WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental response facilitation

  1. Delegation of Authority Under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) - Decision Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum concerns how the Office of Enforcement (OE) proposed that two new authorities under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) be delegated to the Regional Administrators.

  2. Facilitating Comprehension, Connection and Commitment to Environmentally Responsible Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased awareness of the negative effects the building industry has on the environment, designs produced without considering sustainability of the planet can no longer be accepted. Although the concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility are not new to the field of interior design, a review of the literature reveals…

  3. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  4. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  5. Environmental Ethics and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rouanet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p382 This paper resumes a previous discussion on Environmental Ethics and Irreversibility, which was presented in 2005. There I first faced the problem. Now I would like to reevaluate the issue. Was my paper “catastrophist”? Or was it, instead, realistic? Which are today the main issues confronting Environmental Ethics? Plainly speaking, what can we really do? These are some of the questions I would like to bring in to the debate with my colleagues and the public. In other words, instead of focusing in the aspect of “irreversibility”, I prefer here to focus on the “responsibility” of agents and institutions. It rescues the so-called “Principle of Responsibility”, by Hans Jonas. There is also some debate with Karl-Otto Appel and Habermas. If, on one hand, there are irreversible damages to nature, as the extinction of species and even of natural locations, as rivers and other natural accidents, there are, on the other hand, many actions that can and must be taken in order to preserve or deter the grave consequences of the environmental degradation. In this paper, I try to discuss some of the problems and propose some solutions, but the more important thing is to call everyone – individuals, groups, or institutions – to responsibility face the Earth, the Human and not-human beings, and mainly the future generations.

  6. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental variability facilitates coexistence within an alcid community at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. Christopher; Schauer, Amy E.S.

    1994-01-01

    We examined coexistence at sea among 7 taxa of diving, wing-propelled seabirds (Alcidae) in the genera Aethia, Uria, Cepphus, and Fratercula. Species abundances were measured simultaneously with a suite of environmental factors in the northern Bering Sea, Alaska, USA; data from 260 adjacent and non-adjacent sites occupied by alcids foraging offshore near breeding colonies were then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). We used PCA to group redundant environmental descriptors, to identify orthogonal axes for constructing a multi-dimensional niche, and to differentiate species associations within niche dimensions from species associations among niche dimensions. Decomposition of the correlation matrix for 22 environmental and 7 taxonomic variables with PCA gave 14 components (10 environmental and 4 species interactions) that retained 90% of the original available variance. Alcid abundances (all species) were most strongly correlated with axes representing tidal stage, a time-area interaction (due to sampling layout), water masses, and a temporal or intra-seasonal trend partially associated with weather changes. Axes representing tidal stage, 2 gradients in macro-habitat (Anadyr and Bering Shelf Water masses), the micro-habitat of the sea surface, and an air-sea interaction were most important for detecting differences among species within niche dimensions. Contrary to assumptions of competition, none of 4 compound variables describing primarily species-interactions gave strong evidence for negative associations between alcid taxa sharing similar body sizes and feeding requirements. This exploratory analysis supports the view that alcids may segregate along environmental gradients at sea. But in this community, segregation was unrelated to foraging distance from colonies, in part because foraging 'substrate' was highly variable in structure, location, and area1 extent. We contend that coexistence within this seabird group is facilitated via expanded niche

  8. Corporate environmental responsibility. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European and U.S. industrial participants presented their environmental policies and programs. There is a difference of opinion between the European and U.S. industry representatives with regard to disclosure of environmental data. The coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES) had played a role in the recent evolution of industry environmental programs, especially as they relate to environmental performance measurement, communication of environmental issues and concerns with shareholders and the public, and issues related to public accountability and disclosure. An overview of accomplishments is given and a common agenda is offered. (DG)

  9. Conceptualising environmental responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Downstream responsibility is rarely addressed in the academic literature and in corporate sustainability reporting. We conceptualise downstream responsibility for the example of carbon emissions, by establishing a terminology as well as a framework for quantifying downstream carbon footprints. By extracting emissions-intensive sales chains for a number of Australian industry sectors, and comparing these to emissions-intensive supply chains, we demonstrated the ability of input-output analysis to quantify emissions responsibility in both directions. We extend the definition of downstream responsibility beyond the product use and disposal phases, to include what we call 'enabled' emissions. This term implies that whatever is sold downstream enables our customers to operate and emit, irrespective of whether it is our product that is combusted, or that directly combusts fuels, or not. Our structural path analyses and threshold-capture relationships reveal stark differences between industries with regard to the data collection efforts necessary to achieve a reasonably complete footprint assessment. Industries appear to have their own specific carbon footprint profiles, and one cannot design generic relevance tests that tell which data to collect. Moreover we conclude that current completeness standards in carbon reporting cannot be satisfied using relevance thresholds. Input-output analysis and structural path analysis are excellent tools that can help companies undertake screening exercises, which in turn help prioritising and streamlining the collection of data needed to establish a corporate downstream carbon footprint. Compared to conventional manual approaches, hybrid life-cycle assessments assisted by input-output analysis and structural path analysis achieve more complete results, with substantially less staff, money and time. (author)

  10. Facilitation of responses by task-irrelevant complex deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2014-05-01

    Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Response variability to glucose facilitation of cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew; Finnegan, Yvonne; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2013-11-01

    Glucose facilitation of cognitive function has been widely reported in previous studies (including our own). However, several studies have also failed to detect glucose facilitation. There is sparsity of research examining the factors that modify the effect of glucose on cognition. The aims of the present study were to (1) demonstrate the previously observed enhancement of cognition through glucose administration and (2) investigate some of the factors that may exert moderating roles on the behavioural response to glucose, including glucose regulation, body composition (BC) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response. A total of twenty-four participants took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, repeated-measures study, which examined the effect of 25 and 60 g glucose compared with placebo on cognitive function. At 1 week before the study commencement, all participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose facilitated performance on tasks of numeric and spatial working memory, verbal declarative memory and speed of recognition. Moderating variables were examined using several indices of glucoregulation and BC. Poorer glucoregulation predicted improved immediate word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. Those with better glucoregulation showed performance decrements on word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. These findings are in line with accumulating evidence that glucose load may preferentially enhance cognition in those with poorer glucoregulation. Furthermore, the finding that individuals with better glucoregulation may suffer impaired performance following a glucose load is novel and requires further substantiation.

  12. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can environmental innovation facilitate carbon emissions reduction? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Yu-Lu; Ma, Chao-Qun; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental innovation has been recognized as an efficient way of addressing environmental problems. However, how environmental innovation may affect carbon emissions in China and whether the effect may differ among various environmental innovation variables remain to be investigated. Therefore, based on the panel data of China’s 30 provinces during 2000–2013, we use a system generalized method of moments (SGMM) technique to estimate the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions in China. Also, we evaluate the effect on carbon emission reduction of China’s initial carbon emissions trading (CET) scheme. Empirical results indicate that, most environmental innovation measures in China reduce carbon emissions effectively. Among the various environmental innovation factors, energy efficiency exerts the most evident effect on carbon emissions abatement in China; meanwhile, resources for innovation and knowledge innovation also play prominent roles in this regard. However, the impact of governmental environmental policies on curbing carbon emissions reduction suffers from a lag effect, which mainly occurred during 2006–2013. Finally, despite the short time of operation and incomplete market mechanism, the pilot CET in China has appeared relatively promising with regard to carbon emissions reduction. - Highlights: • The SGMM is used for the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions. • Energy efficiency proves the most effective way to reduce China’s carbon emissions. • Innovation resources and knowledge innovation are conducive for carbon reduction. • The governmental environmental policies have lag effect on carbon reduction. • The effect of China’s initial CET on carbon emissions reduction has appeared.

  14. Environmental concern and environmentally responsible behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  15. The GETE approach to facilitating the commercialization and use of DOE-developed environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Global Environmental Technology Enterprise (GETE) was conceived to develop and implement strategies to facilitate the commercialization of innovative, cost-effective Department of Energy (DOE)-developed environmental technologies. These strategies are needed to aid DOE's clean-up mission; to break down barriers to commercialization; and to build partnerships between the federal government and private industry in order to facilitate the development and use of innovative environmental technologies

  16. The GETE approach to facilitating the commercialization and use of DOE-developed environmental technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.N. [Global Environment & Technology Foundation, Annandale, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Global Environmental Technology Enterprise (GETE) was conceived to develop and implement strategies to facilitate the commercialization of innovative, cost-effective Department of Energy (DOE)-developed environmental technologies. These strategies are needed to aid DOE`s clean-up mission; to break down barriers to commercialization; and to build partnerships between the federal government and private industry in order to facilitate the development and use of innovative environmental technologies.

  17. Public-private partnerships as facilitators of environmental improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development in different contexts. So-called ?Green Networks?, ?Cleaner Production Centres?, ?Waste Minimisation Clubs? are among others highlighted as alternatives to (governmental...

  18. Physical limitations, walkability, perceived environmental facilitators and physical activity of older adults in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li Tang

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland...... were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist...... environmental facilitators (p physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p

  19. Environmental enrichment facilitates cocaine abstinence in an animal conflict model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Scott; Ranaldi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we sought to discover if housing in an enriched environment (EE) is an efficacious intervention for encouraging abstinence from cocaine seeking in an animal "conflict" model of abstinence. Sixteen Long-Evans rats were trained in 3-h daily sessions to self-administer a cocaine solution (1 mg/kg/infusion) until each demonstrated a stable pattern of drug-seeking. Afterward, half were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, obstacles, and a running wheel, while the other half were given clean, standard laboratory housing. All rats then completed daily 30-min sessions during which the 2/3 of flooring closest to the self-administration levers was electrified, causing discomfort should they approach the levers; current strength (mA) was increased after every day of drug seeking until the rat ceased activity on the active lever for 3 consecutive sessions (abstinence). Rats housed in EE abstained after fewer days and at lower current strengths than rats in standard housing. These results support the idea that EE administered after the development of a cocaine-taking habit may be an effective strategy to facilitate abstinence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HEMODYNAMIC AND LACTIC ACID RESPONSES TO PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gültekin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic and metabolic responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF exercise were examined in 32 male university students (aged 19-28 years. Ten repetitions of PNF exercises were applied to the subjects' dominant upper extremities in the following order: as an agonist pattern flexion, adduction and external rotation; and as an antagonist pattern extension, abduction and internal rotation. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, double product (DP, and blood lactate concentration (La were determined before, immediately after, and at 1st, 3rd, and 5th minutes after PNF exercise. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures indicated significant differences in HR, SBP, DBP, DP and La immediately after PNF exercise. HR increased from 81 (±10 to 108 (±15 b·min-1 (p < 0.01, SBP increased from 117 (±10 to 125 (±11 mmHg (p < 0.01, DBP increased from 71 (±10 to 75 (±8 mmHg (p < 0.01, DP increased from 96 (±16 to 135 (±24 (p < 0.01, and La increased from 0.69 (±0.31 to 3.99 (±14.63 mmol·L-1 (p < 0.01. Thus PNF exercise resulted in increased hemodynamic responses and blood lactate concentration that indicate a high strain on the cardiovascular system and anaerobic metabolism in healthy subjects

  1. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  2. Response planning and environmental risk analysis, state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, E.R.; Marben, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), a multitasked study was undertaken to determine the relative risk of noncrude oil transport (including marine and freshwater), the status of spill response capability in the state, and the need and most appropriate locations for siting spill response deposits. The project used multidisciplinary transport and environmental data analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS) to enable various scenarios and data changes to be easily visualized. The evaluation concerned (a) designation of significant environmental risk areas, (b) environmentally sensitive areas and fish and wildlife likely to be affected, (c) the level of response capability appropriate for protecting the environment, (d) the adequacy of current capabilities for noncrude vessels, (e) the feasibility of establishing one or more response cooperatives for use by multiple carriers, and (f) other steps that could be taken to reduce the risk of a spill and facilitate control and cleanup

  3. Moving forward on facilitation research: response to changing environments and effects on the diversity, functioning and evolution of plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Smit, Christian; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2015-01-01

    Once seen as anomalous, facilitative interactions among plants and their importance for community structure and functioning are now widely recognized. The growing body of modelling, descriptive and experimental studies on facilitation covers a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic systems throughout the globe. However, the lack of a general body of theory linking facilitation among different types of organisms and biomes and their responses to environmental changes prevents further advances in our knowledge regarding the evolutionary and ecological implications of facilitation in plant communities. Moreover, insights gathered from alternative lines of inquiry may substantially improve our understanding of facilitation, but these have been largely neglected thus far. Despite over 15 years of research and debate on this topic, there is no consensus on the degree to which plant–plant interactions change predictably along environmental gradients (i.e. the stress-gradient hypothesis), and this hinders our ability to predict how plant–plant interactions may affect the response of plant communities to ongoing global environmental change. The existing controversies regarding the response of plant–plant interactions across environmental gradients can be reconciled when clearly considering and determining the species-specificity of the response, the functional or individual stress type, and the scale of interest (pairwise interactions or community-level response). Here, we introduce a theoretical framework to do this, supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. We also discuss current gaps in our knowledge regarding how plant–plant interactions change along environmental gradients. These include the existence of thresholds in the amount of species-specific stress that a benefactor can alleviate, the linearity or non-linearity of the response of pairwise interactions across distance from the ecological optimum of the beneficiary, and the need to explore

  4. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  5. Responsible energy planning and environmental stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the idea that operating in the best interests of the environment is also in the best interests of shareholders. Topics discussed include utility environmental policy, cost-effective recycling of materials, environmental impact of new power sources, and energy efficiency. The author states that being environmentally responsible goes beyond good business, it is the right thing to do

  6. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  7. Place Attachment and Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Jerry J.; Kobrin, Katherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how an attachment to a local natural resource can influence environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) in an individual's everyday life. Reports four general and three specific behavioral indicators reflecting a single environmentally responsible latent construct. Investigates the place dependence and place identity's role on ERB using…

  8. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed ( n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later ( n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week ( n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators ( p walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  9. Environmental pollution and plant responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S.B.; Agrawal, M. [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India)

    1999-11-01

    This is a comprehensive book that presents and analyses the most current research on the causal factors contributing to the deteriorating environmental quality and its effect on plant performance. It presents a holistic approach to environmental problem throughout the world; covers recent trends in understanding mechanism of action individually and in combination with other factors; evaluates recent trends of information on global climatic change issues and its consequences; and gives management strategies to be followed for abating the problem.

  10. Considerations Regarding the Environmental Responsibility and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian-Marcel Nuta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The public policy tool of taxation may generate discouraging effects upon the economicagents – consumers or producers – but also could beused as incentives. High environmental taxationcould generate crowding effect in terms of responsibility. Sometimes a very sophisticated system ofenvironmental taxation is the basis for a highly regulated business environment and conformity butwith a lack of real responsible citizenship. We aretrying to see if the impact of taxation uponresponsibility is real and can affect the motivation for environmental responsible citizenship. Themain findings are related to the impact of regulating power of environmental taxes. Also there isevident the interest of entrepreneurs in environmentally responsible behavior and the less informationabout the benefits of responsible citizenship.

  11. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  12. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  13. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  14. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  15. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  16. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  17. Facilitating Student Engagement: Social Responsibility and Freshmen Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Lindsey N.; MacCartney, Danielle; Miller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is advanced as a method for promoting social responsibility, with an emphasis on promoting ideals of "global citizenship" among undergraduate students. At the same time, the practice of learning communities is widespread on college campuses for retaining freshmen and promoting student success. However, there is…

  18. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of

  19. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J; Maestre, Fernando T; Bowker, Matthew A; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2011-11-20

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of

  20. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    . The connection of these findings to global warming warrant further investigation, but has the potential to change our perspective of climate change as a destabilizing factor in wildlife communities at large spatial scales. The potential for cold- and warm-adapted species to coexist during climate warming......Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation...... with climate change being proposed as one of the causes. The chapter investigates the evidence for recent increases in tropical precipitation and primary productivity to cause a recovery in migrant populations. It presents novel evidence for two dichotomies in the effect of such “re-greening”. Over yearly time...

  1. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  2. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  4. Speech Versus Action in Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanna Ferreira Peixoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of rethinking the consumption culture in contemporary society brings up the interest in researching how consumption habits are related to environmental preservation. Even though sustainable practices are valuable, the comparison amid how people act as consumers and their assumed ethical stance raises questions. Consumers advocate a concern for environmental issues but research shows that their consumption habits are still old fashioned. This study target the convergence and divergence between environmentally responsible speech and consumption behavior under the perspective of theories of action (Argyris, Putnam & Smith, 1985. Research utilized in-depth interviews and self-reports, using a logbook, to collect information about environmentally responsible discourse and consumption behavior of 11 participants. Data collection and analysis explore dimensions of environmentally responsible behavior (Stern, 1999, 2000: personal domain; behavioral domain; contextual domain; personal capabilities; and habits & routines. Results suggest that environmentally responsible behavior is not always consistent with the discourse due to influence of motivational issues (impotence, lack of interest, sacrifice, and convenience and contextual issues (financial situation, lack of public policies, time constraints, and culture.

  5. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  6. Cartograms Facilitate Communication of Climate Change Risks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra

    2017-12-01

    Communication of climate change (CC) risks is challenging, in particular if global-scale spatially resolved quantitative information is to be conveyed. Typically, visualization of CC risks, which arise from the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, is confined to showing only the hazards in the form of global thematic maps. This paper explores the potential of contiguous value-by-area cartograms, that is, distorted density-equalizing maps, for improving communication of CC risks and the countries' differentiated responsibilities for CC. Two global-scale cartogram sets visualize, as an example, groundwater-related CC risks in 0.5° grid cells, another one the correlation of (cumulative) fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions with the countries' population and gross domestic product. Viewers of the latter set visually recognize the lack of global equity and that the countries' wealth has been built on harmful emissions. I recommend that CC risks are communicated by bivariate gridded cartograms showing the hazard in color and population, or a combination of population and a vulnerability indicator, by distortion of grid cells. Gridded cartograms are also appropriate for visualizing the availability of natural resources to humans. For communicating complex information, sets of cartograms should be carefully designed instead of presenting single cartograms. Inclusion of a conventionally distorted map enhances the viewers' capability to take up the information represented by distortion. Empirical studies about the capability of global cartograms to convey complex information and to trigger moral emotions should be conducted, with a special focus on risk communication.

  7. Reading and response as facilitation to the teaching and learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading and response as facilitation to the teaching and learning of ... and strategies that can be used in the classroom towards teaching student's reading skills. ... The population comprises all forth year English teaching methods class.

  8. Incident Command System - Environmental Unit responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) for crisis management, used for response to oil spills by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company throughout its facilities, including the Trans Alaska Pipeline and the Valdez Marine Terminal, was described. Special attention was given to the Environmental Unit within the ICS which functions as a primary support unit for the Incident Operations Section. Details of the Unit's function were provided. These include the collection, evaluation and dissemination of information on all environmental issues concerning the crisis, provision of advice and direction on environmental aspects, and up-front agency interaction. A checklist of tasks is included. 7 refs

  9. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  10. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  11. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  12. Environmental barriers to participation and facilitators for use of three types of assistive technology devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widehammar, Cathrine; Lidström, Helene; Hermansson, Liselotte

    2017-08-07

    The aim was to compare the presence of environmental barriers to participation and facilitators for assistive technology (AT) use and study the relation between barriers and AT use in three different AT devices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ≥one year of experience as a user of myoelectric prosthesis (MEP), powered mobility device (PMD), or assistive technology for cognition (ATC) and age 20-90 years. Overall, 156 participants answered the Swedish version of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors and a study-specific questionnaire on facilitating factors. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Barriers to participation were lowest in MEP users (md=0.12; p>0.001), and highest in ATC users (md=1.56; p>0.001) with the least support for AT use (p>0.001 - p=0.048). A positive correlation between fewer barriers and higher use of MEP was seen (r=0.30, p=0.038). The greatest barriers to participation were Natural environment, Surroundings and Information, and the most support came from relatives and professionals. Support, training and education are vital in the use of AT. These factors may lead to a more sustained and prolonged use of AT and may enable increased participation. Future research should focus on interventions that meet the needs of people with cognitive disabilities.

  13. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  14. Nucleosome dynamics: HMGB1 facilitates nucleosome restructuring and collaborates in estrogen-responsive gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Scovell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome in the human cell is extraordinarily compacted in the nucleus. As a result, much of the DNA is inaccessible and functionally inert. Notwithstanding the highly efficient packaging, mechanisms have evolved to render DNA sites accessible that then enable a multitude of factors to carry out ongoing and vital functions. The compaction is derived from DNA complexation within nucleosomes, which can further consolidate into a higher-order chromatin structure. The nucleosome and nucleosomal DNA are not static in nature, but are dynamic, undergoing structural and functional changes as the cell responds to stresses and/or metabolic or environmental cues. We are only beginning to understand the forces and the complexes that engage the nucleosome to unearth the tightly bound and inaccessible DNA sequences and provide an opening to more accessible target sites. In many cases, current findings support a major role for the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs in providing an avenue to factor accessibility that leads to the activation of transcription. The estrogen receptor α (ERα does not bind to the estrogen response element (ERE in the canonical nucleosome. However, evidence will be presented that HMGB1 restructures the nucleosome in an ATP-independent manner and also facilitates access and strong binding of ERα to ERE. The features that appear important in the mechanism of action for HMGB1 will be highlighted, in addition to the characteristic features of the restructured nucleosome. These findings, together with previous evidence, suggest a collaborative role for HMGB1 in the step-wise transcription of estrogen-responsive genes. In addition, alternate mechanistic pathways will be discussed, with consideration that “HMGB1 restructuring” of the nucleosome may generally be viewed as a perturbation of the equilibrium of an ensemble of nearly isoenergetic nucleosome states in an energy landscape that is driven by

  15. A motivational model for environmentally responsible behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a study examining whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are related to environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). The study analysed past environmental behavior, self-regulatory mechanisms (self-efficacy, satisfaction, goals), and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to ERBs in a sample of 156 university students. Results show that all the motivational variables studied are linked to ERB. The effects of self-efficacy on ERB are mediated by the intrinsic motivation responses of the participants. A theoretical model was created by means of path analysis, revealing the power of motivational variables to predict ERB. Structural equation modeling was used to test and fit the research model. The role of motivational variables is discussed with a view to creating adequate learning contexts and experiences to generate interest and new sensations in which self-efficacy and affective reactions play an important role.

  16. Responsibility for health: personal, social, and environmental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2007-08-01

    Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy concerning social responsibility for health has focused on society's obligation to provide access to healthcare. While ensuring access to healthcare is an important social responsibility, societies can promote health in many other ways, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health education, disease surveillance, urban planning and occupational health. Greater attention should be paid to strategies for health promotion other than access to healthcare, such as environmental and public health and health research.

  17. Implementation of Environmental Flows for Intermittent River Systems: Adaptive Management and Stakeholder Participation Facilitate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conallin, John; Wilson, Emma; Campbell, Josh

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pressure on freshwater ecosystems is increasing, and often leading to unacceptable social-ecological outcomes. This is even more prevalent in intermittent river systems where many are already heavily modified, or human encroachment is increasing. Although adaptive management approaches have the potential to aid in providing the framework to consider the complexities of intermittent river systems and improve utility within the management of these systems, success has been variable. This paper looks at the application of an adaptive management pilot project within an environmental flows program in an intermittent stream (Tuppal Creek) in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. The program focused on stakeholder involvement, participatory decision-making, and simple monitoring as the basis of an adaptive management approach. The approach found that by building trust and ownership through concentrating on inclusiveness and transparency, partnerships between government agencies and landholders were developed. This facilitated a willingness to accept greater risks and unintended consequences allowing implementation to occur.

  18. Making environmental health interesting for medical students-internet assisted facilitated collaborative learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanam, Manni Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Topics on environmental health are usually neglected by students and it is necessary for them to learn this area with a public health perspective as environment plays a vital role in multi-factorial causation of diseases. Hence there is a need for alternative teaching/learning methods to facilitate students in acquiring the required knowledge. To increase the student interest and enhance their participation in acquiring knowledge in public health perspective of environmental health. Teaching Objectives/Learning Were: At the end of the session students should know the importance of air as an environmental factor in disease causation in special reference to public health hazards, the major sources of air pollution, major pollutants causing the health hazards, the way to measure pollutants and control them. The whole class of students was divided into two batches and one session was planned for each batch. Each batch was divided into six small groups. The groups were given task of exploring the internet on the different topics mentioned in the learning objectives. All the students were asked to explore, compile information and collectively prepare a presentation and present their findings based on their reviews. Students' feedback was collected at the end of each session. Eighty five percent of them were clear about the learning objectives and interested about internet learning. Most of them gave a positive opinion about the newer teaching learning method. Internet assisted group study served as a valuable alternative, innovative, and interesting tool to teach and learn the environmental health as revealed by students' feedback.

  19. Exploring Additional Determinants of Environmentally Responsible Behavior: The Influence of Environmental Literature and Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Catherine; Vagias, Wade M.; DeWard, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that individuals who are knowledgeable and concerned about the environment will engage in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). We use data from a large scale Web survey hosted on National Geographic's Web site in 2001-2002 to investigate this premise. We examine whether reading three classic environmental books…

  20. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  1. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Toledo Castanho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%. Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping

  2. Development of self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental barriers and facilitators for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Magasi, Susan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Semik, Patrick; Hammel, Joy; Heinemann, Allen W

    2015-04-01

    To describe the development of new self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental facilitators or barriers to the participation of people with disabilities in society. A mixed-methods approach included a literature review; item classification, selection, and writing; cognitive interviews and field testing of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or stroke; and rating scale analysis to evaluate initial psychometric properties. General community. Individuals with SCI, TBI, or stroke participated in cognitive interviews (n=9); community residents with those same conditions participated in field testing (n=305). None. Self-report item pool of social attitudes that act as facilitators or barriers to people with disabilities participating in society. An interdisciplinary team of experts classified 710 existing social environment items into content areas and wrote 32 new items. Additional qualitative item review included item refinement and winnowing of the pool prior to cognitive interviews and field testing of 82 items. Field test data indicated that the pool satisfies a 1-parameter item response theory measurement model and would be appropriate for development into a calibrated item bank. Our qualitative item review process supported a social environment conceptual framework that includes both social support and social attitudes. We developed a new social attitudes self-report item pool. Calibration testing of that pool is underway with a larger sample to develop a social attitudes item bank for persons with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  4. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  5. Identifying socio-environmental factors that facilitate resilience among Canadian palliative family caregivers: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Melissa; Wolse, Faye; Crooks, Valorie A; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, friends and family members are becoming increasingly responsible for providing palliative care in the home. This is resulting in some caregivers experiencing high levels of stress and burden that may ultimately surpass their ability to cope. Recent palliative care research has demonstrated the potential for caregiver resilience within such contexts. This research, however, is primarily focused on exploring individual-level factors that contribute to resilience, minimizing the inherent complexity of this concept, and how it is simultaneously influenced by one's social context. Therefore, our study aims to identify socio-environmental factors that contribute to palliative family caregiver resilience in the Canadian homecare context. Drawing on ethnographic fieldnotes and semistructured interviews with family caregivers, care recipients, and homecare nurses, this secondary analysis employs an intersectionality lens and qualitative case study approach to identify socio-environmental factors that facilitate family caregivers' capacity for resilience. Following a case study methodology, two cases are purposely selected for analysis. Findings demonstrate that family caregiver resilience is influenced not only by individual-level factors but also by the social environment, which sets the lived context from which caregiving roles are experienced. Thematic findings of the two case studies revealed six socio-environmental factors that play a role in shaping resilience: access to social networks, education/knowledge/awareness, employment status, housing status, geographic location, and life-course stage. Findings contribute to existing research on caregiver resilience by empirically demonstrating the role of socio-environmental factors in caregiving experiences. Furthermore, utilizing an intersectional approach, these findings build on existing notions that resilience is a multidimensional and complex process influenced by numerous related variables that intersect

  6. Non-Critical-Care Nurses' Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Rapid Response Team Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sheryl Henry; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Woith, Wendy Mann

    2015-01-01

    Rapid response teams can save lives but are only effective when activated. We surveyed 50 nurses for their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to activation. Findings showed that participants need more education on their role and when to activate the rapid response team. Nurses who comprise the team need help building their communication skills. We recommend nursing professional development specialists increase the frequency of offerings and expand the focus on roles, activation criteria, and communication skills.

  7. Dynamism of Stimuli-Responsive Nanohybrids: Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Plazas-Tuttle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug delivery carriers, in tissue-engineered templates and scaffolds, adaptive clothing, smart surface coatings, electrical switches and in platforms for diversified functional applications. Such ANHs are composed of carbonaceous, metallic or polymeric materials with stimuli-responsive soft-layer coatings that enable them to perform such switchable functions. Since ANHs are engineered to dynamically transform under different exposure environments, evaluating their environmental behavior will likely require new approaches. Literature on polymer science has established a knowledge core on stimuli-responsive materials. However, translation of such knowledge to environmental health and safety (EHS of these ANHs has not yet been realized. It is critical to investigate and categorize the potential hazards of ANHs, because exposure in an unintended or shifting environment could present uncertainty in EHS. This article presents a perspective on EHS evaluation of ANHs, proposes a principle to facilitate their identification for environmental evaluation, outlines a stimuli-based classification for ANHs and discusses emerging properties and dynamic aspects for systematic EHS evaluation.

  8. What facilitates adaptation? An analysis of community-based adaptation to environmental change in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Murtinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the environmental, socio-economic andinstitutional factors that influence community-based adaptation strategies in 16municipalities in the rural Andes of Colombia. The study focuses specifically onthe factors that influence whether communities decide to take measures to managetheir water and micro-watersheds in response to water scarcity caused by climatevariability and land-use changes. The research uses quantitative and qualitativemethods incorporating data from surveys to 104 water user associations,precipitation and land-use data, municipal socio-economic information, and semistructured interviews with key informants. The results reveal 1 the links betweenenvironmental change and the type of adaptation that communities implement,and 2 how, in face of water scarcity changes, external funding facilitatesadaptation. The findings of this study contributes to the common-pool resourceand adaptation literatures by highlighting the important role that external actorsmay have in shaping collective action to adapt to environmental change.

  9. Dose-response investigation into glucose facilitation of memory performance and mood in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.

  10. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  11. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Mishenin; I. Yarova

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with arguments that the most effective mechanism for greening use of land resources is to increase the level of social and environmental responsibility. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use are formed.

  12. Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schreuder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.

  13. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  14. Response of international shipping to the current environmental challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popek Marzenna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international shipping industry directly facilitates the growth of the world trade, economic development and improvement of the global living standards. As the world economy and population continue to expand, the volume of maritime trade is expected to increase significantly as well. Maritime transport already contributes significantly to the three pillars of sustainable development – social, environmental and economic. Maritime transportation is generally considered environmental friendly when compared to other transportation means, especially if the energy efficiency is measured per tonne transported/per mile. Nevertheless, emissions from the growing maritime transport sector represent a significant and growing source of air pollution. One of future goals in international shipping is to reduce CO2 emissions. The International Maritime Organization is the United agency responsible for the protection of the environment from the impact of maritime transport. All parts of shipping industry are examining a number of ways to reduce CO2 emissions, which are primarily linked to reducing fuel consumption. The paper identifies the main areas that should be addressed if maritime sustainable development is to be achieved. It presents analysis of activities focused on environmentally friendly solutions as a form of IMO support for realization of the strategy of sustainable development.

