching the end of their planned operating lives. Over the next decade, approximately 60-80 reactors worldwide will reach end of useful life and become candidates for decontamination and dismantling (D and D). Utilities will therefore commission over the coming decade a much larger number of decommissioning programmes to discharge their license responsibilities for reactor dismantling and site remediation. One major strategic question for the utilities is whether they regard decommissioning reactors as part of their core business or whether they wish to transfer this burden and risk in part or in whole to a specialised contractor. This paper reviews progress at the first programme in the US where a non-utility company has taken on the full license responsibility from the utility to undertake site remediation and license termination. We call this model ''Long Term Stewardship'' and it is now fully underway at the Zion NPP near Chicago, Illinois. (orig.)

  4. [Public health stewardship and governance regarding the Colombian healthcare system, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Deubel, André N; Molina-Marín, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Analysing decision-making concerning public health issues regarding the Colombian healthcare system from a market economy-based approach. This study involved applying Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory in six Colombian cities during 2012: Bogotá, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Leticia, Medellin and Pasto. 120 individual interviews were conducted with professionals involved in decision-making, running public healthcare programmes and making policy within public and private institutions. Fourteen focus groups were held with community organisation leaders. The findings suggested national and municipal health authorities' weak stewardship and ineffective governance regarding public healthcare policy and programmes, related to a lack of staff trained in public health management issues. In turn, this was related to political parties' interference and private insurers' particular interests and the structural fragmentation of functions and actors within the health system, thereby limiting public health development. A new axiology is necessary for achieving effective governance (I.e. cooperation between Colombian Healthcare Social Security System actors) to overcome current incompetence and financial self-interest predominating within the Colombian healthcare system.

  5. Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-08-22

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

  6. Next step in antibiotic stewardship: Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugkaeva, Z; Crago, J S; Yasnogorodsky, M

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy limits therapeutic options for patients but often disappears over time, leaving patients erroneously labelled allergic and leading to the utilization of broad-spectrum and more expensive antibiotics. Penicillin allergy can be effectively assessed via skin testing. To improve patient access to penicillin allergy testing by implementing a pharmacist-provided service in a hospital setting. Beta-lactams remain a mainstream therapy for many infections due to their effectiveness, low side effects and affordability. Typically, patient access to penicillin allergy testing is limited by the availability of allergy specialists, who traditionally perform such testing. A pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing service was implemented at our hospital in 2015 and became a powerful antibiotic stewardship tool. Removing penicillin allergy from patient profiles significantly expanded therapeutic options, expedited discharges and reduced costs of care. Pharmacists can expand patient access to penicillin allergy testing. Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing permitted optimized antibiotic treatment and expedited discharges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Community-Based Prescribing for Impetigo in Remote Australia: An Opportunity for Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stefanie Jane; Cush, James; Ward, Jeanette E

    2017-01-01

    To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing. We also designed a systematic survey of experts with experience relevant to our setting using a structured response survey (12 questions) to better understand specific AMS risks. Using these findings, recommendations were formulated for the AMS Committee. Prescribing recommendations in a regional Skin Infections Protocol had previously been altered in December 2014. From 15 experts, we received 9 comprehensive responses (60%) about AMS risks in community prescribing. If feasible, prescribing audits also would have been valuable. Ten recommendations regarding specific antibiotic recommendations were submitted to the AMS Committee. As AMS Committees in Australia usually focus on hospital-based prescribing, novel methods such as external expert opinion could inform deliberations about community-based prescribing. Our approach meant that this AMS Committee was able to intervene in the 2017 organizational review of the regional Skin Infections Protocol used by prescribers likely unaware of AMS risks. This experience demonstrates the value of incorporating AMS principles in community-based prescribing in context of a remote setting.

  8. Expert consensus regarding drivers of antimicrobial stewardship in companion animal veterinary practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; King, Caroline; Nuttall, Tim; Smith, Matt; Flowers, Paul

    2018-03-23

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge facing both human and animal healthcare professionals; an effective response to this threat requires a 'One-Health' approach to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) to preserve important antibiotics for urgent clinical need. However, understanding of barriers and enablers to effective AMS behaviour in companion animal veterinary practice is currently limited. We conducted a Delphi study of 16 nationally recognised experts from UK-based veterinary policymakers, university academics and leaders of professional bodies. This Delphi study sought to identify veterinary behaviours which experts believe contribute to AMR and form vital aspects of AMS. Analysis of Delphi findings indicated a perceived hierarchy of behaviours, the most influential being antibiotic prescribing behaviours and interactions with clients. Other veterinary behaviours perceived as being important related to interactions with veterinary colleagues; infection control practices; and the use of diagnostic tests to confirm infection. Key barriers and enablers to AMS within each of these behavioural domains were identified. Specific interventions to address important barriers and enablers are recommended. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to establish expert consensus at a national level about which 'behaviours' (aspects of veterinarian practice) should be targeted in relation to AMR and AMS in companion animal veterinary practice. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Metronidazole stewardship initiative at Christchurch hospitals-achievable with immediate benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Sharon J; Metcalf, Sarah Cl; Chin, Paul Kl; Doogue, Matthew P; Dalton, Simon C; Chambers, Stephen T

    2018-04-13

    To evaluate an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) initiative to change hospital prescribing practice for metronidazole. In October 2015, the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) AMS committee changed advice for metronidazole to promote two times daily dosing for most indications, prioritisation of the oral route and avoidance of double anaerobic cover. Adoption of the initiative was facilitated via change in prescribing guidelines, education and ongoing pharmacy support. Usage and expenditure on metronidazole for adult inpatients were compared for the five years pre- and two years post-change. Other district health boards (DHBs) were surveyed to determine their dosing recommendation for metronidazole IV. Mean annual metronidazole IV use, as defined daily doses per 1,000 occupied bed days, decreased by 43% post-initiative. Use of non-IV (oral or rectal) formulations increased by 104%. Total savings associated with the initiative were approximately $33,400 in drug costs plus $78,200 per annum in IV giving sets and post-dose flushes. Twelve of 20 (60%) DHBs (including CDHB) endorse twice daily IV dosing. In addition to financial savings, reduction in IV doses has potential benefits, including avoidance of IV catheter-associated complications such as bloodstream infections. Approaches to metronidazole dosing vary across DHBs and could benefit from national coordination.

  10. Using Private Rights to Manage Natural Resources: Is Stewardship Linked to Ownership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Gilmour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in privatizing natural resource systems to promote sustainability and conservation goals. Though economic theory suggests owners of private property rights have an incentive to act as resource stewards, few studies have tested this empirically. This paper asks whether private rights-owners were more conservative with respect to their management opinions than nonrights-owners in five Australian abalone (Haliotis spp. fisheries. Multiple regression analyses were used to link opinions to demographic, economic, and attitudinal variables. In contrast to standard economic assumptions, nonrights-owners suggested more conservative catch limits than did rights-owners, confirming qualitative observations of behavior in management workshops. Differing views about the condition of the resource and differing levels of experience contributed to these results. The first of its kind, this study directly demonstrates that private rights do not necessarily promote the greatest level of stewardship. This has substantial implications for how natural resources are governed globally, but also warns against applying simplistic behavioral assumptions to complex social-ecological systems.