  15. High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  17. Environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, T.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the conceptualization of environmentally responsible behavior and methods for measuring such behavior based on a review of previous studies. Four major scales for the extent to which an individual’s behavior is responsible behavior are discussed. Various theoretical backgrounds and cultures provide diverse conceptualizations of environmentally responsible behavior. Both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior has been identified in the past studies. This study also discusses the precedents of environmentally responsible behavior and with a general overview; it provides insight into improving future research on this subject.

  18. Observing painful events in others leads to a temporally extended general response facilitation in the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galang, Carl Michael; Naish, Katherine R; Arbabi, Keon; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2017-11-01

    Excitability in the motor cortex is modulated when we observe other people receiving a painful stimulus (Avenanti et al., Nat Neurosci 8(7):955-960, 2005). However, the task dependency of this modulation is not well understood, as different paradigms have yielded seemingly different results. Previous neurophysiological work employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggests that watching another person's hand being pierced by a needle leads to a muscle specific inhibition, assessed via motor evoked potentials. Results from previous behavioural studies suggest that overt behavioural responses are facilitated due to pain observation (Morrison et al., Cereb Cortex 17:2214-2222, 2007b; Morrison et al., Cognition 104:407-416, 2007a). There are several paradigmatic differences both between typical TMS studies and behavioural studies, and within behavioural studies themselves, that limit our overall understanding of how pain observation affects the motor system. In the current study, we combine elements of typical TMS experimental designs in a behavioural assessment of how pain observation affects overt behavioural responding. Specifically, we examined the muscle specificity, timing, and direction of modulation of motor responses due to pain observation. To assess muscle specificity, we employed pain and non-pain videos from previous TMS studies in a Go/No-Go task in which participants responded by either pressing a key with their index finger or with their foot. To assess timing, we examined response times for Go signals presented at 0 or 500 ms after the video. Results indicate that observation of another individual receiving a painful stimulus leads to a non-effector specific, temporally extended response facilitation (e.g., finger and foot facilitation present at 0 and 500 ms delays), compared to observation of non-pain videos. This behavioural facilitation effect differs from the typical motor inhibition seen in TMS studies, and we argue that the effects of

  19. Environmental Protection Agency Award Recipient Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itemized Award Phase information. Information about the Recipient's Responsibilities Upon Notification of the Award, The EPA Project Officer Responsibilities, and EPA Grant Specialists Responsibilities.

  20. Set2 Methyltransferase Facilitates DNA Replication and Promotes Genotoxic Stress Responses through MBF-Dependent Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chen-Chun; Kishkevich, Anastasiya; Deegan, Rachel S; Keszthelyi, Andrea; Folkes, Lisa; Kearsey, Stephen E; De León, Nagore; Soriano, Ignacio; de Bruin, Robertus Antonius Maria; Carr, Antony M; Humphrey, Timothy C

    2017-09-12

    Chromatin modification through histone H3 lysine 36 methylation by the SETD2 tumor suppressor plays a key role in maintaining genome stability. Here, we describe a role for Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation in facilitating DNA replication and the transcriptional responses to both replication stress and DNA damage through promoting MluI cell-cycle box (MCB) binding factor (MBF)-complex-dependent transcription in fission yeast. Set2 loss leads to reduced MBF-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) expression, reduced deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis, altered replication origin firing, and a checkpoint-dependent S-phase delay. Accordingly, prolonged S phase in the absence of Set2 is suppressed by increasing dNTP synthesis. Furthermore, H3K36 is di- and tri-methylated at these MBF gene promoters, and Set2 loss leads to reduced MBF binding and transcription in response to genotoxic stress. Together, these findings provide new insights into how H3K36 methylation facilitates DNA replication and promotes genotoxic stress responses in fission yeast. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Set2 Methyltransferase Facilitates DNA Replication and Promotes Genotoxic Stress Responses through MBF-Dependent Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chun Pai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modification through histone H3 lysine 36 methylation by the SETD2 tumor suppressor plays a key role in maintaining genome stability. Here, we describe a role for Set2-dependent H3K36 methylation in facilitating DNA replication and the transcriptional responses to both replication stress and DNA damage through promoting MluI cell-cycle box (MCB binding factor (MBF-complex-dependent transcription in fission yeast. Set2 loss leads to reduced MBF-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR expression, reduced deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP synthesis, altered replication origin firing, and a checkpoint-dependent S-phase delay. Accordingly, prolonged S phase in the absence of Set2 is suppressed by increasing dNTP synthesis. Furthermore, H3K36 is di- and tri-methylated at these MBF gene promoters, and Set2 loss leads to reduced MBF binding and transcription in response to genotoxic stress. Together, these findings provide new insights into how H3K36 methylation facilitates DNA replication and promotes genotoxic stress responses in fission yeast.

  2. Chronic Inhibition of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Facilitates Behavioral Responses to Cocaine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Liles, Larry Cameron; Iuvone, Paul Michael; Weinshenker, David

    2012-01-01

    The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse), decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/−) and Dbh −/− mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh −/− mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/− mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/− mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh −/− mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor) enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:23209785

  3. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Gaval-Cruz

    Full Text Available The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse, decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA to norepinephrine (NE in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh -/- mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh -/- mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/- mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/- mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh -/- mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors.

  4. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees’ biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees’ pro-environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  5. Virtual lesions of the IFG abolish response facilitation for biological and non-biological cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Newman-Norlund

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are faster to perform a given action following observation of that same action. Converging evidence suggests that the human mirror neuron system (MNS plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, the specificity of the neural mechanisms governing this effect remain controversial. Specialist theories of imitation suggest that biological cues are maximally capable of eliciting imitative facilitation. Generalist models, on the other hand, posit a broader role for the MNS in linking visual stimuli with appropriate responses. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these two theoretical approaches by disrupting the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during the preparation of congruent (imitative and incongruent (complementary actions cued by either biological (hand or non-biological (static dot stimuli. Delivery of TMS over IFG abolished imitative response facilitation. Critically, this effect was identical whether actions were cued by biological or non-biological stimuli. This finding argues against theories of imitation in which biological stimuli are treated preferentially and stresses the notion of the IFG as a vital center of general perception-action coupling in the human brain.

  6. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  7. Education and Environmentalism: Ecological World Views and Environmentally Responsible Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Examined a subsample of students from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology to determine the extent to which an Ecological World View (EWV) has been adapted, an EWV related to environmental behavior, and the role education plays in the type of EWV adapted. Includes the Ecological World View Scale. (Contains 21 references.) (MDH)

  8. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in

  9. Environmental reference of enterprises social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara K. Zuzek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some considerations to take over the realm of entrepreneurial responsibility for the environment. It discusses the concept of ecological trends responsibility. Evidence indicates inclusion of small and medium-sized enterprises in the area of responsibility. Business responsibilities towards the environment as a basis for making voluntary commitments are presented.

  10. Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquakes and is ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world in this respect. The medical response in disasters is accompanied by managerial, logistic, technical, and medical challenges being also the case in the Bam earthquake in Iran. Our objective was to explore the medical response to the Bam earthquake with specific emphasis on pre-hospital medical management during the first days. Methods The study was performed in 2008; an interview based qualitative study using content analysis. We conducted nineteen interviews with experts and managers responsible for responding to the Bam earthquake, including pre-hospital emergency medical services, the Red Crescent, and Universities of Medical Sciences. The selection of participants was determined by using a purposeful sampling method. Sample size was given by data saturation. Results The pre-hospital medical service was divided into three categories; triage, emergency medical care and transportation, each category in turn was identified into facilitators and obstacles. The obstacles identified were absence of a structured disaster plan, absence of standardized medical teams, and shortage of resources. The army and skilled medical volunteers were identified as facilitators. Conclusions The most compelling, and at the same time amenable obstacle, was the lack of a disaster management plan. It was evident that implementing a comprehensive plan would not only save lives but decrease suffering and enable an effective praxis of the available resources at pre-hospital and hospital levels. PMID:21575233

  11. Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Öhlén, Gunnar; Castrén, Maaret; Kurland, Lisa

    2011-05-16

    Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquakes and is ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world in this respect. The medical response in disasters is accompanied by managerial, logistic, technical, and medical challenges being also the case in the Bam earthquake in Iran. Our objective was to explore the medical response to the Bam earthquake with specific emphasis on pre-hospital medical management during the first days. The study was performed in 2008; an interview based qualitative study using content analysis. We conducted nineteen interviews with experts and managers responsible for responding to the Bam earthquake, including pre-hospital emergency medical services, the Red Crescent, and Universities of Medical Sciences. The selection of participants was determined by using a purposeful sampling method. Sample size was given by data saturation. The pre-hospital medical service was divided into three categories; triage, emergency medical care and transportation, each category in turn was identified into facilitators and obstacles. The obstacles identified were absence of a structured disaster plan, absence of standardized medical teams, and shortage of resources. The army and skilled medical volunteers were identified as facilitators. The most compelling, and at the same time amenable obstacle, was the lack of a disaster management plan. It was evident that implementing a comprehensive plan would not only save lives but decrease suffering and enable an effective praxis of the available resources at pre-hospital and hospital levels.

  12. Consumer and producer environmental responsibility. Comparing two approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Joao; Domingos, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Two different indicators of 'environmental responsibility' were independently proposed by Rodrigues et al. [Rodrigues, J., Domingos, T., Giljum, S., Schneider, F., 2006. Designing an indicator of environmental responsibility. Ecological Economics, 59 (3): 256-266.] and Lenzen et al. [Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann, T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61: 27-42.]. These indicators are both supposed to reflect the indirect effects of consumer and producer behavior in the generation of environmental pressure. In this paper we compare their mathematical properties and interpretation. We conclude that they have different implications for environmental policy. (author)

  13. The Effects of Message Framing on Response to Environmental Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel J.

    1995-01-01

    Explores how the framing of environmental communication influences attitudes and environmentally responsible behaviors. Finds that communication that discussed losses (rather than gains) to the current (rather than future) generation gave rise to the most positive responses and the highest levels of intent to participate in…

  14. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  15. Using Simulation in Nursing PhD Education: Facilitating Application of Responsible Conduct of Research Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Margaret F; Supiano, Katherine; Wilson, Rebecca; Lassche, Madeline; Latendresse, Gwen

    Simulation is a standard clinical nursing educational approach; however, simulation is rarely used in nonclinical nursing education. In doctor of philosophy (PhD) programs, ethical content about responsible conduct of research (RCR) is traditionally didactic, presented early in the program of study. Ethics content merits review before students begin the dissertation phase; thus, the purpose of this project was to design and implement simulated scenarios to help students apply RCR principles prior to beginning independent research. Two scenarios were developed: (a) a potential protocol change discussed in a research team meeting and (b) an in-home data collection experience with an elderly participant and her daughter. Actors were trained faculty volunteers, playing roles outside their usual academic positions. Faculty facilitated scenarios by posing questions as cues related to desired learning outcomes as scenarios unfolded. Eleven nursing PhD students and 6 faculty participated. Debriefing facilitated discussion of RCR principles, common research quandaries, and suggested scenario revisions. Faculty, expert observation, and video-review showed that younger and less experienced students tried to give the "right" answer rather than implement RCR appropriate solutions. Students with more clinical experience had difficulty adopting the less familiar researcher role. Overall, simulation is a novel and useful way to enhance RCR content in PhD programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Imposed Environmental Stresses Facilitate Cell-Free Nanoparticle Formation by Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela; Contreras, Lydia M; Keitz, Benjamin K

    2017-09-15

    The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms, due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction, due to its high levels of resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationships between environmental stresses and the resulting effects on nanoparticle biosynthesis. In this work, we demonstrate cell-free nanoparticle production and study the effects of metal stressor concentrations and identity, temperature, pH, and oxygenation on the production of extracellular silver nanoparticles by D. radiodurans R1. We also report the synthesis of bimetallic silver and gold nanoparticles following the addition of a metal stressor (silver or gold), highlighting how production of these particles is enabled through the application of environmental stresses. Additionally, we found that both the morphology and size of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on the environmental stresses imposed on the cells. The nanoparticles produced by D. radiodurans exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to that of pure silver nanoparticles and displayed catalytic activity comparable to that of pure gold nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate that biosynthesized nanoparticle properties can be partially controlled through the tuning of applied environmental stresses, and we provide insight into how their application may affect nanoparticle production in D. radiodurans during bioremediation. IMPORTANCE Biosynthetic production of nanoparticles has recently gained prominence as a solution to rising concerns regarding increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and a desire for environmentally friendly methods of bioremediation and chemical synthesis. To date, a range of organisms

  17. RE-PLAN: An Extensible Software Architecture to Facilitate Disaster Response Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Martin; Mikler, Armin R.; Indrakanti, Saratchandra; Tiwari, Chetan; Jimenez, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Computational tools are needed to make data-driven disaster mitigation planning accessible to planners and policymakers without the need for programming or GIS expertise. To address this problem, we have created modules to facilitate quantitative analyses pertinent to a variety of different disaster scenarios. These modules, which comprise the REsponse PLan ANalyzer (RE-PLAN) framework, may be used to create tools for specific disaster scenarios that allow planners to harness large amounts of disparate data and execute computational models through a point-and-click interface. Bio-E, a user-friendly tool built using this framework, was designed to develop and analyze the feasibility of ad hoc clinics for treating populations following a biological emergency event. In this article, the design and implementation of the RE-PLAN framework are described, and the functionality of the modules used in the Bio-E biological emergency mitigation tool are demonstrated. PMID:25419503

  18. Dissociation between unconscious motor response facilitation and conflict in medial frontal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ostilio, Kevin; Garraux, Gaëtan

    2012-01-01

    Masked prime tasks have shown that sensory information that has not been consciously perceived can nevertheless modulate behavior. The neuronal correlates of behavioral manifestations of visuomotor priming remain debated, particularly with respect to the distribution and direction (i.e. increase or decrease) of activity changes in medial frontal areas. Here, we predicted that these discrepant results could be accounted for by two automatic and unconscious processes embedded in this task: response conflict and facilitation. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as 24 healthy participants had to respond, as fast as possible, to a target arrow presented immediately after a subliminal masked prime arrow. There were three experimental conditions defined by the prime-target relationship: compatible, incompatible, and neutral. The classical visuomotor priming effect was reproduced, with relatively longer reaction times (RTs) in incompatible trials. Longer RTs in incompatible than in neutral trials were specifically associated with stronger blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in a conflict-related network comprising the anterior cingulate cortex and right frontal associative areas. Motor response facilitation as shown by shorter RTs in compatible than in neutral trials was associated with reduced activation in a motor preparation network including the medial and lateral premotor cortices, as a result of the repetition suppression of the fMRI BOLD signal. The present results provide new insights into automatic and unconscious visuomotor priming processes, suggesting an involvement of either a cognitive or motor network, depending on the prime-target relationship. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Developing a GIS to facilitate data analysis for environmental restoration of a large waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Evans, B.J.; White, M.E.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Site area located southeastern Washington State and is a US Department of Energy Superfund cleanup site. The site contains a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive pollutants, which makes environmental monitoring, analysis, and restoration a complicated task. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data generated from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) component of HEIS, known as HEISGIS, is being developed to help scientists spatially analyze the environmental data stored in the HEIS database and provide an integrated system for environmental restoration. HEISGIS is in its second stage of development. The first stage produced a working prototype. The second stage focuses on improvements in data accuracy, data standardization, analytical modeling capabilities, interfaces between the various software packages, and the graphical user interface. This paper describes the development of the HEISGIS and summarizes the considerations and difficulties encountered in the integration of the GIS with a large relational database. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Perceived Facilitators and Barriers to Local Health Department Workers' Participation in Infectious Disease Emergency Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Paul, Amy; Taylor, Holly A; Barnett, Daniel J

    Local health departments play a key role in emergency preparedness and respond to a wide range of threats including infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza, tuberculosis, H1N1, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease. To successfully respond to an infectious disease outbreak, local health departments depend upon the participation of their workforce; yet, studies indicate that sizable numbers of workers would not participate in such a response. The reasons why local health department workers participate, or fail to participate, in infectious disease responses are not well understood. To understand why local health department workers are willing, or not willing, to report to work during an infectious disease response. From April 2015 to January 2016, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with local health department directors, preparedness staff, and nonpreparedness staff. Interviews were conducted with individuals throughout the United States. We interviewed 28 individuals across 3 groups: local health department directors (n = 8), preparedness staff (n = 10), and nonpreparedness staff (n = 10). Individuals' descriptions of why local health department workers are willing, or not willing, to report to work during an infectious disease response. Factors that facilitate willingness to respond to an infectious disease emergency included availability of vaccines and personal protective equipment; flexible work schedule and childcare arrangements; information sharing via local health department trainings; and perceived commitments to one's job and community. Factors that hinder willingness to respond to an infectious disease emergency included potential disease exposure for oneself and one's family; logistical considerations for care of children, the elderly, and pets; and perceptions about one's role during an infectious disease response. Our findings highlight opportunities for local health departments to revisit their internal policies and engage in

  1. An Information Framework for Facilitating Cost Saving of Environmental Impacts in the Coal Mining Industry in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashudu D. Mbedzi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coal-mining contributes much to the economic welfare of a country. Yet it brings along a number of challenges, notably environmental impacts which include water pollution in a water scarce country such as South Africa. This research is conducted in two phases. The first phase intends to establish environmental and other challenges brought about by the coal-mining industry through a comprehensive analysis of available literature. Combatting these challenges is costly; consequently, our work investigates how established management accounting tools and techniques such as Environmental Management Accounting (EMA, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC may facilitate cost savings for the companies involved. These techniques promote increased transparency of material usage by tracing and quantifying the flows and inventories of materials within the coal-mining industry in physical and monetary terms, hence hidden costs are elicited. The researchers postulate that an Information Framework integrating these aspects may be the way forward. To this end existing frameworks in the literature are identified. A number of research questions embodying the above aspects are defined and the objective is to define a conceptual framework to facilitate cost savings for coal-mining companies. The main contribution of this work is an information framework presented towards the end of this article. The second phase of the research will involve fieldwork in the form of a survey among stakeholders in industry to validate the conceptual framework.

  2. Greenlining. Economic and Environmental Effects of Government Facilitated Lending to Sustainable Economic Activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-03-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on taxes, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. It is concluded that the policy instrument could be used much more effective

  3. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition

  4. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Campus, Islamabad 25000, Pakistan; Stress Physiology Lab Department of Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India; Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic ...

  5. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the "Rechtsstaat"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    definition relates to human activity in a very general and all-embracing manner. It is an ethical principle which is not based upon a binding legal source or on actual ... new dimension when it comes to planning and the calculation of costs.7 ... of no avail to look for a direct contribution to a solution for environmental protection.

  6. Operational Flexibility Responses to Environmental Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kent D.

    1994-01-01

    This study develops and tests a behavioral model of organizational changes in operational flexibility. Regression results using an international data set provide strong support for the general proposition that uncertainties associated with different environmental components--poitical, government policy, macroeconomic, competitive, input and product demand uncertainties--have different implications for firm internal, locational, and supploer flexibility. Slack acts as a buffer attenuating, a...

  7. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In no circumstances can the state legalize the ecological aspect, for this will presuppose state interference in the economic system, therefore violation a principle of the Rechsstaat. Environmental protection could thus easily be misused as the basis for allowing the state to directly manipulate the economic process. The state ...

  8. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  9. The EU's role as a facilitator in the development of maritime environmental law in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the European Union’s (EU’s) possible role in the development of the Arctic marine environmental governance, focusing on offshore hydrocarbon activities. Marine governance is understood as the interaction between different actors at several levels and in different positions...

  10. The intrinsic features of Environmental Management Systems that facilitate adoption and encourage innovation in primary industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carruthers, Genevieve; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the adoption of innovations, and applies this knowledge to the uptake of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) amongst Australian farmers. We examine the specific features of the EMS process that might encourage or inhibit EMS adoption. We also

  11. Facilitating Toddler Interaction through Interior Environmental Design in a Child Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Ruth L.; And Others

    This study was a joint undertaking of interior environmental designers and a child developmentalist. The goal of the study was to increase peer interation between children in two classes held in one classroom. Children were observed for 7 weeks, in three periods: weeks 2 and 3 (time 1); weeks 4 and 5 (time 2); and weeks 6 and 7 (time 3). Observers…

  12. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the application of environmental politicies facilitates the identification of unknown costs and their next reaction. Moreover we try to determine, if these costs have a connection with the different environmental strategies, which are used. Design/methodology/approach: An empiric study was done through a telephonic survey all over Spain in 2012. The idea was to obtain a representative sample. From 943 companies, the survey was answered by 141 of them. Findings and Originality/value: It is shown the relationship between the costs behavior, knowledge of the unknown and hidden costs with the environmental strategies. Research limitations/implications: To dispose a bigger sample, this allowed us to obtain results in relationship with sectors type and to verify the result for regions. Practical implications: The organizations can be aware of costs reaction, depending on their action in the environmental area. Originality/value: Environmental politicies in the CSR field facilitate unknown or hidden costs detection and they allow their evaluation and the decisions about them. The obtained improvements can revert to the society due to the development of environmental politicies and they offer a competitive advantage for the company.

  13. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Associations Between Partner Facilitative Responses and Sexual Outcomes in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicoll, Gabrielle; Corsini-Munt, Serena; O Rosen, Natalie; McDuff, Pierre; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-10-03

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent idiopathic vulvo-vaginal pain associated with negative sexual and psychological consequences. Facilitative partner responses to pain are currently receiving empirical attention because they are positively associated with women's sexual outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which facilitative responses to pain are associated with these outcomes have not been examined. One potential mechanism is sexual assertiveness, which has been found to be associated with better sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The present study examined whether women's sexual assertiveness mediated the association between women's perception of facilitative partner responses and women's sexual function and satisfaction. Women (N = 140) with PVD symptomatology completed self-reported questionnaires evaluating their perception of their partners' facilitative responses, and their own sexual assertiveness, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Dependent measures were sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index and sexual satisfaction assessed by the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Results indicated that women's higher sexual assertiveness mediated the association between their greater perceived facilitative partner responses and their improved sexual function and satisfaction. Findings suggest a potential mechanism through which partner responses may be associated with women's sexual outcomes.

  14. Sustainable Entrepreneurship Orientation: A Reflection on Status-Quo Research on Factors Facilitating Responsible Managerial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kraus

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the global financial system having undergone vast changes since the financial crisis of 2007, scientific research concerning the investor’s point of view on sustainable investments has drastically increased. However, there remains a lack of research focused on the entrepreneur’s angle regarding sustainable oriented investments. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of sustainable financial markets by bringing together entrepreneurial and financial research. This paper provides a structured literature review, based on which the authors identify three relevant levels that they believe have an effect on the successful implementation of managerial sustainable practices; these are the individual, the firm, and the contextual levels. The results show that on the individual level sustainable entrepreneurs tend to derive their will to act more sustainably from their personal values or traits. On the organizational level, though, it can be concluded that an small and medium sized enterprise’s internal culture and the reconfiguration of resources are critical determinants for adopting a sustainable entrepreneurial orientation. Finally, on the contextual level, researchers have focused on a better understanding of how entrepreneurs can help society and the environment through sustainable entrepreneurship, and how they can act as role models or change agents in light of the fact that the choice of investing or financing based on sustainability is still in its infancy. By providing an overview on facilitating factors for responsible managerial practices on the entrepreneur’s side, this research contributes to a better understanding for both theory and practice on how sustainable practices can be implemented and facilitated.

  15. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assists corporations to better manage the effect of their activities on the environment. This article aims to study ISO 14001 implementation and its effects on the environmental responsibility. A model will be built, which covers the environmental management system, the components of organizational culture, being able to influence environmental standards implementation.

  17. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive....... Parameterization of the models we develop requires information on genetic and phenotypic variation and demography that will not always be available, meaning that simpler models will often be required to predict responses to environmental change. We consequently develop a method to examine whether the full...

  18. Systemic dizocilpine (MK-801 facilitates performance in opposition to response bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauwereyns Johan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research has established that dopamine signals are crucial in orienting behavior to reward. Less is known, however, about the psychopharmacology of task performance under small-reward conditions as compared to large-reward conditions. The current study examined the effects of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801 on reaction time (RT in a nose-poke task with rats completing an asymmetric reward schedule. In all trials, the rats were required to poke their nose in either the left or the right peripheral hole immediately adjacent to the centre hole when the corresponding light was illuminated. Depending on the stimulus-reward mapping, however, one position was associated with a large reward, while the alternative position was associated with a small reward. Correct performance was required in every trial; if the rat did not make a correct response within 20 s, the trial was aborted, and the same stimulus was presented again on the next trial. In this way, the rat was forced to perform the same visuo-spatial discrimination task under different reward conditions. Reaction times (ms were faster for large-reward trials than for small-reward trials, replicating previous findings. At a dosage of MK-801 (0.04 mg/kg, there was no significant influence of on RT in large-reward trials. In contrast, the same dosage of MK-801 in small-reward trials produced a decrease in RT as compared to the control condition, implying an improvement of performance. Below 0.04 mg/kg of MK-801, a steady decrease of RT in small-trials was seen as a function of dosage. Above 0.04 mg/kg of MK-801, the majority of rats failed to perform the task at all, whereas the rats that did manage to perform the criterion of 80 correct trials in a session showed no difference in RT between large- and small-reward trials. These data indicate that the systemic administration of a relatively small dosage of MK-801 facilitates

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assist...

  20. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  1. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  2. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  3. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    is carried out based on a survey of residents of Denmark. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally responsible behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source separating compostable kitchen waste, and using public transportation for work...... of correlation between norm constructs and between norms and behaviour vary between behaviours. Hence, respondents seem to apply different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  4. Facilitating relative comparisons of health impacts from postulated accidents in environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Current US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance on the performance of accident analyses supported an environmental impact statement (EIS) stresses a graded approach that emphasizes the most important risks, calls for the evaluation of frequencies as well as consequences for severe accident scenarios, and discourages the use of bounding analyses that confound risk comparisons among EIS alternatives. This paper discusses methods in probabilistic risk analysis that were developed and applied in defining accidents and generating radiological source terms for the DOE Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS); publication of the Final WM PEIS is due in late summer 1996. The strengths and shortcomings of the cited probabilistic risk analysis methods used to evaluate facility accidents are addressed, both as they relate to the WM PEIS and as they relate to more general EIS applications. Key guidance is discussed that was developed by DOE and used in shaping the techniques cited herein for application in an EIS. Related perceptions on accidents observed from the public comment process for the WM PEIS are cited. Finally, recommendations are made on the basis of needs as well as lessons learned in implementing the accident analysis for the WM PEIS

  5. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Bobby R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver, and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO2-contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where relatively small numbers of highly radioactive PuO2 particles are presented for inhalation (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, distributions of possible risks are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The main goal of the project is to deliver a computer program that will allow evaluation of the indicated risk distributions for the SE paradigm. However, some of our work also relates to the deterministic exposure [DE] paradigm where large numbers of airborne particles (resuspended dust containing PuO2) are presented for inhalation to members of the public residing or working at a remediated Department of Energy (DOE) site

  6. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  7. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A.; Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells

  8. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  9. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  10. Corporate environmental responsibility – a key determinant of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GĂNESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the trend of the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate reputation by focusing on a study of the European automotive sector. The starting point of our research is content analysis of the sustainability or social responsibility reports published in 2010, 2011, and 2012 by 13 businesses operating in the European automotive industry. Content analysis was carried out in order to identify the indicators used to assess corporate environmental responsibility. The methodology aimed to produce an evaluation model for corporate environmental responsibility based on the following variables reported by companies: carbon dioxide emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, and amount of waste. Corporate reputation of sampled organizations was assessed based on content analysis of the 2010, 2011, and 2012 reports of the Reputation Institute. We applied the correlation of panel data and emphasised the fact that high levels of corporate environmental responsibility sustain high levels of corporate reputation. The study highlights the theoretical considerations that support this relationship. As companies become increasingly accountable, the methodology described in our study can be developed in further research by using other variables to measure corporate environmental responsibility.

  11. Immigrant Children Promoting Environmental Care: Enhancing Learning, Agency and Integration through Culturally-Responsive Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of culturally-responsive environmental education to engage immigrant early adolescents. Our study suggests that environmental involvement can become a means and an end for children to bridge their school and home in agential ways. Drawing from a multi-phase study involving focus groups with children, parents, and…

  12. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  13. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  14. Expression, purification, and functional characterization of the insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E; Hresko, Richard C; Hruz, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    The insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4 is of fundamental importance for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite intensive effort, the ability to express and purify sufficient quantities of structurally and functionally intact protein for biophysical analysis has previously been exceedingly difficult. We report here the development of novel methods to express, purify, and functionally reconstitute GLUT4 into detergent micelles and proteoliposomes. Rat GLUT4 containing FLAG and His tags at the amino and carboxy termini, respectively, was engineered and stably transfected into HEK-293 cells. Overexpression in suspension culture yielded over 1.5 mg of protein per liter of culture. Systematic screening of detergent solubilized GLUT4-GFP fusion protein via fluorescent-detection size exclusion chromatography identified lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol (LMNG) as highly effective for isolating monomeric GLUT4 micelles. Preservation of structural integrity and ligand binding was demonstrated via quenching of tryptophan fluorescence and competition of ATB-BMPA photolabeling by cytochalasin B. GLUT4 was reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs and proper folding was confirmed. Reconstitution of purified GLUT4 with amphipol A8-35 stabilized the transporter at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time. Functional activity of purified GLUT4 was confirmed by reconstitution of LMNG-purified GLUT4 into proteoliposomes and measurement of saturable uptake of D-glucose over L-glucose. Taken together, these data validate the development of an efficient means to generate milligram quantities of stable and functionally intact GLUT4 that is suitable for a wide array of biochemical and biophysical analyses. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  15. Urban Elementary Students' Views of Environmental Scientists, Environmental Caretakers and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews…

  16. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  17. Corporate Environmental Responsibility in Demand Networks (summary section only)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Research on corporate responsibility has traditionally focused on the responsibilities of companies within their corporate boundaries only. Yet this view is challenged today as more and more companies face the situation in which the environmental and social performance of their suppliers, distributors, industry or other associated partners impacts on their sales performance and brand equity. Simultaneously, policy-makers have taken up the discussion on corporate responsibility from the perspe...

  18. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  19. Features of legal mechanism environmental responsibility of citizens in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Шинкарьов

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In this article it is examined the main conceptual approaches to understanding the legal arrangement for implementing citizens' environmental obligations. It is noted that despite the diversity of approaches to understanding the arrangement for implementing citizens' environmental responsibilities, most scientists include the concepts of: a a legal implementation arrangement, b the process of practical implementation, c the conditions and factors that influence it.  It is defined that the legal arrangement for implementing environmental obligations is guaranteed by prohibitions and legal regulations. In this case the regulatory legal act has two main functions:    1 prescribes the need to implement the legal obligation, determines it; 2 prescribes a result of the legal obligation implementation. Recent research and publications analysis. Particular attention is paid to the work of scientists in environmental law, including VI Andryeytseva, G. Anisimova, GI Baluk, AP Hetman M. Krasnov, II Karakash, V. Kostytsky, VV Nosik, M. Shulga, S. Shemshuchenko and others. However, most of them concerning coverage of only certain aspects, is a comprehensive analysis of the legal implementation mechanism is still lacking. It's analyzed the characteristics of the legal enforcement for implementing environmental responsibilities by citizens. It is determined that the legal arrangement for the implementation of environmental responsibilities is a part of a general arrangement of the law implementation. Ecological and legal arrangement for the implementation of environmental obligations is defined as a system of legal norms and legal relations by which the State provides the accomplishment of ecological  and legal regulations. Implementation of the constitutional obligations by the citizens is a process that is inherent in environmental responsibilities, in which there are several stages: 1 the ability to execute the obligations which are

  20. Responsible Tourism: Environmental Actions in Russian Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpina, Lolita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to examine the responsible tourism topic, to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the environmental practices in Russian hotel industry and to investigate the reasons and values to follow the environmentally-friendly programs. The thesis includes theoretical and empirical parts. The theoretical section is based on the special literature, studies, researches, articles and online sources. The theoretical part will be divided into two primal headings: re...

  1. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indic...

  2. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  3. Urban elementary students' views of environmental scientists, environmental caretakers and environmentally responsible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).

  4. Photon energy response of an aluminum oxide TLD environmental dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Because of aluminum oxide's significant advantage in sensitivity (about a factor of 30) over LiF, minimal fading characteristics and ease of processing, aluminum oxide thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) are being phased in at Los alamos for environmental monitoring of photon radiation. The new environmental dosimeter design consists of a polyethylene holder, about 0. 5 cm thick, loaded with a stack of four aluminum oxide TLD chips, each 1 mm thick and 5 mm in diameter. As part of the initial evaluation of the new design, the photon energy response of the dosimeter was calculated over the range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Specific goals of the analysis included the determination of individual chip response in the stack, assessment of the response variation due to TLD material (i.e., LiF versus A1 2 O 3 ), and the effect of copper filtration in flattening the response

  5. Relationships among social and environmental responsibility and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of an economy can be achieved through socially responsible behavior of companies in both the balanced development of labour and environmental protection as well as in responsible consumption of non-renewable resources. This paper aims to highlight the impact of the implementation of quality management systems on increasing responsibility for companies on sustainable management of human and natural resources. First, we perform a quantitative analysis to determine the effects of the adoption of ISO 14000 on the evolution of greenhouse gases. Secondly, we take a qualitative research on the impact of the adoption of ISO 26000 as a national standard. Based on three essential factors of production (labour, nature and capital we propose a model of sustainable development based on the three pillars: social responsibility, environmental protection and business

  6. Extended Producer Responsibility and corporate performance: Effects of environmental regulation and environmental strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Benhong; Tu, Yu; Elahi, Ehsan; Wei, Guo

    2018-07-15

    While contemporary manufacturing technologies stimulate the industrial revolution and promote the rapidly changing global economy, it has caused enormous environmental negative externalities and managing the industrial waste remains a primary challenge, especially for fast developing countries such as China. Though existing studies explored the influence of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislations on environmental externalities, only fewer researches aimed at policy issues. Particularly, the relationship among environmental regulations, environmental strategies and corporate performance in the EPR system has not been deeply investigated. To fill this gap, this research will focus to assess the economic aspect and environmental performance associated with the environmental regulations and strategies. For this purpose, 208 cross-sectional questionnaires were administered with three major high-pollution industries, electrical and electronic, automobile and lead-acid storage battery industries. To accomplish this study objective, we employ a two-step approach: firstly, validity tests for environmental regulation and environmental strategy along with the corporate performance are performed by the factor analysis method, and secondly, the structural equation model is utilized to test the study hypotheses. Results reveal that command and control (CAC) and market-based incentive (MBI) environmental regulations are significantly impacting on the reactive environmental strategy (RES); however, the proactive environmental strategy (PES) only has a significant relationship with MBI regulation. On the other hand, RES only has a significant relationship with the enterprises economics performance, while PES has a statistically significant relationship with both economic and environmental performance of enterprises. Therefore, the central government and its local offices are strongly urged to coordinate the industries by making, implementing and monitoring necessary and

  7. Language and the Facilitation of Authority: The Discourse of Noam Chomsky (Reader Response).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugrande, Robert de

    1991-01-01

    Applies discourse analysis to an interview with Noam Chomsky to show the use of language to facilitate authority. Discusses idealism and scientism, change and the role of the intellectual, Chomsky's dualism, his "problem," his method, creativity and composition, activism and the intellectual, and the future of intellectualism. (PRA)

  8. Environmental Assessment for the NASA First Response Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    NASA intends to construct a First Response Facility for integrated emergency response and health management. This facility will consolidate the Stennis Space Center fire department, medical clinic, security operations, emergency operations and the energy management and control center. The alternative considered is the "No Action Alternative". The proposed action will correct existing operational weaknesses and enhance capabilities to respond to medical emergencies and mitigate any other possible threats. Environmental impacts include are emissions, wetlands disturbance, solid waste generation, and storm water control.

  9. Corporate environmental responsibility – a key determinant of corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ganescu; Laura Dindire

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the trend of the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate reputation by focusing on a study of the European automotive sector. The starting point of our research is content analysis of the sustainability or social responsibility reports published in 2010, 2011, and 2012 by 13 businesses operating in the European automotive industry. Content analysis was carried out in order to identify the indicators used to assess corporate enviro...

  10. On the Personal, Social and Environmental... A Response to Alistair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Response to Alistair Chadwick's Viewpoint Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for School-Based Environmental Educators. ... ago, at the Earth Summit and the advent of South Africa's democracy, there were great efforts to help us understand ecological issues in relation to social issues.

  11. Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems : Individual or Institutional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahlquist, J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The actions performed by individuals, as consumers and citizens, have aggregate negative consequences for the environment. The question asked in this paper is to what extent it is reasonable to hold individuals and institutions responsible for environmental problems. A distinction is made between

  12. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.

  14. Visual stimulation facilitates penile responses to vibration in men with and without erectile disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Lunsen, R. H.; Oerlemans, S.

    1994-01-01

    This study compared reflexogenic and psychogenic penile responses in men with and without erectile disorder. It was hypothesized that men with psychogenic erectile dysfunction respond minimally to vibrotactile stimulation. An enhancement of penile responses was expected when vibration was combined

  15. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  16. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  17. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities.

  18. Lowering T Cell Activation Thresholds and Deregulating Homeostasis to Facilitate Immunotherapeutic Responses to Treat Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Eugene D

    2006-01-01

    ... to develop immune-based therapies for prostate cancer Hence, relatively straightforward manipulations that induce specific T cell responses against prostate tumors or epithelial tissues, especially...

  19. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  20. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  1. Stimulation of the subthalamic region facilitates the selection and inhibition of motor responses in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bosch, D. Andries; Speelman, Johannes D.; Brunia, Cornelis H. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to specify the involvement of the basal ganglia in motor response selection and response inhibition. Two samples were studied. The first sample consisted of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) who received deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic

  2. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption

  3. Space Use Variation in Co-Occurring Sister Species: Response to Environmental Variation or Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Claire M. S.; Meynard, Christine; Watson, Johan; Rioux, Camille; Benhamou, Simon; Perez, Julie; du Plessis, Jurie J.; Avenant, Nico; Pillay, Neville; Ganem, Guila

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence often involves niche differentiation either as the result of environmental divergence, or in response to competition. Disentangling the causes of such divergence requires that environmental variation across space is taken into account, which is rarely done in empirical studies. We address the role of environmental variation versus competition in coexistence between two rodent species: Rhabdomys bechuanae (bechuanae) and Rhabdomys dilectus dilectus (dilectus) comparing their habitat preference and home range (HR) size in areas with similar climates, where their distributions abut (allopatry) or overlap (sympatry). Using Outlying Mean Index analyses, we test whether habitat characteristics of the species deviate significantly from a random sample of available habitats. In allopatry, results suggest habitat selection: dilectus preferring grasslands with little bare soil while bechuanae occurring in open shrublands. In sympatry, shrubland type habitats dominate and differences are less marked, yet dilectus selects habitats with more cover than bechuanae. Interestingly, bechuanae shows larger HRs than dilectus, and both species display larger HRs in sympatry. Further, HR overlaps between species are lower than expected. We discuss our results in light of data on the phylogeography of the genus and propose that evolution in allopatry resulted in adaptation leading to different habitat preferences, even at their distribution margins, a divergence expected to facilitate coexistence. However, since sympatry occurs in sites where environmental characteristics do not allow complete species separation, competition may explain reduced inter-species overlap and character displacement in HR size. This study reveals that both environmental variation and competition may shape species coexistence. PMID:25693176

  4. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report. Fort Devens Facility, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    JOHN H. SARGENT 16.7 • 1 1 ARi 32 MARTHA L. HOWARD, ET ALI IS.to0 63 EWi -5%3 DAVID M. WATT 3994 .9.4 84 MAI_ 34 CHARLES H. HASKELL, fTALS 7.57 85 MAI...0. 1. 151 JESSIE ft. STONE IQI 00 263. 14 1 152 JOHN H. PHILGIN, ETA4.. 0 DAVID M. WAT 129.25 153 MARIETTA L. MORSE .9,who conveyed I.OOacre,fee, to...4ATHAN BOGAN .29 t, ൒O --ARNOLD C . SAURIN .09 V7-q.1 NELSON CHAUME .09 , ,72 LEON G. MOURET " .09 ,GREGORY A. WALSH .41 -1• 74 O’VERNON COLE. -ET AL

  5. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  6. Photosynthetic Entrainment of the Circadian Clock Facilitates Plant Growth under Environmental Fluctuations: Perspectives from an Integrated Model of Phase Oscillator and Phloem Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ohara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants need to avoid carbon starvation and resultant growth inhibition under fluctuating light environments to ensure optimal growth and reproduction. As diel patterns of carbon metabolism are influenced by the circadian clock, appropriate regulation of the clock is essential for plants to properly manage their carbon resources. For proper adjustment of the circadian phase, higher plants utilize environmental signals such as light or temperature and metabolic signals such as photosynthetic products; the importance of the latter as phase regulators has been recently elucidated. A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that is deficient in phase response to sugar has been shown, under fluctuating light conditions, to be unable to adjust starch turnover and to realize carbon homeostasis. Whereas, the effects of light entrainment on growth and survival of higher plants are well studied, the impact of phase regulation by sugar remains unknown. Here we show that endogenous sugar entrainment facilitates plant growth. We integrated two mathematical models, one describing the dynamics of carbon metabolism in A. thaliana source leaves and the other growth of sink tissues dependent on sucrose translocation from the source. The integrated model predicted that sugar-sensitive plants grow faster than sugar-insensitive plants under constant as well as changing photoperiod conditions. We found that sugar entrainment enables efficient carbon investment for growth by stabilizing sucrose supply to sink tissues. Our results highlight the importance of clock entrainment by both exogenous and endogenous signals for optimizing growth and increasing fitness.

  7. Limited transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii exposed to environmental stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon W Ellison

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression although other factors may also play a role. We examined the transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to a variety of environmental signals expected to be encountered during its life cycle. R. rickettsii exposed to differences in growth temperature (25 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C, iron limitation, and host cell species displayed nominal changes in gene expression under any of these conditions with only 0, 5, or 7 genes, respectively, changing more than 3-fold in expression levels. R. rickettsii is not totally devoid of ability to respond to temperature shifts as cold shock (37 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C induced a change greater than 3-fold in up to 56 genes. Rickettsiae continuously occupy a relatively stable environment which is the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Because of their obligate intracellular character, rickettsiae are believed to be undergoing reductive evolution to a minimal genome. We propose that their relatively constant environmental niche has led to a minimal requirement for R. rickettsii to respond to environmental changes with a consequent deletion of non-essential transcriptional response regulators. A minimal number of predicted transcriptional regulators in the R. rickettsii genome is consistent with this hypothesis.

  8. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  9. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  10. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Irwansyah; Gianto; Andi Syahwia

    2016-01-01

    Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development ) and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility ) is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . T...

  11. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF185 facilitates the cGAS-mediated innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, upon cytosolic DNA stimulation, catalyzes the formation of the second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP, which then binds to stimulator of interferon genes (STING and activates downstream signaling. It remains to be elucidated how the cGAS enzymatic activity is modulated dynamically. Here, we reported that the ER ubiquitin ligase RNF185 interacted with cGAS during HSV-1 infection. Ectopic-expression or knockdown of RNF185 respectively enhanced or impaired the IRF3-responsive gene expression. Mechanistically, RNF185 specifically catalyzed the K27-linked poly-ubiquitination of cGAS, which promoted its enzymatic activity. Additionally, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE patients displayed elevated expression of RNF185 mRNA. Collectively, this study uncovers RNF185 as the first E3 ubiquitin ligase of cGAS, shedding light on the regulation of cGAS activity in innate immune responses.

  13. Mucolipin 1 positively regulates TLR7 responses in dendritic cells by facilitating RNA transportation to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Saitoh, Shin-Ichiroh; Shibata, Takuma; Tanimura, Natsuko; Fukui, Ryutaro; Miyake, Kensuke

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 sense microbial single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and ssDNA in endolysosomes. Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing in endolysosomes is thought to be important for avoiding TLR7/9 responses to self-derived NAs. Aberrant self-derived NA transportation to endolysosomes predisposes to autoimmune diseases. To restrict NA-sensing in endolysosomes, TLR7/9 trafficking is tightly controlled by a multiple transmembrane protein Unc93B1. In contrast to TLR7/9 trafficking, little is known about a mechanism underlying NA transportation. We here show that Mucolipin 1 (Mcoln1), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel gene family, has an important role in ssRNA trafficking into lysosomes. Mcoln1(-/-) dendritic cells (DCs) showed impaired TLR7 responses to ssRNA. A mucolipin agonist specifically enhanced TLR7 responses to ssRNAs. The channel activity of Mcoln1 is activated by a phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), which is generated by a class III lipid kinase PIKfyve. A PIKfyve inhibitor completely inhibited TLR7 responses to ssRNA in DCs. Confocal analyses showed that ssRNA transportation to lysosomes in DCs was impaired by PIKfyve inhibitor as well as by the lack of Mcoln1. Transportation of TLR9 ligands was also impaired by the PIKfyve inhibitor. These results demonstrate that the PtdIns(3,5)P2-Mcoln1 axis has an important role in ssRNA transportation into lysosomes in DCs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Spectral summation and facilitation in on- and off-responses for optimized representation of communication calls in mouse inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, Alexander G; Egorova, Marina A; Ehret, Günter

    2017-02-01

    Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls. The results confirmed the hypothesis showing that average response rates, as recorded extracellularly from single units, were highest and spectral facilitation most effective for both onset and offset responses to the call and call models with three resolved frequencies according to critical bands in perception. In addition, the general on- and/or off-response enhancement in almost half the investigated 122 neurons favors not only perception of single calls but also of vocalization rhythm. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that critical-band resolved frequency components within a communication sound increase the probability of its perception by boosting the signal-to-noise ratio of neural response rates within the inferior colliculus for at least 20% (our criterion for facilitation). These mechanisms, including enhancement of rhythm coding, are generally favorable to processing of other animal and human vocalizations, including formants of speech sounds. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In China, environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs play an important supervisory role to address ecological issues together with government regulation and enterprise implementation. This study examines the effect of ENGO presence on corporate environmental responsibility (CER performance, along with internal factors as covariate variables. With a sample of 677 enterprises, it operationalizes the independent variable in terms of the number of ENGOs within certain distances from each enterprise, and the dependent variable based on the corporate social responsibility report using the specific criteria in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI sustainability reporting guidelines. The results of Tobit regression analyses indicate that ENGO presence is conducive to CER performance, and asset size, power concentration, and industry type also make differences. The findings suggest that ENGOs are helpful in solving environment issues by bridging the gap between private and public sectors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. CONCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM USED TO ORGANIZE AND FACILITATE ACCESS TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION AND ITS USE IN AREAS CONTAMINATED BY INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In São Paulo State (Brazil coastal area, for several years, a chemical industry discharged, without any sort of environmental control, a blend of industrial waste formed by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs. Judicial suits forced the company to identify and limit such deposits in order to perform environmental recovery work. Project were developed demanding preparation and handling of a large amount of documents, satellite images, aerial photographs, maps and videos with the increase of the information and knowledge management issues. This condition became even more critical as the projects started to become cross-disciplinary, involving a growing number of experts, many of them established in different cities. Those circumstances led to the generation of an Environmental Information System (BASGEO enabling organization and facilitation of access to such documents while increasing information safety. This work shows the development of this system and the difficulties related to environmental documents management and handling.

  17. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  18. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  19. Plant responses to environmental stresses-from gene to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-07-01

    Increasing global population, urbanization and industrialization are increasing the rate of conversion of arable land into wasteland. Supplying food to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that agriculturalists and plant scientists are currently confronting. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to survive under environmental extremes. New technological approaches are imperative. Conventional breeding methods have a limited potential to improve plant genomes against environmental stress. Recently, genetic engineering has contributed enormously to the development of genetically modified varieties of different crops such as cotton, maize, rice, canola and soybean. The identification of stress-responsive genes and their subsequent introgression or overexpression within sensitive crop species are now being widely carried out by plant scientists. Engineering of important tolerance pathways, like antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte accumulation, membrane-localized transporters for efficient compartmentation of deleterious ions and accumulation of essential elements and resistance against pests or pathogens is also an area that has been intensively researched. In this review, the role of biotechnology and its successes, prospects and challenges in developing stress-tolerant crop cultivars are discussed.

  20. Are We Meeting the Goal of Responsible Environmental Behavior: An Examination of Nature and Environmental Education Center Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah A.

    1991-01-01

    Through two surveys of nature and environmental centers throughout the United States, the author compares the centers' expressed goals with the goals of environmental education. These goals were determined by an accepted behavior model that is considered conducive to environmentally responsible behavior. (17 references) (MCO)

  1. An environmental BeO-OSL dosimeter for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Urso, Laura; Greiter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented to use measurements of localized absorbed dose in inner cities for production of high resolution maps of the radioactive contamination following a nuclear emergency or radiological attack. The doses are derived from luminescent detectors pre-fixed at places of high importance (e.g. public squares). For such an environmental dosimeter, BeO is used, which can be read out using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). A suitable casing of black Perspex has been developed to give a sufficiently accurate estimate of the air kerma value at the detector position. The dosimeter is characterized according to light tightness, dose response and angular photon energy dependence. A short overview of the approach for map production is also given. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive, environmentally stable BeO based OSL dosimeter has been developed for emergency response. ► The detector enables fast readouts and shows highly favorable dosimetric properties. ► A conceptual design is described to produce maps of radioactive contamination from localized dose measurements in urban areas.

  2. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shuhua; Wu, Gangwei; Jiang, Zhixian

    2018-01-01

    Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor) or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist) can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1 is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known. Methods: Thus, we examined the levels of HMGB-1 in the basolateral amygdala (BLA following SPS using Western blot and evaluated the levels of microglia and astrocytes activation in the BLA after SPS using immunohistochemical staining. We then examined the effects of pre-SPS intra-BLA administration of glycyrrhizin, an HMGB1 inhibitor, or LPS-RS, a competitive TLR4 antagonist, on subsequent post-SPS fear extinction. Results: We found that SPS treatment prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory after the SPS. The impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased HMGB1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 levels in the BLA. Additionally, the impairment of SPS-induced extinction of contextual fear memory was associated with increased activation of microglia and astrocyte in the BLA. Intra-BLA administrations of glycyrrhizin (HMGB-1 inhibitor or LPS-RS (TLR4 antagonist can prevent the development of SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggested that SPS treatment may not only produce short term effects on the HMGB1/TLR4-mediated pro-inflammation, but alter the response of microglia and astrocytes to the exposure to fear associated contextual stimuli.

  4. Facilitated recruitment of Pdc2p, a yeast transcriptional activator, in response to thiamin starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Kazuto; Esaki, Hiroyoshi; Onozuka, Mari; Konno, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yasunao; Akaji, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes involved in thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) synthesis (THI genes) and the pyruvate decarboxylase structural gene PDC5 are transcriptionally induced in response to thiamin starvation. Three positive regulatory factors (Thi2p, Thi3p, and Pdc2p) are involved in the expression of THI genes, whereas only Pdc2p is required for the expression of PDC5. Thi2p and Pdc2p serve as transcriptional activators and each factor can interact with Thi3p. The target consensus DNA sequence of Thi2p has been deduced. When TPP is not bound to Thi3p, the interactions between the regulatory factors are increased and THI gene expression is upregulated. In this study, we demonstrated that Pdc2p interacts with the upstream region of THI genes and PDC5. The association of Pdc2p or Thi2p with THI gene promoters was enhanced by thiamin starvation, suggesting that Pdc2p and Thi2p assist each other in their recruitment to the THI promoters via interaction with Thi3p. It is highly likely that, under thiamin-deprived conditions, a ternary Thi2p/Thi3p/Pdc2p complex is formed and transactivates THI genes in yeast cells. On the other hand, the association of Pdc2p with PDC5 was unaffected by thiamin. We also identified a DNA element in the upstream region of PDC5, which can bind to Pdc2p and is required for the expression of PDC5. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leveraging Quick Response Code Technology to Facilitate Simulation-Based Leaderboard Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Todd P; Doughty, Cara B; Mitchell, Diana; Rutledge, Chrystal; Auerbach, Marc A; Frisell, Karin; Jani, Priti; Kessler, David O; Wolfe, Heather; MacKinnon, Ralph J; Dewan, Maya; Pirie, Jonathan; Lemke, Daniel; Khattab, Mona; Tofil, Nancy; Nagamuthu, Chenthila; Walsh, Catharine M

    2018-02-01

    Leaderboards provide feedback on relative performance and a competitive atmosphere for both self-guided improvement and social comparison. Because simulation can provide substantial quantitative participant feedback, leaderboards can be used, not only locally but also in a multidepartment, multicenter fashion. Quick Response (QR) codes can be integrated to allow participants to access and upload data. We present the development, implementation, and initial evaluation of an online leaderboard employing principles of gamification using points, badges, and leaderboards designed to enhance competition among healthcare providers. This article details the fundamentals behind the development and implementation of a user-friendly, online, multinational leaderboard that employs principles of gamification to enhance competition and integrates a QR code system to promote both self-reporting of performance data and data integrity. An open-ended survey was administered to capture perceptions of leaderboard implementation. Conceptual step-by-step instructions detailing how to apply the QR code system to any leaderboard using simulated or real performance metrics are outlined using an illustrative example of a leaderboard that employed simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance scores to compare participants across 17 hospitals in 4 countries for 16 months. The following three major descriptive categories that captured perceptions of leaderboard implementation emerged from initial evaluation data from 10 sites: (1) competition, (2) longevity, and (3) perceived deficits. A well-designed leaderboard should be user-friendly and encompass best practices in gamification principles while collecting and storing data for research analyses. Easy storage and export of data allow for longitudinal record keeping that can be leveraged both to track compliance and to enable social competition.

  6. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  7. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  8. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE PRACTICE OF THE MANAGEMENT OF DOMESTIC ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of environmental responsibility as part of CSR is proved in the article. The general evaluation of the most significant environmental problems in Ukraine is given. The lack of interest in environmental protection in domestic business is identified (it’s indicated by the rapid increase in costs of utilities to pay the environmental tax, while the rate of growth of capital and current expenditure on environmental protection is minimal. The estimation of the level of implementation of environmental responsibility in the management practices of leading Ukrainian companies according to their non-financial reports is proved. The evaluation of environmental indicators by the standard GRI in reports of socially responsible companies are performed. The extremely low level of implementation of environmental responsibility in the practice of management of companies – ranking leaders at CSR in Ukraine is determined. The necessity of improving the environmental responsibility at all levels is substantiated.

  10. A quantitative model to assess Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Lucena, R

    2014-01-01

    The awareness of the impact of human activities in society and environment is known as "Social Responsibility" (SR). It has been a topic of growing interest in many enterprises since the fifties of the past Century, and its implementation/assessment is nowadays supported by international standards. There is a tendency to amplify its scope of application to other areas of the human activities, such as Research, Development and Innovation (R + D + I). In this paper, a model of quantitative assessment of Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology (SR EST) is described in detail. This model is based on well established written standards as the EFQM Excellence model and the ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on SR. The definition of five hierarchies of indicators, the transformation of qualitative information into quantitative data and the dual procedure of self-evaluation and external evaluation are the milestones of the proposed model, which can be applied to Environmental Research Centres and institutions. In addition, a simplified model that facilitates its implementation is presented in the article. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bet-hedging response to environmental variability, an intraspecific comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoux, Marie; Forcada, Jaume; Barbraud, Christophe; Croxall, John; Weimerskirchi, Henri

    2010-08-01

    A major challenge in ecology is to understand the impact of increased environmental variability on populations and ecosystems. To maximize their fitness in a variable environment, life history theory states that individuals should favor a bet-hedging strategy, involving a reduction of annual breeding performance and an increase in adult survival so that reproduction can be attempted over more years. As a result, evolution toward longer life span is expected to reduce the deleterious effects of extra variability on population growth, and consequently on the trait contributing the most to it (e.g., adult survival in long-lived species). To investigate this, we compared the life histories of two Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) populations breeding at South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and Kerguelen (Indian Ocean), the former in an environment nearly three times more variable climatically (e.g., in sea surface temperature) than the latter. As predicted, individuals from South Georgia (in the more variable environment) showed significantly higher annual adult survival (0.959, SE = 0.003) but lower annual reproductive success (0.285 chick per pair, SE = 0.039) than birds from Kerguelen (survival = 0.925, SE = 0.004; breeding success = 0.694, SE = 0.027). In both populations, climatic conditions affected the breeding success and the survival of inexperienced breeders, whereas the survival of experienced breeders was unaffected. The strength of the climatic impact on survival of inexperienced breeders was very similar between the two populations, but the effect on breeding success was positively related to environmental variability. These results provide rare and compelling evidence to support bet-hedging underlying changes in life history traits as an adaptive response to environmental variability.

  12. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  13. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  15. Responsibility to Nature? Hans Jonas and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.

  16. CORPORATE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE SERVICE SECTOR: A CASE STUDY FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akdemir Omur, Gokce; Ozbebek Tunc, Aysegul; Nemli Caliskan, Esra

    2012-01-01

    As the world is rapidly approaching its limits in terms of both environmental and social problems, businesses are increasingly expected to attend to issues of socially and environmentally responsible performance. In addition that demands for heightened levels of corporate social and environmental responsibility are being pressed through regulatory initiatives in many countries, corporations at the same time are realizing that being environmentally and socially responsible makes good business ...

  17. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  18. Moving forward on facilitation research : Response to changing environments and effects on the diversity, functioning and evolution of plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Smit, Christian; Maestre, Fernando T

    Once seen as anomalous, facilitative interactions among plants and their importance for community structure and functioning are now widely recognized. The growing body of modelling, descriptive and experimental studies on facilitation covers a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic systems

  19. Cognitive and Social Factors Influencing Students׳ Response and Utilization of Facilitator Feedback in a Problem Based Learning Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Gonzaga Mubuuke

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Both cognitive and socio-contextual factors have the potential in influencing ways in which students receive and utilize facilitator feedback in PBL tutorials. Therefore, tutorial facilitators need to be cognizant of these factors when framing their feedback messages.

  20. Human CST Facilitates Genome-wide RAD51 Recruitment to GC-Rich Repetitive Sequences in Response to Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Megan; Zhou, Qing; Shiva, Olga; Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Whitmore, Leanne; Jia, Pingping; Dai, Xueyu; Huang, Chenhui; Ye, Ping; Chai, Weihang

    2016-08-02

    The telomeric CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex has been implicated in promoting replication recovery under replication stress at genomic regions, yet its precise role is unclear. Here, we report that STN1 is enriched at GC-rich repetitive sequences genome-wide in response to hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication stress. STN1 deficiency exacerbates the fragility of these sequences under replication stress, resulting in chromosome fragmentation. We find that upon fork stalling, CST proteins form distinct nuclear foci that colocalize with RAD51. Furthermore, replication stress induces physical association of CST with RAD51 in an ATR-dependent manner. Strikingly, CST deficiency diminishes HU-induced RAD51 foci formation and reduces RAD51 recruitment to telomeres and non-telomeric GC-rich fragile sequences. Collectively, our findings establish that CST promotes RAD51 recruitment to GC-rich repetitive sequences in response to replication stress to facilitate replication restart, thereby providing insights into the mechanism underlying genome stability maintenance. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Students' Environmental Responsibility and Their Willingness to Pay for Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Sharmin; Celik, Bilge Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore environmental attitudes and how such attitudes, when combined with a specific cost, can affect environmental behavior. Environmental attitudes are important to study due to the rising belief by building occupants that they are owed safe, healthy, environmentally responsible, and comfortable living…

  2. Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

    2003-01-01

    Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

  3. Symbolic Beliefs as Barriers to Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, Richard R.; Fortner, Rosane W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory study that investigates how environmental beliefs relate to self-reported environmental behaviors. Includes a student sample (N=110) which was administered a 208-item instrument. Reports that based on survey results, most of the sample perceived themselves as environmentally aware and differed only in strength of attitudes.…

  4. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  5. 77 FR 46091 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, As Amended; Anaconda.... SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... fund up to $420,000 toward a response action by EPA to address releases from the Arimetco heap leach...