  11. Adaptation of a hospital electronic referral system for antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Matthew D M; Raby, Edward; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Douglass, Rae; Chambers, Jonathan; McLellan, Duncan; Dyer, John R

    2018-05-04

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptation of an existing electronic referral application for use in antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds (antimicrobial rounds). Retrospective, single-centre observational study between March 2015 and February 2016. A new quaternary referral centre. Adults referred for antimicrobial rounds outside of the intensive care and haematology units. Adaptation of an electronic referral application used by medical and allied health staff. A questionnaire-style referral form was designed to capture patient clinical details using a combination of free text and dropdown menus. Clinical pharmacists were educated and granted access to the system. The proportion of completed electronic referrals of total round reviews by month for the 12 months after implementation. The time from request to completion of reviews. The impact on adherence to advice provided on rounds. The impact on the institutional usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics: glycopeptides, carbapenems, third and fourth generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and piperacillin/tazobactam. Over the study period, the proportion of electronic referrals of completed antimicrobial round reviews increased from 59% to 88% (P < 0.001); 75.7% of accepted electronic referrals were seen within 48 h of request. The proportion of advice ignored fell from 18% to 8.5% (P < 0.001). Piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolone and glycopeptide usage decreased. The adaptation of an electronic referral application for antimicrobial rounds was associated with increased adherence to advice and reduction in use in target antibiotics. Our model is now used at other institutions.

  12. Synthetic and Virtual Environmental Media (SAVEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, F. H. K.; Decker, K. M.; Bath, R. J.; Bottrell, D. W.; Wright, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Synthetic and Virtual Environmental Media (SAVEM) Program, developed at the DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory, responds directly to issues of improved data quality, increased regulatory confidence, analytical laboratory waste minimization, pollution prevention, worker safety/radiation exposure risk reduction, and environmental stewardship. The SAVEM radiochemistry information analysis system uses digitally generated spectra to accurately model gamma-ray emission characteristics of radiological samples. A digital virtual sample can be specified that has the characteristics of any environmental media such as soil, sediment, or vegetation, and which exhibits the spectral characteristics of more than 2,000 gamma-emitting nuclides. The SAVEM system can duplicate the characteristics of 2,361 individual radionuclides with 47,902 gamma lines

  13. La relación entre crecimiento económico y desarrollo humano en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Explica cómo las políticas que alientan el crecimiento económico tienden a materializarse en mejoras en el desarrollo humano, el cual, a su vez, redundará en el crecimiento económico, generándose así la posibilidad de un círculo virtuoso.

  14. Algunas características económicas del mantenimiento no correctivo del software a medida.

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba Martínez, José María; Rodenes Adam, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Se presentan algunas características económicas del servicio de mantenimiento del software, relativas pricipalmente al área comercial: mercado, producto, precio y clientización, apuntando la importancia económica que tiene tanto para

  15. El derecho de propiedad privada y libertad económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago M. Castro Videla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece diversos elementos legales, filosóficos y económicos para una teoría general del derecho de propiedad y libertad económica, que permita explicar por qué es un derecho fundamental. En primer lugar, plantea una visión unificada del derecho de propiedad privada y libertad económica, el que debe distinguirse analíticamente de los distintos derechos de propiedad susceptibles de reglamentación y expropiación estatal. En segundo lugar, explica, desde la teoría tomista del derecho natural, en qué sentido este derecho es un derecho natural secundario. En tercer lugar, señala, desde la teoría austríaca del proceso de mercado, cómo la protección del derecho de propiedad privada y libertad económica da lugar a un proceso virtuoso que genera mayor desarrollo, reducción de la pobreza y paz social. Y finalmente, explica también cómo la violación de dicho derecho genera los efectos contrarios: subdesarrollo, pobreza y conflicto social.

  16. Los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales en América latina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In spite of the economic growth experienced in the region, this disparity has ... Book cover Los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales en América latina ... in Physicians for Human Rights (USA) and a professor at Harvard University.

  17. Valoración económica de bienes ambientales.

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Suaza, Sergio Alonso; Cerda Urrutia, Arcadio; Vásquez Lavín, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo describe los distintos métodos de valoración económica de bienes ambientales y su utilización en estudios de impacto sobre el entorno para obtener estimaciones monetarias de los efectos negativos sobre la calidad ambiental de recursos naturales específicos.

  18. La Alianza del Pacífico y Mercosur: evidencias de convergencia económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ustorgio Mora Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el cálculo de un índice de convergencia económica y el análisis de correlaciones entre varias variables macroeconómicas, se estudia la posibilidad de convergencia económica entre los países miembros de la Alianza del Pacífico con los de Mercosur. Para ello se utiliza información estadística del periodo 1980-2014. A partir de lo anterior, los resultados no son concluyentes, no es posible determinar el rumbo a seguir por estos dos acuerdos para una expansión y una mayor integración económica, aunque los patrones observados sobre las decisiones de los países miembros para este objetivo sugieren que esta pudiera ser bastante factible en el mediano plazo y el índice de convergencia económica refleja esa tendencia. Sin embargo, el análisis de correlaciones no permite establecer una conclusión definitiva.

  19. La globalización económica y el comercio internacional: un enfoque medioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Palos Delgadillo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo comenta el fenómeno de la globalización económica desde la perspectiva medio ambiental resultando la importación de la variable ambiental en el desarrollo global. Se hace énfasis en la sustentabilidad del desarrollo como un equilibrio entre crecimiento y medio ambiente.

  20. A mesoeconomia do desenvolvimento econômico: o papel das instituições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huáscar Pessali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento econômico depende das instituições e as instituições, ao mesmo tempo, são uma medida do desenvolvimento econômico. Assim, correlação e causalidade se confundem num processo cumulativo e circular - uma espiral de mudanças que condiciona a ampliação das liberdades dos indivíduos. A contribuição pretendida por este ensaio é reunir e propor uma organização de várias idéias dispersas no tema "instituições e desenvolvimento econômico". Nossa releitura adiciona um breve exemplo da relação entre mercados, firmas e estado no âmbito do desenvolvimento. Isto permite defender o retorno a uma análise econômica que não se limite às falhas de mercado, mas que encare a responsabilidade de lidar com um emaranhado mais complexo de interações.

  1. William Stanley Jevons: Precursor del pensamiento económico neoconservador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Borgucci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente ensayo tiene el objetivo de demostrar que el pensamiento económico neoconservador (neoliberal no nació con las ideas que en materia económica porponían los teóricos de la oferta, las expectativas racionales, los monetaristas o los seguidores de la nueva hacienda pública conservadora. La economía neoconservadora tuvo en W.S. Jevons a uno de sus precursores más importantes. Esta afirmación se sustenta en tres razones: Su método de estudio, sus aportaciones en el campo de su teoría del intercambio, los precios relativos y su teoría del trabajo. Se concluye, que el discurso económico propuesto por W.S. Jevons contribuyó de manera decisiva al desarrollo y consolidación de un tipo de pensamiento económico que privilegia el uso del análisis formal y que se adapta a la forma moderna de hacer negocios en el mundo capitalista.