  6. Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Réale, Denis; Freitas, Carla; Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben M

    2018-06-11

    1.Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2.In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour in the wild. Specifically, our goal was to answer if individual differences in plasticity of space use to sea surface temperature could be explained by differences in personality along the reactive-proactive axis. 3.To address this question we first conducted repeated standard laboratory assays (i.e. open-field test, novel object test and mirror-stimulation test) to assess the personality type of 76 wild-caught Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Next, we released the fish back into the sea and monitored their spatial behaviour over large temporal (16 months) and spatial (a whole fjord) scales, using high-resolution acoustic tracking. 4. We demonstrate that 1) cod personality traits are structured into a proactive-reactive syndrome (proactive fish being more bold, exploratory and aggressive), 2) mean depth use of individuals is mainly driven by sea temperature and 3) personality is a significant predictor of home range changes in the wild, where reactive, but not proactive, individuals reduced their home range as sea temperature increased. 5. These findings expand our understanding of the ecological consequences of animal personality and the mechanisms shaping spatial dynamics of animals in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  7. Foxp3(+) T cells regulate immunoglobulin a selection and facilitate diversification of bacterial species responsible for immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Kato, Lucia M; Suda, Wataru; Atarashi, Koji; Doi, Yasuko; Tsutsui, Yumi; Qin, Hongyan; Honda, Kenya; Okada, Takaharu; Hattori, Masahira; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-17

    Foxp3(+) T cells play a critical role for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Here we show that in mice, Foxp3(+) T cells contributed to diversification of gut microbiota, particularly of species belonging to Firmicutes. The control of indigenous bacteria by Foxp3(+) T cells involved regulatory functions both outside and inside germinal centers (GCs), consisting of suppression of inflammation and regulation of immunoglobulin A (IgA) selection in Peyer's patches, respectively. Diversified and selected IgAs contributed to maintenance of diversified and balanced microbiota, which in turn facilitated the expansion of Foxp3(+) T cells, induction of GCs, and IgA responses in the gut through a symbiotic regulatory loop. Thus, the adaptive immune system, through cellular and molecular components that are required for immune tolerance and through the diversification as well as selection of antibody repertoire, mediates host-microbial symbiosis by controlling the richness and balance of bacterial communities required for homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima L N Kotha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

  9. AKT phosphorylates H3-threonine 45 to facilitate termination of gene transcription in response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kang, Byung-Hee; Jang, Hyonchol; Kim, Tae Wan; Choi, Jinmi; Kwak, Sojung; Han, Jungwon; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2015-05-19

    Post-translational modifications of core histones affect various cellular processes, primarily through transcription. However, their relationship with the termination of transcription has remained largely unknown. In this study, we show that DNA damage-activated AKT phosphorylates threonine 45 of core histone H3 (H3-T45). By genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis, H3-T45 phosphorylation was distributed throughout DNA damage-responsive gene loci, particularly immediately after the transcription termination site. H3-T45 phosphorylation pattern showed close-resemblance to that of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) serine 2 phosphorylation, which establishes the transcription termination signal. AKT1 was more effective than AKT2 in phosphorylating H3-T45. Blocking H3-T45 phosphorylation by inhibiting AKT or through amino acid substitution limited RNA decay downstream of mRNA cleavage sites and decreased RNA polymerase II release from chromatin. Our findings suggest that AKT-mediated phosphorylation of H3-T45 regulates the processing of the 3' end of DNA damage-activated genes to facilitate transcriptional termination. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Lineage-specific responses of microbial communities to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; McMahon, Katherine D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge facing microbial ecology is how to define ecologically relevant taxonomic units. To address this challenge, we investigated how changing the definition of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) influences the perception of ecological patterns in microbial communities as they respond to a dramatic environmental change. We used pyrosequenced tags of the bacterial V2 16S rRNA region, as well as clone libraries constructed from the cytochrome oxidase C gene ccoN, to provide additional taxonomic resolution for the common freshwater genus Polynucleobacter. At the most highly resolved taxonomic scale, we show that distinct genotypes associated with the abundant Polynucleobacter lineages exhibit divergent spatial patterns and dramatic changes over time, while the also abundant Actinobacteria OTUs are highly coherent. This clearly demonstrates that different bacterial lineages demand different taxonomic definitions to capture ecological patterns. Based on the temporal distribution of highly resolved taxa in the hypolimnion, we demonstrate that change in the population structure of a single genotype can provide additional insight into the mechanisms of community-level responses. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of examining ecological change in microbial communities across taxonomic scales while also providing valuable insight into the ecological characteristics of ecologically coherent groups in this system.

  11. Harmful or helpful: perceived solicitous and facilitative partner responses are differentially associated with pain and sexual satisfaction in women with provoked vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Glowacka, Maria; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou

    2012-09-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that negatively affects women's emotional, sexual, and relationship well-being. Recent studies have investigated the role of interpersonal variables, including partner responses. We examined whether solicitous and facilitative partner responses were differentially associated with vulvovaginal pain and sexual satisfaction in women with PVD by examining each predictor while controlling for the other. One hundred twenty-one women (M age = 30.60, SD = 10.53) with PVD or self-reported symptoms of PVD completed the solicitous subscale of the spouse response scale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and the facilitative subscale of the Spouse Response Inventory. Participants also completed measures of pain, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, trait anxiety, and avoidance of pain and sexual behaviors (referred to as "avoidance"). Dependent measures were the (i) Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire with reference to pain during vaginal intercourse and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Controlling for trait anxiety and avoidance, higher solicitous partner responses were associated with higher vulvovaginal pain intensity (β = 0.20, P = 0.03), and higher facilitative partner responses were associated with lower pain intensity (β = -0.20, P = 0.04). Controlling for sexual function, trait anxiety, and avoidance, higher facilitative partner responses were associated with higher sexual satisfaction (β = 0.15, P = 0.05). Findings suggest that facilitative partner responses may aid in alleviating vulvovaginal pain and improving sexual satisfaction, whereas solicitous partner responses may contribute to greater pain. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. The Effects of Recreation Experience, Environmental Attitude, and Biospheric Value on the Environmentally Responsible Behavior of Nature-Based Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  13. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  14. Soil gas radon response to environmental and soil physics variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Chen, C.; Holford, D.

    1991-01-01

    During the last three years a field study of soil gas radon activities conducted at Poamoho, Oahu, has shown that the primary environmental variables that control radon transport in shallow tropical soils are synoptic and diurnal barometric pressure changes and soil moisture levels. Barometric pressure changes drive advective transport and mixing of soil gas with atmospheric air; soil moisture appears to control soil porosity and permeability to enhance or inhibit advective and diffusive radon transport. An advective barrier test/control experiment has shown that advective exchange of soil gas and air may account for a substantial proportion of the radon loss from shallow soils but does not significantly affect radon activities at depths greater than 2.3 m. An irrigation test/control experiment also suggests that, at soil moisture levels approaching field capacity, saturation of soil macroporosity can halt all advective transport of radon and limit diffusive mobility to that occurring in the liquid phase. The results of the authors field study have been used to further refine and extend a numerical model, RN3D, that has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories to simulate subsurface transport of radon. The field data have allowed them to accurately simulate the steady state soil gas radon profile at their field site and to track transient radon activities under the influence of barometric pressure changes and in response to changes in soil permeability that result from variations in soil moisture levels. Further work is continuing on the model to enable it to properly account for the relative effects of advective transport of soil gas through cracks and diffusive mobility in the bulk soils

  15. The seaweed fly (Coelopidae) can facilitate environmental survival and transmission of E. coli O157 at sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinscoe, Isobel; Oliver, David M; Gilburn, Andre S; Quilliam, Richard S

    2018-06-19

    The sustainable management of recreational beaches is essential for minimising risk of human exposure to microbial pathogens whilst simultaneously maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Decaying seaweed on public beaches is gaining recognition as a substrate for microbial contamination, and is a potentially significant reservoir for human pathogens in close proximity to beach users. Closely associated with beds of decaying seaweed are dense populations of the seaweed fly (Coelopidae), which could influence the spatio-temporal fate of seaweed-associated human pathogens within beach environments. Replicated mesocosms containing seaweed inoculated with a bioluminescent strain of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7, were used to determine the effects of two seaweed flies, Coelopa frigida and C. pilipes, on E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics. Multiple generations of seaweed flies and their larvae significantly enhanced persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in simulated wrack habitats, demonstrating that both female and male C. frigida flies are capable of transferring E. coli O157:H7 between individual wrack beds and into the sand. Adult fly faeces can contain significant concentrations of E. coli O157:H7, which suggests they are capable of acting as biological vectors and bridge hosts between wrack habitats and other seaweed fly populations, and facilitate the persistence and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 in sandy beach environments. This study provides the first evidence that seaweed fly populations inhabiting natural wrack beds contaminated with the human pathogen E. coli O157:H7 have the capacity to amplify the hazard source, and therefore potential transmission risk, to beach users exposed to seaweed and sand in the intertidal zone. The risk to public health from seaweed flies and decaying wrack beds is usually limited by human avoidance behaviour; however, seaweed fly migration and nuisance inland plagues in urban areas could increase human exposure routes beyond the

  16. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, Richard [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Voogt, Pim de, E-mail: w.p.devoogt@uva.nl [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually.

  17. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually

  18. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  19. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelbauer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW) [de

  20. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  1. Response to the additional information request from the Terra Nova Environmental Assessment Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This document provides responses to the questions addressed to the proponents of the Terra Nova Development by the Environmental Assessment Panel. The questions and the responses concern hiring practices, labour relations, environmental and wildlife protection, impacts to the Grand Banks fishing industry, operating practices and the effects on offshore installations should extreme conditions of ice, weather, sea and wind occur simultaneously. References cited in response to individual questions are included following each response. Tabs., figs

  2. Environmental Education and Behaviour: The Case of Corporate Social-Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the potential effects of environmental education on corporate behavior and social and environmental impact by examining connections between human behavior and environmental problems, the role of the modern corporation, a behavioral theory of the firm, and corporate social responsibility. (DC)

  3. 45 CFR 640.5 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental impact statement. 640.5 Section 640.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 640.5 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a) If...

  4. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  5. Improved radiation dosimetry/risk estimates to facilitate environmental management of plutonium contaminated sites. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO 2 -contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where, at most, a small number of highly radioactive PuO 2 particles are inhaled (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, risk distributions are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The focus of the research is on the SE paradigm and on high specific activity, alpha-emitting (HSA-aE) particles such as 238 PuO 2 . The scientific goal is to develop a stochastic respiratory tract dosimetry/risk computer model for evaluating the desired absorbed dose distributions and associated health-risk distributions, for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and members of the public. This report summarizes results after 1 year of a 2-year project.'

  6. Proactive Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Energy Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concerns about environmental issues and the advancement of China’s “going global” strategy, a new issue-proactive corporate social responsibility has emerged. Proactive corporate environmental responsibility refers to business actions that go beyond regulatory requirements for supporting sustainable environmental development. This study examines the role of proactive corporate environmental responsibility on corporate financial performance in the Chinese energy industry by the multi-variables regression analysis of panel data. Using data of 264 firm-year observations from 2009–2014 in the energy industry, the results showed that Proactive corporate environmental responsibility has a positive effect on corporate financial performance passing the endogeneity test. The results also demonstrate that private ownership has stronger promotion on the relationship between proactive corporate environmental responsibility and corporate financial performance. This study helps to increase the body of knowledge about proactive corporate environmental responsibility of the emerging economy, provides insights into the corporate environmental responsibility practice, and government environmental regulation and policy.

  7. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Repeated measures from FIA data facilitates analysis across spatial scales of tree growth responses to nitrogen deposition from individual trees to whole ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Kevin J. Horn; R. Quinn Thomas; Linda H. Pardo; Erica A.H. Smithwick; Doug Baldwin; Gregory B. Lawrence; Scott W. Bailey; Sabine Braun; Christopher M. Clark; Mark Fenn; Annika Nordin; Jennifer N. Phelan; Paul G. Schaberg; Sam St. Clair; Richard Warby; Shaun Watmough; Steven S. Perakis

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of temporally and spatially consistent Forest Inventory and Analysis data facilitates hierarchical/multilevel analysis to investigate factors affecting tree growth, scaling from plot-level to continental scales. Herein we use FIA tree and soil inventories in conjunction with various spatial climate and soils data to estimate species-specific responses of...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  10. Corporate sustainability, social responsibility and environmental management : an introduction to theory and practice with case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Responsible behaviours are increasingly being embedded into new business models and strategies that are designed to meet environmental, societal and governance deficits. Therefore, the notions of Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management have become very popular among academia as corporations are moving beyond transparency, business ethics and stakeholder engagement. This book provides business students and scholars with a broad analysis on the subject ...

  11. Bottom-up responses to environmental and social impact assessments: A case study from Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Støen, Mariel, E-mail: mariel.stoen@sum.uio.no [Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1116, Blindern, Oslo 0317 (Norway); Hirsch, Cecilie [Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1116, Blindern, Oslo 0317 (Norway); Department of International Environment and Development, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    In this article we take a closer look at resistance to the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in mining and energy projects in Guatemala. Collectivities resisting mining and hydropower projects in Guatemala are increasingly using the evaluations of EIAs conducted by international independent professionals. Reaching out to international experts is facilitated by local communities' engagements in transnational networks bringing together activists, NGOs, scientists, journalists and others. We argue that resistance movements resort to international professionals to challenge the limits imposed on them by the national legislation and institutional arrangements as well as by the way in which EIAs are performed in the country. Further, the engagements in networks that facilitate access to knowledge contribute to strengthen the legitimacy of communities' claims. Challenges to and complaints about EIAs are ways in which affected communities try to reclaim their right to participate in decision-making related to their local environment and the development of their communities. Both complaints about EIAs and the use of transnational networks to attain better participation in decision making processes at local levels, illustrated in this study for Guatemala, are common responses to the advancement of extractive industries and hydropower development across Latin America. The widespread of initiatives to challenge EIAs involving international experts in the region show that EIAs have become a sort of a transnational battleground. - Highlights: • Communities’ opposition to extractive projects is rooted in lack of participation in decision-making, including EIAs • Experts’ evaluations of approved EIAs confirm communities’ claims of poor practices in the public sector • Research presented here shows that local communities linked to transnational networks are able to scale up their demands.

  12. Bottom-up responses to environmental and social impact assessments: A case study from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Støen, Mariel; Hirsch, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    In this article we take a closer look at resistance to the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in mining and energy projects in Guatemala. Collectivities resisting mining and hydropower projects in Guatemala are increasingly using the evaluations of EIAs conducted by international independent professionals. Reaching out to international experts is facilitated by local communities' engagements in transnational networks bringing together activists, NGOs, scientists, journalists and others. We argue that resistance movements resort to international professionals to challenge the limits imposed on them by the national legislation and institutional arrangements as well as by the way in which EIAs are performed in the country. Further, the engagements in networks that facilitate access to knowledge contribute to strengthen the legitimacy of communities' claims. Challenges to and complaints about EIAs are ways in which affected communities try to reclaim their right to participate in decision-making related to their local environment and the development of their communities. Both complaints about EIAs and the use of transnational networks to attain better participation in decision making processes at local levels, illustrated in this study for Guatemala, are common responses to the advancement of extractive industries and hydropower development across Latin America. The widespread of initiatives to challenge EIAs involving international experts in the region show that EIAs have become a sort of a transnational battleground. - Highlights: • Communities’ opposition to extractive projects is rooted in lack of participation in decision-making, including EIAs • Experts’ evaluations of approved EIAs confirm communities’ claims of poor practices in the public sector • Research presented here shows that local communities linked to transnational networks are able to scale up their demands.

  13. The significance of environmental responsibility on airline customers' intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Merilä, Outi

    2015-01-01

    Operating in an energy intensive industry, airlines’ environmental performance is under constant scrutiny of the regulators and authorities. By contrast, it seems that not many airlines have considered gaining competitive advantage in by differentiating as an environmentally responsible carrier. The commissioning company for this Master’s Thesis was Finnair, and the intention of this study was to find out whether factors related to environmental responsibility affect Swedish...

  14. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Stingl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...

  15. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus. 4Department of ...... Transcriptomic analysis of sense and antisense strands of .... 2008 Stem cell transcriptome profiling via.

  16. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Ulrich

    2018-03-30

    Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...].

  17. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . Through Law No. 40 Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company , specifically in Article 74, in response to the action of the business world to social and environmental causes damages to society . But in application / CSR implementation will be undertaken by the company is not maximized with implications for the enforcement of environmental law.

  19. Reclamation of environmental liabilities at populated area, an environmental legacy with social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo V, Jairo; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry in Ecuador has had its own history since the first oil well was drilled in the country's Amazon region on February 16th /1967 and the environmental control of the activity has been evolving over the years. But at the same time it has been leaving traces behind at each one of the locations where a road has been opened, a platform has been build or a pipeline has been laid. Consequently the old practice of covering up spillages with a layer of clay or sand are being discovered today and providing evidence of the foot-print that has been caused to the environment. In the heart of the Ecuadorian Amazon region, where settlements were established on top of old crude spillages, such as Aguas Negras and Paraiso in Canton Cuyabeno, EnCanEcuador, in line with its philosophy of social responsibility and commitment to the environment, took on the restoration of these areas. For that purpose it had to reach an agreement with the communities affected and then temporarily dismantle the houses built in these areas and remove all the contaminated soil until they were sure it was free of hydrocarbons, thus ensuring the public health of these villages and the conservation of the environment. The sites, from which contaminated soil was removed, were then filled with clean soil and their houses rebuilt. During this operation it was possible to recover approximately 3,500 cubic meters of contaminated soil at a cost of $175,000. Land removed from the site was transported to our land farming remediation center, where, through a process of degradation with native bacteria from the zone, the bioremediation of the soil was achieved until it reached TPH limits below the levels regulated by government entities from our country. (author)

  20. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-12-31

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs.

  1. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs

  2. Social responsibility standards and global environmental accountability : a developing country perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Murthy, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that accountability, responsibility and governance go hand in hand. Evolving standards is a part of governance. Unless such a global perspective is adopted “Social Responsibility and the implications for Developing Countries”, which is the theme for this workshop, cannot be unraveled. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how Social Responsibility Standards and their relation to environmental sustainability cannot be addressed without relating it to Global Environmental ...

  3. Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility in an Emerging Economy: Through the Lens of Legitimacy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Bhattacharyya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to promote Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSER require an understanding of stakeholder attitudes toward enhanced responsibility. However, little is known about current attitudes on this subject, or the determinants of these attitudes. This study presents a survey of the attitudes of Indian managers, toward 18 social and 16 key contemporary environmental management issues. The findings indicate that respondents are concerned about a range of issues surrounding social responsibility. With respect to environmental responsibilities, Indian respondents were also strong in their support, and identified a select few issues to be more important over other environmental factors. Results indicated a positive attitude of Indian managers towards CSER. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA confirmed three distinct social and environmental factors for the respondents and provided a model of managerial attitudes towards CSER.

  4. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  5. Environmental Training Modules. Module 3 - Shipyard Incident Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    oxidizing or through fermentation ). • Absorption of oxygen (caused by the vessel itself or the contents stored in it). Shipyard HazMat Technician...environmental effects • May be difficult to find in bulk quantities. • * Dilute acetic acid ( vinegar ) Caustic spills have routinely been neutralized with

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how much are food manufacturing companies committed to caring for the environment as a main component of their CSR strategy. In order to fulfil the defined objectives of the paper, the primary and secondary sources of information were collected and used, as well as there was used the method of interview, using a questionnaire (total number of respondents was 100 food manufacturing companies. In our research the highest percentage of large, SMC and micro companies indicated the reduction of negative operational impacts as the most important commitment of companies in relation to environment. Most large companies invest to installing pollution reducing technology to improve environmental quality (67% and utilizing more environmentally friendly raw materials (51%. These areas indicated the highest percentage as well as for SMC. In the case of large companies there are more visible movements in environmental practices than in micro and small-medium companies.

  7. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... gasoline, batteries, and paint. Environmental pollutants such as metals pose serious risks to many aquatic organisms by changing genetic, .... ties of cortisol and its role in maintaining ion homeostasis. (Sheridan, 1994). Secretion of the steroid hormone cortisol by the interrenal tissue is a characteristic ...

  8. Games in Instruction Leading To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on instructional games designed to teach about environmental topics such as wetlands, pollution, endangered species, population, energy, and individual effects on the environment. Fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students (N=295) were tested, and significant results were found between students who played four games and those who did not…

  9. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  10. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  11. Caregivers' responses to an intervention to improve young child feeding behaviors in rural Bangladesh: a mixed method study of the facilitators and barriers to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, William; Pelto, Gretel

    2012-08-01

    Behavior change communications regarding child feeding have met with mixed success. The present study analyzes responses of 34 Bangladeshi caregivers seven months after they received a responsive feeding intervention. The intervention communicated and demonstrated five feeding interactions: hand-washing, self-feeding, verbal responsivity, managing refusals non-forcefully, and dietary diversity. Seventeen caregivers who adopted key behaviors addressed by the intervention and 17 who did not were compared in terms of socio-demographic variables, but more importantly in terms of their recall of the messages, their reported practice, and reported facilitators and barriers. Both those who changed and those who did not reported similar facilitators and barriers to practicing the new behaviors; there was also no difference in recall or in socio-demographic variables. Key themes identified through a constant comparative analysis helped to focus on common features of the lives of caregivers that made it easy or difficult to perform the practices. Some of these were household constraints such as poverty, shortage of time in which to complete chores, and avoiding waste and messiness; others related to the child's demands. Many caregivers misinterpreted instructions about talking to one's child in response to signals, as opposed to more common forms of supervision. Facilitators such as the child's evident pleasure and the caregiver's satisfaction did not always outweigh the barriers. Recommendations for improving interventions include helping caregivers solve problems tied to barriers and including more family members in the intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ľudmila Nagyová; Mária Holienčinová; Ingrida Košičiarová; Tomáš Holota

    2016-01-01

    The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how mu...

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...

  14. Transcriptional profiles of Treponema denticola in response to environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McHardy

    Full Text Available The periodontal pathogen T. denticola resides in a stressful environment rife with challenges, the human oral cavity. Knowledge of the stress response capabilities of this invasive spirochete is currently very limited. Whole genome expression profiles in response to different suspected stresses including heat shock, osmotic downshift, oxygen and blood exposure were examined. Most of the genes predicted to encode conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs were found to be induced under heat and oxygen stress. Several of these HSPs also seem to be important for survival in hypotonic solutions and blood. In addition to HSPs, differential regulation of many genes encoding metabolic proteins, hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators and transporters was observed in patterns that could betoken functional associations. In summary, stress responses in T. denticola exhibit many similarities to the corresponding stress responses in other organisms but also employ unique components including the induction of hypothetical proteins.

  15. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  16. FTIR spectroscopic studies of bacterial cellular responses to environmental factors, plant-bacterial interactions and signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Kamnev, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern spectroscopic techniques are highly useful in studying diverse processes in microbial cells related to or incited by environmental factors. Spectroscopic data for whole cells, supramolecular structures or isolated cellular constituents can reflect structural and/or compositional changes occurring in the course of cellular metabolic responses to the effects of pollutants, environmental conditions (stress factors); nutrients, signalling molecules (communication factors), etc. This inform...

  17. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  18. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  19. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies/Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR. (author)

  20. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degr...

  1. In 1994, the Minister responsible for Environmental Affairs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Affairs and Tourism launched a process leading to ... To achieve this, the Chief Director of Marine & Coastal Management (MCM), the authority responsible for ... 1 Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. ... 3 Rural Research and Development Institute, University of Transkei, Private ...

  2. Manager’s Dilemma: Stockholders’ and Consumers’ Responses to Corporate Environmental Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayag Lal Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal that different stakeholders have different environmental preferences by demonstrating the managers’ dilemma of selecting an appropriate environmental strategy to achieve firms’ corporate goals. It analyzes the effects of firms’ efforts in environmental impact through actual environmental practices and environmental considerations in environmental management on stockholders’ and consumers’ responses by using the Newsweek Green Rankings 2012 for large US-based firms. The study uses the event study methodology and the ordinary least squares multivariate regression model conditioned with relevant firm and industry-specific characteristics. The results indicate that both stockholders and consumers appreciate corporate efforts in reducing environmental damage; however, consumers exhibit a significant and negative response against firms’ environmental management efforts. The conflicting results provide valuable insights into the alignment of environmental efforts for developing core competencies that lead firms toward sustainability. Further, this research makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature and provides guidelines for the formulation of public policies that encourage corporate environmental efforts to ensure simultaneous development of business and society.

  3. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialetto, G.; Venanzi, M.; Gaudioso, D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  5. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  6. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  7. Making SENS: exploring the antecedents and impact of store environmental stewardship climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, N.J.B.; Keeling, D.I.; de Ruyter, J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; de Jong, A.

    Retailers increasingly recognize that environmental responsibility is a strategic imperative. However, little research has investigated or identified the factors that facilitate the successful implementation of environmentally responsible strategies across a network of customer-facing sales units

  8. Theoretical Prerequisites for the Formation of the Concept of Environmentally Responsible Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazieva Tetiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the evolution of theoretical approaches to the problems related to the ecological and economic interaction of economic entities and clarify the essential characteristics of the economic component of environmentally responsible marketing. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, the evolution of marketing concepts is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the concepts “social marketing”, “environmental marketing” are systematized. As a result of the research, the advantages and disadvantages of the existing definitions of “green” marketing are highlighted. The main characteristics of the concept “environmentally responsible marketing” are formulated in the context of the concepts of sustainable development and socially responsible marketing. Prospects for further research in this area are: the infrastructure of environmentally responsible marketing; a conceptual justification of the methodology for building an environmentally responsible marketing system; factors and models of modern economic growth with consideration for the environmental factor, etc.

  9. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  10. Biomass cogeneration: industry response for energy security and environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacareza-Pacudan, L.; Lacrosse, L.; Pennington, M.; Dale Gonzales, A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass occurs in abundance in the highly agricultural-based countries of South-East Asia. If these are processed in the wood and agro-processing industries, large volumes of residues are generated. The residue are potential sources of energy which the industries can tap through the use of cogeneration systems, in order to meet their own thermal and electrical requirements. This will reduce the industry's dependence on power from the grid and thus increase their own self-sufficiency in terms of energy. Biomass cogeneration brings the environmental, as well as economic benefits to the industries. It makes use of clean and energy-efficient technologies and utilises biomass as fuels which cause less environment al pollution and the greenhouse effect, as against the use of fossil fuels. A particular mill that embarks on biomass cogeneration is also able to realise, among others, income from the export of excess electricity to the grid. Biomass residue if not used for other purposes have negative values as they need to be disposed of. They can, however, be profit-generating as well. (Author)

  11. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  12. Who should do what in environmental management? Twelve principles for allocating responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from

  13. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  14. Phenotypic plasticity as an adaptive response to predictable and unpredictable environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to modify its phenotype in response to environmental changes as a consequence of an interaction between genes and environment (Bradshaw, 1965). Plasticity contributes to the vast phenotypic variation observed in natural populations. Many examples...... of a plastic response are expected to depend on the environmental conditions experienced by organisms. Thus, in populations exposed to a non-changing environment, the plastic machinery might be a waste of resources. Contrary, in populations experiencing varying environmental conditions, plasticity is expected...... such as anti-predator behaviours or the activation of mechanisms to prevent thermal stress injuries suggest that plasticity is an adaptive response, favoured by natural selection. At the same time, organisms do show limited plastic responses, indicating that this ability is not for free. Costs and benefits...

  15. Responses to Environmental & Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth (RESCUE) foresight initiative - towards a European response to grand challenges in sustainability research and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, B.; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The "Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Unstable Earth" (RESCUE; www.esf.org/rescue) foresight initiative - a joint COST-ESF "Frontiers of Science" initiative - aimed to help Europe address the societal and scientific challenges related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues. In RESCUE, the focus of attention was on people and the goal was to stimulate an integrated, innovative response from natural, social and human sciences. The RESCUE foresight initiative began in September 2009 and has recently been completed. RESCUE had the following key objectives: 1. To propose a strategic process for natural, social and human sciences to improve their ability and capacity to work together to address global environmental change through interdisciplinary synergy and to respond effectively to societal and policy-relevant needs; 2. To articulate new scientific issues related to global environmental change and the related resilience issues, especially those of transdisciplinary nature and of major relevance to society; 3. To explore new approaches towards truly integrated, interdisciplinary science, and to facilitate the 'revolution' in education and capacity building it requires. The work of RESCUE focused on the following themes: · Contributions from social sciences and humanities in developing responses to challenges of the Anthropocene; · Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in global environmental change and resilience studies; · Requirements for research methodologies and data; · Education and capacity building - towards a 'revolution'; · The interface between science and policy, communication and outreach. The RESCUE recommendations include the following issues to be addressed by science-funders, science policy-makers, researchers, practitioners, educators and a range of other societal actors: · develop an institutional framework for an open knowledge society, · re-organise research so

  16. Instrumentation for Examining Microbial Response to Changes In Environmental Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, J.; Storrs, A.; Wang, J.; Ouandji, C.; Arismendi, D.; Hernandez, J.; Sardesh, N.; Ibanez, C. R.; Owyang, S.; Gentry, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Automated Adaptive Directed Evolution Chamber (AADEC) is a device that allows operators to generate a micro-scale analog of real world systems that can be used to model the local-scale effects of climate change on microbial ecosystems. The AADEC uses an artificial environment to expose cultures of micro-organisms to environmental pressures, such as UV-C radiation, chemical toxins, and temperature. The AADEC autonomously exposes micro-organisms to slection pressures. This improves upon standard manual laboratory techniques: the process can take place over a longer period of time, involve more stressors, implement real-time adjustments based on the state of the population, and minimize the risk of contamination. We currently use UV-C radiation as the main selection pressure, UV-C is well studied both for its cell and DNA damaging effects as a type of selection pressure and for its related effectiveness as a mutagen; having these functions united makes it a good choice for a proof of concept. The AADEC roadmap includes expansion to different selection pressures, including heavy metal toxicity, temperature, and other forms of radiation. The AADEC uses closed-loop control to feedback the current state of the culture to the AADEC controller that modifies selection pressure intensity during experimentation, in this case culture density and growth rate. Culture density and growth rate are determined by measuring the optical density of the culture using 600 nm light. An array of 600 nm LEDs illuminate the culture and photodiodes are used to measure the shadow on the opposite side of the chamber. Previous experiments showed that we can produce a million fold increase to UV-C radiation over seven iterations. The most recent implements a microfluidic system that can expose cultures to multiple different selection pressures, perform non-survival based selection, and autonomously perform hundreds of exposure cycles. A scalable pump system gives the ability to pump in various

  17. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  18. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  19. Corporate Social responsibility in the petrochemical industry: Exploring current trends in social and environmental disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current trends indicate that we are entering a new phase of corporate responsibility reporting that more emphasis is paid on social responsibility, but significant variation still remains in the maturity of reporting content and styles in industries, and even in the same industry. This study explores the current trend of corporate social and environmental reporting in petrochemical industry. It offers a detailed review of the development of corporate social responsibility reporting, and of th...

  20. Lichen Parmelia sulcata time response model to environmental elemental availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.; Freitas, M.C.; Os, B. van; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2000-01-01

    Transplants of lichen Parmelia sulcata collected in an area previously identified as non polluted, were placed at six stations, five of which were near Power Plants and the other in an area expected to be a remote station. Together with the lichen transplants, two total deposition collection buckets and an aerosol sampler were installed. Lichens were recollected two every month from each station. At the same time the water collection buckets were replaced by new ones. The aerosol sampler filter was replaced every week, collection being effective only for 10 minutes out of every two hours; in the remote station aerosol filters were replaced only once a month, the collection rate being kept. Each station was run for a period of one year. Both lichens and aerosol filters were analysed by PIXE and INAA at ITN. Total deposition samples were dried under an infrared lamp, and afterwards acid digested and analysed by ICP-MS at the National Geological Survey of The Netherlands. Data for the three types of samples were then produced for a total of 16 elements. In this work we used the data set thus obtained to test a model for the time response of lichen Parmelia sulcata to a new environment. (author)

  1. Barriers to and Facilitators of Inter-Organizational Coordination in Response to Disasters: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Ravangard, Ramin; Malmir, Isa

    2017-06-01

    Coordination is a major challenge in the field of health in disasters, mostly because of the complex nature of health-related activities. This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory approach. A total of 22 experts in the field of health in disasters participated in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and literature review. The collected data were then analyzed by use of MAXQDA 2010 software (VERBI Software GmbH). The lack of a strategic view in the field of health in disasters, a lack of coordination of necessities and infrastructures, insufficient enforcement, a higher priority given to an organizational approach rather than a national approach, and the field of disasters not being a priority in the health system were noted as barriers to inter-organizational coordination. The facilitators of inter-organizational coordination noted were the importance of public participation in the field of health in disasters, having a process and systematic view in the field of health in disasters, the necessity of understanding and managing resources and information in the field of health in disasters, and having a feedback and evaluation system in the health system after disasters. It is recommended that developing common beliefs and goals be given priority in making plans and policies in the field of health in disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:318-325).