  2. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Prieto Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, semuestra la aplicabilidad de dichomodelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal en Venezuela, flagelo económico social presente en la realidad venezolana. Se concluye que un modelo de reconversión de la actividad económica informal representaría una alternativa para transformar esta actividad en el país, planteándose la conformación de una PYME con fortalezas financiera y operacional, con altos niveles de racionalidad, cuya actividad principal es ejecutada por otros individuos de manera informal; de esta forma se estructura una estrategia de crecimiento en función de la absorción de los ejecutores informales quienes, a través del financiamiento público o privado, concretan la conformación de una microempresa y la firma de un contrato tipo franquicia con la PYME.

  3. Estrategias corporativas de crecimiento de los grupos económicos en chile1,2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Medina Giacomozzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos económicos son una estructura corporativa muy importante en Chile y al igual que toda organización, éstos tienen una variedad de decisiones estratégicas que deben adoptar, entre las que resaltan las estrategias de crecimiento (composición de portafolio, por lo que en este artículo se profundizará en ellas, particularmente en sus estrategias de diversificación o concentración. Para el desarrollo de la investigación, se partió del total de grupos económicos registrados en la Superintendencia de Valores y Seguros de Chile y, mediante muestreo aleatorio simple, se obtuvo una muestra de 42 grupos, en donde uno de los principales hallazgos fue que la mayoría de los grupos económicos adoptan estrategias de concentración en un sector con un activo recambio de grupos económicos.

  4. Tratamiento económico y modelización del cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Díaz-Fernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El cuidado es un concepto expansivo que incluye el conjunto de actividades tendentes a garantizar la supervivencia y el bienestar de la población. Este artículo se propone analizar y caracterizar el cuidado como bien económico cuya provisión se realiza a través del mercado, administración pública y hogar, con implicaciones y tratamientos diferentes en estos tres ámbitos. Para ello, una vez presentada la problemática planteada desde una perspectiva pluridisciplinar, nos centraremos en las características que la teoría económica otorga a los bienes económicos y discutiremos cómo cada una de ellas se manifiesta en el cuidado. También se analizarán sus curvas de oferta y demanda, los agentes implicados y el equilibrio del mercado. La descripción económica realizada nos conduce a considerar que el comportamiento de este mercado es claramente imperfecto y además nos indica la necesidad de efectuar una reorganización social del cuidado.

  5. Active Learning in Introductory Economics: Do MyEconLab and Aplia Make Any Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trien; Trimarchi, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports experiment results of teaching large classes of introductory economics with modern learning technology such as MyEconLab or Aplia. This new technology emerges partially in response to the enrollment pressure currently facing many institutions of higher education. Among other things, the technology provides an integrated online…

  6. Apertura comercial y desarrollo económico mundial en la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Encinas Ferrer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La política económica neoliberal ha promovido a escala global la apertura comercial bajo la hipótesis de que la liberalización del comercio da lugar automáticamente a un quiebre positivo en la tendencia de crecimiento económico. Esta acción de política económica está sustentada fundamentalmente en la teoría de la ventaja comparativa desarrollada por David Ricardo en la segunda década del Siglo XIX. Sin embargo, la ausencia de un incremento generalizado del PIB que acompañe la apertura comercial implementada a partir de la década de los ochenta en una gran cantidad de países nos muestra señales de que algo ha sucedido en el modelo exportador adoptado contrario a las expectativas favorables prometidas. México y muchos otros países se encuentran en un callejón sin salida, con problemas que se han profundizado con la reciente crisis económica que hasta ahora, especialmente en EE.UU. y Europa, no muestra señales de una recuperación global.

  7. Algunas Estrategias Utilizadas por Familias Peruanas para Afrontar la Crisis Económica Actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria Majluf

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de explorar las estrategias utilizadas por madres de CSE media y baja para afrontar la crisis económica actual se entrevistaron a 20 madres de cada estrato económico y se les administraron trespequeñas encuestas y la Escala F-Copes "Escala de Evaluación Personal del Funcionamiento Familiar en Situaciones de Crisis". Los resultados evidenciaron que ambos grupos económicos se vieron seriamente afectados económicamente debiendo reducir sus gastos en actividades virales tales como alimentación, vestuario y recreación. Las madres de CSE media recurrieron más a una estrategia de reestructuración del problema para hacerlo más manejable y las madres de CSE baja a la movilización familiar para obtener ayuda y a la evaluación pasiva. No difieren ambos grupos en la búsqueda de apoyo espiritual y social.

  8. El papel del desarrollo financiero como fuente del crecimiento económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández Mota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente ha resurgido el debate por el papel del sistema financiero en el crecimiento económico; sin embargo, en la mayor parte de la literatura se tiene como finalidad medir el impacto del primero sobre el segundo, a través de relaciones econométricas. Por ello, el presente trabajo contribuye a la literatura retomando el análisis del modelo canónico de crecimiento económico, donde se introduce la variable financiera como factor que puede provocar una influencia permanente sobre la tasa de crecimiento económico por medio de su grado de complementariedad con la acumulación de capital y la productividad, y no únicamente como un factor explicativo de ella. Así, se manifiesta la importancia de los efectos reales que provoca el desarrollo del sistema financiero en los factores del crecimiento económico; ello, desde un marco macroeconómico aplicable tanto para las economías desarrolladas como para las emergentes.

  9. El papel del desarrollo finnaciero como fuente del crecimiento económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández Mota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente ha surgido el debate por el papel del sistema financiero en el crecimiento económico; sin embargo, en la mayor parte de la literatura se tiene como finalidad medir el impacto del primero sobre el segundo, a través de relaciones econométricas. Por ello, el presente trabajo contribuye a la literatura retomando el análisis del modelo canónico de crecimiento económico, donde se introduce la variable financiera como factor que puede provocar una influencia permanente sobre la tasa de crecimiento económico por medio de su grado de complementariedad con la acumulación de capital y la productividad, y no únicamente como un factor explicativo de ella. Así, se manifiesta la importancia de los efectos reales que provoca el desarrollo del sistema financiero en los factores del crecimiento económico aplicable tanto a las economías desarrolladas como para las emergentes.

  10. Toward an understanding of citywide urban environmental governance: An examination of stewardship networks in Baltimore and Seattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Romolini; Morgan Grove; Curtis L. Ventriss; Christopher J. Koliba; Daniel H. Krymkowski

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to create more sustainable cities are evident in the proliferation of sustainability policies in cities worldwide. It has become widely proposed that the success of these urban sustainability initiatives will require city agencies to partner with, and even cede authority to, organizations from other sectors and levels of government. Yet the resulting...

  11. DRUG USAGE AND DISPOSAL: OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP AND POLLUTION PREVENTION (WITH AN EMPHASIS ON ACTIVITIES IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides the background for understanding the many complex variables that combine to cause pollution of the environment with the active ingredients from pharmaceuticals. It also summarizes the many approaches that could potentially reduce this pollution. Significan...