  2. Autoantigen La promotes efficient RNAi, antiviral response, and transposon silencing by facilitating multiple-turnover RISC catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tan, Huiling; Tian, Hui; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, She; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-11-04

    The effector of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). C3PO promotes the activation of RISC by degrading the Argonaute2 (Ago2)-nicked passenger strand of duplex siRNA. Active RISC is a multiple-turnover enzyme that uses the guide strand of siRNA to direct the Ago2-mediated sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNA. How this effector step of RNAi is regulated is currently unknown. Here, we used the human Ago2 minimal RISC system to purify Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (SSB)/autoantigen La as an activator of the RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage activity. Our reconstitution studies showed that La could promote multiple-turnover RISC catalysis by facilitating the release of cleaved mRNA from RISC. Moreover, we demonstrated that La was required for efficient RNAi, antiviral defense, and transposon silencing in vivo. Taken together, the findings of C3PO and La reveal a general concept that regulatory factors are required to remove Ago2-cleaved products to assemble or restore active RISC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E; Clusella-Trullas, S; Terblanche, J S

    2014-02-01

    Physiological responses to transient conditions may result in costly responses with little fitness benefits, and therefore, a trade-off must exist between the speed of response and the duration of exposure to new conditions. Here, using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, we examine this potential trade-off using a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model. Specifically, we explore and dissect the interactions between plastic physiological responses, treatment-duration and -intensity using an experimental approach. We then integrate these experimental results from organismal water-balance data and their plastic responses into a population dynamics model to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates. The results show evidence for the predicted trade-off for plasticity of water loss rate (WLR) and the duration of new environmental conditions. When altered environmental conditions lasted for longer durations, physiological responses could match the new environmental conditions, and this resulted in a lower WLR and lower rates of population decline. At shorter time-scales however, a mismatch between acclimation duration and physiological responses was reflected by reduced overall population growth rates. This may indicate a potential fitness cost due to insufficient time for physiological adjustments to take place. The outcomes of this work therefore suggest plastic water balance responses have both costs and benefits, and these depend on the time-scale and magnitude of variation in environmental conditions. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of plastic physiological responses and changes in population abundance in the context of environmental variability. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. AKT phosphorylates H3-threonine 45 to facilitate termination of gene transcription in response to DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kang, Byung-Hee; Jang, Hyonchol; Kim, Tae Wan; Choi, Jinmi; Kwak, Sojung; Han, Jungwon; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones affect various cellular processes, primarily through transcription. However, their relationship with the termination of transcription has remained largely unknown. In this study, we show that DNA damage-activated AKT phosphorylates threonine 45 of core histone H3 (H3-T45). By genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis, H3-T45 phosphorylation was distributed throughout DNA damage-responsive gene loci, particularly ...

  5. Rapid response to intensive treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder: A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention to facilitate early behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci L; Dionne, Michelle M; David, Lauren; Olmsted, Marion P

    2017-09-01

    Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders (i.e., rapid and substantial change to key eating disorder behaviors in the initial weeks of treatment) robustly predicts good outcome at end-of-treatment and in follow up. The objective of this study was to determine whether rapid response to day hospital (DH) eating disorder treatment could be facilitated using a brief adjunctive CBT intervention focused on early change. 44 women (average age 27.3 [8.4]; 75% White, 6.3% Black, 6.9% Asian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 4-session adjunctive interventions: CBT focused on early change, or motivational interviewing (MI). DH was administered as usual. Outcomes included binge/purge frequency, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were used. The CBT group had a higher rate of rapid response (95.7%) compared to MI (71.4%; p = .04, V = .33). Those who received CBT also had fewer binge/purge episodes (p = .02) in the first 4 weeks of DH. By end-of-DH, CBT participants made greater improvements on overvaluation of weight and shape (p = .008), and emotion regulation (ps .05). The results of this study demonstrate that rapid response can be clinically facilitated using a CBT intervention that explicitly encourages early change. This provides the foundation for future research investigating whether enhancing rates of rapid response using such an intervention results in improved longer term outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Environmental and emergency response capabilities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's radiological air sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.

    1980-05-01

    Environmental and emergency response radiological air sampling capabilities of the Environmental Surveillance Group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. The air sampling program provides a supplementary check on the adequacy of containment and effluent controls, determines compliance with applicable protection guides and standards, and assesses potential environmental impacts on site environs. It also allows evaluation of potential individual and total population doses from airborne radionuclides that may be inhaled or serve as a source of external radiation. The environmental program is sufficient in scope to detect fluctuations and long-term trends in atmospheric levels of radioactivity originating onsite. The emergency response capabilities are designed to respond to both onsite unplanned releases and atmospheric nuclear tests

  7. Environmental and social responsibility reporting. Do Macedonian companies disclose those information and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrsik Jadranka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating environmental impact into financial reports is becoming standard practice in the 21st Century. Investors are aware of the need for environmentally correct operations since failures in this domain lower the price of shares. However, in terms of regulation, in most of the countries, environmental reporting remains voluntary. Institutions dealing with development and promotion of the modern accounting and financial reporting standards encourage companies to concurrently report for their environmental activities. The only question is how. Accounting may include information on the environmental impact only if it is quantitative and monetary. Since many nuances of the issues remain difficult to quantify, corporations opt to separately report on their environmental practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the accounting and stock market regulations and the practice of reporting for environmental impact of the operations of the leading Macedonian companies. We selected ten companies that make the Macedonian Stock Exchange Index and additional five companies with significant environmental impact. We reviewed their annual reports and interviewed their financial officers. The results show that the environmental and social responsibility reporting is left to the companies and their management and its perception of the need for keeping posted the major stakeholders and the most appropriate way to do it. As a consequence, many large Macedonian companies do not refer to these issues in their annual addressing to the stakeholders. The findings of this paper can motivate the regulatory body and the government to require more transparency and disclosure of the sustainability information.

  8. BUILDING THE NEW DIMENSION OF STRATEGIC CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Marian NASTASE; Oana - Catalina TAPURICA; Florin TACHE; Florin ANGHEL

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to emphasize the role of environmental leadership as main option for combining the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy with the business goals and targets in order to satisfy both shareholders’ interests and social interests, in terms of profit, productivity and social awareness. Under these circumstances, the paper describes the way environmental leadership is being built and introduced in the organizational culture of a company, regardless of its size, becoming a ver...

  9. Environmental Stress Responses and Biological Interactions Investigated in the Drosophila Model System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael

    on their ability to respond on a behavioral, physiological, morphological and/or evolutionary level according to the environmental cues. At the same time, if populations are small and fragmented, and have limited gene flow, environmental change and environmental stress might interact with intrinsic genetic stress...... such as inbreeding and genetic drift, which can exacerbate the effects of one or more environmental stresses. Furthermore, inbred populations often have low genetic variation that might constrain evolutionary responses to rapidly changing environments. This thesis investigates how, and to what extent, insect model......When organisms are faced with changes in their environment, they are forced to respond, if they are to maintain optimal function. Especially ectotherms must deal with environmental changes in e.g. temperature on a regular basis, and thus their survival and reproductive success depend...

  10. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy. PMID:29064451

  11. The Equator Principles, Project Finance and the Challenge of Social and Environmental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Equator Principles, launched in 2003 and revamped in 2006, are a set of voluntary principles designed to help private lenders make socially and environmentally responsible project financing decisions. This paper explores the impact of these principles on the disclosures of two signatory banks, focusing on type of information disclosures that have resulted and the substance of these disclosures. The work considers whether it is  possible to ascertain from publicly available information how the practices of the banks may have changed in order to focus on their stated social and environmental responsibilities. It is concluded that although the Equator Principles have marked the beginning of the banking sectors acknowledgement of their role in social and environmental responsibility, at this stage insufficient information is being disclosed to determine the impact these principles are having on actual banking practices.

  12. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-10-24

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  13. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  14. How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parviainen, Tuuli; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Kuikka, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    The highly globalized and competitive nature of the shipping industry poses serious governance challenges. Recently, the use of voluntary measures, such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, has been explored in terms of moving towards environmentally and socially responsible...... as well as safe shipping industry practices. Limited attention has been paid on the role of stakeholders such as consumers, employees, NGOs, and academia in pressuring the shipping industry towards greater environmental and social responsibility. Here, by applying stakeholder theory and drawing...... of multi-stakeholder pressure and action to promote the adoption of CSR activities, support the transparency, legitimacy, and enforcement of the practices, as well as widen the scope and focus of CSR initiatives and practices by focusing on a broad range of social and environmental issues. Finally...

  15. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  16. A hypermorphic epithelial β-catenin mutation facilitates intestinal tumorigenesis in mice in response to compounding WNT-pathway mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Buchert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway occurs in the vast majority of colorectal cancers. However, the outcome of the disease varies markedly from individual to individual, even within the same tumor stage. This heterogeneity is governed to a great extent by the genetic make-up of individual tumors and the combination of oncogenic mutations. In order to express throughout the intestinal epithelium a degradation-resistant β-catenin (Ctnnb1, which lacks the first 131 amino acids, we inserted an epitope-tagged ΔN(1-131-β-catenin-encoding cDNA as a knock-in transgene into the endogenous gpA33 gene locus in mice. The resulting gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice showed an increase in the constitutive Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation that shifts the cell fate towards the Paneth cell lineage in pre-malignant intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, 19% of all heterozygous and 37% of all homozygous gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice spontaneously developed aberrant crypt foci and adenomatous polyps, at frequencies and latencies akin to those observed in sporadic colon cancer in humans. Consistent with this, the Wnt target genes, MMP7  and Tenascin-C, which are most highly expressed in benign human adenomas and early tumor stages, were upregulated in pre-malignant tissue of gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice, but those Wnt target genes associated with excessive proliferation (i.e. Cdnn1, myc were not. We also detected diminished expression of membrane-associated α-catenin and increased intestinal permeability in gpA33ΔN-Bcat mice in challenge conditions, providing a potential explanation for the observed mild chronic intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility to azoxymethane and mutant Apc-dependent tumorigenesis. Collectively, our data indicate that epithelial expression of ΔN(1-131-β-catenin in the intestine creates an inflammatory microenvironment and co-operates with other mutations in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to facilitate and promote tumorigenesis.

  17. Typological review of environmental performance metrics (with illustrative examples for oil spill response).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Thomas P; Satterstrom, F Kyle; Linkov, Igor; Tuler, Seth P; Kay, Rebecca

    2007-07-01

    An intensification of interest in environmental assessment during the last 2 decades has driven corporate efforts to better document environmental goals, improve environmental management systems, and increase awareness of the environmental and ecological effects of business operations. This trend has been motivated partly by regulatory requirements (such as the Toxics Release Inventory in the United States) and partly by the inclination of some large manufacturing firms to embrace a broader social and environmental mission characterized as "sustainability" or "ecoefficiency." Moreover, the importance of measurable objectives in the US government has been recognized at least since the Government Performance Results Act of 1993, which was intended to both improve the efficiency of government and the confidence of the American public in government managers. However, in management of environmental crises - such as catastrophic oil or chemical spills - development of measurable performance standards has lagged. Consequently, government spill managers are unable to define success in terms that are easily communicated to public and other stakeholder groups, and they could be disadvantaged in their efforts to deploy response resources with maximum efficiency. In this paper, we present a typological review of environmental assessment measures and summarize some of the current practices and strategic goals among federal agencies with regard to oil and chemical spills. A general approach to organizing metrics for oil spill response, restoration, and recovery is also presented. The results could improve planning efforts and communication among different federal, state, and local agencies and public or stakeholder groups involved in spill management.

  18. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  19. SNP analyses of postprandial responses in (an)orexigenic hormones and feelings of hunger reveal long-term physiological adaptations to facilitate homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, M; Smeets, A J P G; Veldhorst, M A B; Nieuwenhuizen, A G; Bouwman, F G; Heidema, A G; Mariman, E C M; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Westerterp, K R

    2008-12-01

    The postprandial responses in (an)orexigenic hormones and feelings of hunger are characterized by large inter-individual differences. Food intake regulation was shown earlier to be partly under genetic control. This study aimed to determine whether the postprandial responses in (an)orexigenic hormones and parameters of food intake regulation are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for satiety hormones and their receptors. Peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 and ghrelin levels, as well as feelings of hunger and satiety, were determined pre- and postprandially in 62 women and 41 men (age 31+/-14 years; body mass index 25.0+/-3.1 kg/m(2)). Dietary restraint, disinhibition and perceived hunger were determined using the three-factor eating questionnaire. SNPs were determined in the GHRL, GHSR, LEP, LEPR, PYY, NPY, NPY2R and CART genes. The postprandial response in plasma ghrelin levels was associated with SNPs in PYY (215G>C, PG and 688A>G, PGHRL (-501A>C, PA, PG and 585T>C, PA, PA and 204T>C, P<0.05). Part of the inter-individual variability in postprandial responses in (an)orexigenic hormones can be explained by genetic variation. These postprandial responses represent either long-term physiological adaptations to facilitate homeostasis or reinforce direct genetic effects.

  20. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. Intracellular proteins produced by mammalian cells in response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.; Passini, Cheryl A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the response of mammalian cells to environmental stress is examined by reviewing results of studies where cultured mouse L cells and baby hamster kidney cells were exposed to heat shock and the synthesis of heat-shock proteins and stress-response proteins (including HSP70, HSC70, HSP90, ubiquitin, and GRP70) in stressed and unstressed cells was evaluated using 2D-PAGE. The intracellular roles of the individual stress response proteins are discussed together with the regulation of the stress response system.

  2. Impact of environmental factors in home rehabilitation--a qualitative study from the perspective of older persons using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to describe facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Asplund, Kenneth; Svedlund, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore older people's experience of environmental factors that impact on their activity and participation in home rehabilitation. Older people aged between 68 and 93 years and receiving home rehabilitation were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed on the interview text using the predetermined structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental domain. The text was linked to the closest ICF category. The results identified environmental facilitators and barriers that influenced activity and participation among older people receiving home rehabilitation. Approaches that provided a facilitative environment were access to assistive products and technologies, alterations to the physical environment, social support and relationships, and adjusted health and social care services. A qualitative study using ICF-listed environmental factors contributed a holistic view of facilitators and barriers in home rehabilitation for older people. Awareness of the importance of the impact of the social environment on activities and participation could improve home rehabilitation services for older people. The study represents an important step towards a holistic approach using the ICF, which aims to enable all health care professionals to describe, plan and evaluate rehabilitation services together with older people across the health and social care sectors.

  3. Dose-response relationships for environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Brouwer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models provide a mechanistic approach to examining environmental interventions for outbreaks, such as water treatment or surface decontamination. The shift from the classical SIR framework to one incorporating the environment requires codifying the relationship between exposure to environmental pathogens and infection, i.e. the dose-response relationship. Much of the work characterizing the functional forms of dose-response relationships has used statistical fit to experimental data. However, there has been little research examining the consequences of the choice of functional form in the context of transmission dynamics. To this end, we identify four properties of dose-response functions that should be considered when selecting a functional form: low-dose linearity, scalability, concavity, and whether it is a single-hit model. We find that i middle- and high-dose data do not constrain the low-dose response, and different dose-response forms that are equally plausible given the data can lead to significant differences in simulated outbreak dynamics; ii the choice of how to aggregate continuous exposure into discrete doses can impact the modeled force of infection; iii low-dose linear, concave functions allow the basic reproduction number to control global dynamics; and iv identifiability analysis offers a way to manage multiple sources of uncertainty and leverage environmental monitoring to make inference about infectivity. By applying an environmentally mediated infectious disease model to the 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak, we demonstrate that environmental monitoring allows for inference regarding the infectivity of the pathogen and thus improves our ability to identify outbreak characteristics such as pathogen strain.

  4. Oct2 and Obf1 as facilitators of B:T cell collaboration during a humoral immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M Corcoran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oct2 protein, encoded by the Pou2f2 gene, was originally predicted to act as a DNA binding transcriptional activator of immunoglobulin (Ig in B lineage cells. This prediction flowed from the earlier observation that an 8 bp sequence, the octamer motif, was a highly conserved component of most Ig gene promoters and enhancers, and evidence from over-expression and reporter assays confirmed Oct2-mediated, octamer-dependent gene expression. Complexity was added to the story when Oct1, an independently encoded protein, ubiquitously expressed from the Pou2f 1 gene, was characterised and found to bind to the octamer motif with almost identical specificity, and later, when the co-activator Obf1 (OCA-B, Bob.1, encoded by the Pou2af1 gene, was cloned. Obf1 joins Oct2 (and Oct1 on the DNA of a subset of octamer motifs to enhance their transactivation strength. While these proteins variously carried the mantle of determinants of Ig gene expression in B cells for many years, such a role has not been borne out for them by characterisation of mice lacking functional copies of the genes, either as single or as compound mutants. Instead, we and others have shown that Oct2 and Obf1 are required for B cells to mature fully in vivo, for B cells to respond to the T cell cytokines IL5 and IL4, and for B cells to produce IL6 normally during a T cell dependent immune response. We show here that Oct2 affects Syk gene expression, thus influencing B cell receptor signalling, and that Oct2 loss blocks Slamf1 expression in vivo as a result of incomplete B cell maturation. Upon IL4 signalling, Stat6 up-regulates Obf1, indirectly via Xbp1, to enable plasma cell differentiation. Thus, Oct2 and Obf1 enable B cells to respond normally to antigen receptor signals, to express surface receptors that mediate physical interaction with T cells, or to produce and respond to cytokines that are critical drivers of B cell and T cell differentiation during a humoral immune response.

  5. Facilitating participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, Bo

    2018-01-01

    the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...

  6. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  7. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  8. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2013-06-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

  9. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10μg RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  10. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Responses to Environmental Change: Insights from Terrestrial Paleoecological Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, A. W. R.; Mackay, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Current understanding of ecological behaviour indicates that systems can experience sudden and abrupt changes in state, driven either by a large external change in environmental conditions (extrinsically forced), or the result of a set local feedbacks and site-specific interactions (intrinsically mediated responses). Responses mediated by intrinsic processes are notoriously diffi- cult to predict, they can occur as slow environmental variables gradually erode the resilience of the system eventually resulting in threshold transitions between alternative stable states. Finding ways to identify, model and predict such complex ecosystem behavior has been identified as a priority research challenge for both ecology and paleoecology. The paleoecological record can play a role in understanding the processes behind abrupt ecological change because it enables the reconstruction of processes occurring over decadal-centennial timescales or longer. Therefore, paleoecological data can be used to identify the existence of ecological thresholds and to investigate the environmental processes that can lead to loss of resilience and abrupt transitions between alternate states. In addition, incidences of abrupt vegetation changes in the past can serve as palaeoecological model systems; analogues of abrupt dynamics which can be used to test theories surrounding ecological responses to climate change. Here, I present examples from a range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holocene environmental changes from a coastal lagoon in the Galapagos Islands; Northern European vegetation changes since the last deglaciation; the North American hemlock decline) demonstrating evidence of abrupt ecosystem change. For each system I present a set of statistical techniques tailored to distin- guish between extrinsic versus intrinsically mediated ecological responses. Examples are provided from both single sites (i.e. landscape scale) and multiple sites (regional-continental scale). These techniques provide a

  11. Nogo-B Facilitates LPS-Mediated Immune Responses by Up-Regulation of TLR4-Signaling in Macrophage RAW264.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon family of proteins, is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here, we investigate the function and mechanism of Nogo-B in the regulation of TLR4-associated immune responses in the macrophage cell line of RAW264.7. Methods: Nogo-B was up- and down-regulated through the use of appropriate adenoviral vectors or siRNA, and the effects of Nogo-B on macrophages under liposaccharide (LPS stimulation were evaluated via western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometric analysis, and transwell assay. Results: Our data indicates that the protein of Nogo-B was down-regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner following LPS administration in the macrophage. Nogo-B overexpression increased the production of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β, enhanced macrophage migration activities, activated major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II, and elevated the expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1(MSR1, all of which suggest that Nogo-B is necessary for immune responses and plays an important role in regulating macrophage recruitment. Mechanistically, Nogo-B may enhance TLR4 expression in macrophage surfaces, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, and initiate inflammatory responses. Conclusion: These findings illustrate the key regulatory functions of Nogo-B in facilitating LPS-mediated immune responses through promoting the phosphorylation of MAP kinase.

  12. Thiamine deficiency activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α to facilitate pro-apoptotic responses in mouse primary astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Zera

    Full Text Available Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses. Consistent with hypoxia/ischemia, TD stabilizes and activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α under physiological oxygen levels. However, the role of TD-induced HIF-1α in neurological injury is currently unknown. Using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated that TD induces HIF-1α expression and activity in primary mouse astrocytes. We observed a time-dependent increase in mRNA and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory HIF-1α target genes MCP1, BNIP3, Nix and Noxa during TD. We also observed apoptotic cell death in TD as demonstrated by PI/Annexin V staining, TUNEL assay, and Cell Death ELISA. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α activity using YC1 and thiamine repletion both reduced expression of pro-apoptotic HIF-1α target genes and apoptotic cell death in TD. These results demonstrate that induction of HIF-1α mediated transcriptional up-regulation of pro-apoptotic/inflammatory signaling contributes to astrocyte cell death during thiamine deficiency.

  13. Social and Environmental Responsibility and Local Sustainable Development: The Case of the Environmental Education Project and Asset – PEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the actions of social responsibility expressed by the Environmental and Heritage Education Project (PEAP, which has been  implemented in the Boa Vista and Moura communities, both located in Oriximiná, State of Pará. This project purported to promote the rescue and preservation of environmental and cultural heritage in local communities, developed in a partnership between the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Emilio Goeldi [a painter] Pará Museum] (MPEG, the private company Mineração Rio do Norte (Rio do Norte Mining (MRN and representatives of local communities. This study examines to what extent the actions of PEAP can be considered drivers of sustainable local development. To answer this question, the research focused on the implementation of the PEAP actions and their effects on the two communities under study. Specifically, we sought to identify potential social, cultural and economic impacts of the actions of PEAP on both communities, and to identify future expectations of social subjects involved. This is a case study that follows a qualitative approach. The data collected in documents and interviews were analyzed according to the concepts of sustainable local development, corporate social responsibility and tri-sector partnership. The study identified that the actions taken by the PEAP result of management practices and participatory social planning, and reflecting the redemption of traditional practices, socialization of information and income generation, which together contribute to sustainable local development.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmentally Sound Technology in Endogenous Firm Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C. Chao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the “New Normal” economy, with more emphasis on economic growth driven by innovation than resource. This paper investigates the impacts of firms considering corporate social responsibility and environmentally sound technology by building a three-stage Cournot competition model with asymmetric cost. The sustainable development of economic and endogenous firm growth achieves the win–win result in the theoretical model. Using data from 31 firms in China, this paper empirically researches on the relationships among corporate social responsibility, environmentally sound technology and firm endogenous growth. The results show that: (1 Marginal cost decreased with the increase of innovation, as well as getting government research and development subsidy, which has a positive effect on firm growth. (2 Consumers respond positively to corporate social responsibility initiative, the reputation of the firm can be improved. At the same time, environmentally sound technology objectively reduces the marginal cost of competitors because of the technology spillover. (3 Profit of a firm undertaking corporate social responsibility partly decreases, which has a negative effect on firm growth. The contradiction between corporate social responsibility and profit of firm could be adjusted, such as socially responsible investment fund hosed by institutional investors.

  15. Facilitators in Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael R.; Erlandson, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This is part of a larger ethnographical study concerning how school development in a local educational context sets cultural and social life in motion. The main data "in this article" consists of semi-structural interviews with teachers (facilitators) who have the responsibility of carrying out a project about formative assessment in…

  16. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  17. Magnetically responsive (nano) composites as perspective materials for environmental technology applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    -, č. 0 (2010), s. 85-90 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetically responsive materials * ( nano )biocomposites * environmental technology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  18. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9607(a)(3), for response costs incurred by the Environmental Protection Agency..., Inc. associated with costs incurred by EPA at the Pioneer Smelting Superfund Site. The Department of... (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable to the U.S. Treasury or, if by e-mail or fax, forward a...

  19. 75 FR 32503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Liability Act (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9607(a)(2), for response costs incurred by the Environmental... any claim the United States has associated with costs incurred by EPA at the Pioneer Smelting... of $7.75 (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable to the U.S. Treasury or, if by e-mail or fax...

  20. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The

  1. Making the Case for Green Building: Cataloging the Benefits of Environmentally Responsible Design & Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex

    2008-01-01

    To those entrenched in the green building world, the benefits seem obvious. Why would anyone choose to build in a way that isn't comfortable, healthy, energy efficient, and environmentally responsible? Even within a single college or university project, different team members often have different reasons for promoting a green agenda. Architects…

  2. Visitation to Natural Areas on Campus and Its Relation to Place Identity and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined college students' visits to natural areas on campus and how these visits relate to place identity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The majority (76.5%) of the 115 participants visited the natural areas, and 55.7% of these students visited for a course requirement. Students who lived on campus, were younger, and…

  3. 7 CFR 1940.316 - Responsible officials for the environmental review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... submitted to the approval official for final determinations. The SEC will review the assessment and provide... adequacy of the assessment or the recommendations reached, the State Director, whether or not the approving... Law 103-354 official responsible for executing the environmental impact determination and...

  4. 75 FR 6220 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... settles claims for natural resource damages under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation... natural resource trustees for any unreimbursed assessment costs incurred by the State and Federal natural... Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to pubcomment...

  5. 78 FR 6131 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... agree to reimburse the United States and the State for natural resource damage assessment costs ($31,060... Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. [FR Doc. 2013-01761 Filed 1-28-13; 8:45 am] BILLING... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act On January 22, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a...

  6. Modern Methodology and Techniques Aimed at Developing the Environmentally Responsible Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Yelena V.; Zholdasbekova, Bibisara A.; Balabekov, Aidarhan T.; Kenzhebekova, Rabiga I.; Yessaliyev, Aidarbek A.; Larchenkova, Liudmila A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the positive impact of an environmentally responsible individual as the social unit able to live in harmony with the natural world, himself/herself and other people. The purpose of the article is to provide theoretical substantiation of modern teaching methods. The authors considered the experience of philosophy, psychology,…

  7. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee In Yoon; Gerard Kyle; Carena J. vanRiper; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Australians' perceptions of climate change, its impact on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and predictors of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Our hypothesized model suggested that general attitudes toward climate change, social pressure for engaging in ERBs (subjective norms), and perceived behavioral control (...

  8. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  9. The environmental education from the perspective of the managerial social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Javier Reyes-Solórzano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the concern for the environment in the organizational context has been growing demanding that the companies respect the environment for a sustainable development, this acquires it special relevance with the Managerial Social Responsibility, where the economic, social and environmental aspects are constituted in synthesis of the organizational ecological values. This reality imposes a necessity and a challenge: the environmental education, element that not alone it will guide the training in the company but rather it will project their activities toward the community for the solution of the environmental problems. For this, the relationship of the company and the community should propitiate the integration of the educational purposes of each one toward the adaptation and adjustment of the environmental problem, at the time that also promotes the potentialities to change and to transform the environment creatively.

  10. Enviromental Education as a Response to Chaos Socio-Environmental in the Context of Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayla Barbosa Pinto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the imbalance in the relation man-nature settled a social-environmental crisis, whose own humanity began to suffer the consequences of its consumerist onslaughts. Within this context, Environmental Education is a valuable tool, capable of freeing man from the living circle of consumerism and putting him on the axis of his own existence again. Thus, this study seeks to demonstrate that the equilibrium in the relationship between man and nature and the management of the socio-environmental crisis must start from the (re education of humanity regarding modernity and its effects, adopting for this the methodology of qualitative bibliographical research, Analysis of doctrine and scientific articles. Thus, the exploratory method of the proposed theme was used, pointing to environmental education as a response mechanism to the disorder imposed in the context of the risk society.

  11. Transcriptional responses of zebrafish to complex metal mixtures in laboratory studies overestimates the responses observed with environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ajay; Ivarsson, Per; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Berg, Håkan; Jass, Jana; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2017-04-15

    Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. However, risk assessment of metal exposure is often based on total metal levels and usually does not take bioavailability data, metal speciation or matrix effects into consideration. The continued development of biological endpoint analyses are therefore of high importance for improved eco-toxicological risk analyses. While there is an on-going debate concerning synergistic or additive effects of low-level mixed exposures there is little environmental data confirming the observations obtained from laboratory experiments. In the present study we utilized qRT-PCR analysis to identify key metal response genes to develop a method for biomonitoring and risk-assessment of metal pollution. The gene expression patterns were determined for juvenile zebrafish exposed to waters from sites down-stream of a closed mining operation. Genes representing different physiological processes including stress response, inflammation, apoptosis, drug metabolism, ion channels and receptors, and genotoxicity were analyzed. The gene expression patterns of zebrafish exposed to laboratory prepared metal mixes were compared to the patterns obtained with fish exposed to the environmental samples with the same metal composition and concentrations. Exposure to environmental samples resulted in fewer alterations in gene expression compared to laboratory mixes. A biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to approximate the bioavailability of the metals in the environmental setting. However, the BLM results were not in agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the BLM may be overestimating the risk in the environment. The present study therefore supports the inclusion of site-specific biological analyses to complement the present chemical based assays used for environmental risk-assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  13. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A. [Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University (United States); Ray, Paul D. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Shea, Damian [Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu{sup 2+} transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. - Highlights: • Toxicogenomic responses of environmental metal mixtures assessed • Induction of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F and MT1G by metal mixtures observed in placental cells • Higher gene induction in response to metal mixtures versus single metal treatments.

  14. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu 2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. - Highlights: • Toxicogenomic responses of environmental metal mixtures assessed • Induction of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F and MT1G by metal mixtures observed in placental cells • Higher gene induction in response to metal mixtures versus single metal treatments

  15. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  16. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  17. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  18. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  19. Evaluation of detector responses to natural environmental and fall-out gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instrument responses to the thorium, uranium and potassium components of the natural environmental as well as the fall-out radiation field were evaluated. The responses to the 137 Cs fall-out radiation field differ by less than 6% from the response at 0.662 MeV, except for that of the NaI scintillator. Differences of more than 30% were found in the responses of two energy compensated instruments to normal natural background radiation and to radiation from fresh fall-out. The best estimate of the terrestrial component of the dose rate measured was obtained by carrying out the following corrections of the measured readings: cosmic ray contribution and internal background subtraction with response correction, including 137 Cs calibration correction. After the Chernobyl accident the dose rate levels due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs fall-out were comparable to the natural background gamma radiation. The responses calculated as well as the results from measurements of the low level environmental exposure levels caused by the Chernobyl fall-out, confirmed the need to take into account the instrument response to natural as well as fall-out radiation fields. (author)

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness (P.93-104

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, Tax Aggressiveness

  1. Population persistence of stream fish in response to environmental change: integrating data and models across space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B. H.; Schueller, P.; Bassar, R.; Coombs, J.; Rosner, A.; Sakrejda, K.; Kanno, Y.; Whiteley, A.; Nislow, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    For stream fishes, environmental variation is a key driver of individual body growth/movement/survival and, by extension, population dynamics. Identifying how stream fish respond to environmental variation can help clarify mechanisms responsible for population dynamics and can help provide tools to forecast relative resilience of populations across space. Forecasting dynamics across space is challenging, however, because it can be difficult to conduct enough studies with enough intensity to fully characterize broad-scale population response to environmental change. We have adopted a multi-scale approach, using detailed individual-based studies and analyses (integral projection matrix) to determine sensitivities of population growth to environmental variation combined with broad spatial data and analyses (occupancy and abundance models) to estimate patterns of population response across space. Population growth of brook trout was most sensitive to stream flow in the spring and winter, most sensitive to stream temperature in the fall and sensitive to both flow and temperature in the summer. High flow in the spring and winter had negative effects on population growth while high temperature had a negative effect in the fall. Flow had no effect when it was cold, but a positive effect when it was warm in the summer. Combined with occupancy and abundance models, these data give insight into the spatial structure of resilient populations and can help guide prioritization of management actions.

  2. Integrating environmental and genetic effects to predict responses of tree populations to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongli; O'Neill, Gregory A; Aitken, Sally N

    2010-01-01

    Climate is a major environmental factor affecting the phenotype of trees and is also a critical agent of natural selection that has molded among-population genetic variation. Population response functions describe the environmental effect of planting site climates on the performance of a single population, whereas transfer functions describe among-population genetic variation molded by natural selection for climate. Although these approaches are widely used to predict the responses of trees to climate change, both have limitations. We present a novel approach that integrates both genetic and environmental effects into a single "universal response function" (URF) to better predict the influence of climate on phenotypes. Using a large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) field transplant experiment composed of 140 populations planted on 62 sites to demonstrate the methodology, we show that the URF makes full use of data from provenance trials to: (1) improve predictions of climate change impacts on phenotypes; (2) reduce the size and cost of future provenance trials without compromising predictive power; (3) more fully exploit existing, less comprehensive provenance tests; (4) quantify and compare environmental and genetic effects of climate on population performance; and (5) predict the performance of any population growing in any climate. Finally, we discuss how the last attribute allows the URF to be used as a mechanistic model to predict population and species ranges for the future and to guide assisted migration of seed for reforestation, restoration, or afforestation and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

  3. Developing Environmentally Responsible Behaviours Through the Implementation of Argumentation- and Problem-Based Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlıoğlu, Pınar; Aydoğdu, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using argumentation and problem-based learning approaches on the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers. Experimental activities were implemented for 14 weeks for 52 class hours in an environmental education class within a science teaching department. A mixed method was used as a research design; particularly, a special type of Concurrent Nested Strategy was applied. The quantitative portion was based on the one-group pre-test and post-test models, and the qualitative portion was based on the holistic multiple-case study method. The quantitative portion of the research was conducted with 34 third-year pre-service science teachers studying at a state university. The qualitative portion of the study was conducted with six pre-service science teachers selected among the 34 pre-service science teachers based on the pre-test results obtained from an environmentally responsible behaviour scale. t tests for dependent groups were used to analyse quantitative data. Both descriptive and content analyses of the qualitative data were performed. The results of the study showed that the use of the argumentation and problem-based learning approaches significantly contributed to the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers.

  4. Plant responses to environmental stress: regulation and functions of the Arabidopsis TCH genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis TCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicates that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that at least a subset of the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  5. Toxicological Responses of Environmental Mixtures: Environmental Metals Mixtures Display Synergistic Induction of Metal-Responsive and Oxidative Stress Genes in Placental Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metals mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. PMID:26472158

  6. Thermoregulatory Responses to Environmental Toxicants: The Interaction of Thermal Stress and Toxicant Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    permeability. The latter response facilitates the leakage of endogenous bac- teria from the GI tract into the systemic circulation, resulting in endotoxemia...Siddiqui, S., Shail, E., Rezeig, M., 1993. Elevated pyrogenic cytokines in heatstroke. Chest 104, 1498–1502. Bouchama, A., Parhar, R.S., el-Yazigi, A...B.O., Stock, M.J., 1989. Pyrogenic and thermogenic effects of interleukin 1b in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 256, E7–E11. Dietrich, W.D., Kuluz, J.W., 2003

  7. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  8. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  9. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplesi, M. Jr.; Bortoli, V.C. de; Paula Soares, V. de; Nogueira, R.L.; Zangrossi, H. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety

  10. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplesi, M. Jr. [Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Bortoli, V.C. de [Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES (Brazil); Paula Soares, V. de [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nogueira, R.L. [Laboratório de Psicologia Comparada, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zangrossi, H. Jr. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-03

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety.

  11. Environmental Responsibility: A Panacea for Operational Disturbances in Offshore West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, I.

    2002-01-01

    Reports from onshore E and P activities in Nigeria have shown that operating in the Niger Delta region poses some of the toughest challenges in the world. The region has witnessed a spate of attacks on oil and gas facilities, staff and contractors, consequently, major oil and gas players have to contend with complex operational uncertainties due to increase pressure from the local communities for improved environmental control measures.To effectively de-risk this region of this category of operational uncertainties, the industry must begin to see environmental performance as not only a measure of how well she can comply with existing environmental regulations, but also as a measure of how well she can pre-empt environmental pressures as well as maintain constant harmony with all concerned stakeholders and seeing herself as responsible to the environment with a view to improve performance.In this project, we have been able to develop SMART' models based on continous consultation, integrated management approach and continous improvement attitude (CIA). With a good FOCUS' approach, this will help in safe and effective operations, pre-empt pressures, maintain harmony with local communities and effectively manage operational disturbances within complex environmental settings like the Nigerian Niger Delta area. Finally, we are of the opinion that every industry that seeks to remain efficient and relevant in this millennium should constantly be looking for ways of becoming more environmentally responsible because no business can call itself efficient if it threatens the environment within which it operates.SMART is an acronym for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bond.FOCUS is an acronym for Fair, Objective, Consistent, Unbiased and Succint

  12. Drosophila TDP-43 RNA-Binding Protein Facilitates Association of Sister Chromatid Cohesion Proteins with Genes, Enhancers and Polycomb Response Elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Swain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cohesin protein complex mediates sister chromatid cohesion and participates in transcriptional control of genes that regulate growth and development. Substantial reduction of cohesin activity alters transcription of many genes without disrupting chromosome segregation. Drosophila Nipped-B protein loads cohesin onto chromosomes, and together Nipped-B and cohesin occupy essentially all active transcriptional enhancers and a large fraction of active genes. It is unknown why some active genes bind high levels of cohesin and some do not. Here we show that the TBPH and Lark RNA-binding proteins influence association of Nipped-B and cohesin with genes and gene regulatory sequences. In vitro, TBPH and Lark proteins specifically bind RNAs produced by genes occupied by Nipped-B and cohesin. By genomic chromatin immunoprecipitation these RNA-binding proteins also bind to chromosomes at cohesin-binding genes, enhancers, and Polycomb response elements (PREs. RNAi depletion reveals that TBPH facilitates association of Nipped-B and cohesin with genes and regulatory sequences. Lark reduces binding of Nipped-B and cohesin at many promoters and aids their association with several large enhancers. Conversely, Nipped-B facilitates TBPH and Lark association with genes and regulatory sequences, and interacts with TBPH and Lark in affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments. Blocking transcription does not ablate binding of Nipped-B and the RNA-binding proteins to chromosomes, indicating transcription is not required to maintain binding once established. These findings demonstrate that RNA-binding proteins help govern association of sister chromatid cohesion proteins with genes and enhancers.

  13. Behavioral and physiologic responses to environmental enrichment in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Dawn; Brown, Janine L; Rodden, Melissa D; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2007-09-01

    The ex situ population of maned wolves is not self-sustaining due to poor reproduction, caused primarily by parental incompetence. Studies have shown that environmental enrichment can promote natural parental behaviors in zoo animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral and physiological responses of maned wolves. During an 8-week experimental period, daily behavior observations and fecal sample collection were conducted on four adult wolves (2.2) individually housed in environments without enrichment. After 2 weeks, the wolves were chronologically provided with 2-week intervals of hiding dead mice around the exhibit, no enrichment, and introduction of boomer balls. Responses of the wolves to enrichment were assessed based on activity levels and exploratory rates, as well as the level of corticoid metabolites in fecal samples collected daily throughout the study period. Providing wolves with environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors (Pmaned wolves. There is evidence suggesting that providing animals with ability to forage for food is a more effective enrichment strategy than introducing objects. There is need for a longer term study to determine the impact of environmental enrichment in this species. Zoo Biol 26:331-343, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Theory, methods and tools for determining environmental flows for riparian vegetation: Riparian vegetation-flow response guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.M.; Scott, M.L.; Leroy, Poff N.; Auble, G.T.; Lytle, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian vegetation composition, structure and abundance are governed to a large degree by river flow regime and flow-mediated fluvial processes. Streamflow regime exerts selective pressures on riparian vegetation, resulting in adaptations (trait syndromes) to specific flow attributes. Widespread modification of flow regimes by humans has resulted in extensive alteration of riparian vegetation communities. Some of the negative effects of altered flow regimes on vegetation may be reversed by restoring components of the natural flow regime. 2. Models have been developed that quantitatively relate components of the flow regime to attributes of riparian vegetation at the individual, population and community levels. Predictive models range from simple statistical relationships, to more complex stochastic matrix population models and dynamic simulation models. Of the dozens of predictive models reviewed here, most treat one or a few species, have many simplifying assumptions such as stable channel form, and do not specify the time-scale of response. In many cases, these models are very effective in developing alternative streamflow management plans for specific river reaches or segments but are not directly transferable to other rivers or other regions. 3. A primary goal in riparian ecology is to develop general frameworks for prediction of vegetation response to changing environmental conditions. The development of riparian vegetation-flow response guilds offers a framework for transferring information from rivers where flow standards have been developed to maintain desirable vegetation attributes, to rivers with little or no existing information. 4. We propose to organise riparian plants into non-phylogenetic groupings of species with shared traits that are related to components of hydrologic regime: life history, reproductive strategy, morphology, adaptations to fluvial disturbance and adaptations to water availability. Plants from any river or region may be grouped

  15. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2004-01-01

    The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases......" in this context) and measurement error and it is moderated by perceived dissimilarity between the behaviors and by the (moral) importance of behaving in a responsible way towards the environment. These propositions are tested (and confirmed) by means of a mall-intercept survey of ordinary Danish shop...

  17. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  18. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  19. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro, Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  20. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Watson; Karen A. Hegtvedt; Cathryn Johnson; Christie L. Parris; Shruthi Subramanyam

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization) or from students’ peers (endorsement)—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context o...

  1. Environmental and social pressure as drivers of corporate social responsibility in a globalizing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haleem, Fazli; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Studies of drivers of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices that also explore the influence of company size and location are rare. This paper fills this gap by showing the extent to which environmental and social pressures affect the efforts companies put into implementing internal...... and external CSR practices and how size and location affect this relationship. The paper is based on data collected in 2013 using the sixth release of the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey....

  2. METABOLOMICS: A Tool to Assess the Physiological Response of Pseudomonas Strains to Environmental Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wordofa, Gossa Garedew

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of intracellular metabolites is a valuable approach for characterizing and understanding the biochemical processes in cellular systems. Their composition and level represent the molecular phenotype of an organism in response to genetic or environmental......120. These metabolites are not representative of the entire metabolome of P. taiwanensis VLB120, however, they have an essential role in central metabolism. The main chemical classification of these metabolites includes sugars phosphates, amino acids, organic acids, redox cofactors, nucleosides...

  3. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Casady, Grant M.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  4. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) associates with replication protein A (RPA) and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangfeng; Chu, Jessica; Yucer, Nur; Leng, Mei; Wang, Shih-Ya; Chen, Benjamin P C; Hittelman, Walter N; Wang, Yi

    2011-06-24

    DNA damage response is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and preventing cancer by coordinating the activation of checkpoints and the repair of damaged DNA. Central to DNA damage response are the two checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR that phosphorylate a wide range of substrates. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) was initially identified as a substrate of ATM/ATR from a proteomic screen. Subsequent studies showed that RFWD3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates p53 in vitro and positively regulates p53 levels in response to DNA damage. We report here that RFWD3 associates with replication protein A (RPA), a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that plays essential roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Binding of RPA to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is generated by DNA damage and repair, is essential for the recruitment of DNA repair factors to damaged sites and the activation of checkpoint signaling. We show that RFWD3 is physically associated with RPA and rapidly localizes to sites of DNA damage in a RPA-dependent manner. In vitro experiments suggest that the C terminus of RFWD3, which encompass the coiled-coil domain and the WD40 domain, is necessary for binding to RPA. Furthermore, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of RPA and RFWD3 is dependent upon each other. Consequently, loss of RFWD3 results in the persistent foci of DNA damage marker γH2AX and the repair protein Rad51 in damaged cells. These findings suggest that RFWD3 is recruited to sites of DNA damage and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage signaling and repair.

  5. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  6. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  7. Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions (MERGE): An IPY core coordinating project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Wilmotte, Annick

    2009-11-01

    An integrated program, “Microbiological and ecological responses to global environmental changes in polar regions” (MERGE), was proposed in the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 and endorsed by the IPY committee as a coordinating proposal. MERGE hosts original proposals to the IPY and facilitates their funding. MERGE selected three key questions to produce scientific achievements. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in terrestrial, lacustrine, and supraglacial habitats were targeted according to diversity and biogeography; food webs and ecosystem evolution; and linkages between biological, chemical, and physical processes in the supraglacial biome. MERGE hosted 13 original and seven additional proposals, with two full proposals. It respected the priorities and achievements of the individual proposals and aimed to unify their significant results. Ideas and projects followed a bottom-up rather than a top-down approach. We intend to inform the MERGE community of the initial results and encourage ongoing collaboration. Scientists from non-polar regions have also participated and are encouraged to remain involved in MERGE. MERGE is formed by scientists from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Spain, UK, Uruguay, USA, and Vietnam, and associates from Chile, Denmark, Netherlands, and Norway.

  8. Biomarker responses to environmental contamination in estuaries: A comparative multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Reis-Santos, Patrick; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2017-08-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months. Two sites per estuarine system were selected based on anthropogenic pressures and magnitude of environmental contamination. Antioxidant enzyme activities in fish species suggested a ubiquitous response to oxidative stress, while biotransformation and effect biomarkers exhibited higher spatial and temporal variation. In invertebrate species, biotransformation enzyme activity was clearly less variable than in fish evidencing lower xenobiotic transformation capability. Overall, largest biomarker responses were found in the most contaminated sites (Tejo), yet species-specific patterns were evident. These should be factored in multi-taxa approaches, considering that the differential functional traits of species, such as habitat use, life-stage, feeding or physiology can influence exposure routes and biomarker responses. The Integrated Biomarker Response index highlighted patterns in biomarker responses which were not immediately evident when analyzing biomarkers individually. Overall, results provided insights into the complexity of species responses to contamination in naturally varying estuarine environments. Ultimately, multi-taxa and multi-biomarker approaches provide a comprehensive and complementary view of ecosystem health, encompassing diverse forms of biological integration and exposure routes, and allow the validation of results among markers

  9. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Jennifer C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT. The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for

  10. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  11. Response of seagrass indicators to shifts in environmental stressors: A global review and management synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Roca, G.

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrass-based indicators are widely used to assess coastal ecosystem status, there is little universality in their application. Matching the plethora of available indicators to specific management objectives requires a detailed knowledge of their species-specific sensitivities and their response time to environmental stressors. We conducted an extensive survey of experimental studies to determine the sensitivity and response time of seagrass indicators to ecosystem degradation and recovery. We identified seagrass size and indicator type (i.e. level of biological organization of the measure) as the main factors affecting indicator sensitivity and response time to degradation and recovery. While structural and demographic parameters (e.g. shoot density, biomass) show a high and unspecific sensitivity, biochemical/physiological indicators present more stressor-specific responses and are the most sensitive detecting early phases of environmental improvement. Based on these results we present a simple decision tree to assist ecosystem managers to match adequate and reliable indicators to specific management goals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  13. Superconducting Super Collider: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Comment/response document: Summary and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This volume is divided into five parts as follows: Summary and Index; Letters submitted by commenters in response to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) from date of issue through October 17, 1988; Transcripts of testimony at the public hearings conducted by the DOE in the vicinity of each site alternative; Letters postmarked after October 17, 1988; and Comment responses to both the letters and the testimony. This summary and index is published as a guide to the reader in reviewing this document. The summary is of the approximately 7000 comments received by the DOE from a total of about 5700 commenters. It was prepared as a general reference and guide to the readers of this volume. The Index follows the summary. The first index is an alphabetical listing of commenters (of both letters and transcripts) and indicates the number each commenter was assigned. The commenter numbers guide the reader to DOE comment responses in Volume 2B which are in numerical order

  14. A multi-detector neutron spectrometer with nearly isotropic response for environmental and workplace monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M., E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.e [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bedogni, R. [INFN-LNF Frascati National Laboratory-U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Moraleda, M.; Delgado, A.; Romero, A. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Esposito, A. [INFN-LNF Frascati National Laboratory-U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2010-01-21

    This communication describes an improved design for a neutron spectrometer consisting of {sup 6}Li thermoluminescent dosemeters located at selected positions within a single moderating polyethylene sphere. The spatial arrangement of the dosemeters has been designed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the response matrix for 56 log-equidistant energies from 10{sup -9} to 100 MeV, looking for a configuration that permits to obtain a nearly isotropic response for neutrons in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. The feasibility of the proposed spectrometer and the isotropy of its response have been evaluated by simulating exposures to different reference and workplace neutron fields. The FRUIT code has been used for unfolding purposes. The results of the simulations as well as the experimental tests confirm the suitability of the prototype for environmental and workplace monitoring applications.

  15. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  16. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  17. Plant-phytopathogen interactions: bacterial responses to environmental and plant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Simon; Hommais, Florence; Nasser, William; Reverchon, Sylvie

    2017-05-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria attack numerous agricultural crops, causing devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. They survive in diverse environments, both in plants, as pathogens, and also outside their hosts as saprophytes. Hence, they are confronted with numerous changing environmental parameters. During infection, plant pathogens have to deal with stressful conditions, such as acidic, oxidative and osmotic stresses; anaerobiosis; plant defenses; and contact with antimicrobial compounds. These adverse conditions can reduce bacterial survival and compromise disease initiation and propagation. Successful bacterial plant pathogens must detect potential hosts and also coordinate their possibly conflicting programs for survival and virulence. Consequently, these bacteria have a strong and finely tuned capacity for sensing and responding to environmental and plant stimuli. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the signals and genetic circuits that affect survival and virulence factor expression in three important and well-studied plant pathogenic bacteria with wide host ranges and the capacity for long-term environmental survival. These are: Ralstonia solanacerarum, a vascular pathogen that causes wilt disease; Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a biotrophic tumorigenic pathogen responsible for crown gall disease and Dickeya, a brute force apoplastic pathogen responsible for soft-rot disease. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  19. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  20. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  1. Using Remote Sensing Mapping and Growth Response to Environmental Variability to Aide Aquatic Invasive Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Schlick, Greg; Genovese, Vanessa; Wilson, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    Management of aquatic weeds in complex watersheds and river systems present many challenges to assessment, planning and implementation of management practices for floating and submerged aquatic invasive plants. The Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project (DRAAWP), a USDA sponsored area-wide project, is working to enhance planning, decision-making and operational efficiency in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Satellite and airborne remote sensing are used map (area coverage and biomass density), direct operations, and assess management impacts on plant communities. Archived satellite records enable review of results following previous climate and management events and aide in developing long-term strategies. Examples of remote sensing aiding effectiveness of aquatic weed management will be discussed as well as areas for potential technological improvement. Modeling at local and watershed scales using the SWAT modeling tool provides insight into land-use effects on water quality (described by Zhang in same Symposium). Controlled environment growth studies have been conducted to quantify the growth response of invasive aquatic plants to water quality and other environmental factors. Environmental variability occurs across a range of time scales from long-term climate and seasonal trends to short-term water flow mediated variations. Response time for invasive species response are examined at time scales of weeks, day, and hours using a combination of study duration and growth assessment techniques to assess water quality, temperature (air and water), nitrogen, phosphorus, and light effects. These provide response parameters for plant growth models in response to the variation and interact with management and economic models associated with aquatic weed management. Plant growth models are to be informed by remote sensing and applied spatially across the Delta to balance location and type of aquatic plant, growth response to altered environments and

  2. Business Environmental Responsibility in the Hospitality Industry = Okoljska odgovornost podjetij v turistični industriji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah Kasim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the literature is reviewed and analyzed to establish the connection between tourism and the physical environments. The review shows an inevitable link between tourism activities with both environments. This and the strong tourism growth in the past, implies that tourism has far-reaching negative impacts that must be mitigated, not only for the good of the physical environments, but also for the sustainability of the industry itself. The review also indicates a slow integration of responsible environmental considerations into tourism planning and development due to lack of consensus about the importance of sustainable tourism as the industry’s new direction, lack of a single comprehensive meaning of sustainable tourism to ease operationalizing the concept, and the flawed acceptance of alternative tourism as the answer for all tourism ills. The paper ends by confirming the need for a new way of thinking that takes into consideration the fragmented nature of the industry and a collective and conscious effort of all tourism businesses, governmental policymakers and planners as well as the key stakeholders (the society, the NGOS, the CBOS and the tourists to prioritize environmental issues in their daily undertakings. It also highlights the environmental impacts of a hotel operation and stresses the need for hotels, as one of the key tourism businesses to deal with its environmental obligations.

  3. Mining web-based data to assess public response to environmental events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, YoonKyung; Stow, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    We explore how the analysis of web-based data, such as Twitter and Google Trends, can be used to assess the social relevance of an environmental accident. The concept and methods are applied in the shutdown of drinking water supply at the city of Toledo, Ohio, USA. Toledo's notice, which persisted from August 1 to 4, 2014, is a high-profile event that directly influenced approximately half a million people and received wide recognition. The notice was given when excessive levels of microcystin, a byproduct of cyanobacteria blooms, were discovered at the drinking water treatment plant on Lake Erie. Twitter mining results illustrated an instant response to the Toledo incident, the associated collective knowledge, and public perception. The results from Google Trends, on the other hand, revealed how the Toledo event raised public attention on the associated environmental issue, harmful algal blooms, in a long-term context. Thus, when jointly applied, Twitter and Google Trend analysis results offer complementary perspectives. Web content aggregated through mining approaches provides a social standpoint, such as public perception and interest, and offers context for establishing and evaluating environmental management policies. - The joint application of Twitter and Google Trend analysis to an environmental event offered both short and long-term patterns of public perception and interest on the event

  4. One stimulus-Two responses: Host and parasite life-history variation in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Cleveland, Jessica A; Minchella, Dennis J

    2016-11-01

    Climate change stressors will place different selective pressures on both parasites and their hosts, forcing individuals to modify their life-history strategies and altering the distribution and prevalence of disease. Few studies have investigated whether parasites are able to respond to host stress and respond by varying their reproductive schedules. Additionally, multiple environmental stressors can limit the ability of a host to respond adaptively to parasite infection. This study compared both host and parasite life-history parameters in unstressed and drought-stressed environments using the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, in its freshwater snail intermediate host. Snail hosts infected with the parasite demonstrated a significant reproductive burst during the prepatent period (fecundity compensation), but that response was absent in a drought-stressed environment. This is the first report of the elimination of host fecundity compensation to parasitism when exposed to additional environmental stress. More surprisingly, we found that infections in drought-stressed snails had significantly higher parasite reproductive outputs than infections in unstressed snails. The finding suggests that climate change may alter the infection dynamics of this human parasite. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. How Do Plants and Phytohormones Accomplish Heterophylly, Leaf Phenotypic Plasticity, in Response to Environmental Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokuto Nakayama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant species are known to respond to variations in environmental conditions. Many plant species have the ability to alter their leaf morphology in response to such changes. This phenomenon is termed heterophylly and is widespread among land plants. In some cases, heterophylly is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that allows plants to optimally respond to environmental heterogeneity. Recently, many research studies have investigated the occurrence of heterophylly in a wide variety of plants. Several studies have suggested that heterophylly in plants is regulated by phytohormones. Herein, we reviewed the existing knowledge on the relationship and role of phytohormones, especially abscisic acid, ethylene, gibberellins, and auxins (IAA, in regulating heterophylly and attempted to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate heterophylly.

  6. Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions statement of principles for a made in Canada solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions has come up with a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that includes immediate actions with a realistic time frame. The plan addresses air quality as a whole and is not limited to greenhouse gases alone. The plan keeps capital in Canada to invest in new environmental technologies. It also negotiates agreements with economic sectors on emissions performance targets, and it implements energy conservation awareness campaigns that promote the reduction of energy consumption.The plan considers trade relationships with the United Sates and recognizes Canada's role as an important energy exporter. Under the proposed plan, both generators and consumers of renewable energy would receive incentives for their efforts in addressing the climate change challenge

  7. Genetics and evolution of function-valued traits: understanding environmentally responsive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Many central questions in ecology and evolutionary biology require characterizing phenotypes that change with time and environmental conditions. Such traits are inherently functions, and new 'function-valued' methods use the order, spacing, and functional nature of the data typically ignored by traditional univariate and multivariate analyses. These rapidly developing methods account for the continuous change in traits of interest in response to other variables, and are superior to traditional summary-based analyses for growth trajectories, morphological shapes, and environmentally sensitive phenotypes. Here, we explain how function-valued methods make flexible use of data and lead to new biological insights. These approaches frequently offer enhanced statistical power, a natural basis of interpretation, and are applicable to many existing data sets. We also illustrate applications of function-valued methods to address ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral hypotheses, and highlight future directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  9. Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867 tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferrari

    Full Text Available The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26 was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl and non-electrolyte (mannitol media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysis. Tadpoles survived in electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions up to 200 mOsm. The discriminant function was the best tool to describe the responses of the animals to external environmental stress under experimental conditions. The results were compared with those obtained in previous studies using a protocol of acute exposure to the same media used in this study. It was concluded that a multivariate analysis is an appropriate approach to describe the responses of tadpoles to changes in the environmental physicochemical parameters, and b progressive and acute acclimation to the experimental solutions induced similar responses.

  10. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism in transcriptional regulatory regions and expression of environmentally responsive genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuting; Tomso, Daniel J.; Liu Xuemei; Bell, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome are DNA sequence variations that can alter an individual's response to environmental exposure. SNPs in gene coding regions can lead to changes in the biological properties of the encoded protein. In contrast, SNPs in non-coding gene regulatory regions may affect gene expression levels in an allele-specific manner, and these functional polymorphisms represent an important but relatively unexplored class of genetic variation. The main challenge in analyzing these SNPs is a lack of robust computational and experimental methods. Here, we first outline mechanisms by which genetic variation can impact gene regulation, and review recent findings in this area; then, we describe a methodology for bioinformatic discovery and functional analysis of regulatory SNPs in cis-regulatory regions using the assembled human genome sequence and databases on sequence polymorphism and gene expression. Our method integrates SNP and gene databases and uses a set of computer programs that allow us to: (1) select SNPs, from among the >9 million human SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP database, that are similar to cis-regulatory element (RE) consensus sequences; (2) map the selected dbSNP entries to the human genome assembly in order to identify polymorphic REs near gene start sites; (3) prioritize the candidate polymorphic RE containing genes by searching the existing genotype and gene expression data sets. The applicability of this system has been demonstrated through studies on p53 responsive elements and is being extended to additional pathways and environmentally responsive genes

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 3: Comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy''s (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE''s Environmental Management Program. This volume provides responses to public comments on the Draft SEIS-II. Comments are related to: Alternatives; TRU waste; DOE credibility; Editorial; Endorsement/opposition; Environmental justice; Facility accidents; Generator site operations; Health and safety; Legal and policy issues; NEPA process; WIPP facilities; WIPP waste isolation performance; Purpose and need; WIPP operations; Site characterization; Site selection; Socioeconomics; and Transportation

  13. Male endocrine response to seasonally varying environmental and social factors in a neotropical primate, Cebus capucinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Jack, Katharine M; Ziegler, Toni E; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-04-01

    Circannual variation in reproduction is pervasive in birds and mammals. In primates, breeding seasonality is variable, with seasonal birth peaks occurring even in year-round breeders. Environmental seasonality is reportedly an important contributor to the observed variation in reproductive seasonality. Given that food availability is the primary factor constraining female reproduction, predictions concerning responsiveness to environmental seasonality focus on females, with studies of males focusing primarily on social factors. We examined the influence of both environmental and social factors on male fecal testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoids (fGC) in moderately seasonally breeding white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. Over 17 months, we collected 993 fecal samples from 14 males in three groups. We used LMM to simultaneously examine the relative effects of photoperiod, fruit biomass, rainfall, temperature, female reproductive status (i.e., number of periovulatory periods, POPs), and male age and dominance rank on monthly fT and fGC levels. Male age and rank had large effects on fT and fGC. Additionally, some hormone variation was explained by environmental factors: photoperiod in the previous month (i.e., lagged photoperiod) was the best environmental predictor of monthly fT levels, whereas fGC levels were best explained by lagged photoperiod, fruit biomass, and rainfall. POPs predicted monthly fT and fGC, but this effect was reduced when all variables were considered simultaneously, possibly because lagged photoperiod and POP were highly correlated. Males may use photoperiod as a cue predicting circannual trends in the temporal distribution of fertile females, while also fine-tuning short-term hormone increases to the actual presence of ovulatory females, which may occur at any time during the year. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Methodology for Assessing the Quality of Agribusiness Activity Based on the Environmentally Responsible Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonovna Anfinogentova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research and development of quality evaluation methods of agro-industrial enterprises activity in the regional economy with the use of the ecological approach. The hypothesis of the study is that the activity of the economic entities (as well as of agribusiness must be assessed not only in the context of economic efficiency and effectiveness, but also in the context of environmental ethics and environmental aggression. As the initial data, we have used the indicators of economic statistics of Russian agrarian-oriented regions, as well as the data received from management reporting on the sample of enterprises of three regions (the Belgorod and Moscow regions, Krasnodar Territory. The article offers the economic and mathematical approach for measuring the level of the environmental responsibility of agro-industrial enterprises on the basic formula of the Mandelbrot set and statistical indicator of Hurst. Our scientific contribution is the development of a modified methodology for assessing the quality of the activity of agro-industrial enterprises using the parameter characterizing the level of environmental ethics and environmental aggression of these entities. The main result of the study is the approbation of the method, which has shown its practical applicability and relative coherence with certain indicators of regional ecological statistics. The proposed method is characterized by the integration of the different mathematical approaches and as an adaptive assessment tool that can be used to assess the quality of the activity of both agro-industrial enterprises and enterprises of other industries and fields of the economy. In the further works, the authors plan to develop methodological approaches to the assessment of the quality of agro-industrial products. At the same time, the main attention will be paid to the ecological and social component of the quality.