  12. Environmental stewardship and corporate social responsibility: Implication for consumers’ resistance to negative information. The case of apple in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Larbi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are several studies that have investigated the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on consumer behavior. However, these studies demonstrate conflicting results on how CSR influences consumer purchasing behavior and retention; for example, in event of negative information about a firm. Therefore, the effectiveness of CSR in advancing the core business of firms remains unresolved. This research uses a qualitative approach to examine how CSR affords firms greater levels of goodwill with consumers. The study focuses on the case of Apple in China. Both primary and secondary data were collected through interviews, review of literature, newspaper reports, blogs, social media, and official websites of institutions and corporate entities. A deductive analytical approach was used to examine how consumers perceive CSR, and how that impacts on their attitude towards a firm when confronted with negative information. The study found low level of awareness of CSR in consumers. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that consumers tend to attach more importance to CSR when they identify with the problems associated with the actions or inactions of a firm. The study shows that firms can only enjoy the full benefits of CSR by creating public awareness of such endeavours

  13. Evolution of data stewardship over two decades at a NASA data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Moroni, D. F.; Hausman, J.; Tsontos, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    physical domain was still critical, especially relevant to assessments of data quality, additional skills in computer science, statistics and system engineering also became necessary. Furthermore, the level of effort to implement data curation has not expanded linearly either. Management of ongoing data operations demands increased productivity on a continual basis and larger volumes of data, with constraints on funding, must be managed with proportionately less human resources. The role of data curation has also changed within the perspective of satellite missions. In many early missions, data management and curation was an afterthought (since there were no explicit data management plans written into the proposals), while current NASA mission proposals must have explicit data management plans to identify resources and funds for archiving, distribution and implementing overall data stewardship. In conclusion, the role of the data scientist/engineer at the PO.DAAC has shifted from supporting singular missions and primarily representing a point of contact for the science community to complete end-to-end stewardship through the implementation of a robust set of dataset lifecycle policies from ingest, to archiving, including data quality assessment for a broad swath of parameter based datasets that can number in the hundreds.

  14. Campus sustainability and natural area stewardship: student involvement in adaptive comanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available University campus sustainability initiatives have proliferated over the last decade. We contend that such initiatives benefit from applying conceptual frameworks to help understand and guide their activities and from a focus on campus open space and natural areas management. Informed by an adaptive comanagement framework encompassing social learning, social capital, and shared action, we used semistructured interviews to examine student participation in the immediate response and longer-term policy formulation following a crisis that occurred in a campus natural area. Students exhibited social learning as demonstrated by reflection and the integration of new ideas through discussions with administrators and peers, as well as social capital through increased social trust, which led to a shift in perspective regarding norms of student-administrator interactions. Further, students participated in shared action, such as posting warning signs in dangerous areas, and importantly, through their contributions to longer-term campus natural area safety and recreational access policy. Three conditions explain student engagement in the adaptive comanagement process: the presence of a pre-existing student organization that had built bonding social capital and was committed to campus natural area stewardship, openness to multiple stakeholder viewpoints and commitment to action on the part of the university administration, and the presence of a crisis that spurred emotions and action. Based on these findings, we assert that student organizations can contribute to an adaptive comanagement process and that such a process is consistent with university and campus sustainability values related to the importance of student engagement, mental health, and learning.

  15. [REDUCTION OF ANTIBIOTIC CONSUMPTION IN RAMBAM HEALTH CARE CAMPUS - THE ROLE OF AN ANTIBIOTIC STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Roni; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Azzam, Zaher S; Karban, Amir; Levy, Yishai; Hayek, Tony; Braun, Eyal; Oren, Ilana; Bar-Lavi, Yaron; Kassis, Imad; Hussein, Khetam; Paul, Mical

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) are designed to optimize antibiotic use in hospitals. Antibiotic consumption is one of the measures assessing the effects of ASPs. To evaluate the effect of an ASP on antibiotic consumption in our hospital and compare it to hospitals in Israel and worldwide. Between October 2012 and March 2013 an ASP was implemented in Rambam Hospital. The program included educational activities, publication of local guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment, structured infectious diseases consultations, pre-authorization antibiotic restrictions and stop orders. We compared antibacterial antibiotic consumption in defined daily doses (DDD)/100 hospital days (HD) between the periods before (1/2010-3/2013) and after (4/2013-9/2014) implementing the ASP. The study was conducted in the medical departments, hematology, the intensive care unit (ICU) and all pediatric wards. Total antibiotic consumption before implementing the ASP was 96±11.2 DDD/100 HD in medical departments, 186.4±42.8 in the ICU and 185.5±59 in hematology; all values were higher than the worldwide-reported averages for these departments. Following the ASP, total antibiotic consumption decreased by 12% (p=0.008) in the medical departments and by 26% (p=0.002) in hematology, mostly due to reductions in non-restricted antibiotics. No significant changes were observed overall in the ICU and in pediatric wards. There was a significant reduction in consumption of vancomycin and carbapenems in all settings, the latter was reduced to nearly half. Amikacin use quadrupled in the medical departments. Implementation of an ASP lead to a reduction in non-restricted and restricted antibiotic consumption, especially carbapenems.

  16. Antimicrobial stewardship in a Gastroenterology Department: Impact on antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedini, Andrea; De Maria, Nicola; Del Buono, Mariagrazia; Bianchini, Marcello; Mancini, Mauro; Binda, Cecilia; Brasacchio, Andrea; Orlando, Gabriella; Franceschini, Erica; Meschiari, Marianna; Sartini, Alessandro; Zona, Stefano; Paioli, Serena; Villa, Erica; Gyssens, Inge C; Mussini, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    A major cause of the increase in antimicrobial resistance is the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To evaluate the impact on antimicrobial consumption and clinical outcome of an antimicrobial stewardship program in an Italian Gastroenterology Department. Between October 2014 and September 2015 (period B), a specialist in infectious diseases (ID) controlled all antimicrobial prescriptions and decided about the therapy in agreement with gastroenterologists. The defined daily doses of antimicrobials (DDDs), incidence of MDR-infections, mean length of stay and overall in-hospital mortality rate were compared with those of the same period in the previous 12-months (period A). During period B, the ID specialist performed 304 consultations: antimicrobials were continued in 44.4% of the cases, discontinued in 13.8%, not recommended in 12.1%, de-escalated 9.9%, escalated in 7.9%, and started in 4.0%. Comparing the 2 periods, we observed a decreased of antibiotics consumption (from 109.81 to 78.45 DDDs/100 patient-days, p=0.0005), antifungals (from 41.28 to 24.75 DDDs/100pd, p=0.0004), carbapenems (from 15.99 to 6.80 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0032), quinolones (from 35.79 to 17.82 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0079). No differences were observed in incidence of MDR-infections, length of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality rate. ASP program had a positive impact on reducing the consumption of antimicrobials, without an increase in LOS and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to and enablers of implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Stevenson, M A; Thursky, K; Bailey, K E; Browning, G F