  15. A Micro and Mesocosm Approach to Understanding the Response of Branched GDGTs to Environmental Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sosa, P.; Tierney, J. E.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2017-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are membrane lipids with 15 known structures. Thought to be synthesized by bacteria, they are found in peatlands, soils, near-shore marine sediments and lakes. Previous studies have reported a correlation between the number and position of methyl groups and cyclopentane moieties in these lipids with environmental factors such as pH and temperature, leading to the creation of the methylation and cyclisation indices (MBT and CBT respectively). Although an empirical relationship between these structural modifications and environmental conditions has been described, the source organism for these molecules remains unknown. Lacking pure cultures of brGDGT producing bacteria, a different approach is necessary to study their response to environmental perturbations under controlled conditions. To this end, we studied the production of brGDGTs in water from two fishing lakes in Arizona using a series of microcosms, comprised by 1L flasks filled with environmental water; and mesocosm experiments, where two 20L tanks were filled with either lake water or lake water and synthetic sediments. This experimental design allowed us to modify environmental factors while preserving the natural conditions of the sample. Our experiments point to a production of brGDGTs on the suspended particulate matter in the water column, which appears to contribute to some extent to the presence of this molecules on lake sediments. Furthermore, we observed a shift in the ratio between 5' and 6' isomers related to both the presence of a carbon source and temperature. Limited oxygen availability appears to correlate with higher brGDGT concentration. Notably, we find that methylation decreases with increasing temperature in our experiments at a rate that is roughly in agreement with empirical observations. To our knowledge, these experiments provide the first evidence of growth and alteration of brGDGTs under laboratory conditions, which could be

  16. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  17. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette A; Ibsen, Ida B; Hau, Jann; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-05-15

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal study, fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were quantified during periods of rest and exposure to hypothesized stressors. FCM quantification was combined with behavioral analysis to further contextualize the measured increases. It was shown that both daily 5-minute handling/restraint, as well as housing devoid of climbing opportunity, resulted in increased FCM excretion. Behavioral analysis suggested that the iguanas were chronically stressed by the lack of climbing opportunity, whereas handling may have induced only a transient stress response. The experimental design, using repeated periods of stressor-exposure, also revealed a facilitating effect, where the two stressors potentiated one another. Furthermore, the order of the two stressors was found to be important. The study provides insight into the functioning of the hormonal stress response in green iguanas, and to the refining of their housing and handling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Huddling behaviour and energetics of Sminthopsis spp. (Marsupialia, Dasyruidae) in response to environmental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sean; Withers, Philip C; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-04-10

    We describe how behavioural responses are an important adjunct to physiological responses for two dunnart marsupials that live in arid environments. Behavioural responses of the stripe-faced dunnart Sminthopsis macroura and the Ooldea dunnart Sminthopsis ooldea differed with acclimation to four ambient temperature (T(a)) regimes, 12 h:12 h of 5-15 °C, 12-22 °C, 18-28 °C and 25-35 °C. Aggression levels were low at regimes 5-15 °C and 12-22 °C, and high at regimes 18-28 °C and 25-35 °C. The proportion of S. macroura huddled in groups increased significantly with decreasing T(a) regime, but there was no aggregation by S. ooldea at low T(a) regimes. The energetic benefit of huddling by S. macroura was highest for pairs of dunnarts (27% saving compared with singles) and only 3% for triplets at T(a)=10 °C. Thermal conductance decreased for pairs but not triplets compared to singles. There were no energetic savings for S. ooldea with increased numbers, and thermal conductance was the same per individual for single, pairs and triplets, reflecting their lack of huddling behaviour. The flexible behavioural (huddling) responses of S. macroura may facilitate their capacity to occupy a broad geographical distribution, unlike S. ooldea, which had inflexible behavioural responses (no huddling) and has a more restricted geographical range. The phylogenetic relationships of the dunnarts suggest that social behaviours may have arisen only once in the most adaptable subgroup of the Sminthopsini. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNAs in inflammation and response to injuries induced by environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkoly, Enikö; Pivarcsi, Andor

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate basic biological processes by posttranscriptional suppression of their target genes. Altered miRNA expression may lead to widespread gene expression changes and has been implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the role of miRNAs in inflammation and in the response to environmental agents and pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, ethanol, carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dioxin, and UV radiation.

  20. MicroRNAs in inflammation and response to injuries induced by environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonkoly, Enikoe [Molecular Dermatology Research Group, Unit of Dermatology and Venerology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Pivarcsi, Andor, E-mail: andor.pivarcsi@ki.se [Molecular Dermatology Research Group, Unit of Dermatology and Venerology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate basic biological processes by posttranscriptional suppression of their target genes. Altered miRNA expression may lead to widespread gene expression changes and has been implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the role of miRNAs in inflammation and in the response to environmental agents and pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, ethanol, carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dioxin, and UV radiation.

  1. Synthesis of environmentally responsive organic materials by application of ion track holes in polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Hideki; Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Katakai, Ryoichi; Spohr, R; Vetter, J

    1997-03-01

    Polymer films were irradiated by heavy ion beams and etched by a concentrated alkali solution to produce particle track membranes (PTMs). Then the PTMs were chemically modified by grafting such monomers as amino acid group containing methacryloyl and N-isopropylacrylamide the polymers of which are known as environmentally responsive hydrogels. The size of pores of the modified PTMs under different temperatures in water was followed by electron microscopy. The pore was controlled from an open state to a completely closed state by changing temperature. The conductivity through the membrane was measured by changing the temperature of the cell. (author)

  2. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available

  3. Plastic response by a small cervid to supplemental feeding in winter across a wide environmental gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ossi, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hebblewhite, M.; Morellet, N.; Ranc, N.; Sandfort, R.; Kroeschel, M.; Kjellander, P.; Mysterud, A.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Heurich, M.; Soennichsen, L.; Šustr, Pavel; Berger, A.; Rocca, M.; Urbano, F.; Cagnacci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e01629. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : deer capreolus-capreolus * white-tailed deer * home-range size * moose alces-alces * roe deer * climate-change * habitat selection * red deer * seasonal migration * snow-cover * artificial feeding * climate behavioral responses * climate change * roe deer * winter severity * ungulate management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  4. Learning from Katrina: environmental health observations from the SWCPHP response team in Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Boatright, Daniel T; Woodson, Paul; Clinkenbeard, Rodney E; Brand, Michael W

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina provided an opportunity to observe the public health and medical care response system in practice and provided vital lessons about identifying and learning critical response measures as well as about ineffective investments of time and effort. The Southwest Center for Public Health Preparedness (SWCPHP) response team, while working among evacuees housed at Reliant Park in Houston, Texas, made a number of observations related to environmental public health. This summary reports firsthand observations which are, to a great extent, supported by the Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned report, and it provides a contextual backdrop for improvement in the areas of volunteer and citizen preparedness training and education. Katrina provided an opportunity to see public health in a highly stressed practice setting and to identify and reinforce the fundamental tenets of public health with which all individuals responding to an event should be familiar. Knowledge gained from Katrina should be integrated into future efforts related to disaster response planning; specifically, it is imperative that volunteers receive standardized training in the areas of incident command systems (ICS), basic hygiene, transmission of disease, and food and water safety principles.

  5. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  6. Lesion of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 noradrenergic neurons facilitates the activation of angiotensinergic mechanisms in response to hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Blanch, G T; De Paula, P M; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A

    2013-12-19

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of lesions of A2 neurons of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) alone or combined with the blockade of angiotensinergic mechanisms on the recovery of arterial pressure (AP) to hemorrhage in conscious rats. Male Holtzman rats (280-320g) received an injection of anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin (12.6ng/60nl; cNTS/A2-lesion, n=28) or immunoglobulin G (IgG)-saporin (12.6ng/60nl, sham, n=24) into the cNTS and 15-21days later had a stainless steel cannula implanted in the lateral ventricle. After 6days, rats were submitted to hemorrhage (four blood withdrawals, 2ml/300g of body weight every 10min). Both cNTS/A2-lesioned and sham rats had similar hypotension to hemorrhage (-62±7 and -73±7mmHg, respectively), however cNTS/A2-lesioned rats rapidly recovered from hypotension (-5±3mmHg at 30min), whereas sham rats did not completely recover until the end of the recording (-20±3mmHg at 60min). Losartan (angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist) injected intracerebroventricularly (100μg/1μl) or intravenously (i.v.) (10mg/kg of body weight) impaired the recovery of AP in cNTS/A2-lesioned rats (-24±6 and -35±7mmHg at 30min, respectively). In sham rats, only i.v. losartan affected the recovery of AP (-39±6mmHg at 60min). The results suggest that lesion of the A2 neurons in the cNTS facilitates the activation of the angiotensinergic pressor mechanisms in response to hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An appraisal of biological responses and network of environmental interactions in non-mining and mining impacted coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Malik, A; Jineesh, V.K.; Fernandes, S.O.; Das, A; Pandey, S.S.; Kanolkar, G.; Sujith, P.P.; Velip, D.; Shaikh, S.; Helekar, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    iron brought from the hinterlands. We hypothesize that there could be a shift in biological response along with changes in network of interactions between environmental and biological variables in these mining and non-mining impacted regions, lying 160...

  8. Designing a Likert-Type Scale to Predict Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Undergraduate Students: A Multistep Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; D'Costa, Ayres

    1995-01-01

    Describes an attempt to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior. Presents a six-step psychometric process used to develop the Environmental Action Internal Control Index (EAICI) for undergraduate students. Contains 54 references. (JRH)

  9. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level......We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene...... expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic (1)H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led...

  10. ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR CORPORATE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY: ACTIVE, PARTICIPATIVE, AND JUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Firmansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, will be assessed the implementation of corporate social responsibility by coal corporate to look for an alternative model of corporate social responsibility and environtment protection in the context of protecting and managing of natural resources with environmentally concept. Juridical with conceptual approach, the source analysis data technique derived from literature studies and documents. Dalam penelitian ini akan dikaji pelaksanaan tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dan lingkungan oleh perusahaan batubara untuk kemudian mencari model alternatif tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dan lingkungan dalam konteks perlindungan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya alam yang berwawasan lingkungan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah yuridis normatif dengan pendekatan undangundang dan pendekatan konseptual, sumber data yang digukana diperoleh dari studi kepustakaan, teknik analisa data diperoleh dari studi literatur dan dokumen.

  11. Meteorological monitoring for environmental/dose assessment and emergency response modeling: How much is enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    In evaluation the effectiveness and appropriateness of meteorological monitoring programs, managers responsible for planning and operating emergency response or environmental/dose assessment systems must routinely question whether enough meteorological data are being obtained to adequately support system applications. There is no simple answer or cookbook procedure that can be followed in generating an appropriate answer to this question. The answer must be developed through detailed consideration of the intended applications for the data, the capabilities of the models that would use the data, pollutant release characteristics, terrain in the modeling region, the size of the modeling domain, and the distribution of human population in the modeling domain. It is recommended that manager consult meteorologists when assessing these factors; the meteorologist's detailed knowledge of, and experience in, studying atmospheric transport and diffusion should assist the manager in determining the appropriate level of meteorological monitoring. 1 ref

  12. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingna Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  13. Pengaruh Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Dan Environmental Performance Terhadap Economic Performance Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Novitasari; Heriningsih, Sucahyo

    2012-01-01

    This research is aimed to examine effect Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) Disclosure and EnvironmentalPerformance on Economic Performance.This research used Corporate Social Responsibility Index (CSDI) asmeasure of CSR, Proper Index as measure of Environmental Performance and Return on Equity (ROE) asmeasure of Economic Performance. The samples of this research are 11 manufactur firms listed at IndonesianStock Exchange year 2006 until 2009. The research hyphotesis were tested using mu...

  14. Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W.

    1983-05-01

    Human response to severe environmental stress is conceived and implemented by individuals, but must be approved by the group. These decisions are made with respect to perceived circumstances. Societies are enmeshed within adaptive systems that provide a matrix of opportunities and constraints for a wide range of potential behavioral variability. Such systems repeatedly readjust to short-term crises, e.g., droughts, but persistent and severe environmental stress may require substantial revision of adaptive strategies. The Sahel drought of 1968-1973 is an example of a brief but severe crisis, recurring along the Saharan margins perhaps once every 30 years. Closer inspection shows links between intensified intertribal warfare and ecological stress in the lower Omo Valley. The decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom during the 12th century B.C., in response to economic stagnation, sociopolitical instability, dynastic weakness, foreign pressures, and poor Nile floods over 50-70 years, represents a more complex and fundamental modification, with systemic simplification lasting 450 years. Such insights can be applied to future, global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric CO 2. Simulation and paleoclimatic experience suggest a drier climate for the North American and Soviet breadbaskets, to threaten world food supplies at a time of maximum demographic pressures and declining resources. Public perception and remedial planning should receive the attention of Quaternary scientists, in order to preempt an involuntary, global, systemic simplification.

  15. Bay of Fundy tidal energy : a response to the strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Tidal in-stream energy conversion is an emerging technology to harness sea power. These energy conversion devices are similar to underwater windmills. The government of Nova Scotia is interested in understanding the potential effects of these devices on the Bay of Fundy. As a result, it commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) that was completed in the spring of 2008. This document presented a response to the SEA. It discussed Nova Scotia's specific approach to tidal energy as well as the province's broader approach to marine renewable energy in the Bay of Fundy, with specific responses to each recommendation in the SEA. The energy context was presented, with particular reference to energy strategy; emissions; legal requirements; production costs; and carbon costs. The report also discussed tidal lagoon technology as well as a demonstration facility called the Fundy Tidal Energy Centre. The objectives of the SEA were also described and recommendations were presented. Recommendations were grouped under several key themes such as sustainability principles; allowing the demonstration of tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) technologies; marine renewable energy legislation; research program; Mi'kmaq ecological knowledge study; provincial standard for ecological data; Bay of Fundy socioeconomic background study; marine renewable energy demonstration program; siting demonstration projects; and environmental assessment of the demonstration facility. figs

  16. The USEPA environmental response team TAGA at work at the Hart building fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickunas, D.B.; Turpin, R. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States). Environmental Response Team; Blaze, S.; Wood, J. [Lockheed Martin Inc., Edison, NJ (United States). Response Engineering and Analytical Contract

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the fumigation activities conducted at the Hart Senate Office building in Washington, DC in October 2001 following the delivery of a letter containing anthrax. Anthrax spores were dispersed in areas within the office. The United States States Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Response Team (USEPA/ERT) was responsible for the decontamination activities. Chlorine dioxide was chosen as the anthrax sporicide after a detailed technical review and consultation with scientific experts. ERT provided continuous, near real-time ambient air monitoring during the fumigation process. The monitoring was conducted to ensure that the nearby residences were not impacted by the chlorine dioxide fumigant. The monitoring plan required the use of a Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA), a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer mounted in a mobile laboratory. The monitoring activities of ERT's mobile laboratory were outlined in this paper along with the logistical and technical aspects of the air monitoring. More than 130 hours of TAGA monitoring was performed and 2.3 million data points were collected. No chlorine or chlorine dioxide concentrations were observed above the action limits during any fumigation event. The building was cleared by the health and regulatory agencies and re-opened in January 2002. It was concluded that TAGA is an excellent technology to monitor these compounds because is is extremely sensitive and selective. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Didier

    2018-04-25

    Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA). T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  18. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Salmon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria. In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs, rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA. T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  19. Evaluation of response function of moderating-type neutron detector and application to environmental neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwai, Satoshi; Katsuki, Shinji; Kamata, Masashi.

    1983-08-01

    The energy-dependent response function of a multi-cylinder moderating-type BF 3 counter, so-called Bonner counter, was calculated by the time-dependent multi-group Monte Carlo code, TMMCR. The calculated response function was evaluated experimentally for neutron energy below about 50 keV down to epithermal energy by the time-of-flight method combining with a large lead pile at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo and also above 50 keV by using the monoenergetic neutron standard field a t the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The time delay in the polyethylene moderator of the Bonner counter due to multiple collisions with hydrogen was analyzed by the TMMCR code and used for the time-spectrum analysis of the time-of-flight measurement. The response function obtained by these two experiments showed good agreement with the calculated results. This Bonner counter having a response function evaluated from thermal to MeV energy range was used for spectrometry and dosimetry of environmental neutrons around some nuclear facilities. The neutron spectra and dose measured in the environment around a 252 Cf fission source, fast neutron source reactor and electron synchrotron were all in good agreement with the calculated results and the measured results with other neutron detectors. (author)

  20. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  1. Examining responses of ecosystem carbon exchange to environmental changes using particle filtering mathod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Attention has been paid to the agricultural field that could regulate ecosystem carbon exchange by water management and residual treatments. However, there have been less known about the dynamic responses of the ecosystem to environmental changes. In this study, focussing on paddy field, where CO2 emissions due to microbial decomposition of organic matter are suppressed and alternatively CH4 emitted under flooding condition during rice growth season and subsequently CO2 emission following the fallow season after harvest, the responses of ecosystem carbon exchange were examined. We conducted model data fusion analysis for examining the response of cropland-atmosphere carbon exchange to environmental variation. The used model consists of two sub models, paddy rice growth sub-model and soil decomposition sub-model. The crop growth sub-model mimics the rice plant growth processes including formation of reproductive organs as well as leaf expansion. The soil decomposition sub-model simulates the decomposition process of soil organic carbon. Assimilating the data on the time changes in CO2 flux measured by eddy covariance method, rice plant biomass, LAI and the final yield with the model, the parameters were calibrated using a stochastic optimization algorithm with a particle filter method. The particle filter method, which is one of the Monte Carlo filters, enable us to evaluating time changes in parameters based on the observed data until the time and to make prediction of the system. Iterative filtering and prediction with changing parameters and/or boundary condition enable us to obtain time changes in parameters governing the crop production as well as carbon exchange. In this study, we focused on the parameters related to crop production as well as soil carbon storage. As the results, the calibrated model with estimated parameters could accurately predict the NEE flux in the subsequent years. The temperature sensitivity, denoted by Q10s in the decomposition rate of

  2. Micro-evolutionary responses and adaptive costs of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutilleul, M.

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary evolution of organisms is largely dependent on anthropogenic disturbances. In particular, pollution amplifies the intensity or the quantity of selection pressures on populations. However, these changes may have negative effects on the life, growth and reproduction of individuals, the demographics of the population, and its phenotypic and genetic characteristics over generations. Thus, micro-evolutionary changes are likely to occur in response to selection pressures. These phenomenon lead to collateral damages: adaptive costs. For example, a reduction of genetic diversity in a population entails a decrease in its potential to adapt to other stressors. Populations can be more susceptible to many environmental changes, especially with the increase of human activities. Hence in an ecological risk assessment, studying the mechanisms of action and immediate adverse effects of pollutants on organisms is no longer sufficient. It is also necessary to expand our knowledge on the evolution of populations in polluted environment. In this context, our study aims to determine the micro-evolutionary response of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stressors, and to measure their costs of adaptation. Populations were experimentally exposed for 22 generations to a high concentration of uranium, sodium chloride or an alternation of both these pollutants. The analysis of phenotypic and genetic changes, observed through measures of life history traits, was accomplished using several quantitative genetics techniques. In particular, we confirmed the genetic differentiation between populations with an increase of resistance in populations exposed to different pollutions. The speed of evolutionary responses depended on the conditions of exposure and their effects on the expression of the genetic structure of traits (e.g. G matrix). Micro-evolutionary changes were linked to costs of adaptation, such as reduced fertility in stressful novel

  3. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evidence for widespread changes in promoter methylation profile in human placenta in response to increasing gestational age and environmental/stochastic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients, gas and waste between the fetal and maternal circulations. It also protects the fetus from the maternal immune response. Due to its role at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is subject to many environmental exposures that can potentially alter its epigenetic profile. Previous studies have reported gene expression differences in placenta over gestation, as well as inter-individual variation in expression of some genes. However, the factors contributing to this variation in gene expression remain poorly understood. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of gene promoters in placenta tissue from three pregnancy trimesters. We identified large-scale differences in DNA methylation levels between first, second and third trimesters, with an overall progressive increase in average methylation from first to third trimester. The most differentially methylated genes included many immune regulators, reflecting the change in placental immuno-modulation as pregnancy progresses. We also detected increased inter-individual variation in the third trimester relative to first and second, supporting an accumulation of environmentally induced (or stochastic changes in DNA methylation pattern. These highly variable genes were enriched for those involved in amino acid and other metabolic pathways, potentially reflecting the adaptation of the human placenta to different environments. Conclusions The identification of cellular pathways subject to drift in response to environmental influences provide a basis for future studies examining the role of specific environmental factors on DNA methylation pattern and placenta-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Joint responsibility between the EU and Member States for non-performance of obligations under multilateral environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.; Morgera, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  6. Joint Responsibility between the EU and Member States for Non-Performance of Obligations under Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  7. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  8. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations. In a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to the 30-year goal of cleanup of all facilities by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planing for corrective activities, environmental restoration, and waste management operations at its facilities. During Calendar Year 1991 and early 1992, DOE made significant progress in reaching agreements with regulatory entities, undertaking cleanup actions, and initiating preventive measures designed to eliminate future environmental problems. These accomplishments are described

  9. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified

  10. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Iglesias

    Full Text Available Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future.

  11. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  12. Varying boreal forest response to Arctic environmental change at the Firth River, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu-Hayles, Laia; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott; Frank, David

    2011-01-01

    The response of boreal forests to anthropogenic climate change remains uncertain, with potentially significant impacts for the global carbon cycle, albedo, canopy evapotranspiration and feedbacks into further climate change. Here, we focus on tree-ring data from the Firth River site at treeline in northeastern Alaska, in a tundra–forest transition region where pronounced warming has already occurred. Both tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies were developed to identify the nature of tree growth and density responses to climatic and environmental changes in white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant Arctic treeline species. Good agreement was found between the interannual fluctuations in the TRW chronology and summer temperatures from 1901 to 1950, whereas no significant relationships were found from 1951 to 2001, supporting evidence of significant divergence between TRW and summer temperature in the second half of the 20th century. In contrast to this unstable climatic response in the TRW record, the high frequency July–August temperature signal in the MXD series seems reasonably stable through the 20th century. Wider and denser rings were more frequent during the 20th century, particularly after 1950, than in previous centuries. Finally, comparison between the tree-ring proxies and a satellite-derived vegetation index suggests that TRW and MXD correlate with vegetation productivity at the landscape level at different times of the growing season.

  13. Environmental concern and ecological responsible behavior in university students: A comparative analysis between Chilean and Spanish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Palavecinos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a pilot study aimed at the transcultural analysis of environmental concern and its relationship with ecological behavior, a questionnaire assessing these was developed in Spain, and tested in Spain and in Chile. Chilean (n=88 and Spanish (n=149 students filled out the questionnaire. The results were analysed according to the model of multidimensional conceptualisation of concern for the environment manifested in 4 types of attitude: apathetic, anthropocentric, connected and emotional affinity (Amérigo et al., 2012. Results differed between the two groups, and cultural and psychosocial variables appear to play a significant role in this. This suggest that it is important to have instruments that facilitate environmental studies in the Chilean context, and to take contextual factors (such as the exacerbation of the country's environmental crisis and citizens' concern about the situation into account in such studies. Transcultural studies are key to deepening our understanding of the subject at the worldwide level.

  14. Proceedings of the 34. AMOP technical seminar on environmental contamination and response 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 34th AMOP Arctic and marine oilspill conference was held in Banff, Alberta, Canada, from October 4th to October 6th, 2011. The aim of the Arctic and marine oilspill program (AMOP), which was started in 1978 by Environment Canada, is to help improve understanding of oil spills which occur in the Arctic marine environment and the technology for cleaning them up. This technical seminar is held every year by the Emergencies Science and Technology Section (ESTS) of Environment Canada and provides attendees with the opportunity to hear about some of the latest technologies and to discuss with other experts in the field of Arctic and marine environmental contamination and response. 38 out of the 61 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  15. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  16. History meets palaeoscience: Consilience and collaboration in studying past societal responses to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldon, John; Mordechai, Lee; Newfield, Timothy P; Chase, Arlen F; Izdebski, Adam; Guzowski, Piotr; Labuhn, Inga; Roberts, Neil

    2018-03-27

    History and archaeology have a well-established engagement with issues of premodern societal development and the interaction between physical and cultural environments; together, they offer a holistic view that can generate insights into the nature of cultural resilience and adaptation, as well as responses to catastrophe. Grasping the challenges that climate change presents and evolving appropriate policies that promote and support mitigation and adaptation requires not only an understanding of the science and the contemporary politics, but also an understanding of the history of the societies affected and in particular of their cultural logic. But whereas archaeologists have developed productive links with the paleosciences, historians have, on the whole, remained muted voices in the debate until recently. Here, we suggest several ways in which a consilience between the historical sciences and the natural sciences, including attention to even distant historical pasts, can deepen contemporary understanding of environmental change and its effects on human societies.

  17. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  18. History and social responses to environmental tax reform in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Jackson, Tim; Gilbert, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a short history of fuel taxation and the Climate Change Levy in the UK. The research described was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. Interviews were conducted with selected policy makers and companies. Focus groups were conducted with quota samples of the general public. The research shows that the problem that ETR faces in terms of public acceptance is not so much outright hostility to environmental taxation as conceptual problems with the design. Similar conceptual problems were also found in the interviews with business people. These can be summarised as lack of trust about use of the revenues, difficulty in understanding the purpose of a tax shift and a desire for incentives for good behaviour as well as perceived 'penalties' for bad behaviour

  19. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  20. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  1. Avian migrants adjust migration in response to environmental conditions en route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...... covering the entire migration period every year from observatories located in the Middle East and northern Europe, we show that passage of the Sahara Desert is delayed and correlated with improved conditions in the wintering areas. By contrast, migrants travel more rapidly through Europe, and adjust...... the migration cycle, or whether recently reported phenological changes are caused by plastic behavioural responses or evolutionary change. Here, we investigate how environmental conditions in the wintering areas as well as en route towards breeding areas affect timing of migration. Using data from 1984 to 2004...

  2. Mandatory Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibilities in the New Indonesian Limited Liability Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Un Oppusunggu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 August 2007 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono signed the Bill of Limited Liability Company, as approved by the Parliament, and consequently it became the Law No. 40 of Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company. The law revokes the then existing Law No. 1 of Year 1995. This law has 14 chapters and 161 articles, and introduces new provision on, inter alia, corporate social and environmental responsibilities (CSER. The legislators have specifically dedicated Chapter V and its Article 74 to this effect. CSER is defined as commitment of the Company to participate in sustainable economic development with the intention of increasing the living quality and beneficial environment for the Company itself, the surrounding communities, and public in general. This article discusses CSER as stipulated in the Law in relation the logic of a limited liability company. It analyzes the necessity of stipulating it in the Law in relation to the objective of a limited liability company.

  3. Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility as an Attraction and Retention Factor for Young Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates if company social-environmental responsibility (SER is an attraction and retention factor for young professionals in two studies. The first study, an experiment, investigates whether such practices influence the attraction exerted by the company as a prospect employer among undergraduate students, considering different wage and professional development conditions. The second study, a survey, investigates the impact of company SER on voluntary turnover among trainees, controlling for individual differences and satisfaction with income, growth and interests. The results suggest that SER is an important element in the attractiveness exercised by companies as they recruit young professionals, and in the retention of trainees, since it is statistically associated with the likelihood of them leaving their companies after disputed selection processes and expensive training programs.

  4. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  5. Study of response of radiation monitors for environmental dose equivalent measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Macilene N.; Khoury, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental dose equivalent H * (10), is the magnitude recommended by ICRU 39 for environmental monitoring in fields of radiation of photons. Most of the equipment used for area monitoring, only quantifies the magnitudes exposure or dose not being designed to this new magnitude. In Brazil, particularly, is not yet regulated the use of H * (10). However, with the revision of the standard 3.01 it will necessary the use of monitors that allow the achievement of measures according to H * (10). The transition for using new magnitudes will be a slow process and the contribution that the laboratories of metrology of ionizing radiation in the country can give is, at first, promote and create the habit of using the unit Sievert (Sv) in the calibration of the instruments, and that is the unit recommended for H * (10). In a second step, the tests for determining the response of the instruments for H * (10) should be made and this is the harder step, taking into account the large number of area monitors around the country. These tests will provide information about the limitations of the instrument to the new magnitude, that is, the range where the instrument will have the best performance in quantification of new magnitude. This paper evaluates the performance for H * (10), with the variation of energy and angle of incidence of radiation, of three of the most used monitors in the country

  6. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  9. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sunna 535-nm photo-fluorescent film dosimeter response to different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.K.; Kovacs, A.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, S.D.; Puhl, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations on the influence of environmental variabilities on the red fluorescence component of the Sunna Model γ photo-fluorescent dosimeter TM have previously been reported. This present paper describes the environmental effects on the response of the green fluorescence component of the same dosimeter, which is manufactured using the injection molding technique. The results presented include temperature, relative humidity, and light influences both during and after irradiation. The green fluorescence signal shows a significant dependence on irradiation temperature below room temperature at 1%/ deg. C. Above room temperature (approximately 24-60 deg. C), the irradiation temperature effect varies from -0.1%/ deg. C to 1.0%/ deg. C, depending on the absorbed dose level. For facilities with irradiation temperatures between 30 deg. C and 60 deg. C and absorbed dose levels above 10 kGy, irradiation temperature effects are minimal. Light-effects results indicate that the dosimeter is influenced by ultraviolet and blue wavelengths during irradiation as well as during the post-irradiation stabilization period (approximately 22 h), requiring the use of light-tight packaging. Results also show that the dosimeter exhibits negligible effects from ambient moisture during and after irradiation when in the range of 33-95% relative humidity

  11. Communication of Social and Environmental Responsibility in the Mission, Vision and Values of BM&FBovespa and Fortune 500 companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Cristiane de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines evidence of the socio-environmental alignment of companies listed on the Novo Mercado segment of the BM&FBovespa and in the Fortune 500, using content analysis of the mission, vision and values published by these organizations. Data were collected from the websites of the 233 companies that made up the research sample. Findings reveal that 90 of the companies investigated showed some evidence of social and environmental concerns in the dimensions analyzed. Indication of socio-environmental concerns appeared more frequently with regard to the dimension "values." Among the 42 terms encountered that refer to environmental concern, "sustainable" and "sustainability" appeared most frequently among the companies listed on BM&FBovespa, while "integrity", "ethics" and "social responsibility" were those more often used by the Fortune 500 companies. Results suggest that social and environmental disclosure is still incipient. Moreover, it is observed that organizations evincing some degree of concern in their missions, visions and values cannot necessarily be seen as socially and environmentally responsible, because the inclusion of this information in their texts is not proof that the company carries out actions of socio-environmental responsibility.

  12. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  13. Drivers and environmental responses to the changing annual snow cycle of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Stone, Robert S.; Douglas, David C.; Stanitski, Diane; Divoky, George J.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Sweeney, Colm; George, J. Craig; Longenecker, David U.