    2018-03-23

    Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are yet to be widely implemented in veterinary practice and medical programs are unlikely to be directly applicable to veterinary settings. To gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence effective AMS in veterinary practices in Australia. A concurrent explanatory mixed methods design was used. The quantitative phase of the study consisted of an online questionnaire to assess veterinarians' attitudes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use in animals, and the extent to which AMS currently is implemented (knowingly or unknowingly). The qualitative phase used semi-structured interviews to gain an understanding of the barriers to and enablers of AMS in veterinary practices. Data were collected and entered into NVivo v.11, openly coded and analyzed according to mixed methods data analysis principles. Companion animal, equine, and bovine veterinarians participated in the study. Veterinary practices rarely had antimicrobial prescribing policies. The key barriers were a lack of AMS governance structures, client expectations and competition between practices, cost of microbiological testing, and lack of access to education, training and AMS resources. The enablers were concern for the role of veterinary antimicrobial use in development of AMR in humans, a sense of pride in the service provided, and preparedness to change prescribing practices. Our study can guide development and establishment of AMS programs in veterinary practices by defining the major issues that influence the prescribing behavior of veterinarians. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Pharmacy-Driven Dexmedetomidine Stewardship and Appropriate Use Guidelines in a Community Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickli, M Alexandra; Eberwein, Kip A; Short, Marintha R; Ratliff, Patrick D

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a widely utilized agent in the intensive care unit (ICU) because it does not suppress respiratory drive and may be associated with less delirium than midazolam or propofol. Cost of dexmedetomidine therapy and debate as to the proper duration of use has brought its use to the forefront of discussion. To validate the efficacy and cost savings associated with pharmacy-driven dexmedetomidine appropriate use guidelines and stewardship in mechanically ventilated patients. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients who received dexmedetomidine for ICU sedation while on mechanical ventilation at a 433-bed not-for-profit community hospital. Included patients were divided into pre-enactment (PRE) and postenactment (POST) of dexmedetomidine guideline groups. A total of 100 patients (50 PRE and 50 POST) were included in the analysis. A significant difference in duration of mechanical ventilation (11.1 vs 6.2 days, P = 0.006) and incidence of reintubation (36% vs 18% of patients, P = 0.043) was seen in the POST group. Aggregate use of dexmedetomidine 200-µg vials (37.1 vs 18.4 vials, P = 0.010) and infusion days (5.4 vs 2.5 days, P = 0.006) were significantly lower in the POST group. Dexmedetomidine acquisition cost savings were calculated at $374 456.15 in the POST group. There was no difference between the PRE and POST groups with regard to ICU length of stay, expected mortality, and observed mortality. Pharmacy-driven dexmedetomidine appropriate use guidelines decreased the use of dexmedetomidine and increased cost savings at a community hospital without adversely affecting clinical outcomes.

  19. Ambulatory Antibiotic Stewardship through a Human Factors Engineering Approach: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sara C; Tamma, Pranita D; Cosgrove, Sara E; Miller, Melissa A; Sateia, Heather; Szymczak, Julie; Gurses, Ayse P; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, most antibiotics are prescribed in ambulatory settings. Human factors engineering, which explores interactions between people and the place where they work, has successfully improved quality of care. However, human factors engineering models have not been explored to frame what is known about ambulatory antibiotic stewardship (AS) interventions and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. We conducted a systematic review and searched OVID MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL to identify controlled interventions and qualitative studies of ambulatory AS and determine whether and how they incorporated principles from a human factors engineering model, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety 2.0 model. This model describes how a work system (ambulatory clinic) contributes to a process (antibiotic prescribing) that leads to outcomes. The work system consists of 5 components, tools and technology, organization, person, tasks, and environment, within an external environment. Of 1,288 abstracts initially identified, 42 quantitative studies and 17 qualitative studies met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions focused on tools and technology (eg, clinical decision support and point-of-care testing), the person (eg, clinician education), organization (eg, audit and feedback and academic detailing), tasks (eg, delayed antibiotic prescribing), the environment (eg, commitment posters), and the external environment (media campaigns). Studies have not focused on clinic-wide approaches to AS. A human factors engineering approach suggests that investigating the role of the clinic's processes or physical layout or external pressures' role in antibiotic prescribing may be a promising way to improve ambulatory AS. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. A framework for ensuring a balanced accounting of the impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Madalina; Davey, Peter G; Marwick, Charis A; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Drawing on a Cochrane systematic review, this paper examines the relatively limited range of outcomes measured in published evaluations of antimicrobial stewardship interventions (ASIs) in hospitals. We describe a structured framework for considering the range of consequences that ASIs can have, in terms of their desirability and the extent to which they were expected when planning an ASI: expected, desirable consequences (intervention goals); expected, undesirable consequences (intervention trade-offs); unexpected, undesirable consequences (unpleasant surprises); and unexpected, desirable consequences (pleasant surprises). Of 49 randomized controlled trials identified by the Cochrane review, 28 (57%) pre-specified increased length of stay and/or mortality as potential trade-offs of ASI, with measurement intended to provide reassurance about safety. In actuality, some studies found unexpected decreases in length of stay (a pleasant surprise). In contrast, only 11 (10%) of 110 interrupted time series studies included any information about unintended consequences, with 10 examining unexpected, undesirable outcomes (unpleasant surprises) using case-control, qualitative or cohort designs. Overall, a large proportion of the ASIs reported in the literature only assess impact on their targeted process goals-antimicrobial prescribing-with limited examination of other potential outcomes, including microbial and clinical outcomes. Achieving a balanced accounting of the impact of an ASI requires careful consideration of expected undesirable effects (potential trade-offs) from the outset, and more consideration of unexpected effects after implementation (both pleasant and unpleasant surprises, although the latter will often be more important). The proposed framework supports the systematic consideration of all types of consequences of improvement before and after implementation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  1. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  2. Community-Based Prescribing for Impetigo in Remote Australia: An Opportunity for Antimicrobial Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Jane Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing.What we didFinding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing. We also designed a systematic survey of experts with experience relevant to our setting using a structured response survey (12 questions to better understand specific AMS risks. Using these findings, recommendations were formulated for the AMS Committee.What we learnedPrescribing recommendations in a regional Skin Infections Protocol had previously been altered in December 2014. From 15 experts, we received 9 comprehensive responses (60% about AMS risks in community prescribing. If feasible, prescribing audits also would have been valuable. Ten recommendations regarding specific antibiotic recommendations were submitted to the AMS Committee.Strengthening AMS in remote settingsAs AMS Committees in Australia usually focus on hospital-based prescribing, novel methods such as external expert opinion could inform deliberations about community-based prescribing. Our approach meant that this AMS Committee was able to intervene in the 2017 organizational review of the regional Skin Infections Protocol used by prescribers likely unaware of AMS risks. This experience demonstrates the value of incorporating AMS principles in community-based prescribing in context of a remote setting.

  3. Automatic day-2 intervention by a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship-Team leads to multiple positive effects

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    Jan-Willem H Dik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance rates are increasing. This is, among others, caused by incorrect or inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To target this, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship-Team (A-Team was implemented at the University Medical Center Groningen on a urology ward. Goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of the case-audits done by this team, looking at length of stay (LOS and antimicrobial use.Methods: Automatic e-mail alerts were sent after 48 hours of consecutive antimicrobial use triggering the case-audits, consisting of an A-Team member visiting the ward, discussing the patient’s therapy with the bed-side physician and together deciding on further treatment based on available diagnostics and guidelines. Clinical effects of the audits were evaluated through an Interrupted Time Series analysis and a retrospective historic cohort. Results: A significant systemic reduction of antimicrobial consumption for all patients on the ward, both with and without case-audits was observed. Furthermore, LOS for patients with case-audits who were admitted primarily due to infections decreased to 6.20 days (95% CI: 5.59-6.81 compared to the historic cohort (7.57 days; 95% CI: 6.92-8.21 (p=0.012. Antimicrobial consumption decreased for these patients from 8.17 DDD/patient (95% CI: 7.10-9.24 to 5.93 DDD/patient (95% CI: 5.02-6.83 (p=0.008. For patients with severe underlying diseases (e.g. cancer these outcome measures remained unchanged.Conclusions: The evaluation showed a considerable positive impact. Antibiotic use of the whole ward was reduced, transcending the intervened patients. Furthermore, LOS and mean antimicrobial consumption for a subgroup was reduced, thereby improving patient care and potentially lowering resistance rates.

  4. Skin Infections and Antibiotic Stewardship: Analysis of Emergency Department Prescribing Practices, 2007-2010

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    Daniel J. Pallin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: National guidelines suggest that most skin abscesses do not require antibiotics, and that cellulitis antibiotics should target streptococci, not community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. The objective of this study is to describe antimicrobial treatment of skin infections in U.S. emergency departments (EDs and analyze potential quality measures. Methods: The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS is a 4-stage probability sample of all non-federal U.S. ED visits. In 2007 NHAMCS started recording whether incision and drainage was performed at ED visits. We conducted a retrospective analysis, pooling 2007-2010 data, identified skin infections using diagnostic codes, and identified abscesses by performance of incision and drainage. We generated national estimates and 95% confidence intervals using weighted analyses; quantified frequencies and proportions; and evaluated antibiotic prescribing practices. We evaluated 4 parameters that might serve as quality measures of antibiotic stewardship, and present 2 of them as potentially robust enough for implementation. Results: Of all ED visits, 3.2% (95% confidence interval 3.1-3.4% were for skin infection, and 2.7% (2.6-2.9% were first visits for skin infection, with no increase over time (p=0.80. However, anti-CA-MRSA antibiotic use increased, from 61% (56-66% to 74% (71-78% of antibiotic regimens (p<0.001. Twenty-two percent of visits were for abscess, with a non-significant increase (p=0.06. Potential quality measures: Among discharged abscess patients, 87% were prescribed antibiotics (84-90%, overuse. Among antibiotic regimens for abscess patients, 84% included anti-CA-MRSA agents (81-89%, underuse. Conclusion: From 2007-2010, use of anti-CA-MRSA agents for skin infections increased significantly, despite stable visit frequencies. Antibiotics were over-used for discharged abscess cases, and CA-MRSA-active antibiotics were underused among regimens when antibiotics were used for

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship: a qualitative study of the development of national guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals

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    Eli Feiring

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As effective antibiotics are becoming a scarce resource, governmental regulation is needed to promote responsible use. Implementation of antibiotic stewardship and practice guidelines in health care facilities seems to be crucial to this effort. Empirical studies suggest, however, that guidelines have limited influence on health professionals’ behavior and practice. Barriers and facilitators to guideline implementability are much studied, but little attention has been given to health professionals’ perceptions of normative acceptability of guidelines as a condition for compliance. The aim of the present study was first, to examine if and how aspects potentially promoting acceptability and compliance among clinical target users were addressed during development of Norwegian national guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals and second, to identify procedural characteristics of the development process that were perceived by target users to yield legitimate guidelines. Methods Qualitative deductive thematic analysis was used. A theoretical framework inspired by the AGREE II Instrument and the Accountability for reasonableness framework assisted data gathering and interpretation. Archival data was collected and used to detail the guideline development process. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with eight clinicians with extensive knowledge of the guidelines were carried out. Results Guideline development was characterized by i broad agreement about scope and purpose, ii broad involvement of stakeholders in the development process, iii use of systematic methods to search for and apply evidence, iv easily identifiable and specific recommendations, v provision of tools on how to put recommendations into practice, and vi editorial independence. Several procedural characteristics were perceived by the interviewees as promoting guideline legitimacy; i diverse perspectives systematically involved in the process, ii accessibility

  6. Antimicrobial stewardship: a qualitative study of the development of national guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Eli; Walter, Anne Berit

    2017-11-21

    As effective antibiotics are becoming a scarce resource, governmental regulation is needed to promote responsible use. Implementation of antibiotic stewardship and practice guidelines in health care facilities seems to be crucial to this effort. Empirical studies suggest, however, that guidelines have limited influence on health professionals' behavior and practice. Barriers and facilitators to guideline implementability are much studied, but little attention has been given to health professionals' perceptions of normative acceptability of guidelines as a condition for compliance. The aim of the present study was first, to examine if and how aspects potentially promoting acceptability and compliance among clinical target users were addressed during development of Norwegian national guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals and second, to identify procedural characteristics of the development process that were perceived by target users to yield legitimate guidelines. Qualitative deductive thematic analysis was used. A theoretical framework inspired by the AGREE II Instrument and the Accountability for reasonableness framework assisted data gathering and interpretation. Archival data was collected and used to detail the guideline development process. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with eight clinicians with extensive knowledge of the guidelines were carried out. Guideline development was characterized by i) broad agreement about scope and purpose, ii) broad involvement of stakeholders in the development process, iii) use of systematic methods to search for and apply evidence, iv) easily identifiable and specific recommendations, v) provision of tools on how to put recommendations into practice, and vi) editorial independence. Several procedural characteristics were perceived by the interviewees as promoting guideline legitimacy; i) diverse perspectives systematically involved in the process, ii) accessibility and transparency of the rationales for decision

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing an antimicrobial stewardship program in critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Jesus; Frasquet, Juan; Romá, Eva; Poveda-Andres, Jose Luis; Salavert-Leti, Miguel; Castellanos, Alvaro; Ramirez, Paula

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) program implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed. Model variables and costs, along with their distributions, were obtained from the literature. The study was performed from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective, including only direct costs. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was analysed regarding the ability of the program to reduce multi-drug resistant bacteria. Uncertainty in ICERs was evaluated with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In the short-term, implementing an AS reduces the consumption of antimicrobials with a net benefit of €71,738. In the long-term, the maintenance of the program involves an additional cost to the system of €107,569. Cost per avoided resistance was €7,342, and cost-per-life-years gained (LYG) was €9,788. Results from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that there was a more than 90% likelihood that an AS would be cost-effective at a level of €8,000 per LYG. Wide variability of economic results obtained from the implementation of this type of AS program and short information on their impact on patient evolution and any resistance avoided. Implementing an AS focusing on critical care patients is a long-term cost-effective tool. Implementation costs are amortized by reducing antimicrobial consumption to prevent infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  8. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Perception of Nursery Antibiotic Stewardship Coverage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Vora, Niraj; Sunkara, Mridula

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged or unnecessary antibiotic use is associated with adverse outcomes in infants. Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) aim to prevent these adverse outcomes and optimize antibiotic prescribing. However, data evaluating ASP coverage of nurseries are limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of nurseries with and without ASP coverage and to determine perceptions of and barriers to nursery ASP coverage. The 2014 American Hospital Association annual survey was used to randomly select a level III neonatal intensive care unit from all 50 states. A level I and level II nursery from the same city as the level III nursery were then randomly selected. Hospital, nursery, and ASP characteristics were collected. Nursery and ASP providers (pharmacists or infectious disease providers) were interviewed using a semistructured template. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for themes. One hundred forty-six centers responded; 104 (71%) provided nursery ASP coverage. In multivariate analysis, level of nursery, university affiliation, and number of full-time equivalent ASP staff were the main predictors of nursery ASP coverage. Several themes were identified from interviews: unwanted coverage, unnecessary coverage, jurisdiction issues, need for communication, and a focus on outcomes. Most providers had a favorable view of nursery ASP coverage. Larger, higher-acuity nurseries in university-affiliated hospitals are more likely to have ASP coverage. Low ASP staffing and a perceived lack of importance were frequently cited as barriers to nursery coverage. Most nursery ASP coverage is viewed favorably by providers, but nursery providers regard it as less important than ASP providers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. La agrobiodiversidad en várzea y su función económica en la Amazonía Peruana

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    Michelly Rios Arévalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objeto estudiar la práctica sostenible y la función económica de la agrobiodiversidad enlos ambientes más inestables de la várzea, las “playas” y “barreales”. El estudio fue realizado en siete comunidades del “Sector Muyuy” próximo a la ciudad de Iquitos en 2004. Este estudio también compara la agrobiodiversidad de una comunidad en 1999. La metodología usada es el mismo aplicado por el Proyecto “People, Land Management and Environmental Change” de la Universidad de las Naciones Unidas, que prioriza la experimentación, demostración y explicación de los sistemas agrícolas por los propios agricultores. Los resultados muestran que los sistemas agrícolas en playas y barreales varían según el tipo de sedimentación anual. En 2004 se promocionó el crédito agrícola para arroz. La agrobiodiversidad en playas y barreales fue constituida por 9 cultivos en1999 y 2 cultivos en 2004. La diversidad aumenta con los cultivos inundados por el rio, generando ambientes de protección y alimentación de diferentes peces y la tortuga cupiso. Los sistemas agrícolas empleados contienen estrategias de minimización del riesgo sobre el “pulso del rio”, utilizándose generalmente cultivos de corto periodo vegetativo en las áreas de mayor riesgo de inundación. Finalmente, la función económica de la agrobiodiversidad está direccionada al consumo y a la comercialización. La diversidad acuática genera un complemento económico para los agricultores.

  10. Impact of the Antibiotic Stewardship Program on Prevention and Control of Surgical Site Infection during Peri-Operative Clean Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juyuan; Li, Na; Hao, Jinjuan; Li, Yanming; Liu, Anlei; Wu, Yinghong; Cai, Meng

    2018-04-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections and are associated with substantial healthcare costs, with increased morbidity and mortality. To investigate the effects of the antibiotic stewardship program on prevention and control of SSI during clean surgery, we investigated this situation in our institution. We performed a quasi-experimental study to compare the effect before and after the antibiotic stewardship program intervention. During the pre-intervention stage (January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2011), comprehensive surveillance was performed to determine the SSI baseline data. In the second stage (January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2016), an infectious diseases physician and an infection control practitioner identified the surgical patients daily and followed up on the duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016, 41,426 patients underwent clean surgeries in a grade III, class A hospital. The rate of prophylactic antibiotic use in the 41,426 clean surgeries was reduced from 82.9% to 28.0% after the interventions. The rate of antibiotic agents administered within 120 minutes of the first incision increased from 20.8% to 85.1%. The rate at which prophylactic antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the first 24 hours after surgery increased from 22.1% to 60.4%. Appropriate antibiotic selection increased from 37.0% to 93.6%. Prophylactic antibiotic re-dosing increased from 3.8% to 64.8%. The SSI rate decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% (p < 0.05). The pathogen detection rate increased from 16.7% up to 41.8% after intervention. The intensity of antibiotic consumption reduced from 74.9 defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 bed-days to 34.2 DDDs per 100 bed-days after the interventions. Long-term and continuous antibiotic stewardship programs have important effects on the prevention and control of SSI during clean surgery.

  11. Crecimiento económico, convergencia y concentración económica espacial en las entidades federativas de México 1970-2008

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    Normand Asuad Sanén

    2010-01-01

    convergencia, los cuales tienden a diferentes estados estacionarios, manteniéndose las diferencias en el ingreso per cápita y en el desarrollo de los estados del país. Además se revela la importancia y estrecha relación entre la localización geo-espacial y la formación de núcleos de convergencia en el crecimiento económico de las entidades federativas del país. Clasificación JEL: R11, R12, O54.

  12. The Stewardship Science Academic Alliance: A Model of Education for Fundamental and Applied Low-energy Nuclear Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizewski, J.A., E-mail: cizewski@rutgers.edu

    2014-06-15

    The Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) were inaugurated in 2002 by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The purpose is to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper highlights some of the ways that the SSAA fosters education and training of graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in low-energy nuclear science, preparing them for careers in fundamental and applied research and development.

  13. Achieving environmental excellence through a multidisciplinary grassroots movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herechuk, Bryan; Gosse, Carolyn; Woods, John N

    2010-01-01

    St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton (SJHH) supports a grassroots green team, called Environmental Vision and Action (EVA). Since the creation of EVA, a healthy balance between corporate projects led by corporate leaders and grassroots initiatives led by informal leaders has resulted in many successful environmental initiatives. Over a relatively short period of time, environmental successes at SJHH have included waste diversion programs, energy efficiency and reduction initiatives, alternative commuting programs, green purchasing practices, clinical and pharmacy greening and increased staff engagement and awareness. Knowledge of social movements theory helped EVA leaders to understand the internal processes of a grassroots movement and helped to guide it. Social movements theory may also have broader applicability in health care by understanding the passionate engagement that people bring to a common cause and how to evolve sources of opposition into engines for positive change. After early successes, as the limitations of a grassroots movement began to surface, the EVA team revived the concept of evolving the grassroots green program into a corporate program for environmental stewardship. It is hard to quantify the importance of allowing our staff, physicians, volunteers and patients to engage in changes that they feel passionately about. However, at SJHH, the transformation of a group of people unsatisfied with the organization's environmental performance into an 'engine for change' has led to a rapid improvement in environmental stewardship at SJHH that is now regarded as a success.

  14. Service-Learning in the Environmental Sciences for Teaching Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, S.; Strong, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and developing effective strategies for the use of community-engaged learning (service-learning) approaches in the environmental geosciences is an important research need in curricular and pedagogical innovation for sustainability. In 2015, we designed and implemented a new community-engaged learning practicum course through the Earth Systems Program in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University focused on regional open space management and land stewardship. Undergraduate and graduate students partnered with three different regional land trust and environmental stewardship organizations to conduct quarter-long research projects ranging from remote sensing studies of historical land use, to fire ecology, to ranchland management, to volunteer retention strategies. Throughout the course, students reflected on the decision-making processes and stewardship actions of the organizations. Two iterations of the course were run in Winter and Fall 2015. Using coded and analyzed pre- and post-course student surveys from the two course iterations, we evaluate undergraduate and graduate student learning outcomes and changes in perceptions and understanding of sustainability science. We find that engagement with community partners to conduct research projects on a wide variety of aspects of open space management, land management, and environmental stewardship (1) increased an understanding of trade-offs inherent in sustainability and resource management and (2) altered student perceptions of the role of scientific information and research in environmental management and decision-making. Furthermore, students initially conceived of open space as purely ecological/biophysical, but by the end of the course, (3) their understanding was of open space as a coupled human/ecological system. This shift is crucial for student development as sustainability scientists.

  15. Evaluación económica y toma de decisiones en salud ambiental

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    Gutiérrez Zúñiga Cristina

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante el creciente deterioro ambiental y sus posibles consecuencias en la salud de la población resulta una prioridad indiscutible el diseño e instrumentación de políticas que controlen las actividades económicas bajo el criterio de protección a la salud humana y al ambiente mismo. Es preciso que dichas políticas consideren la factibilidad económica de las alternativas de protección existentes. Sin embargo, por la cantidad de intereses dentro del área ambiental, otros factores como el social y el político deben también ser considerados. La evaluación económica ha sido vista como un promisorio fundamento para la toma de decisiones en esta materia. Los autores analizan la capacidad de esta herramienta para organizar en forma sistemática y comparable los costos y los beneficios de alternativas para la solución de problemas ambientales. Se resumen las principales características de los estudios de costo-beneficio y costo-efectividad, las formas de evaluación económica del ambiente, y las particularidades de esta área para la aplicación de dichas técnicas de análisis. Se señalan los límites encontrados en estas herramientas para cuantificar los costos no monetarios de los riesgos ambientales y de los consecuentes daños a la salud, tales como el dolor, el sufrimiento ó la incapacidad de personas económicamente inactivas, constituyendo estos aspectos el reto metodológico de la evaluación económica en el área. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia de ampliar los insumos informativos para la toma de decisiones en materia de salud ambiental en aspectos como la distribución de los costos y los beneficios entre los distintos grupos sociales. Por último se señala tanto la creciente politización del tema ambiental, como la posibilidad técnica de manipulación de estas herramientas de análisis. Partiendo de estos elementos se señala la necesidad, por parte de los evaluadores, de ser conscientes sobre las implicaciones pol

  16. Impacto económico de los hoteles: aplicación en la ciudad de Sevilla

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    Miryam González Limón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un creciente interés por cuantificar el impacto económico generado por algún sector productivo o actividad económica sobre la economía nacional, regional o local. Por ello, en este artículo se van a analizar los beneficios económicos vinculados a la existencia de los hoteles de la ciudad de Sevilla, como parte fundamental del sector turístico. El objetivo es cuantificar la relevancia económica del sector de hoteles en Sevilla. Por impacto económico se entiende el efecto que produce un sector económico sobre la producción, la renta y el empleo en una determinada área geográfica y durante un período de tiempo. Dentro del impacto económico podemos diferenciar, por una parte los elementos cuantitativos, y por otra, los cualitativos.

  17. EconStor: ein fachliches Repositorium für die Wirtschaftswissenschaften / EconStor: a subject-based repository for economics and business studies

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    Weiland, Jan B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the migration to DSpace, an internationally widely used digital repository software, at the beginning of 2009, the “German National Library for Economics” (ZBW presents its repository with a new website and a new name: EconStor. In addition to the considerable number of working and discussion papers – predominately edited from economics faculties and research institutes in Germany and collected via its predecessor application OPUS – ZBW intends to acquire further document types, especially postprints. Numerous researchers from the Kiel Institute for the World Economy are already using EconStor for open access publishing within the framework of the EU-funded project entitled „Network of European Economists Online“ (NEEO. It is of utmost importance for a subject-based repository to be cross-linked with the well-established databases and other resources dedicated to its subject area in order to achieve a wide dissemination and reception within its own scientific community. Besides providing metadata of several working paper series to the bibliographic database „Research Papers in Economics“ (RePEc, ZBW plans to establish a similar service for the renowned „Social Science Research Network“ (SSRN by setting up an interface to SSRN’s eLibrary. A basic requirement to realize these intentions is a flexible document management system which is open to the adaptations needed to fulfill these specifications. The criteria which led to the decision for DSpace as repository software will be explained.

  18. "Las cooperativas: una alternativa económica y social frente a la crisis" (Cooperatives: an economic and social alternative to the crisis

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    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Cooperativismo nació como alternativa económica y social,impulsado por la piedad religiosa y reglado bajo los principios democráticos. Lasolidaridad y la democracia económica hacen de las cooperativas sociedadesespecialmente resistentes frente a las dificultades económicas.

  19. Can Environmental Laws Fulfill Their Promise? Stories from Canada

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    Nigel Bankes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Canadian environmental law has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, responding to some of the flaws and weaknesses identified by commentators seeking to explain the continuing trend in environmental degradation. The aim of this article is to tell the story of three pieces of Canadian environmental legislation, the Alberta Land Stewardship Act, the federal Species at Risk Act, and Alberta’s Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, with a view to exploring whether the environmental ambition underlying these pieces of legislation is being realized. Our overall conclusion is that there is a significant gap between the ambition of these three pieces of environmental legislation and their actual implementation but this gap arises from design choices made by the legislature and the executive, rather than something inherent in the law itself.

  20. O valor percebido para o consumidor nas dimensões socioambiental, econômica e tecnológica da cadeia produtiva do biodiesel

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    Ana Cristina de Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão do biodiesel como fonte renovável na matriz energética do Brasil, tem demandado esforços e direcionado ações estratégicas na priorização das dimensões socioambientais, econômicas e tecnológicas junto à cadeia produtiva do biodiesel. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar o valor percebido pelos consumidores finais quanto às dimensões socioambientais, econômicas etecnológicas na produção de fontes de energias renováveis de combustíveis. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como qualitativa descritiva, desenvolvida junto a condutores de ônibus identificados como um dos stakeholders da referida cadeia de suprimentos. Constatou-se uma priorização das dimensões social e ambiental, consideradas como principais valores percebidos pelo consumidor, se comparadas com as dimensões econômicas e tecnológicas. Os aspectos identificados como importantes referem-se à redução do efeito estufa e das emissões de gases tóxicos, a produção de energia renovável e a geração deemprego. Nota-se com os resultados obtidos, a necessidade de umaorganização do conhecimento e produção de informações estratégicas,integrando o consumidor na cadeia produtiva e na construção dodesenvolvimento sustentável.Abstract The inclusion of biodiesel as a renewable source of energy matrix in Brazil, hasdemanded efforts and strategic actions aimed at prioritizing social and environmental dimensions, economic and technological with the biodiesel production chain. This research aims to examine the value perceived by end users about the environmental and social dimensions, economic and technological production of renewable energy fuels. The methodology is characterized as descriptive qualitative research,conducted at the bus drivers identified as a stakeholder of that supply chain. The research showed a prioritization of environmental and social values considered as the main perceived by the consumer, as compared with the economical and