    2017-01-01

    On the North Slope of Alaska, earlier spring snowmelt and later onset of autumn snow accumulation are tied to atmospheric dynamics and sea ice conditions, and result in environmental responses.Linkages between atmospheric, ecological and biogeochemical variables in the changing Arctic are analyzed using long-term measurements near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. Two key variables are the date when snow disappears in spring, as determined primarily by atmospheric dynamics, precipitation, air temperature, winter snow accumulation and cloud cover, as well as the date of onset of snowpack in autumn that is additionally influenced by ocean temperature and sea ice extent. In 2015 and 2016 the snow melted early at Utqiaġvik due mainly to anomalous warmth during May of both years attributed to atmospheric circulation patterns, with 2016 having the record earliest snowmelt. These years are discussed in the context of a 115-year snowmelt record at Utqiaġvik with a trend toward earlier melting since the mid- 1970s (-2.86 days/decade, 1975-2016). At nearby Cooper Island, where a colony of seabirds, Black Guillemots, have been monitored since 1975, timing of egg laying is correlated with Utqiaġvik snowmelt with 2015 and 2016 being the earliest years in the 42-year record. Ice-out at a nearby freshwater lagoon is also correlated with Utqiaġvik snowmelt. The date when snow begins to accumulate in autumn at Utqiaġvik shows a trend towards later dates (+4.6 days/decade, 1975-2016), with 2016 the latest on record. The relationships between the lengthening snow-free season and regional phenology, soil temperatures, fluxes of gases from the tundra, and to regional sea ice conditions are discussed. Better understanding of these interactions is needed to predict the annual snow cycles in the region at seasonal to decadal scales, and to anticipate coupled environmental responses.

  14. Impacts and responses to environmental change in coastal livelihoods of south-west Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mostafa A R; Ahmed, Munir; Ojea, Elena; Fernandes, Jose A

    2018-05-12

    Aquatic ecosystems are of global importance for maintaining high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and for the number of livelihoods dependent on them. In Bangladesh, coastal and delta communities rely on these systems for a livelihood, and the sustainability of the productivity is seriously threatened by both climate change and unsustainable management. These multiple drivers of change shape the livelihood dependence and adaptation responses, where a better understanding is needed to achieve sustainable management in these systems, while maintaining and improving dependent livelihoods. This need has been addressed in this study in the region of Satkhira, in the southwest coast of Bangladesh, where livelihoods are highly dependent on aquatic systems for food supply and income. Traditional wild fish harvest in the rivers and aquaculture systems, including ghers, ponds, and crab points have been changing in terms of the uses and intensity of management, and suffering from climate change impacts as well. By means of six focus groups with 50 participants total, and validated by expert consultations, we conduct an analysis to understand the main perceived impacts from climate and human activities; and the adaptation responses from the aquatic system livelihoods. We find that biodiversity has decreased drastically, while farmed species have increased and shrimp gher farming turned more intensive becoming the main source of income. All these changes have important implications for food supply in the region and environmental sustainability. Dramatic responses taken in the communities include exit the fisheries and migration, and more adaptive responses include species diversification, crab fattening and working more on the pond and gher infrastructure. This study evidences the results of the combination of multiple stressors in productive systems and the barriers to adaptation in aquatic ecosystem dependent communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Linking Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction in Africa: An Analysis of the Regional Legal Responses to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the protection of the environment is critical to the achievement of poverty reduction initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals in Africa . Hence, it can be argued that there is a mutual relationship between the achievement of environmental protection and reduction of poverty in Africa . This article therefore examines the extent to which the various regional legal instruments for the protection of the environment in Africa recognise this mutual linkage by providing for the promotion of poverty reduction and socio-economic development as integral aspect of their objective of ensuring the protection of the environment in the region.

  16. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  17. The Tropical Cyclone Response to Structural and Temporal Variability in the Environmental Wind Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderlinde, Matthew J.

    intensity change with positive helicity being more favorable for intensification. Another goal of this dissertation is to identify the mechanisms that lead to the observed variations in intensification rate. Results suggest that the difference in intensification rate between TCs embedded in positive versus negative TCREH primarily results from the position of convection and associated latent heat fluxes relative to the wind shear vector. When TCREH is positive, convection is more readily advected upshear and air parcels that experience larger fluxes are more frequently ingested into the TC core. Trajectories computed from high resolution simulations demonstrate the recovery of equivalent potential temperature downwind of convection, latent heat flux near the TC core, and parcel routes through updrafts in convection. Trajectory characteristics show that low-level unstable air is lofted into deep convection near the radius of maximum winds more frequently when TCREH is positive. Contoured frequency-by-altitude diagrams (CFADs) show that convection is distributed differently around TCs embedded in environments characterized by positive versus negative TCREH. They also show that the nature of the most intense convection differs only slightly between cases of positive and negative TCREH. Finally, the implications of time-varying environments around TCs are examined. Until now, idealized numerical simulations of the tropical cyclone (TC) response to time-varying wind shear have applied instantaneous changes in the TC environment. A new modeling framework allows for smoothly transitioning environmental wind states: time-varying point-downscaling (TVPDS). TVPDS is an enhancement of the point-downscaling technique (Nolan 2011) developed for the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. It uses analysis nudging to smoothly transition between different environmental vertical wind (and/or temperature and moisture) profiles while coordinating the point-downscaling method such that the

  18. AECB staff response to the environmental impact statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement on the Concept for Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste was released in October 1994 in response to the guidelines issued in 1992 by a panel formed to evaluate this concept (Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, 1992). This response is primarily a statement of deficiencies and thus focuses on the negative aspects of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The staff review of the EIS was based on the AECB mandate, which is to protect human health and the environment and as such was focused on technical issues in the EIS. These were performance assessment of the multiple barrier system, environmental impacts, concept feasibility, siting, transport and safety as well as general issues o f regulatory policy and criteria. 30 refs

  19. Reconception of mandatory-based corporate social and environmental responsibility in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunari, S. B.; Suhariningsih, S.; Syafa'at, R.; Sihabudin, S.

    2018-01-01

    The Legal Concept of Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSER) in Law Number 40 Year 2007 (Company Law), as set forth in the general provision Article 1 (3) of Company Law evidently is a definition (begripsbepalingen) of voluntary basis, because it comes from the concept of CSR used by western countries based on World Bank’s guidelines. Hence, it is certainly contrary to the legal concept of CSER that is perceived to be mandatory in the Company Law. Therefore, the concept of CSER as an implementation of a legal principle in a norm, so as not to cause legal issue, at the normative level as well as at implementation level, must be consistent and need reconception.The purpose of this reconception of CSER is to find a new concept of mandatory-based CSER. The methodology of research used is legal research (doctrinal research), based on secondary legal material acquired analysed presciptively by statute, conseptual and comparative approach.The research outcome is resulting in a discussion of reconception of a legal responsibility-based Corporate Social Liability (CSL) with sustainable local community empowerment oriented, so as to create legal certainty at the normative level and implementation in Indonesia.

  20. Sex, Age, and Individual Differences in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Response to Environmental Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holli C. Eskelinen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of environmental enrichment, as a means to successfully decrease undesired behaviors (e.g., stereotypic and improve animal welfare, has been documented in a variety of zoological species. However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists concerning age, sex, and individual differences in response to various types of enrichment tools and activities in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. This study involved a comparative assessment of enrichment participation of three resident, bottlenose dolphin populations, over the course of 17 months, with respect to sex and age class (calf, sub-adult, adult. Enrichment sessions were randomly assigned, conducted, and categorically assessed based on participation during seven, broad based enrichment classes (Object, Ingestible, Human, or a combination of the three. Overall, the proportion of participation in enrichment sessions was high (≥ 0.74, with individual differences in participation noted among the three populations. Sessions involving Humans and/or Ingestible items resulted in a significantly higher mean proportion of participation. Sub-adult and adult males were significantly more likely to participate in enrichment sessions, as well as engage in Human Interaction/Object sessions. Calves participated significantly more than adults or sub-adults across all enrichment classes with no noted differences between males and females. These data can serve as a tool to better understand the intricacies of bottlenose dolphin responses to enrichment in an effort to develop strategic enrichment plans with the goal of improving animal well-being and welfare.

  1. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  2. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available migration policies on reducing pressures to migrate, managing authorised movements, and controlling irregular flows. Regional impact of climate change 6Geography of research 7Project purpose and aims • This project focuses on the regional, national and sub... on environmental refugees to strengthen national disaster response plans for floods and droughts in the case study areas identified. 3. To develop local adaptive management strategies for environmental refugees in the case study areas identified. 8Project scales...

  3. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Statue of Limitations for Recovery of/Contribution to Environmental Response Costs Under CERCLA as They Related to GOCOs (But Were Afraid to Ask)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risley, Floyd

    2002-01-01

    ...- (Government-Owned Contractor- Operated military industrial facilities) related voluntarily initiated environmental response costs pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act...

  4. Civil responsibilities stemming from environmental damage (ecological transgression and legal system). Responsabilidad civil por danos al medio ambiente (delito ecologico y sistema juridico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This book contains the conferences of the course on civil responsibility by environmental damage. The conferences are: 1.- The EU and the responsibility by environmental damage 2.- Ecological damage 3.- Legislation of environmental damage 4.- Ecoaudits 5,. Environment and law 6.- Environment and the law in the EU.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the importance of the environmental dimension of the concept of corporate social responsibility (Social Corporate Responsibility - CSR in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first part describes the essence of corporate social responsibility. The second part is the basic pillar of CSR, which is an ecological area. The third part presents the environmental efforts undertaken by small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of CSR. The analysis was based on the literature available and data obtained from empirical research conducted by the writer. The results show that companies, however in different extent undertake ecological activities willingly. Furthermore, those activities benefit not only in terms of the environmental dimension of CSR, but also in other areas of the organization.

  6. Effect of environmental and material factors on the response of nanocomposite foam impact sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Evan; Merrell, Jake; Rosquist, Parker; Martineau, Adin; Bowden, Anton; Seeley, Matthew; Fullwood, David

    2018-05-01

    Nanocomposite foam (NCF) is a multifunctional material that can be used to measure impact. Interactions between the flexible polymer matrix and conductive particles dispersed throughout it produce a voltage signal under dynamic strain, which correlates to the magnitude of impact. Though promising in applications requiring both impact sensing and energy absorption, NCF’s voltage response has been observed to suffer from significant signal drift. This paper investigates several causes of variance in the response of NCF sensors to consistent impacts. These effects can be classified into three general types: recoverable transient effects (such as those relating to viscoelasticity or capacitive charging), environmental drift (due to humidity and temperature), and permanent signal decay from material degradation. The motivation for the study arises from various potential repeat-impact applications where periodic recalibration of the sensor would be difficult (such as a gait-tracking insole in use for a marathon event). A cyclic drop testing machine was used to apply consistent impacts to NCF, and drift resulting from each factor (in ranges typical of an insole environment) was experimentally isolated. Models representing each factor’s contribution to signal drift are presented. Of the factors investigated, humidity and temperature caused the most significant drift, with permanent material degradation accounting for only minor decay in voltage response. Transient effects were also observed, with a characteristic ‘warm-up’ (or ‘charging’) time required for the NCF to achieve steady-state; this phenomenon, and the related ‘recovery’ time for the material to return to its original state, were determined. The resultant data can be leveraged to implement a correction algorithm or other drift-compensating method to retain an NCF sensor’s accuracy in both long and short data collection scenarios.

  7. Tracking Biological and Ecosystem Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Pacific Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Moore, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Changing seasonal sea ice conditions and seawater temperatures strongly influence biological processes and marine ecosystems at high latitudes. In the Pacific Arctic, persistent regions termed "hotspots", are localized areas with high benthic macroinfaunal biomass that have been documented over four decades (see Figure). These regions are now being more formally tracked to relate physical forcing and ecosystem response as an Arctic Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) supported by the US National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan and international partners. These hotspots are important foraging areas for upper trophic level benthic feeders, such as marine mammals and seabirds. South of St. Lawrence Island (SLI) in the northern Bering Sea, benthic feeding spectacled eiders, bearded seals and walruses are important winter consumers of infauna, such as bivalves and polychaetes. Gray whales have historically been a major summer consumer of benthic amphipods in the Chirikov Basin to the north of SLI, although summertime sightings of gray whales declined in the Chirikov from the 1980s up until at least 2002. The SE Chukchi Sea hotspot, as are the other hotspots, is maintained by export of high chlorophyll a that is produced locally as well as advected by water masses transiting northward through the system. Both walrus and gray whales are known to forage in this hotspot seasonally on high biomass levels of benthic prey. Notably the center of the highest benthic biomass regions has shifted northward in three of the DBO hotspots in recent years. This has coincided with changing sediment grain size, an indicator of current speed, and is also likely a response to changes in primary production in the region. Studies of these broad biological responses to changing physical drivers have been facilitated through development of the DBO cooperative effort by both US and international scientists. The DBO includes a series of coordinated, multi-trophic level observations that

  8. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System and applying it to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Last, G.V.; Schwab, M.R.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-02-01

    To manage waste and perform environmental monitoring and restoration at the 1450-square kilometer (560-square mile) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling. This paper provides an overview of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), a computerized system designed and implemented to manage the Site's environmental sampling data, lessons learned from putting HEIS into operation, and how HEIS is being applied to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action being performed at the Site

  9. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; DiFranza, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to

  10. Coccolithophore responses to environmental variability in the South China Sea: species composition and calcite content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian; Poulton, Alex J.; Dai, Minhan; Guo, Xianghui

    2016-08-01

    Coccolithophore contributions to the global marine carbon cycle are regulated by the calcite content of their scales (coccoliths) and the relative cellular levels of photosynthesis and calcification rates. All three of these factors vary between coccolithophore species and with response to the growth environment. Here, water samples were collected in the northern basin of the South China Sea (SCS) during summer 2014 in order to examine how environmental variability influenced species composition and cellular levels of calcite content. Average coccolithophore abundance and their calcite concentration in the water column were 11.82 cells mL-1 and 1508.3 pg C mL-1, respectively, during the cruise. Water samples can be divided into three floral groups according to their distinct coccolithophore communities. The vertical structure of the coccolithophore community in the water column was controlled by the trophic conditions, which were regulated by mesoscale eddies across the SCS basin. The evaluation of coccolithophore-based calcite in the surface ocean also showed that three key species in the SCS (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda) and other larger, numerically rare species made almost equal contributions to total coccolith-based calcite in the water column. For Emiliania huxleyi biometry measurements, coccolith size positively correlated with nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), and it is suggested that coccolith length is influenced by light and nutrients through the regulation of growth rates. Larger-sized coccoliths were also linked statistically to low pH and calcite saturation states; however, it is not a simple cause and effect relationship, as carbonate chemistry was strongly co-correlated with the other key environmental factors (nutrients, light).

  11. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  12. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Serrano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I, lag (II, and ripening (III, in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation and biotic (fungi and viruses stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support

  13. FY1995 synthesis of new erodable polymers response to environmental stimuli; 1995 nendo atarashii kankyo chowagata bunkaisei plastic no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Recently, environmental pollution by a large amount of undecomposable waste has became a serious problem. Therefore, biodegradable polymers, which can be degraded by environmental species such as bacteria and enzymes, have been studied extensively. Most of the biodegradable polymers prepared so far were polyester derivatives such as poly(hydroxybutyrate/valerate), poly(lactide) and poly(glycolide). The degradation mechanism is the hydrolysis of the ester groups in the main chain of the polymer which is facilitated by enzyme degradation. Most of the mass-produced polymers, however, are vinyl-polymerized plastics such as poly(ethylene), poly(propylene) and poly(styrene). There is no technology on the degradation of such vinyl polymers except in the lithography field, in which it is known that some vinyl polymers can be used for posi-type resists by decomposition with UV or electron-beam (EB). For creation of degradable polymers, the following three factors must be considered Purpose of the project seriously; 1) What degrades the polymers? 2) Row long does the polymer maintain the initial properties? (Time course of the mechanical strength, etc.) and 3) Bioactivity of the liberated oligomers. The aim of our work is the creation of new polymers which can be easily controlled by the above three factors. If we can degrade the polymers from the end of the polymer chain, i) we can control several properties of the polymers in the degradation such as degradation source (pH, light,, UV, EB, etc.) and rate of the degradation by changing the structure of the end group; 2) production of oligomers, which may induce a significant problem in terms of bioactivity, can be suppressed because of the depolymerization from the end of the polymers (only the monomer will be liberated). In this project, we investigated to synthesize the end functionalizations of poly({alpha}-methylstyrene) derivatives and their degradation characteristics using temperature, acid and alkaline conditions. To

  14. Tissue- and environmental response-specific expression of 10 PP2C transcripts in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S; Koga, R; Bohnert, H J; Fukuhara, T

    1999-03-01

    Ten transcripts (Mpc1-10) homologous to protein phosphatases of the 2C family have been isolated from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant). Transcripts range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 kb, and encode proteins whose catalytic domains are between 24% and 62% identical to that of the Arabidopsis PP2C, ABI1. Transcript expression is tissue specific. Two isoforms are present only in roots (Mpc1 and Mpc5), three in young leaves (Mpc6, 8 and 9), two in old leaves (Mpc6 and Mpc8), and two in post-flowering leaves (Mpc8 and Mpc9). Mpc2 is strongly expressed in roots and also in seeds, meristematic tissues and mature flowers. Mpc3 is specific for leaf meristems, and Mpc4 is found in root and leaf meristems. Mpc7 is restricted to meristematic tissues. Mpc10 is only present in mature flowers. Mpc2 (in roots and leaves), Mpc5 (in roots) and Mpc8 (weakly in leaves) are induced by salinity stress and drought conditions with different kinetics in different tissues, but other Mpcs are downregulated by stress. Cold stress (4 degrees C) leads to a decline in Mpc5 and Mp6, but low temperature provoked a long-term (days) increase in Mpc2 levels in leaves and a transient increase (less than 24 h) in roots. Four full-length transcripts have been obtained. In each case, after over-expression in E. coli, the isolated proteins exhibited (Mg2+-dependent, okadeic acid-insensitive) protein phosphatase activity, although activity against 32P-phosphocasein varied among different PP2Cs. Determination of tissue developmental and stress response specificity of PP2C will facilitate functional studies of signal-transducing enzymes in this halophytic organism.

  15. Environmental Consumerism in the United Kingdom: Some Reflections on Managerial Responses and Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P. J.; Jones, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    In England, management policies on land use and environmental consumerism are demand led, reactive, and detached from ecological and economic realities. Education that emphasizes environmental management from a standpoint of ethics, economics, political science, and law is recommended. (SK)

  16. Prediction of breeding values and selection responses with genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that genotypes differ not only in mean, but also in environmental variance of the traits they affect. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance may indicate genetic differences in environmental sensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop a general framework

  17. Embryo transcriptome response to environmental factors: implication for its survival under suboptimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl

    2014-09-01

    After its formation, the mammalian zygote undergoes a series of morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations prior to undergoing cell differentiation. The zygote is then transformed into a complex multicellular organism in a defined time window which may differ between species. These orderly embryonic developmental events are tightly regulated by temporal and spatial activation and/or deactivation of genes and gene products. This phenomenon may in turn be dependent on the intrinsic characteristics of the embryo itself, the physiological and biochemical composition of the maternal environment or by in vitro culture condition. In fact, when embryos are subjected to suboptimal culture condition, some of the embryos may escape the environmental stress by activating certain transcripts and some others which are unable to activate anti-stress agents may die or exhibit abnormal development. This phenomenon may partly depend on transcripts and proteins stored during oogenesis. Indeed after embryonic genome activation, the embryo destiny is governed by its own transcripts and protein synthesized over time. Therefore, this review begins by highlighting the type and quality of transcripts accumulated or degraded during oogenesis and its impact on the embryo survival. Thereafter, emphasis is given to the transcriptome response of preimplantation embryos to suboptimal culture conditions. In addition, the long term effect of preimplantation culture environment on the transcriptome response embryos/fetus during peri and post implantation has been addressed. Finally, a brief summary of the epigenetic control of culture induced genetic variation of the embryos has been highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rong; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich; Zhao, Meixun

    2018-02-01

    Climate-driven changes in environmental conditions have significant and complex effects on marine ecosystems. Variability in phytoplankton elements and biochemicals can be important for global ocean biogeochemistry and ecological functions, while there is currently limited understanding on how elements and biochemicals respond to the changing environments in key coccolithophore species such as Emiliania huxleyi. We investigated responses of elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids (FAs) in a strain of E. huxleyi under three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 °C), three N : P supply ratios (molar ratios 10:1, 24:1 and 63:1) and two pCO2 levels (560 and 2400 µatm). Overall, C : N : P stoichiometry showed the most pronounced response to N : P supply ratios, with high ratios of particulate organic carbon vs. particulate organic nitrogen (POC : PON) and low ratios of PON vs. particulate organic phosphorus (PON : POP) in low-N media, and high POC : POP and PON : POP in low-P media. The ratio of particulate inorganic carbon vs. POC (PIC : POC) and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions strongly responded to temperature and pCO2, both being lower under high pCO2 and higher with warming. We observed synergistic interactions between warming and nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2) on elemental cellular contents and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) proportion in most cases, indicating the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2). Our results suggest differential sensitivity of elements and FAs to the changes in temperature, nutrient availability and pCO2 in E. huxleyi, which is to some extent unique compared to non-calcifying algal classes. Thus, simultaneous changes of elements and FAs should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in the biotic-mediated connection between biogeochemical cycles, ecological functions and climate change.

  19. Synchronous changes in coral chromatophore tissue density and skeletal banding as an adaptive response to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisana, R. N.; Miller, C. A.; Sivaguru, M.; Fouke, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Corals are a key reservoir of biodiversity in coastal, shallow water tropical marine environments, and density banding in their aragonite skeletons is used as a sensitive record of paleoclimate. Therefore, the cellular response of corals to environmental change and its expression in skeletal structure is of significant importance. Chromatophores, pigment-bearing cells within the ectoderm of hermatypic corals, serve to both enhance the photosynthetic activity of zooxanthellae symbionts, as well as protect the coral animal from harmful UV radiation. Yet connections have not previously been drawn between chromatophore tissue density and the development of skeletal density bands. A histological analysis of the coral Montastrea faveolata has therefore been conducted across a bathymetric gradient of 1-20 m on the southern Caribbean island of Curaçao. A combination of field and laboratory photography, serial block face imaging (SBFI), two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM), and 3D image analysis has been applied to test whether M. faveolata adapts to increasing water depth and decreasing photosynthetically active radiation by shifting toward a more heterotrophic lifestyle (decreasing zooxanthellae tissue density, increasing mucocyte tissue density, and decreasing chromatophores density). This study is among the first to collect and evaluate histological data in the spatial context of an entire unprocessed coral polyp. TPLSM was used to optically thin section unprocessed tissue biopsies with quantitative image analysis to yield a nanometer-scale three-dimensional map of the quantity and distribution of the symbionts (zooxanthellae) and a host fluorescent pigments (chromatophores), which is thought to have photoprotective properties, within the context of an entire coral polyp. Preliminary results have offered new insight regarding the three-dimensional distribution and abundance of chromatophores and have identified: (1) M. faveolata tissue collected from 8M SWD do

  20. Economic and environmental balancing in response to NEPA for electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of principles that can provide guidance in responding to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the planning of electric power generating plants. The environmental assessment procedure described is initiated by considering alternative decisions in concern for environmental assessment. Having defined the decision paths, the assessment proceeds in a four-phase sequence: Correlation of the alternatives with resource and marketing restraints; screening the alternatives for environmental adequacy and specifying the needed technological refinement; examination of the economics in terms of energy costs; comparing the energy cost with the environmental index and selecting the combination that best reflects the current social preference. (Auth.)

  1. Economic and environmental balancing in response to NEPA for electric power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. (USA)

    1976-03-01

    A discussion is given of principles that can provide guidance in responding to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the planning of electric power generating plants. The environmental assessment procedure described is initiated by considering alternative decisions in concern for environmental assessment. Having defined the decision paths, the assessment proceeds in a four-phase sequence: correlation of the alternatives with resource and marketing restraints; screening the alternatives for environmental adequacy and specifying the needed technological refinement; examination of the economics in terms of energy costs; comparing the energy cost with the environmental index and selecting the combination that best reflects the current social preference.

  2. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  3. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fire rates of vegetation regeneration between ecoregions. We then related precipitation, temperature, and elevation records at four temporal scales to rates of post-fire vegetation regeneration to ascertain the influence of climate on post-fire vegetation dynamics. We found that broad-scale climate factors are an important influence on post-fire vegetation regeneration. Most notably, higher rates of post-fire regeneration occurred with warmer minimum temperatures. Increases in precipitation also resulted in higher rates of post-fire vegetation growth. While explanatory power was slight, multiple statistical approaches provided evidence for real ecological drivers of post-fire regeneration that should be investigated further at finer scales. The sensitivity of post-disturbance vegetation dynamics to climatic drivers has important ramifications for the management of ecosystems under changing climatic conditions. Shifts in temperature and precipitation regimes are likely to result in changes in post-disturbance dynamics, which could represent important feedbacks into the global climate system.

  4. Modeling of Andean Páramo Ecosystems’ Hydrological Response to Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Andes, water infiltration from tropical wetlands, called páramo, generates headwaters for downstream rivers. The hydrological processes of these wetlands are not well understood within the larger hydrological system, impeding efforts to mitigate the rapid environmental changes anticipated due to regional population growth and climate change. This study constructed and calibrated a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP system model for ecosystems with sparse data in the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed in the Piura region of Peru. The model simulates the impacts of possible changes within the hydrological system to assist decision-makers in strategizing about sustainable development for the region, especially the páramo. Using scenarios designed with stakeholder participation, the WEAP model for the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed examines river headflow production, reservoir water levels, and demand coverage for downstream users when the upstream páramo and its environs are subjected to changes of temperature, precipitation, and land use. The model reveals that while temperature and precipitation changes can be expected to impact páramo water production, the anticipated land use changes will be a primary driver of hydrological responses in the páramo and subsequent changes downstream.

  5. Steps toward a shared governance response for achieving Good Environmental Status in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cinnirella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is of fundamental importance to Europe given its strategic position. The responsibility for its overall ecosystem integrity is shared by European Union Member States (EU-MS and other Mediterranean countries. A juxtaposition of overlapping governance instruments occurred recently in the region, with the implementation of both the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD for EU-MS and the Ecosystem Approach Strategy (ECAP for all Mediterranean countries, including EU-MS. Both MSFD and ECAP are structured around vision-driven processes to achieve Good Environmental Status and a Healthy Environment, respectively. These processes have clear ecosystem-based, integrated policy objectives to guarantee the preservation and integrity of Mediterranean marine ecosystem goods and services. However, adoption of these instruments, especially those related to the new EU-MS directives on marine policy, could result in a governance gap in addition to the well-known economic gap between the EU and the non-EU political blocs. We identify two complementary requirements for effective implementation of both MSFD and ECAP that could work together to reduce this gap, to ensure a better alignment between MSFD and ECAP and better planning for stakeholder engagement. These are key issues for the future success of these instruments in a Mediterranean region where discrepancies between societal and ecological objectives may pose a challenge to these processes.

  6. Environmental response to long-term mariculture activities in the Weihai coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Song, Jide; Zhang, Yongyu

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014. The temporal variations in inorganic and organic nitrogen concentrations in the surface water presented significantly increasing trends during August, between 2009 and 2014. A marked increase in the ratios of dinoflagellate to diatom abundance, concurrently with ascending N/P ratios, was also observed during August between 2011 and 2014. In addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate variations revealed the highest concentrations during October and lower levels during May and August, which was attributed in part to the seasonal growth characteristics of kelp cultivated in the study area. Moreover, the nutrient concentrations in Sanggou, Rongcheng, Wulei, and Rushan bays were affected significantly by the various cultured organisms in these bays. The intensive mariculture activity in the Weihai coastal area is likely one of the causes of the negative effects on water quality, such as eutrophication and future ocean acidification. The exploration of effective strategies is quite necessary in the future for keeping good quality of coastal environment and sustainable mariculture development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  8. Environmental emergency response plans (EERPs): A single plan approach to satisfy multiple regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzyka, L.

    1995-01-01

    Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs

  9. Functional diversity of benthic ciliate communities in response to environmental gradients in a wetland of Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Zhang, Liquan; Xu, Henglong

    2018-02-01

    Researches on the functional diversity of benthic ecosystems have mainly focused on macrofauna, and studies on functional structure of ciliate communities have been based only on trophic- or size-groups. Current research was carried out on the changing patterns of classical and functional diversity of benthic ciliates in response to environmental gradients at three sites in a wetland in Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that changes of environmental factors (e.g. salinity, sediment grain size and hydrodynamic conditions) in the Yangtze Estuary induce variability in species composition and functional trait distribution. Furthermore, increased species richness and diversity did not lead to significant changes in functional diversity due to functional redundancy. However, salt water intrusion of Yangtze Estuary during the dry season could cause reduced functional diversity of ciliate communities. Current study provides the first insight into the functional diversity of ciliate communities in response to environmental gradients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...

  11. Scuba diving & underwater cultural resources: differences in environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences based on level of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Tiffany Cooper; Alan R. Graefe

    2001-01-01

    This study examined SCUBA divers' level of development in relationship to environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences concerning the use and management of New York's Great Lakes' underwater cultural resources. More than 850 New York State divers were surveyed during the fall of 1999, ranging from novices to experts...

  12. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  13. Scaling environmental change through the community-level: a trait-based response-and-effect framework for plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suding, K.N.; Lavorel, S.; Chapin III, F.S.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Diaz, S.; Garnier, E.; Goldberg, D.; Hooper, D.U.; Jackson, S.T.; Navas, M.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting ecosystem responses to global change is a major challenge in ecology. A critical step in that challenge is to understand how changing environmental conditions influence processes across levels of ecological organization. While direct scaling from individual to ecosystem dynamics can lead

  14. Scaling environmental change through the community level: a trait-based response-and-effect framework for plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine N. Suding; Sandra Lavorel; F. Stuart Chapin; Johannes H.C. Cornelissen; Sandra Diaz; Eric Garnier; Deborah Goldberg; David U. Hooper; Stephen T. Jackson; Marie-Laure. Navas

    2008-01-01

    Predicting ecosystem responses to global change is a major challenge in ecology. A critical step in that challenge is to understand how changing environmental conditions influence processes across levels of ecological organization. While direct scaling from individual to ecosystem dynamics can lead to robust and mechanistic predictions, new approaches are needed to...

  15. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E.; Douma, J.C.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Reick, P.B.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Species with deciduous and evergreen leaf habits typically differ in leaf life span (LLS). Yet quantification of the response of LLS, within each habit, to key environmental conditions is surprisingly lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify LLS strategies of the two leaf habits under

  16. The U.S. Forest Service and its responsibilities under the national environmental policy act: a work design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Auer; Kenneth Richards; David N. Seesholtz; Burnell Fischer; Christian Freitag; Joshua. Grice

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service’s responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act entail a wide range of activities including scoping, scientific analysis, social and economic analysis, managing public input and involvement, media relations, regulatory analysis, and litigation. These myriad duties raise several important organizational and management questions....

  17. Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: New insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Nogales, A.; Nederlof, M.A.J.; Benedito-Palos, L.; Ballester-Lozano, G.F.; Folkedal, O.; Olsen, R.E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and

  18. EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

  19. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Thun Hohenstein, U.; Peretto, C.

    2013-03-01

    The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680-600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600-620 ka), Guado San Nicola (ca. 380-350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345-355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy) attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle

  20. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities