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Sample records for environmental radioprotection main

  1. Environmental radioprotection: main lessons learnt from the Envirhom programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Adam, C.; Gilbin, R.; Simon, O.; Tran, D.; Massabuau, J.C.; Fortin, C.; Denison, D.; Pradines, C.; Floriani, M.; Henner, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of chronic low-level exposure of ecosystems to radionuclides where data are critically sparse, the ENVIRHOM research programme launched two years ago at the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, proposes to acquire the needed knowledge for Ecological Risk Assessment specific to bioaccumulation of alpha and beta emitters in living organisms. Gaps of knowledge within this field constitute a strong limitation to our capability to make a reasonable risk estimate. Internal doses cannot be accurately calculated and potentially associated biological effects at any organization level remain fairly unknown. As a result, derivation of ecologically relevant and knowledge-based predicted no-effects concentrations becomes a critical issue in ERA. The scope of this presentation is to illustrate the relevance of the development of a greater depth of understanding of radionuclide fate and biological effects at several hierarchical levels to support quantitative risk assessments with defined and acceptable uncertainty bounds. The following crucial issues are discussed and exemplified for uranium and other alpha or beta emitters. First, radionuclide bioavailability is a key knowledge to an accurate assessment of both exposure and effect and media quality criteria are needed. Second, specificities of chronic exposures have to be taken into account to obtain accurate dose estimates and induced effects, as exposure conditions (concentration and duration) strongly modify the radionuclide internal distribution at various biological scales. Lastly, considering different scales for biological effects (from early to delayed, from subcellular to high organisation level) is crucial to evidence ecologically relevant indicators. A global overview of operational data from ENVIRHOM - media criteria to assess exposure, dose-effects relationships at various biological scales that constitute primary data to introduce radionuclides in ERA methods in a consistent manner

  2. Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Tiwari, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    A major feature of all higher eukaryotes is the defined life span of the organism. Radioprotections are substances that protect the cells against Radiation induced damage. Over the past decade interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phytoproducts for use in Cancer preventing strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for controlling the Cancer incidence in many developing countries as well as developed countries. Several experimental evidence has indicated that intake of fruit and vegetables and a number of other dietary items are associated with decreased Cancer incidence. These potential agents either abolish or delay the development of Cancer by interfering with one or more steps in the process of carcinogenesis, such as preventing the activation of carcinogen by increasing detoxification or by blocking the interaction of ultimate carcinogen with cellular macromolecules or suppressing the clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. The potential of using medicinal herbs as Cancer chemo preventive neutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Radioprotective potential of extracts of certain dietary botanicals including Mentha arvensi (field mint), Syzyzium cumini (Jamun), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Emblica officianalis (Amla), Aloe vera (Gwar patha), Moringa oleifera (Moringa, Horse Radish Tree), Grewia asiatica (Phalsa), Rosemarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ocirnurn sanctum, Phylanthus niruri, Vetiveria zizanioides (vetivergrass), Delbergia sisso oil (Sesame oil) was evaluated. All botanicals tested had shown a very low toxicity. Administration of these botanicals increased the survival of whole body irradiated mice and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  3. Radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Tiwari, Ajay [Department of Zoology, Govt. College, Ajmer (India)

    2012-07-01

    A major feature of all higher eukaryotes is the defined life span of the organism. Radioprotections are substances that protect the cells against Radiation induced damage. Over the past decade interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phytoproducts for use in Cancer preventing strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for controlling the Cancer incidence in many developing countries as well as developed countries. Several experimental evidence has indicated that intake of fruit and vegetables and a number of other dietary items are associated with decreased Cancer incidence. These potential agents either abolish or delay the development of Cancer by interfering with one or more steps in the process of carcinogenesis, such as preventing the activation of carcinogen by increasing detoxification or by blocking the interaction of ultimate carcinogen with cellular macromolecules or suppressing the clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. The potential of using medicinal herbs as Cancer chemo preventive neutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Radioprotective potential of extracts of certain dietary botanicals including Mentha arvensi (field mint), Syzyzium cumini (Jamun), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Emblica officianalis (Amla), Aloe vera (Gwar patha), Moringa oleifera (Moringa, Horse Radish Tree), Grewia asiatica (Phalsa), Rosemarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ocirnurn sanctum, Phylanthus niruri, Vetiveria zizanioides (vetivergrass), Delbergia sisso oil (Sesame oil) was evaluated. All botanicals tested had shown a very low toxicity. Administration of these botanicals increased the survival of whole body irradiated mice and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  4. Environmental control and radioprotection in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenachi, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Monitoring Programs in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines were initiated in 1982. In the actual pre-operational phase of this Programs, are being collected samples of air, surface and underground waters, stream sediments, soil, field products, and milk. Environmental contamination of air is controlled by thermoluminescent dosimeters, distributed around the mines. Instantaneous radiation measures in this stations are made with scintillometer calibrated in Radioprotection Laboratory Department-CDTN. Photographic dosimeters are used for monitoring external radiation exposures in workers. Radiation levels evaluation, air and surface contamination measures, were effectuated in installations, trenches, and research galleries. Another factors which are now being studied: climate, meteorology, and hidrology. (author) [pt

  5. Chemical radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A reivew of the problems and progress in the field of chemical radioprotection is given. After defining the field of research, the practical significance of radioprotective substances and the requirements for a utilizable radioprotective preparation are presented. Trends of development of this field of research, the state of the art, and resulting conclusions for the future development of radioprotective substances of practical value are discussed. (author)

  6. A prospective view of radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barescut, Jean C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: If we exclude the specific case of medical radioprotection and workers radioprotection, the main challenge of tomorrow radioprotection is the protection of usual people faced to a possible increase of ambient contamination, either as a consequence of usual releases of industry or as a consequence of sporadic accidents. From the view points of regulators and practitioners of radioprotection, we have to optimize today researches and studies, to optimize protection investments and to prepare future rules according to what could be the possible concerns of radioprotection in a near future. Clearly, when dealing with nuclear energy, a perspective of 30 years is not a very far one. A nuclear plant built today will still be in operation 30 years from now. But 30 years is a fairly long time compared to evolutions of science. For example, DNA was discovered in 1953 and gene engineering began seriously in the years 70s. There is no doubt that the evolution speed will not decrease and that the scientific situation will be quite different within 30 years. This could have many practical consequences. One is that the risk associated to radioactive stress could be better estimated, another is that precursors of a disease attributable to radioactivity will certainly be detected earlier and will allow cure to begin earlier. It is quite likely also that our ability to stimulate the natural defenses of organisms will improve. In an even more futuristic approach, the use of nanoengines or the use of highly selective killer processes at the cell level seems quite possible. Radioprotection will not only be influenced by science but also by the level of environmental threats. We have already a pretty good backward knowledge but, if we consider that the real beginning of industrial nuclear age was in the seventies, within 30 years, we will have more than 70 years of retrospective view. That should be enough to determine if our exposure to radioactivity is really increasing

  7. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    1998-07-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  8. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  9. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  10. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  11. Maine Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) Atlas, Maine - 2007, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0036827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This four volume set of Environmental Vulnerability Index Maps depicts environmental resources along the coast of Maine most at risk from oil spilled into the marine...

  12. Development of plastic scintillators for use in the field of radioprotection and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    A plastic scintillator detector based on available know how, for applications in radiological protection - whole body counting, continuous monitoring of air and measurement of low level alpha and beta radioactivity environmental samples is described. Results of method of preparation of the plastic scintillator using styrene monomer and PPO (scintillator), POPOP (wave lenght shifter) are described. For measurement of gamma radiation point sources of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 125 I were used and detected with plastic scintillator detectors prepared with various concentrations (% by weight) of PPO. The data of relative pulse heights are presented. For measurement of alpha and beta radioactivity in environmental samples, thin discs of plastic detector were machined and polished. (Author) [pt

  13. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  14. Immunomodulators used in contemporary radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambov, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of the potentialities of immunomodulation - a new modern alternative trend in the field of radioprotective substances. The main advantages of the drugs assigned as 'biological-response modifying factors', or 'immunomodulators', over the chemically synthesized radioprotectors for prophylaxis of fractionated, prolonged and chronic low-dose irradiations are stressed. The mechanism of the indirect radiation protection of such preparations on hemopoietic level is described, as well as their chemical nature, pharmacokinetics and physiological properties. Special attention is paid to polysaccharides as the most perspective immunomodulators. The mechanism of their radioprotective action on mononuclear-macrophageal cell system is discussed. The most popular immunomodulators as Biostin, Azimexone, Imuthiol, Krestin, Lentinan, etc, are characterized by their origin, biochemical nature, affected cells and optimal doses. 2 tabs., 18 refs. (orig.)

  15. Guide for the evaluation of the implementation of radioprotection in an electricity production nuclear centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the approach for the evaluation of the implementation of radioprotection in nuclear power plants. This approach encompasses six main themes: radioprotection customization, radioprotection steering quality, professional and contractor commitment, skill and efficiency of the Risk Prevention Department, radioprotection operational management, robustness of the transport system. Each theme comprises sub-themes which are assessed according to 2, 3 or 4 levels, the sum of which giving a mark out of 20 for the theme

  16. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  17. Industrial irradiators and their radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo (ed.)

    2018-04-01

    In this book you will learn how the gamma irradiators and accelerators for industry and research applications work and all the radioprotection safety items that should be followed when operating them. This book was written mainly for those who intend to become Radiation Safety Officers (RSO) responsible for the operation of gamma irradiators, but it is also useful to business people who plan to embark on this area or for those who are simply curious. This book is only an introduction to the subject and is far from being exhaustive. (author)

  18. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  19. Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of ignitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpignano, A.; Francabandiera, S.; Vella, R.; Zucchetti, M.

    1996-01-01

    A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed Individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10 9 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  1. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  2. Investigation of the mechanism of radioprotective action of adrenoceptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinskij, V.I.; Klimova, A.D.; Yashunskij, V.G.; Alpatova, T.V.; 4205700SU)

    1986-01-01

    α-Adrenoceptor agonists of both main groups, i.e. arylalkylamines and imidazolines, have a pronounced radioprotective effect. Their chemical analogs, which fail to stimulate α-adrenoceptors, do not protect mice. The effect of phenylephrine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline comes into play via α 1 -adrenoceptors and that of clonidine, via α 2 -adrenoceptors and also via α 1 -adrenoceptors. Adrenoceptor agonists can probably manifest their radioprotective action via both subtypes of α-adrenoceptors. Possible intracellular mechanisms of the radioprotective action are discussed

  3. Radioprotection and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolibe, D [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zackova, H

    1994-12-31

    In a country where 75% of its electric power production is nuclear-based and where the health industry is making more and more use of ionizing radiation, Radioprotection education in France is necessarily characterized by a wide diversity in the trainings delivered and a significant increase in the number of actors providing these training programs. From the isolated worker using an industrial gammagraphy device to the thousands of persons working in major nuclear installations, it is estimated that more than 100,000 workers are exposed to ionizing radiation. Due to the seriousness of the pathological consequences resulting from overexposure to ionizing radiation, the volume of population concerned ant the media impact generated by the problem, one of the basic requirements formulated at the very early stages of the legislation is the obligation of informing workers of the hazards of exposure and the preventive measures to be taken. Employers are legally required to inform their personnel of the risks taken when handling equipment generating ionizing radiation of when using radio-nuclides. This obligation translates concretely by the need for the employer to name a qualified Radioprotection Department. The Qualified Officer or the Radioprotection Department are responsible for, among other tasks, ensuring training of workers. Two training orientations can be distinguished, each having different goals: - the first consists in training a body of highly-skilled Radioprotection professionals or managers (Qualified Officers), - the second consists in training all workers having any contact with ionizing radiation; each person should be capable of ensuring his own Radioprotection regardless of the presence of Qualified Officers. (authors).

  4. Radioprotection and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Zackova, H.

    1994-01-01

    In a country where 75% of its electric power production is nuclear-based and where the health industry is making more and more use of ionizing radiation, Radioprotection education in France is necessarily characterized by a wide diversity in the trainings delivered and a significant increase in the number of actors providing these training programs. From the isolated worker using an industrial gammagraphy device to the thousands of persons working in major nuclear installations, it is estimated that more than 100,000 workers are exposed to ionizing radiation. Due to the seriousness of the pathological consequences resulting from overexposure to ionizing radiation, the volume of population concerned ant the media impact generated by the problem, one of the basic requirements formulated at the very early stages of the legislation is the obligation of informing workers of the hazards of exposure and the preventive measures to be taken. Employers are legally required to inform their personnel of the risks taken when handling equipment generating ionizing radiation of when using radio-nuclides. This obligation translates concretely by the need for the employer to name a qualified Radioprotection Department. The Qualified Officer or the Radioprotection Department are responsible for, among other tasks, ensuring training of workers. Two training orientations can be distinguished, each having different goals: - the first consists in training a body of highly-skilled Radioprotection professionals or managers (Qualified Officers), - the second consists in training all workers having any contact with ionizing radiation; each person should be capable of ensuring his own Radioprotection regardless of the presence of Qualified Officers. (authors)

  5. Radioprotective shield - an adequate radioprotective device for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltschke, F [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Univ., Greifswald (German Democratic Republic); Taschner, P; Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1975-01-01

    Starting from the shortcomings of the radioprotective devices at present used in routine stomatological radiodiagnosis, the authors describe the advantages of a radioprotective shield which has been produced in the Greifswald University Stomatological Clinic. On the basis of dosimetric studies, the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection of the GDR (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz der DDR) could demonstrate the suitability of this shield as a radioprotective device for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis.

  6. 7. national congress of radioprotection - SFRP 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.; Lecomte, J.F.; Averbeck, D.; Makovicka, L.; Barescut, J.C.; Maubert, H.; Benderitter, M.; Menechal, Ph.; Biau, A.; Menetrier, F.; Briand-Champlong, J.; Metivier, H.; Cherin, A.; Paquet, F.; Decobert, V.; Radecki, J.J.; Devin, P.; Roy, C.; Fracas, P.; Schneider, Th.; Italia, J.; Souques, M.; Lagroye, I.; Tamponnet, Ch.; Laurent, G.; Vidal, J.P.; Aubert, B.; Piqueras, P.; Cervera, J.; Vial, Th.; Mear, R.; Visseaux, H.; Patrix, N.; Bourguignon, M.; Acker, A.; Sabatier, L.; Abela, G.; Andrieux, J.L.; Bernard, H.; Vicaud, A.; De Bruyne, T.; Valero, M.; Godet, J.L.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Renaud, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Leuraud, K.; Arranz, L.; Lochard, J.; Vaillant, L.; Droesch, P.; Coenen, S.; Michiels, J.; Pepin, S.; Poffijn, A.; Wertelaers, A.; Schrauben, M.; Pires, N.; Matouk, F.; Wall, B.; Hart, D.; Mol, H.; Lecluyse, A.; Aroua, A.; Trueb, P.; Griebel, J.; Nekolla, E.; Gron, P.; Waltenburg, H.; Beauvais-March, H.; Scanff, P.; Pirard, P.; Sinno-Tellier, S.; Shannoun, F.; Brugmans, M.; Meeuwsen, E.; Stoop, P.; Olerud, H.; Borretzen, I.; Leitz, W.; Marconato, M.; Magnier, F.; Rehel, J.L.; Etard, C.; Ducou Le Pointe, H.; Bouette, A.; Fourrier, P.; Lisbona, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Giraud, J.M.; Acker, A.; Laurier, D.; Laurent, O.; Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Hubert, D.; Riedel, A.; Garcier, Y.; Amabile, J.C.; Leuraud, K.; Vacquier, B.; Caer, S.; Griffiths, N.; Van der Meeren, A.; Fritsch, P.; Abram, M.C.; Bernaudin, J.F.; Poncy, J.L.; Chevillard, S.; Cesarini, J.P.; Bertho, J.M.; Louiba, S.; Tourlonias, E.; Faure, M.C.; Stefani, J.; Siffert, B.; Paquet, F.; Dublineau, I.; Adam, C.; Alonzo, F.; Bonzom, J.M.; Gagnaire, B.; Gilbin, R.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Denoziere, M.; Lecerf, N.; Leroy, E.; Daures, J.; Bordy, J.M.; Clairand, I.; Debroas, J.; Denoziere, M.; Donadille, L.; D'Errico, F.; Gouriou, J.; Itie, C.; Struelens, L.; Broggio, D.; Borissov, N.; Janeczko, J.; Lamart, S.; Blanchardon, E.; Molokanov, A.; Yatsenko, V.; Franck, D.; Rannou, A.; Kockerols, P.; Bickel, M.; De Bruyne, G.; Fessler, A.; McCourt, J.; Lefaure, C.; Godet, J.L.; Bouchet, F.; Ecault, A.; Lacoeuille, F.; Cahouet-Vannier, A.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference. Sixty six presentations out of 68 are assembled in the document. The conference is organized in 11 sessions dealing with: 1 - radioprotection regulations and standards; 2 - radioprotection of patients; 3 - radiation effects on man and ecosystems; 4 - advances in dosimetry and metrology; occupational radioprotection (2 sessions); 5 - radioprotection of populations and ecosystems (2 sessions); 6 - radioprotection in incident, accident and post-accident situations; 7 - radioprotection and society

  7. I.R.D. annual report - 1988. Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This is the annual report of the activities developed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry -IRD/CNEN-Brazil, in the year of 1988. It is composed by the individual reports of its several divisions, describing the main activities and personnel: DEPRO - Occupational and Radiological Protection Dept.; DEPRA - Environmental and Radiological Protection Dept.; DEMET - Metrology Dept.; DEPAT - Technical Support Dept.; DETAC - Scientific Support and Training Dept.; DEPAD -Administrative Support Dept. (J.A.M.M.)

  8. Radioprotective action of serotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodop' yanova, L G; Vinogradova, M F [Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.

    1975-09-01

    Tests in vitro were performed to study the effect of serotonin on oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of rat liver. Serotonin (2.10/sup -4/ M) was shown to suppress oxidation of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutaric acid without significantly changing succinic acid consumption. A comparison of the results obtained with those from the literature allowed to assume that the radioprotective effect of serotonin was based not only on its previously known ability to cause tissue hypoxia, but also on its ability to affect oxidation processes in mitochondria.

  9. 7. national congress of radioprotection - SFRP 2009; 7. congres national de radioprotection - SFRP 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A.; Lecomte, J.F.; Averbeck, D.; Makovicka, L.; Barescut, J.C.; Maubert, H.; Benderitter, M.; Menechal, Ph.; Biau, A.; Menetrier, F.; Briand-Champlong, J.; Metivier, H.; Cherin, A.; Paquet, F.; Decobert, V.; Radecki, J.J.; Devin, P.; Roy, C.; Fracas, P.; Schneider, Th.; Italia, J.; Souques, M.; Lagroye, I.; Tamponnet, Ch.; Laurent, G.; Vidal, J.P.; Aubert, B.; Piqueras, P.; Cervera, J.; Vial, Th.; Mear, R.; Visseaux, H.; Patrix, N.; Bourguignon, M.; Acker, A.; Sabatier, L.; Abela, G.; Andrieux, J.L.; Bernard, H.; Vicaud, A.; De Bruyne, T.; Valero, M.; Godet, J.L.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Renaud, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Leuraud, K.; Arranz, L.; Lochard, J.; Vaillant, L.; Droesch, P.; Coenen, S.; Michiels, J.; Pepin, S.; Poffijn, A.; Wertelaers, A.; Schrauben, M.; Pires, N.; Matouk, F.; Wall, B.; Hart, D.; Mol, H.; Lecluyse, A.; Aroua, A.; Trueb, P.; Griebel, J.; Nekolla, E.; Gron, P.; Waltenburg, H.; Beauvais-March, H.; Scanff, P.; Pirard, P.; Sinno-Tellier, S.; Shannoun, F.; Brugmans, M.; Meeuwsen, E.; Stoop, P.; Olerud, H.; Borretzen, I.; Leitz, W.; Marconato, M.; Magnier, F.; Rehel, J.L.; Etard, C.; Ducou Le Pointe, H.; Bouette, A.; Fourrier, P.; Lisbona, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Giraud, J.M.; Acker, A.; Laurier, D.; Laurent, O.; Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Hubert, D.; Riedel, A.; Garcier, Y.; Amabile, J.C.; Leuraud, K.; Vacquier, B.; Caer, S.; Griffiths, N.; Van der Meeren, A.; Fritsch, P.; Abram, M.C.; Bernaudin, J.F.; Poncy, J.L.; Chevillard, S.; Cesarini, J.P.; Bertho, J.M.; Louiba, S.; Tourlonias, E.; Faure, M.C.; Stefani, J.; Siffert, B.; Paquet, F.; Dublineau, I.; Adam, C.; Alonzo, F.; Bonzom, J.M.; Gagnaire, B.; Gilbin, R.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Denoziere, M.; Lecerf, N.; Leroy, E.; Daures, J.; Bordy, J.M.; Clairand, I.; Debroas, J.; Denoziere, M.; Donadille, L.; D' Errico, F.; Gouriou, J.; Itie, C.; Struelens, L.; Broggio, D.; Borissov, N.; Janeczko, J.; Lamart, S.; Blanchardon, E.; Molokanov, A. [and others

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference. Sixty six presentations out of 68 are assembled in the document. The conference is organized in 11 sessions dealing with: 1 - radioprotection regulations and standards; 2 - radioprotection of patients; 3 - radiation effects on man and ecosystems; 4 - advances in dosimetry and metrology; occupational radioprotection (2 sessions); 5 - radioprotection of populations and ecosystems (2 sessions); 6 - radioprotection in incident, accident and post-accident situations; 7 - radioprotection and society

  10. Study of radioprotective effect of the resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Carolina dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5 trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is present at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. This high capacity to scavenge the free radicals generated by several biologic processes by resveratrol can provide a prevention of human cardiovascular diseases and several types of cancer. The main objective of this study was to determine the in vitro radioprotective effect of resveratrol in cell culture with the aid of the tests of cytotoxicity of resveratrol (IC50%) and lethal dose 50% of gamma radiation (LD50). Studies of the level of resveratrol toxicity, found by cytotoxicity test performed by neutral red uptake assay, and lethal dose 50% (LD50) of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) was performed in cell culture NCTC Clone 929 from ATCC. The IC50% of resveratrol was about 50 M/L. The DL50 of gamma radiation showed a value of about 354 Gy. On the basis of these biological results, it was performed studies of radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the same experimental conditions, verifying that the resveratrol in concentrations between 12.5 M/L and 25 M/L showed a more pronounced radioprotective effect. (author)

  11. Radioprotective effectiveness of some zootoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernigorova, L.A.; Lebedev, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the effectiveness of a new class of radioprotective agents, polypeptides, obtained from zootoxins of scorpion, tarantula, Lathrodectes tredecimguttatus, and bee under conditions of a short-term and long-term irradiation. The peptide fraction of the sorption venom, butoxin, was most radioprotective: it provided 65% survival after LD 98/30 . Butoxin exerted a stimulatory effect on the hypophysis-adrenal system and haemopoiesis of intact and irradiated animals

  12. Guide for the evaluation of the implementation of radioprotection in an electricity production nuclear centre; Guide d'evaluation de la mise en oeuvre de la radioprotection sur un centre nucleaire de production d'electricite. Rapport n. 292

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the approach for the evaluation of the implementation of radioprotection in nuclear power plants. This approach encompasses six main themes: radioprotection customization, radioprotection steering quality, professional and contractor commitment, skill and efficiency of the Risk Prevention Department, radioprotection operational management, robustness of the transport system. Each theme comprises sub-themes which are assessed according to 2, 3 or 4 levels, the sum of which giving a mark out of 20 for the theme

  13. Mankind, radiations and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, Henri

    2015-10-01

    After a brief recall of the historic knowledge on natural radioactivity, of the first developments of nuclear medicine and of the emergence of a necessary regulation of the use of these radiations, the author first proposes an overview of the relationship between radioactivity and exposure: sources of natural irradiation, sources of natural origin but modified by technology (medical exposure, professional exposure). Then, the author recalls the origin of radioprotection rules: the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). He addresses the notion of dose with its different types: absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, specific case of internal exposure with the notion of engaged dose. He gives an overview of the effects of ionizing radiations: deterministic effects, global external irradiation, partial irradiations, and stochastic effects. The next part addresses the radiological protection system: scope of application, the three principles (justification, optimisation, and limitation), and dose limitations. Some matters of debate are reviewed: consequences of accidents of reactors, of Chernobyl and Fukushima (mortality by acute radiation syndrome, thyroid cancers, other cancers, leukaemia, non cancerous diseases, projections and conclusions after the Chernobyl accident), the notions of collective dose and of radio-toxicity, radio-induced cancers and genetic predisposition

  14. Radioprotection in the medical sector: a new quality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, S.

    2008-01-01

    The author describes how quality assurance is organized in the field of radioprotection in the Georges-Francois-Leclerc medical centre in Dijon. She also recalls how this organization has recently evolved because of legal but also technical and technological evolutions. She indicates the main attributions and missions of the radiation protection expert in this medical centre

  15. Standard 'Principle guides of radioprotection': introduced concepts and future forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnino, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main topics introduced by the new CNEN standard NE 3.01 - Basic Directrix of Radioprotection directly associated to the field work in industrial radiography are presented. It's showed a practical example which evidences the need of information exchange among the industrial security, radiological safety and quality control staffs for the continuity of works in this area. (author)

  16. Observing environmental change in of the Gulf of Maine: ICUC smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want to help collect data on environmental change in the Gulf of Maine with your smartphone? The Gulf of Maine Council’s EcoSystem Indicator Partnership (ESIP) is growing the community of citizen scientists in the Gulf of Maine region through its new smartphone app: ICUC (...

  17. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  18. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1989 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  19. Radioprotection and radar: practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepersack, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The author, on basis of his experience in radar-radioprotection, exposes the standard and security norms and recommendations to be applied for the preventive adapation of the work-areas as well as for the follow-up of the exposed workers. (author)

  20. Radioprotective effect of bread products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Vasileva, R.

    1993-01-01

    A new technology for preparation of bread for special purposes is developed. The technology includes the use of pectin as an additive with decontaminating properties. Pectin shows well pronounced radioprotective effect on the haemopoiesis when persons are subjected to external irradiation. However, bread with pectin have no decontaminating effect against radiostrontium and radiocesium. (author)

  1. 77 FR 41978 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, Maine; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. 2712-074; 2710-057] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, Maine; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's...

  2. Comparison between the Brazilian regulation of radioprotection and the recommendation of International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Py Junior, Delcy A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Mortagua, Valter Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to compare the Brasilian basic regulation on radiological protection with the new recommendations of ICRP through existent differences. The main difference between the publication 60 and the publication 103 of the ICRP is the changing of concept of protection based on the process by use of practice and intervention concepts, to the protection based on the exposure situation, through the concepts of planned exposure, emergency and existent situation. For adequacy to the Brazilian regulation it is necessary to change its concept of protection and the values of radiation weighing and tissues, up dating of radiation detriments, besides to make clear the concept of environmental radioprotection

  3. Influence factors analysis of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Bao, Jingling; Zou, Di; Shi, Fang

    2018-01-01

    According to the evaluation results of the water environment quality of main rivers in Tianjin in 1986-2015, this paper analyzed the current situation of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin retrospectively, established the index system and multiple factors analysis through selecting factors influencing the water environmental quality of main rivers from the economy, industry and nature aspects with the combination method of principal component analysis and linear regression. The results showed that water consumption, sewage discharge and water resources were the main factors influencing the pollution of main rivers. Therefore, optimizing the utilization of water resources, improving utilization efficiency and reducing effluent discharge are important measures to reduce the pollution of surface water environment.

  4. Chemical radioprotection: current data and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentenac-Roumanou, H.; Fatome, M.

    1978-01-01

    Since discovery, between 1951 and 1955, of the classical radioprotective agents cysteamine, serotonin and A.E.T., synthesis of more active molecules, long acting polymers and compounds active when orally administered, have been performed, especially during the last decade. On the other hand, extensive investigations on mechanism of action of radioprotective agents and particularly discovery of the essential role displayed by protection of the central nervous system of mammals allowed a marked improvement of concepts in the field of chemical radioprotection [fr

  5. Hibernation for space travel: Impact on radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Matteo; Tinganelli, Walter; Negrini, Matteo; Helm, Alexander; Scifoni, Emanuele; Tommasino, Francesco; Sioli, Maximiliano; Zoccoli, Antonio; Durante, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity used by some animals to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The idea of exploiting hibernation for space exploration has been proposed many years ago, but in recent years it is becoming more realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals. In addition to the expected advantages in long-term exploratory-class missions in terms of resource consumptions, aging, and psychology, hibernation may provide protection from cosmic radiation damage to the crew. Data from over half century ago in animal models suggest indeed that radiation effects are reduced during hibernation. We will review the mechanisms of increased radioprotection in hibernation, and discuss possible impact on human space exploration.

  6. Radioprotective effect of edible herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Genbo; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1992-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in the plasma also were increased. (4) The activity of SOD (superoxide dimutase) was risen. (5) the edible herbs have the function to protect the structure of organs of thymus and testes

  7. Environmental radioactivity measurement. Ispra 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Risposi, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1990 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are give on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, HTO and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  8. Proceedings of the 9. meeting of radioprotection skill persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaye, Thierry; Vallet, Jeremie; Michel, Nicolas; Saad, Nawal; Benzakri, Adil; Gauron, C.; Prevot, Sylviane; Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Mahu, Marjolaine; Tenailleau, Lionel; Pigree, G.; Lemarchand, M.; Barbey, P.; Hery, Michel; Scanff, Pascale; Reuter, Celine; Hoorelbeke, Agnes; Lefaure, Christian; Entine, F.; Dody, C.; Gagna, G.; Michel, X.; Cazoulat, A.; Amabile, J.C.; Winizuk, E.; Baccialone, J.; Renault, Catherine; Rodde, Sylvie; Rousse, Carole; Delisle, Sophie; Karmouche, Kaouthar; Moyon, Jean-Baptiste; Gabrillargues, Jean; Chabert, Emmanuel; Jean, Betty; Guersen, Joel; Boyer, Louis; Cassagnes, Lucie; Rosec, Maeva; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Celier, David; Etard, Cecile; Bassinet, Celine; Coutin, Frederic; Clauss, Nicolas; Mertz, L.; Gangi, Afshjn; Bing, F.; Garnon, J.; Thenint, M.A.; Enescu, I.; Tsoumakidou, G.; Cortet, Laetitia; Quirins, Charles; Craveiro, Nathalie; Philippe, SANS; Giordan, Denis; Chanal, Sandrine; Cojan, Aurelie; Rigaud, Sylvie; Monsanglant-Louvet, Celine; Osmond, Melanie; Jeanjacques, Caroline; Sevestre, Bernard; Barbette, Frederic; Allenet Le Page, Benedicte

    2014-11-01

    During these 2 days of conference, an update was given regarding: the recent or coming soon French regulatory texts, the advances of 2 softwares used by the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) for national inventory of radiation sources and for the monitoring of personnel dosimetry, the reports in progress of working groups (sources, dosimetry), the progress and transposition of the Euratom 2013/59 directive which directly concerns the radioprotection skill persons and which will be enforced in member states by February 6, 2018. Practical aspects and experience feedbacks have been presented by participants as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Current regulations in radioprotection of workers exposed to ionizing radiations (T. Lahaye); 2 - Changes in the classified facilities nomenclature (J. Vallet); 3 - Transposition works for the 2013/59/Euratom directive dealing with basic radioprotection standards (N. Saad, J. Vallet, T. Lahaye); 4 - 50 years anniversary of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP); 5 - Working group on personnel radiological monitoring: progress of works (P. Barbey); 6 - What about the internal exposure contribution to the efficient dose in nuclear medicine? (S. Prevot); 7 - Environmental monitoring of workplaces subject to tritium exposure risk (L. Tenailleau); 8 - Radon: example of radioprotection skill persons involvement in corrective actions, the case of the university technology institute of Vire - Calvados (G. Pigree); 9 - Unique document, prevention plan: a continuous risk assessment approach (M. Hery); 10 - 2014 evolutions of the SISERI System - first experience feedback (P. Scanff); 11 - Evolution of registration rules for radioactive sources in the national inventory using the SIGIS Internet platform (C. Reuter); 12 - Radioprotection skill person networks, radioprotection actors

  9. Peculiarities of the radioprotective effect of antioxidants during gamma irradiation of wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, U.Sh.

    1988-01-01

    Bioantioxidant radioprotective action mechanism was studied using wheat seeds. Cobalt-60 was used as radiation source, phenosane potassium salt in aqueous solution in 0.1 and 0.25% concentrations possessing the maximum radioprotective effect - as an antioxidant. Dry seeds irradiated with 100 Gy dose were treated with fresh antioxidant solutions during 20 hours with 0.2, 4.6 an 8 hour interval at room temperature. The number of cells with aberrations at the anaphase stage in the main root apical meristem were counted in germinated seeds. A high radioprotective effect of phenosane antioxidant which represents space-complicated phenols is ascertained. Radioprotective effect is dependent on time interval between seed irradaition and germination and is maximal when this time makes up 4-8 hours

  10. Occupational radioprotection in the cyclotron laboratory radioisotope production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Teixeira, M.V.; Santos, I.H.T.; Pujol Filho, S.V.

    1990-07-01

    The Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is operated mainly for radioisotope production, neutron production studies and irradiation damage analysis. The risks associated to the activities developed in these laboratories are exposition to beta, neutron and gama radiation and contamination. The radioprotection program adapted are presented briefly and the results of the air and surface contamination analysis, liquid efluents and dose equivalent of the workers in 1988 are shown. (author) [pt

  11. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaultier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  12. Communicating Environmental Risks: Local Newspaper Coverage of Shellfish Bacterial Contamination in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Suldovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal resources play a vital role in Maine’s cultural and economic wellbeing, contributing an estimated 168 billion dollars to the Maine economy. There are numerous risks to the sustainability of Maine’s shellfishing industry and working waterfront, including pathogenic bacterial pollution. In this study, we ask a broad fundamental question central to science and environmental journalism: how do newspapers cover localized environmental risks and what are the implications of those approaches? Utilizing the northeastern US state of Maine’s shellfishing industry as an exemplar environmental issue, this study examines how Maine’s two most read newspapers, the Bangor Daily News and the Portland Press Herald, report on bacterial contamination and shellfish. This study examines the themes that are present in the newspaper articles published about shellfish between 2003 and 2014 and analyses the types of sources journalists used within their coverage of these issues. Overall, we identified seven key themes: economic concerns, environmental impacts, political and regulatory issues, issues of public health and safety, reference to cultural values, technical and infrastructural issues, and aesthetic concerns. The most commonly cited individuals in the articles were government officials and scientists. The least cited groups were clammers and shellfishermen, general citizens, advocacy groups, and worm diggers. Implications for local coverage of environmental risks in Maine, science communication, and sustainability science are discussed.

  13. Radioprotective effect of the pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Zhu Gengbo; Huang Meiying; Yin Zhiwei; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1990-10-01

    The radioprotective injury effect of pollen in animals was studied. Research came to the conclusion that: (1) the acute death rate of animals is decreased by the pollen; (2) the peripheral leukocytes and spleen-B-lymph cells of animals are increased by the pollen; (3) the activity of superoxide dimutase (SOD) in the erythrocytes of animals is increased by the pollen; (4) the pollen has the function of protecting the structure of the organs of thymus and testes and so on; (5) the plasma hydroxyproline of animals is remarkably decreased by the pollen

  14. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  15. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    OpenAIRE

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  16. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  17. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  18. Mechanisms of radioprotection - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    Theories of radiation protection can be considered at both the molecular and biochemical-physiological levels. Four molecular level protection hypotheses, radical scavenging, hydrogen transfer reactions, the mixed disulfide hypothesis and the endogenous non-protein sulfhydryl hypothesis, probably describe different aspects of the actual protection mechanism, although each has inconsistencies. At the biochemical-physiological level, hypothermia induction and biochemical shock may be involved in protection of the organism against radiation induced damage and death. It is most likely that no single mechanism can account for the protection offered by a radioprotective drug. Certain compounds may operate primarily by means of physiological effects resulting in hypoxia or hypothermia in critical tissues. Others may operate primarily by influencing the intrinsic radiosensitivity of target molecules by causing localized radical scavenging or by donating a hydrogen atom. Metabolic effects such as biochemical shock, release of endogenous non-protein sulfhydryls, induction of structural changes in target molecules or delay in DNA synthesis and cell division are also possible mechanisms for radioprotection. (author)

  19. 78 FR 29120 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Main Operating Base 2 (MOB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Main... to advise the public of their intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Main... Main St., New Egypt, New Jersey. Tuesday, June 4, Township of Moon Municipal Building, 1000 Beaver...

  20. Effects of radioprotective agents on mammal cella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.; Pauly, H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aminothiols and thiophosphates on cultures of B14 Chinese Hamster cells wee investigated. 30 min before irradiation, the cells were covered with a solution of the radioprotective agent. After irradiation, this solution was removed and substituted by culture medium. The radioprotective effect increases with increasing cystamine concentrations. With a cystamine concentration of 60 mM, a dose reduction factor of 3 was achieved. Further investigations showed that already after 2 min of incubation, the radioprotective effect in the same as after 60 min. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Radioprotective effect of vitamins C and E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahas, S.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Mattar, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    Albino rats were treated with aqueous vitamin C solution and vitamin E solution dissolved in olive oil at two concentrations, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, for 6 months. Some of the animals where then subjected to whole-body irradiation. Chromosomal aberrations and mitotic activity in non-irradiated and irradiated groups were recorded. Both vitamins were found to be non-mutagenic. Vitamin C exerted a radioprotective effect but vitamin E was not radioprotective and it suppressed the radioprotection otherwise produced by olive oil. (author). 31 refs., 2 figs

  2. Radioprotection of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abela, G.; Bonaventure, P.; Jupin, L.; Truchi, F.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic Portable Dosimeters fitted with audible alarm, optimised allowable dose equivalent flow limits within marked off areas. A specific risk assessment is always carried out on EDF sites, its result is represented by the 'Licence of g-ray inspection'. Management of radioactive sources, Development of new gauges and displays. Conclusions: the identified areas of progress are mainly: Improved planning of these inspection activities within the industrial projects. Setting up a Q.A. process for planning and risk assessment prior to g-ray inspections, sharing of information among all staff present on the installation during g-ray inspection activities, improvement and formalization of exchanges between EDF and the contractor, and improvement of worker training

  3. Order n.02-059 /P-RM of 05 juin 2002 setting up radioprotection et safety of ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This order establishes the legal framework of radioprotection and safety of ionizing radiation sources in Mali. The scope as well as the definition of some main terms are given. The basis principles of radioprotection against ionizing radiation sources are defined. Instructions in uses of ionizing radiations, penal provisions are outlined

  4. Measurements of environmental radioactivity, Ispra 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1988 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  5. The importance of radioprotection controls in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sanches, M.P.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    In nuclear medicine the main objective of radioprotection controls is to protect three people groups from external and internal radiation. To obtain this goal, the dose limitation system has to be followed firmly and for that, basic procedures have to be introduced. These basic procedures are the result of several activities which have to be balanced, one against the other to be effective. The aims of radioprotection are to ensure that people are not exposed to doses enough to cause radiation symptoms and to limit the doses of radiation. This is achieved by the use of shielding, containment, careful design and operating and administrative procedures. This paper presents a small list of general radioprotection problems found in nuclear medicine and establishes some rules to the job schedule and control measures to be followed in favor of safety. By considering the general radioprotection problems, a number of factors of substantial relevance in the control of external and internal doses can be deduced and emphasis properly placed. Work with radioactive material should be concentrated on a limited number of work rooms. Good radioactive materials inventory are essential because of the potentially large diversity of material and users. Storage of radioactive materials ensure that the public is not unnecessarily exposed. Appropriate monitoring equipment should be available within each working site. Line management commitment to safety has led to a heightened awareness for those control measures which encourages individuals to review and improve their own work rules. Investment in training programs, plant modifications and written procedures provide the necessary resource to support the dose reduction initiatives

  6. WHY RESTAURANTS SHOULD GO GREEN? – MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN RESTAURANTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-Dragos CÎRSTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality businesses influence the sustainability of their natural environment by consuming significant amounts of natural resources. Restaurant industry employs one in every three retail workers and consumes one-third of all retail electricity use and almost 30% of all meals were eaten away from home, last year. This study attempted to identify the most important benefits obtained from green practices implementation and which are the basic environmental practices that can be adopted by the organisations in order the improve their image and reduce their costs. Moreover, our research has been undertaken in parallel with worldwide existing trends in order to better understand the direction in which green restaurants are moving. This study results inventories the main environmental practices and actions that can be implemented in restaurants.

  7. Trigger factors mainly from the environmental type are reported by adolescents with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dalla Bernardina Fraga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Migraine can be triggered by many factors such as stress, sleep, fasting and environmental causes. There are few studies that evaluated migraine trigger factors in the adolescent population. Methods: A total of 100 participants from 10 to 19 years were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire, with demographic and clinical data, and a headache diary including trigger factors during a two-month period was asked. Results: Fifty of the participants exhibited chronic migraine and the other 50 participants demonstrated episodic migraine. The most common group of trigger factors reported was the environmental one, mainly sun/clarity, followed by hot weather and the smell of perfume. Conclusions: Ninety-one percent of children and adolescents with migraine reported a trigger factor precipitating the migraine attack.

  8. The use of radioprotective indicators in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Schmidt, Margot F.S.

    1996-01-01

    Radioprotection indicators are proposed as per the World Health Organization guide-lines, in order to establish policies as well as to show the development and identified new operational strategic in radiological protection

  9. Radioprotection of the patient in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Maria del R.

    2004-01-01

    The following topics are developed: concepts on radioprotection; stochastic and deterministic effects; the prenatal irradiation; different types of radiation exposition (medical, occupational and public irradiation); and the justification of the levels of radiation

  10. Prospective of clinical drugs for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alok, Amit; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Arun; Chaudhury, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    We are living in an era of nuclear power where power derived from nuclear reaction is used for power generation as well as for nuclear weapons. The terrorism and the threat of dirty bombs looms around the civilized population. Therefore, there is a need to develop radioprotector which could prevent against the harmful effect of radiation. The research on radioprotector started more than fifty years ago but still there is no approved radioprotector in the drug market. Hundreds of lead molecule have been screened and have shown varying amount of radioprotection either in vitro or in vivo or in both. Only one drug amifostine was approved by FDA but due to its toxicity in head and neck cancer, this drug is no more in use. Antioxidants too have proven to be a potential radioprotector but the dose required for radioprotection is too high for maintenance of homeostasis in physiological system. We have taken an alternative approach of using clinical drugs like diclofenac and tetracycline for development of approach for radioprotection and reported the radioprotective role of diclofenac. The advantage of using clinical drug is its wide availability in the market and the ease with which it could be channelized for radioprotection. Antiradical assays have demonstrated possible use of tetracycline for radioprotection. Tetracycline has also ability to reduce oxidative damages ex vivo. Studies related to comet assay as well as antioxidant assays in different organs are in progress for designing further work for efficacy and elucidation of mechanisms. (author)

  11. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation; Poste de supervision radioprotection viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaultier, E. [APVL Ingenierie- 6, bd Nobel - Equatop La Rabelais - 37540 Saint Cyr sur Loire (France)

    2009-07-01

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  12. Performance of the Radioprotection Engineering Group in the new structure of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between the old and now CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) organizational structure was performed. The new structure lead to a new IPEN (Nuclear and Energetics Research Institute) organization and also to gave use to a Radioprotection Engineering Area, The principal modification raised a second block already in accomplishment. The main aim of the Radioprotection Engineering Area is to turn personnel team interested, concerned, dexterous, dynamic and competitive on their activities besides to provide it of a continuously improvement and updating about technical activities in radiation protection. From these results an evaluation of possible drawbacks and ways to overcome them will be performed. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the Fourth Session of Radioprotection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Radiology Argentine Society and the Radioprotection Argentine Society have organized the 4. Session of the Protection to the Patient, in order to inform to the technical and scientific community about the scopes of the radioprotection to the patient. The principal treated topics were the following: effects of the radiation in radiodiagnostic; radioprotection of the fetus and the pregnancy woman; radioprotection in dental radiology; radiological protection in TAC; radiation doses in radiodiagnostic; treatment of radiation injuries; fatal accidents in radiotherapy. [es

  14. The radioprotection of the patient in the Italian regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A. A.; Delia, R.; Moccaldi, A.; Campanella, F.

    2002-01-01

    The regulation in order to the radioprotection of the patient was firstly issued in Italy in the 1995. This regulation was a specific part of a more general law on the radiation protection of the workers, public and environment. After, in the year 2000, a specific law regulates the use of ionizing radiation in the medical field, in relation to patient's protection and safety. This law is based on the main principles of the justification and of the optimization of the exposure. The application of the law involves many different professional roles, which all together provide to ensure the respect of the previous principles and the radioprotection of the patients. The above professional figures are: the manager of the medical laboratory, the person in charge of the section, the specialist medical doctor (responsible of the radiological practice), the health physicist and the radiological technician. In the present paper, the Authors show the basic rules of the radioprotection regulation, focusing the attention on the different roles of all involved people, in the all kinds of the radiological practices. The proper application of the law allows the respect of the principle of the dose limitation, through either technical, or physical or medical methodologies. The examination of the Italian experience in this field could be an useful contribution to the improvement of the problem of the patient's radiation protection, taken also into account that the absorbed doses from the patients, for medical purposes, are those ones, which mainly contribute to the computation of the mean level of the dose in every Country

  15. Environmental policy plans in comparison. Main focus: emission; Umweltplaene im Vergleich. Schwerpunkt: Emissionen/Immissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochte-Clemens, B.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2000-07-01

    This study compares the environmental policy plans of the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, New Zealand, South-Korea and Switzerland as well as the draft of an ecopolitical programme of selective problems and measures established in 1998 by Angela Merkel, former Minister of the Environment. In this connection the main focus is on the one hand on the comparison of the reduction objectives referring to emissions of substances and on the other hand on the measures suggested in order to achieve these objectives. In addition, the report contains a summary of the EU-environmental plan as well as an insight into the draft of an environmental plan of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The top priority of the environment policy plans is the problem area 'climate change' followed by 'transport and traffic' and 'biodiversity and conservation'. For a big part, the quality of the plan's basic objectives and measures are similar. There are differences in the ideas about time and quantity concerning specific target values in order to reach an emission reduction of the individual substances. In the environmental policy plans 92 different substances in total are brought up in the discussion. Most of them are specified in the environmental policy plan of the Netherlands and in the German draft, and also in Austria's environmental plan. The environmental aims and the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (minimisation of the greenhouse effect), ozone layer-destroying substances (problems of CFC), sulphur dioxide (acidification, eutrophication), nitrogen oxide (acidification, ozone precursor), volatile organic compounds (VOC) (ozone precursor), nitrogen and phosphor discharge into the soil and water (eutrophication) as well as proposals for measures in the traffic and transport sector are compared with each other. The Dutch plan includes almost thoroughly quantitative specifications respectively precise temporal stipulations. Such detailed information is only given

  16. Radioprotection program to attend of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1989-04-01

    The aspects of a radioprotection program to be implanted in hospitals to cases of medical treatment to external and internal contamined people are presented. It is based in the experience acquired in the coordination of radioprotection of the Marcilio Dias Naval Medical Center, Rio de Janeiro, due to accident happened in Goiania in 1987. The infra-structure necessary of a ward and the procedures of radioprotection to acess control, entrance and way out of material area and patients monitoring, decontamination and the activities in the support area such as the control and maintenance of detection equipments and radioactive waste management are described. The radiologic protection materials necessaries and the quantity of radioactive waste generated by patient for day are estimated. (V.R.B.)

  17. Computerized techniques for collecting the radioprotection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenusa, V.; Valeca, S.; Guta, C.; Talpalariu, C.; Stoica, V.

    2016-01-01

    An important component of a computerized radioprotection system is the module for the collection of the radioprotection data. The data collection can be made automatically from the measurement equipment or manually by the operators after they read the values measured by the mobile devices. Database systems are used for storing the data, they offer higher performances, more efficient data organization, ensure data integrity and controlled access to the data into a multiuser environment. The experimental program for the automatic collection of the remote data transfers periodically, at programmable time intervals, data files from the fixed radiation monitoring stations to a centralized system for radioprotection data. For this is used the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). A Radiation Monitoring Equipment designed and assembled in the Electronics Department of ICN Pitesti was used as a data source for the testing of the experimental programs. (authors)

  18. Study and Search for Main Reason of Lung Cancers Based on Cherenkov Radiation in Environmental Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Emoto, Yusaku; Fujihara, Kento; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Shota; Kodama, Satoshi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    The number of lung-cancer-related death is highest among all cancers in the world, and it is increasing in Japan where population aging in progressing. The main reason for the lung cancer of non-smokers is regarded to be environmental pollution or exposure of the lung to radon in the nature. The risk of lung cancer was estimated to increase by 8 to 13% per every 100 Bq m-3 concentration of radon in the air. We observed beta rays with maximum energy of 3.27 MeV emitted from 214Bi as one of the progenies based on a detection of Cherenkov radiation. The surface radioactivity concentration of 214Bi on the sample was measured; the relation between the concentration and exposure time for the sample at the room air is researched. The behavior of the radon progenies in the air is discussed by a research for the progenies attaching on the sample after the radon decay. The inhalation of the radon progenies is not clear. Thus, to understand the behavior of progenies in the air make to clear the causal relation between the radon concentration and lung cancers.

  19. On the problem of radioprotective foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The authors claim that purposely created food with anti-radiation effect (radioprotective food) is of no use for the Kozloduy NPP workers. Their reason is that internal radiation doses represent only 14-24% of the total dose while in cases with the highest content of radionuclides the activity is less than 10% of the annual intake limits. Measures to protect the respiratory tract are recommended instead. Radioprotective food can be used not only for protection of the population in case of accidents but also for disease treatment, rehabilitation and prophylactics. 11 refs

  20. On the problem of radioprotective foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiradzhiev, G; Paskalev, Z [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The authors claim that purposely created food with anti-radiation effect (radioprotective food) is of no use for the Kozloduy NPP workers. Their reason is that internal radiation doses represent only 14-24% of the total dose while in cases with the highest content of radionuclides the activity is less than 10% of the annual intake limits. Measures to protect the respiratory tract are recommended instead. Radioprotective food can be used not only for protection of the population in case of accidents but also for disease treatment, rehabilitation and prophylactics. 11 refs.

  1. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  2. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay

  3. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, H.

    1991-03-01

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  4. Radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.L.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Patchen, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has long been known to possess radioprotective properties. Nevertheless, the toxicity of LPS, or its principal bioactive component, Lipid A, has detracted from its potential use as a radioprotectant. Recently, a relatively non-toxic monophosphoryl Lipid A that retains many of the immunobiological properties of native LPS has been prepared from a polyaccharide-deficient and heptoseless Re mutant strain of S. minnesota. The authors conducted experiments that evaluated and compared the radioprotective efficiency of native endotoxin, as well as the mono (detoxified) and diphosphoryl (toxic) forms of Lipid A, in both responder (CD2F1 and C3H/HeN) and non-responder (C3H/HeJ) mice. It has been found that the optimal dose for the mono- and diphosphoryl Lipid A are approximately the same (800 μg/kg in CD2F1 mice), and that both compounds provide maximum protection when administered 24 h before exposure to an LD100 dose of cobalt - 60 gamma radiation. Possible mechanisms for the radioprotective action of detoxified Lipid A are suggested

  5. Use of herbal medicine for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    There are primarily three ways to achieve radio-protection in biological systems that have been exposed to ionizing radiation. The first is by changing the environment by physical or chemical means, or physical protection. The second is by chemical alternation of the site of radiation injury, or chemical protection. The third is by biological alternation to decrease the extent of the radiation injury

  6. Household environmental monitoring project, volume I : main report, volume 2 : appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Goemans, M.; Goemans, P.C.; Wisniowski, A. [Jane Thompson Architect, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fugler, D. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Environmentally sustainable behaviour can be motivated by providing homeowners with a clear picture of their environmental impact, tangible reasons for improvement, and tailored solutions. This report presented the results of a study that established a study group of 20 households in an 85-year old community near downtown Ottawa, Ontario to test the above hypothesis. Each household completed surveys about environmental attitudes and household practices. Each household also tracked home heating, electricity and water consumption, and vehicle usage and waste generation over a monitoring period of one week. This report described the study in detail and presented the research plan and methods. It provided a review of related literature, including motivational techniques for encouraging sustainable behaviour; environmental monitoring tools including design tools, global impact assessment tools, federal environmental reduction tools and strategies; analyses of environmentally sustainable projects; and resource conservation techniques and manuals. The report also discussed the selection of the study group; development of monitoring method and forms; household monitoring; household assessment and reporting; community initiatives; and assessment of following year results. It was concluded that the research technique successfully produced reductions in environmental impact among the study group. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide; Maine Supplement, Revised February 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    .... The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations...

  8. Main types of environmental pollution the contributory causes, the effects on environment and the suggested remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the main types of environmental pollution, the contributory causes, the effects on environment and suggested remedial measures have been described. The fundamental types of environmental pollution are land pollution, water pollution and air pollution. Many artificial and natural factors contribute towards land pollution. Several remedial measures have suggested in this article, some of them are provision of clean water by municipal agencies, toxic wastes or nuclear wastes should not disposed off in the sea. (A.B.)

  9. Genetic predisposition and implications for radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian [University Clinics, Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    retinoblastoma who did not have a genetic predisposition. Mainly osteoblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma were observed in the former radiation field. From these date it must be concluded that such effects also occur in the low dose range. Individuals with the extreme radiosensitivity (dose modifying factor, DMG, of around 5) are rare, but there are individuals with a DMF of around 1.5 to 2 who are more frequent. Therefore it has to be discussed whether the individual variability of radiosensitivity must also be considered for radioprotection by special dose limits or other regulations. (author)

  10. Genetic predisposition and implications for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    2000-01-01

    retinoblastoma who did not have a genetic predisposition. Mainly osteoblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma were observed in the former radiation field. From these date it must be concluded that such effects also occur in the low dose range. Individuals with the extreme radiosensitivity (dose modifying factor, DMG, of around 5) are rare, but there are individuals with a DMF of around 1.5 to 2 who are more frequent. Therefore it has to be discussed whether the individual variability of radiosensitivity must also be considered for radioprotection by special dose limits or other regulations. (author)

  11. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs

  12. Comparison between the Brazilian regulation of radioprotection and the recommendation of International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007; Comparacao entre a norma brasileira de radioprotecao e a recomendacao da International Commission on Radiological Protection publicadas em 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Py Junior, Delcy A.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Oliveira, Sergio Q. de, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Mortagua, Valter Jose, E-mail: Valter@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (USIN/INB), SP (Brazil). Usina de Interlagos

    2011-10-26

    This paper intends to compare the Brasilian basic regulation on radiological protection with the new recommendations of ICRP through existent differences. The main difference between the publication 60 and the publication 103 of the ICRP is the changing of concept of protection based on the process by use of practice and intervention concepts, to the protection based on the exposure situation, through the concepts of planned exposure, emergency and existent situation. For adequacy to the Brazilian regulation it is necessary to change its concept of protection and the values of radiation weighing and tissues, up dating of radiation detriments, besides to make clear the concept of environmental radioprotection

  13. Study on Environmental Fiscal Reform Potential in 14 EU Member States: Main Report & Appendices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Elliott, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Environment Agency between 2010 and 2013 on the potential for environmental fiscal reform in four EU Member States affected by the economic crisis. As with the last study for the European Commission, the intention of this study is to indicate where this potential may lie, and to demonstrate the order...

  14. Incoherences of Brazilian labour laws face to present radioprotection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian labour legislation establishes, since 1950, some privileges for people working in activities which imply exposure to ionizing radiations. Comparing the present legal framework with technical radioprotection knowledge, one can detect several incoherences covering: classification of such activities; additional payments; reduced labour journey; more vacations; medical surveillance; early retirements; special norms for women. An analysis of these incoherences lead us to propose a new frame of labour rights and radioprotection norms, coupling Brazilian juridical principles and modern radioprotection knowledge. (author)

  15. Current topics and perspectives in the field of radioprotective compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentenac-Roumanou, H.; Fatome, M.

    1978-01-01

    Since discovery, between 1951 and 1955, of the classical radioprotective agents cysteamine, serotonin and A.E.T., synthesis of more active molecules, long acting polymers and compounds active when orally administered, have been performed, especially during the last decade. On the other hand, extensive investigations on mechanism of action of radioprotective agents and particularly discovery of the essential role displayed by protection of the central nervous system of mammals allowed a marked improvement of concepts in the field of chemical radioprotection [fr

  16. Radioprotective effect of catecholamines on the cultured Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkov, Yu.Yu.; Malatsidze, M.A.; Sobolev, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    On cultivated in vitro Chinese hamster fibroblasts radioprotective properties of adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoproterenol in different concentrations are studied. Isoproterenol radiopreventive effect is clearly manifested with its concentration being 1x10 -8 M; adrenaline and noradrenaline are efficient in higher concentrations. Propranolol, blocking β-adrenergic receptors, completely presents radioprotective effect of catecholamines on the cells. β-adrenergic mechanism of catecholamine radioprotective effect on Mammalia cells is discussed

  17. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  18. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of `As Low As Reasonably Achievable` would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  19. Radioprotective effectiveness of Adeturone incapsulated in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, T.

    1989-01-01

    The radioprotective properties of the radioprotector Adeturone incapsulated in mono- and tricomponent liposomes were studied. Intraperitoneal administration of the radioprotector by means of monocomponent liposomes from egg lecithin, as well as its applicaton alone immediately (15-30 min) before irradiation of mice with 7,5 Gy gamma-quanta (LD 100/30 ) guaranteed high survival -80% and 75% accordingly. Orally introduced Adeturone, incapsulated in tricomponent liposomes (dipalmitoil lecithin, cholesterol, stearinamine - 7:2:1), protected for 0,5 to 4,5 hours lethally X-irradiated mice (7,8 Gy; LD 90/30 ). Under these conditions, Adeturone applied alone 4,5 hours before irradiation was ineffective. These results show the presence of prolonged radioprotective effect of Adeturone, when orally applied in the form of liposomal suspension. 2 tabs., 17 refs

  20. Radioprotective effectiveness of Adeturone, incapsulated in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, T.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective properties of Adeturone (S,2-aminoethyl isothiuronic adenosine-5-triphosphate), incapsulated in mono- and tricomponent lisosomes was studied. Intraperitoneal adminisration of the radioprotector by means of monocomponent liposomes from egg lecithins, as well as of the radioprotector alone shortly before (15-30 min) gamma irradiation of mice with 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 ) provided high survival rate - accordingly 80% and 75%. Orally administered Adeturone incapsulated in tricomponent liposomes (dipalmitoil-DL-3-lecithin:cholesterine:stearilamine - 7:2:1) protected mice exposed to lethal X-irradiation (7.8 Gy, LD 90/30 ) for 0.5 to 4.5 hours. Adeturone, applied alone under these conditions 4.5 hours before irradiation, was ineffective. The results clearly demonstrated a prolonged radioprotective effect of Adeturone, administered per os as liposome suspension. 2 tabs., 17 refs

  1. Analysis of interleukin 1 mediated radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manori, I.; Kushilevsky, A.; Weinstein, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The potential value of interleukin 1(IL-1) containing supernatants as a radioprotective agent was evaluated. It was found that the response of irradiated thymocytes to mitogens was partially restored if IL-1 containing supernatants was included in the culture medium immediately after irradiation. A delay of 24 h in the addition of IL-1 and mitogen abrogated the radioprotection effect. Under the same conditions IL-2 containing supernatants were effective, suggesting that the dose modifying effect of IL-1 acts through induction of IL-2 elaboration. The results of the present study may be important in cases where it is necessary to restore depressed immune response resulting from irradiation accidents or radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Survey on radioprotective attention in the nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayamori, Ryo; Satoh, Shizuma; Sakai, Kunio; Kitabatake, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Yoki

    1978-01-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 2965 nurses and practical nurses in 37 institutions in Niigata prefecture in April, 1977, and the degree of radioprotective knowledge and attention in the nurses were investigated. Answers in 2205 cases were effective. The mean rate of those who answered that they knew International Committee of Radiation Protection and the permissible dose in the abdomen of female who had a possibility to be pregnant and hereditary (significant) dose was 22.2%. Out of the nurses working in the institutions dealing with radiation, the rate of those who wore film-badge was 15.7%, and that of those who received special health examinations was 1.39%. 654 nurses answered that it was better to fix the nurses in the institutions dealing with radiation. An actual condition of radioprotective education in nurse education was analysed, and private opinions on its future direction were described. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Survey on radioprotective attention in the nurses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayamori, R; Satoh, S; Sakai, K; Kitabatake, T; Yoshizawa, Y [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 2965 nurses and practical nurses in 37 institutions in Niigata prefecture in April, 1977, and the degree of radioprotective knowledge and attention in the nurses were investigated. Answers in 2205 cases were effective. The mean rate of those who answered that they knew International Committee of Radiation Protection and the permissible dose in the abdomen of female who had a possibility to be pregnant and hereditary (significant) dose was 22.2%. Out of the nurses working in the institutions dealing with radiation, the rate of those who wore film-badge was 15.7%, and that of those who received special health examinations was 1.39%. 654 nurses answered that it was better to fix the nurses in the institutions dealing with radiation. An actual condition of radioprotective education in nurse education was analysed, and private opinions on its future direction were described.

  4. From fundamental limits to radioprotection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, P.; Chassany, J.

    1980-01-01

    The individual dose limits fixed by present French legislation for different categories of people refer to dose equivalents received by or delivered to the whole body or to certain tissues or organs over given periods of time. The values concerning personnel engaged directly in work under radiations are summed up in a table. These are the limits which radioprotection authorities must impose, while ensuring that exposure levels are kept as low as possible. With the means available in practical radioprotection it is not possible to measure dose equivalents directly, but information may be obtained on dose rates, absorbed doses, particle fluxes, activities per unit volume and per surface area. An interpretation of these measurements is necessary if an efficient supervision of worker exposure is to be achieved [fr

  5. Radioprotective effect of the β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Gengbo; Yin Zhiwei; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1991-09-01

    The radioprotective effect of β-carotene was studied in animals. The results showed: 1) The chronic death rate decreased; 2) The peripheral leukocytes and spleen-B-Lymph cells increased; 3) The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood increased; 4) The β-carotene has the function of protecting the structure of the organs of thymus and testes; 5) The free asparagine (Asn) in the plasma increased and proline decreased

  6. Cytotoxic and radioprotective effects of Podophyllum hexandrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Prem Kumar, Indracanti; Afrin, Farhat; Puri, Satish Chandra; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2006-07-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, a herb thriving in Himalayas has already been reported to exhibit antitumor and radioprotective properties. Present study was undertaken to unravel the possible mechanism responsible for the cytotoxic and radioprotective properties of REC-2001, a fraction isolated from the rhizome of P. hexandrum using murine peritoneal macrophages and plasmid DNA as model systems. Cell death, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were studied employing trypan blue exclusion assay, dichlorofluorescein diacetate and DNA fragmentation assay, respectively. Superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals and DNA damage were estimated following nitroblue tetrazolium, 2-deoxyribose degradation and plasmid DNA relaxation assays, respectively. Pre-irradiation administration of REC-2001 to peritoneal macrophages in the concentration range of 25-200μg/ml significantly reduced radiation induced ROS generation, DNA damage, apoptosis and cell killing in comparison to radiation control group indicating radioprotective potential. Studies with plasmid DNA indicated the ability of REC-2001 to inhibit 20Gy induced single and double strand breaks further supporting the antioxidative potential. However, REC-2001 in a dose-dependent fashion induced cell death, ROS and DNA fragmentation indicating the cytotoxic nature. REC-2001, in presence of 100μM copper sulfate, generated significant amount of hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions indicating ability to act as a pro-oxidant in presence of metal ions. The superoxide anion generation was found to be sensitive to metal chelators like EDTA and deferoxamine mesylate (DFR). These results suggest that the ability of REC-2001 to act as a pro-oxidant in presence of metal ions and antioxidant in presence of free radicals might be responsible for cytotoxic and radioprotective properties.

  7. Viewls - Environmental and economic performance of biofuels. Vol. 1 - Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Lago, C.; Jungmeier, G.; Koenighofer, K.

    2005-04-01

    According to the European Directive 2003/30 'Promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport' the use of biofuels in the transportation sector should be strongly increased in the next decades in Europe. The purpose of this study was to obtain and present clear data and information to outline environmental and economic performance of different biofuels. Based on a standardised review of the most relevant international studies on transportation systems using biomass, the study presented estimation of ranges for the environmental and economic performance of different biofuels given by the two 'threshold values' and the 'reference value' between these threshold values. These results might be used by different stakeholders as an information source for future activities regarding the use of biofuels in the transportation sector in Europe. (BA)

  8. Viewls - Environmental and economic performance of biofuels. Vol. 1 - Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT (Spain); Jungmeier, G.; Koenighofer, K. [Joanneum Research (Austria)

    2005-04-15

    According to the European Directive 2003/30 'Promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport' the use of biofuels in the transportation sector should be strongly increased in the next decades in Europe. The purpose of this study was to obtain and present clear data and information to outline environmental and economic performance of different biofuels. Based on a standardised review of the most relevant international studies on transportation systems using biomass, the study presented estimation of ranges for the environmental and economic performance of different biofuels given by the two 'threshold values' and the 'reference value' between these threshold values. These results might be used by different stakeholders as an information source for future activities regarding the use of biofuels in the transportation sector in Europe. (BA)

  9. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  10. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Galy, J.; Leutzenkirchen, K.

    2004-01-01

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  11. The main environmental and social problems in China's large coal mine construction and the countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Hai-qing [State Environmental Protection Administration, Beijing (China). Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering

    2008-05-15

    Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, the number of China's large proposed coal mines has increased very quickly in recent years. 144 environmental impact assessment reports were submitted to SEPA during 2001 2006, so the problem of reconciling coal exploitation with the environmental and social impacts has become urgent in China's sustainable development strategy. Based on analysis of data on coal mine exploitation, it is pointed out that there are four main problems in the management of the coal sector: the SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) lags behind the practical needs; the policy is not clear; migration is neglected; and an ecological compensatory mechanism is absent. Four countermeasures are recommended: accelerating the execution of SEA; compartmentalizing typical zones for environmental management; improving the organisation of resettlement in the coal district; and installing an ecological compensatory mechanism in the coal mining industry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Glucan: mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patchen, M.L.; D'Alesandro, M.M.; Brook, I.; Blakely, W.F.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    It has generally been accepted that most biologically derived agents that are radioprotective in the hemopoietic-syndrome dose range (eg, endotoxin, Bacillus Calmette Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum, etc) exert their beneficial properties by enhancing hemopoietic recovery and hence, by regenerating the host's ability to resist life-threatening opportunistic infections. However, using glucan as a hemopoietic stimulant/radioprotectant, we have demonstrated that host resistance to opportunistic infection is enhanced in these mice even prior to the detection of significant hemopoietic regeneration. This early enhanced resistance to microbial invasion in glucan-treated irradiated mice could be correlated with enhanced and/or prolonged macrophage (but not granulocyte) function. These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic recovery. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that glucan can also function as an effective free-radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize and sequester glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan's scavenging ability is also suggested

  13. Radioprotection rayonnements, dosimétrie, protection

    CERN Document Server

    Marey, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Pour tous les travailleurs du nucléaire comme pour les étudiants des licences professionnelles et des BTS Environnement nucléaire et BTS radioprotection, l'ouvrage rassemble de façon progressive, claire et précise toutes les informations scientifiques et pratiques qui leur sont indispensables. Une première partie résume les données de base relatives à la structure de la matière, la stabilité des noyaux, les différents rayonnements, leur énergie et la décroissance radioactive. La deuxième partie constitue une approche progressive de la radioprotection s'appuyant sur l'influence des rayonnement sur la matière pour définir les notions de dose et aborder le dimensionnement des protections biologiques et des éléments de ventilation. Enfin, la dernière partie traite de la mise en oeuvre pratique de la radioprotection sur le terrain et de la gestion des déchets nucléaires en application de la technologie actuelle, de la réglementation et des directives imposées par l'exploitant qu'est EDF. De...

  14. Main physical environmental variables driving occupant behaviour with regard to natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2012-01-01

    variables influencing the occupants’ use of windows are investigated and the main results of a literature review are highlighted. Statistical analysis of data coming from measurements of occupants’ window opening, conducted in 15 dwellings in Denmark, are developed to infer the probability of opening...

  15. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. Possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, id est (i.e.), 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action. (author)

  16. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide; possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, i.e., 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in CHO, but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action.

  17. Signatures of environmental genetic adaptation pinpoint pathogens as the main selective pressure through human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous genome-wide scans of positive natural selection in humans have identified a number of non-neutrally evolving genes that play important roles in skin pigmentation, metabolism, or immune function. Recent studies have also shown that a genome-wide pattern of local adaptation can be detected by identifying correlations between patterns of allele frequencies and environmental variables. Despite these observations, the degree to which natural selection is primarily driven by adaptation to local environments, and the role of pathogens or other ecological factors as selective agents, is still under debate. To address this issue, we correlated the spatial allele frequency distribution of a large sample of SNPs from 55 distinct human populations to a set of environmental factors that describe local geographical features such as climate, diet regimes, and pathogen loads. In concordance with previous studies, we detected a significant enrichment of genic SNPs, and particularly non-synonymous SNPs associated with local adaptation. Furthermore, we show that the diversity of the local pathogenic environment is the predominant driver of local adaptation, and that climate, at least as measured here, only plays a relatively minor role. While background demography by far makes the strongest contribution in explaining the genetic variance among populations, we detected about 100 genes which show an unexpectedly strong correlation between allele frequencies and pathogenic environment, after correcting for demography. Conversely, for diet regimes and climatic conditions, no genes show a similar correlation between the environmental factor and allele frequencies. This result is validated using low-coverage sequencing data for multiple populations. Among the loci targeted by pathogen-driven selection, we found an enrichment of genes associated to autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and multiples sclerosis, which lends credence to the

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  19. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d' Alene tribe

  20. Natural products as radioprotective agents; past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. The proposed talk will mainly deal on the radioprotective potential of some important plant and herbal extracts. (author)

  1. Identifying the Main Problems of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations: Lessons from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostoaie Constantin-Marius

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Romanian environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGO have to deal with a lot of issues when performing their activities, related in general to their form of organization, financial capacity, unspecialized workforce, over bureaucratic administration, political parties’ unwillingness to cooperate, or mass-media’s general indifference. Moreover, most public representatives (e.g., political parties seldom (or never ask for the ENGOs’ opinions when designing environmental policies. Within this context, this paper aims to map the most important issues or challenges (in terms of financial capacity and with regard to the public sphere that Romanian ENGOs have to deal with. The methodological approach is a mixed one (having a qualitative as well as a quantitative component. The study embodies a questionnaire based survey applied on 48 Romanian ENGOs. Unfortunately, the instability of financial resources still tops the Romanian ENGOs’ list of issues. Moreover, the data reaffirmed the indifference of the majority of Romania’s political parties towards protecting the environment (leaving ENGOs out of the political decision making process.

  2. Improved extrinsic polymer optical fiber sensors for gamma-ray monitoring in radioprotection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, A. I.; Esteban, Ó.; Embid, M.

    2017-08-01

    Gamma radiation detection in the range of 662 keV, the reference for environmental protection, is done through extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The fluorescence rendered by an inorganic scintillator when irradiated with such gamma rays is gathered by a modified polymer optical fiber tip. This modification increases the recorded signal when compared with plain unaltered fiber. Two fiber tip modification are then compared in terms of light gathering capability. A chemically etched fiber, in which the cladding and part of the core are removed, and a tapered fiber in which the core-cladding structure is kept. Both structures are comparable in length and final diameter, and show linear response in the tested range up to 2 Gy/h air Kerma rate. The etched fiber shows a higher slope than the tapered one, although both improve the signal gathered by a plain fiber tip. The easy fabrication and handling of the reported transducers, together with the improved signal gathering, allow to reduce the overall system budget with the use of low-cost optoelectronics in the detection stage. This offers a significant improvement for surveillance systems in radioprotection applications, in which presence of gamma radiation coming out accidental leakage or spurious sources activity is the main target.

  3. Main physical environmental drivers of occupant behaviour with regard to space heating energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the significant gap between the predicted energy performance of buildings and their measured actual performance. Uncertainties regarding behaviour of building occupants are one of the key factors limiting the ability of energy simulation tools to accurately predict...... real building energy requirements . The paper focuses on the particular topics of space heating energy demand related to the occupants habits of adjusting heating set-points. The parameters influencing the user interaction with the heating control system are analyzed in literature for residential......) environmental conditions and the occupants’ heating set-point preferences. The paper aims at providing a reliable basis for a more accurate description of control action models in performance simulation applications....

  4. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) - main concerns and regulatory developments in Europe from an environmental point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierke, Lena [Federal Environment Agency, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Lueneburg (Germany); Staude, Claudia; Biegel-Engler, Annegret; Drost, Wiebke; Schulte, Christoph [Federal Environment Agency, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are the most investigated substances of the group of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Whereas for PFOS regulatory measures are already in force on international level (inclusion in Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants) such activities are missing for PFOA. The environmental concerns of PFOA, which are summarized in the present study, underline the necessity of regulatory measures on an international level for PFOA. Since it seems more likely to agree on a regulation within the European Union first, a regulatory strategy based on the European chemicals regulation REACH (EC No. 1907/2006), is discussed in the present study. PFOA is persistent in the environment, ubiquitous present in surface waters, and subject to long-range transport. It accumulates in biota, especially in top predators. PFOA is increasingly analyzed in food items, and in drinking water. PFOA's intrinsic properties such as its persistency (P), its potential for bioaccumulation (B) and its toxicity (T) suggest that PFOA is a promising candidate for being identified as a Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) under REACH. Because of the dispersive occurrence of PFOA in the environment, the presence in imported products, and the use of PFCs, which can degrade to PFOA in various consumer products, a restriction under REACH seems to be the most effective regulatory measure to minimize human and environmental exposure to PFOA in the European Union. Due to its intrinsic properties, PFOA fulfills the REACH PBT-criteria. The next regulatory step will be the identification of PFOA and its ammonium salt (APFO) as SVHC according to REACH and the addition to the REACH Candidate List. As a second step, a restriction proposal will be prepared to include both substances and precursors into REACH Annex XVII. (orig.)

  5. Protection of the environment. How to position radioprotection in an ecological risk assessment perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, Francois

    2003-01-01

    The development of a system capable of ensuring adequate protection of the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation is at present particularly debated. This need comes both from a restrictive consideration of the environment in the so far existing system for human radioprotection, and the planetary-wide growing concerns about man's technogenic influence on his environment which have yielded 'sustainability' and 'precaution' as guiding principles for environmental protection. Whilst evolving from the field of human radioprotection, the radioprotection of the environment needs to be discussed in a wider perspective, with particular emphasis on the most advanced concepts which emerge from the efforts to deriving improved approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment. For the sake of protection, the environment is traditionally addressed through its biota since these are the sensitive components of ecosystems. Similarities between man and biotas reflect the ubiquitous mechanistic effects of radiation on life which disrupt molecules. However, important differences also arise in a number of perspectives, from the large spectrum of different species of biotas to their hierarchical self-organisation as interacting populations within ecosystems. Altogether, these aspects are prone to promote complex arrays of different responses to stress which lie beyond the scope of human radioprotection due to its focus on individuals of a single species. By means of selected illustrations, this paper reviews and discusses the current challenges faced in proper identification of measurable effect endpoints (stochastic/deterministic, individual/population- or ecosystem-relevant), dose limits in chronic exposure (or levels of concern), and their consideration according to radiation type (RBE) and interactions with other contaminants (synergies/antagonisms) which represent critical gaps in knowledge. The system of human radioprotection has conceptually been targeted at limiting

  6. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Interdisciplinary Research - Radiation detection methods for health, earth and environmental sciences - Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Work performed in the area of Environmental Radioactivity provided information on the geographical distribution of post-Chernobyl contamination in Poland with several gamma, beta or alpha emitters. The area with relatively high deposit of nuclear fuel particles (''hot particles'') was especially carefully investigated. Recent ultra-low background measurements of radiochemically prepared needles of Norway spruce trees from the Tatra National Park have shown a surprisingly high content of plutonium in the youngest shots. This result will require a revision of the common opinion about natural migration of Pu which up to date has been considered not to be mobile and not bio-available. Application of the Institute's actively and passively shielded gamma-ray spectrometer to measurements of cosmogenic 22 Na and 7 Be in aerosols has shown statistically significant seasonal differences not only in the activity of these two nuclides but also in their activity ratio. Since 2001, concentrations of artificial 137 Cs, natural 40 K and of some heavy metals have been measured in samples collected in the Tatra National Park. The maximum concentration of caesium is observed at altitudes over 1300 m above sea level, in the organic surface layers or in the illuvial layers. The transfer factor (T agg ) values for caesium in Podzol and Ranker soils are altitude-independent, but in Rendzinas, Rendzic Lethosols, Lithosols and Regosols a strong dependence on altitude is observed. No similar investigation in the Tatra National Park has yet been performed

  7. Environmental impact of flooding in the main reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzak, D.; Bruneau, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The short and long term effects of flooding on the environment, with special emphasis on trees, in the general area of the Churchill Falls hydroelectric project were investigated. A vegetation mapping and inventory was carried out in 1971, followed by the establishment of ground testlines in black spruce, white birch-balsam fir, and burnt (dead) black spruce stands at the rim of the main reservoir before the reservoir was filled in 1972. Additional field observations were made in 1973, 1974 and 1977. It was found that observed changes in the fluctuating water level zone were most significant. Both erosion of soils, mainly due to wave action, and vertical movement of the ice sheet during winter and the spring thaw, contribute to the uprooting of trees in the zone. Trees removed by the process float and under the action of wind and waves drift until trapped in standing trees or until driven ashore or onto dykes. Patches of accumulated driftwood in strips up to 20 m wide are not uncommon, and trees standing in water in protected coves or extensive shallows are not affected by soil erosion and deteriorate only due to fungal attack. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Synthesis of sulfenamides, derivatives of morpholine, 4-aminomorpholine and thiomorpholine as compounds of potential radioprotective action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    Sulfenamides belong to the group of compounds displaying radioprotective action. Their mechanism of action is based mainly on the protection against oxygenation. Six compounds were synthetized four of which i.e. 3-nitrophenylothiomorpholine, 2,4-dinitrophenylothiomorpholine, 2,4-dinitrophenylothio-4-aminomorpholine and 2,4-dinitrophenylothiothiomorpholine were to date not described in the literature. The structure of the synthetized compounds was confirmed by elementary and infrared spectral analysis.

  9. Poverty is the main environmental factor for obesity in a Mexican-border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castañeda-Gonzalez, Lidia M; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a pandemic in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental factors that have the strongest association with obesity and abdominal obesity among adults in Tijuana. Four neighborhoods differing in socioeconomic status were chosen. A questionnaire for weekly walking, social cohesion, satisfaction with their community, weekly income, and convenience store, education, family income, crime safety, pedestrian safety, street connectivity, walking/cycling facilities, and sociodemographic characteristics was administered. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Univariate and multivariate binomial logistic regressions were conducted. Three hundred and twenty-two (322) individuals, 70% females with a mean age of 39 years, were assessed. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity was 27% and 43.5% respectively. The odds ratio for obesity and abdominal obesity among those living in the lowest-income neighborhood was 2.4 and 7.8 respectively, compared with those living in a middle-class neighborhood. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a predictor for obesity.

  10. Radioprotective effect of antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Gu Xuandi; Zhu Genbo; Feng Jixing; Su Liaoyuan

    1991-09-01

    By using an improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as fluorometric agent, the antiradiation effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray irradiation inducing final products of lipid peroxides (LPO), i.e. malodialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes, were investigated with LPO value as an indicator. The results of the experiment were as following: (1)The radioprotective effect of exogenous antioxidants added to human blood lymphocytes on radiation-induced LPO damage of cellular membrane were remarkable; (2)The radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged like this: SOD > VE >VC, Se 4+ ; (3)Radioprotective effects of antioxidants on radiation-induced damage varied especially with the property of antioxidants, drug concentration, and pretreatment and monitoring time, etc., as well as irradiated dosage and various kinds of incubated cells. In addition, the mechanism of these antioxidants as radioprotectants on human blood lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  11. ZEOLITE: "THE MAGIC STONE"; MAIN NUTRITIONAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL FIELDS OF APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Carmen; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-08-01

    zeolites (clinoptilolites) are a family of alluminosilicates and cations clustered to form macro aggregates by small individual cavities. In the medical area they are involved in detoxification mechanisms capturing ions and molecules into their holes. Actually, we classify about 140 types of natural and 150 synthetic zeolites, for specific and selective use. Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite and it is the most widespread compound in the medical market. this review analyzes the main fields of zeolite utilization. we searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "zeolite" and "clinoptilolite". in zoothechnology and veterinary medicine zeolite improves the pets' fitness, removes radioactive elements, aflatoxines and poisons. Zeolite displays also antioxidant, whitening, hemostatic and anti-diarrhoic properties, projected in human care. However very scanty clinical studies have been run up to now in immunodeficiency, oncology after chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvants. further clinical investigations are urgently required after this review article publication which updates the state of the art. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Main Steam Line Break Mass/Energy and Pressure/Temperature Analysis for the Environmental Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Chan; Song, Dong-Soo; Jun, Hwang-Yong

    2006-01-01

    The Main steam line break(MSLB) occurring inside a reactor containment structure may result in significant releases of high energy fluid to the containment, possibly result in high containment pressure and temperature. The MSLB accident, along with the Loss Of Coolant Accident, is a design basis accident for determining the peak containment pressure and temperature. The analysis for a MSLB for inside containment should be performed to justify the structural integrity and equipment qualification in accordance with revision 1 of Reg. Guide 1.89. Rev1(1984), which is also required as part of obtaining the extended operating license for WestingHouse(WH) 3-Loops Nuclear Power Plant(NPP). Now, the WH NPP has been performed power uprating. Therefore, all initial conditions, setpoints and uncertainties were considered with MSLB analysis for environment qualification(EQ). The transient was analyzed to determine the worst set of mass and energy releases that impact the EQ aspects of safety related equipment inside containment. The most limiting single failure in this event was determined by a sensitivity study. The MSLB event was analyzed for a full set of power conditions and break sizes

  13. Northeast Empire Limited Partnership No. 2 Alternative Energy, Inc. and Maine Public Service Company (Docket No. EA-95): Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in connection with the application (the Application) by Alternative Energy, Inc. (AEI), Northeast Empire Limited Partnership number-sign 2 (the Partnership) and Maine Public Service Company (MPS and, collectively with AEI and the Partnership, the Applicants), filed on January 6, 1992, for authorization to transmit electric energy to a foreign country. The electric energy to be exported would be produced by a 39-megawatt (MW), wood-fired powerplant (the Project) to be developed by AEI and to be built by the Partnership in Ashland, Maine, which is located in MPS' service territory. In the Application, the Applicants requested authorization for MPS to transmit electricity generated by the Project from Maine through New Brunswick, Canada, on route back to the US for domestic use by Central Maine Power Company (MP). The need to cross the US -Canadian border arises due to the geography of the area and to facilitate access to an existing transmission line. None of the power will be used in Canada. This EA addresses the environmental impacts associated with the export of electric energy and the connected actions which are expected to result from the authorization of those exports. The electricity would be exported over cross-border transmission facilities maintained between MPS and New Brunswick Power Corporation (NB Power). No new cross-border facilities, and no modification of any existing cross-border facilities, are required in connection with the proposed action

  14. Computerized examination system on radioprotection knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, Gabriel; Rosca Fartat, Gabriela; Ghilea, Simion

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the recognition system of the education and training in the field of radioprotection based on the examination system and the software solutions adopted by the regulatory authority in Romania. The Romanian Radiation Protection system is in place since 1950, when the first nuclear research reactor was built and activities involving radioactive sources started to be developed, and several developing phases were passed through. Linked to the Romanian Radiation Protection system an Education, Training and Recognition system was developed. The recognition of the competencies achieved by the personnel in the framework of the education and training system consists in obtaining a work permit. It is mandatory at least for the radiological safety officers to posses a work permit granted by the Romanian Regulatory Body (CNCAN) based on an examination of the radioprotection knowledge. The examination consists in solving a questionnaire on radioprotection and legislation issues. Each participant receives a questionnaire with 60 questions and has to solve it in a time limit of one hour. In 2007 the examination system has been improved by authors who designed a software and a database which contains all the questions and answers with related explanations. For each examination session the software generates randomly for each participant the examination questionnaire. More than 2000 questions and answers from the database are published on the web site of CNCAN for different fields of ionizing radiation applications. Moreover the generated questions and participant's answers are registered in order to perform the further analysis and review. The result is an objective and transparent examination system which encourages the continuous training and retraining. (author)

  15. Interventional techniques in medicine and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Bar, O.; Benderitter, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Maccia, C.; Sapoval, M.; Bernier, M.O.; Pirard, Ph.; Jacob, S.; Donadille, L.; Aubert, B.; Clairand, I.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Brot, A.M.; Jarrige, V.; Huet, Ch.; Marchal, C.; Martin, M.; Bar, O.; Degrange, J.P.; Livarek, B.; Menechal, Ph.; Sapoval, M.; Pellerin, O.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Nineteen presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - Interventional radiology: why is it developing? (M. Sapoval); 2 - exposure particularities in interventional radiology (O. Bar); 3 - doses received by organs in interventional cardiology (C. Maccia); 4 - Patients exposure: description of cumulated exposure of patients treated in interventional cardiology (M.O. Bernier); 5 - 2004 inquiry to dermatologists about post-interventional radiology radio-dermatitis (P. Pirard); 6 - exposure and risks to operators (S. Jacob); 7 - dosimetric evaluation techniques and results about interventional imaging operators' extremities (L. Donadille and F. Merat); 8 - bibliographic study of doses received by operators with non-protected organs (B. Aubert); 9 - ORAMED European project: optimization of operational dosimeter uses in interventional radiology (I. Clairand); 10 - reference levels and dosimetric evaluation of patients (C. Maccia); 11 - optimization in coronary angioplasty (J.G. Mozziconacci, A.M. Brot and V. Jarrige); 12 - dosimetry in medical over-exposure situation (C. Huet); 13 - significant radioprotection events in interventional radiology declared to the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - status and experience feedback (C. Marchal); 14 - interventional radiology and unwanted effects (M. Benderitter); 15 - global analyses and new exposure indicators in human epidermis cells (M. Martin); 16 - radioprotection regulations and training (O. Bar); 17 - zoning and workplace analysis in interventional cardiology (J.P. Degrange); 18 - guide of good clinical practices: example of interventional cardiology (B. Livarek); 19 - how to encourage the radioprotection optimization in interventional radiology: the ASN's point of view (P. Menechal). (J.S.)

  16. Radioprotection plan at the Abadia interim repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.G.; Rabello, P.N.P.; Tranjan Filho, A.

    1993-01-01

    The wastes from Goiania radiological accident are temporarily stored at a site near the village of Abadia de Goias, 23 km for far from downtown Goiania. Foreseeing operations inside the storage yard, a Radioprotection Plan was organize primarily with the aim of establishing procedures to reduce radiation exposure of workers to as-low-as reasonably achievable (ALARA principles and to be at the adopted regulatory exposure radiation limits. The adequacy of the storage containers and their reconditioning are the operations involved. (B.C.A.). 09 refs, 02 tabs

  17. Radioprotective effects of dextran sulphate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.; Rotkovska, D.; Palyga, G.F.; Zhukova, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Influence of a single i.p. injection of dextran sulphate on radiosensitivity of mice was investigated. The administration of dextran sulphate 24, 48 and 72 hours prior to irradiation increased formation of endogenous colonies of the hemopoietic tissue on the surface of the spleen. DRF calculated from an equieffective exposure for 5 colonies was 1.96 when dextran sulphate was administered 24 hours before irradiation, and 2.25 when dextran sulphate was administered 72 hours before irradiation. The radioprotective effects of dextran sulphate were manifested also in the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of short-termed as well as long-termed gamma radiation. (orig.) [de

  18. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  19. Qualification and certification in radioprotection of odontology students in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, Lucas Gomes; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Borges, Jose Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to conduct a critical survey on the qualification and certification in radioprotection of odontology students from all dental schools in the State of Rio de Janeiro and some dental schools in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The methodology involved the use of questionnaires applied to radiology professors and supervisors and former students. The questionnaires consisted of open and closed questions, which allowed an analysis of both qualitative and quantitative aspects. A critical analysis of the answers revealed that the students' knowledge of radioprotection is very poor, particularly with regard to the new guidelines of the Brazilian Ministry for Health. Consequently, we suggest that dental schools should reform the contents of radiology teaching, thus permitting upcoming students to be better prepared for the challenge of professional quality. (author)

  20. ASN report on nuclear safety and radioprotection status in France in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a general overview of the activity of the ASN (the French nuclear safety authority), of its missions and organisation, this activity report indicates the main events of 2010 concerning the actions performed by the ASN and the activities controlled by the ASN. These both aspects are then detailed. The actions performed by the ASN are dealing with nuclear activities (ionizing radiations and risks for health and for the environment), principles and actors of nuclear safety control, radioprotection and environment protection, regulation, control of nuclear activities and exposures to ionizing radiations, emergency situations, public information, international relationship, regional overview of nuclear safety and radioprotection. The activities controlled by the ASN are the medical uses of ionizing radiations, their non medical uses, the transport of radioactive materials, electronuclear plants, installations related to nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear research installations and other nuclear installations, the safety of nuclear installation dismantling, radioactive wastes and polluted sites

  1. Environmental management in companies: an analysis of the scientific production on environmental management in companies published in the main journals on administration between 1996 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Almada Santos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the scientific production on environmental management in companies published in the six main journals on administration in Brazil (RAE, RAEE, RAUSP, RAP, REAd and RAC, during the period between 1996 and 2005. The following aspects were used in order to examine this academic production: quantitative progress of production; source of authorship; methodological profile; publication content and breadth; and internationalization level of references. The main concerns of this diagnosis are: the academic production on environmental management in companies corresponds to only 2,30% of the total production in administration; a significant part of this production is stimulated by international studies, mainly Hunt and Auster (1990 and Porter and Linde (1995; Brazilian research is restricted to small group of researchers and institutions, as almost 60% of the analyzed articles were published by only five institutions. Thus, this article contributes to the systematization of the academic production on environmental management in companies, as well as it provides insights for this field of research in Brazil.

  2. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baroni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN, lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV and vegan (VEG dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts.

  3. Total Environmental Impact of Three Main Dietary Patterns in Relation to the Content of Animal and Plant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Berati, Marina; Candilera, Maurizio; Tettamanti, Massimo

    2014-07-25

    Based on a review of the most recent available scientific evidence, the new Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (USDA DG) provide information and advice for choosing a healthy diet. To compare the environmental impacts of, respectively, omnivorous (OMN), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV) and vegan (VEG) dietary patterns as suggested in the USDA DG, we analyzed the three patterns by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The presence of animal food in the diet was the main determinant of environmental impact. The major impact always stemmed from land and water use. The second largest impact came from energy use. Emission of toxic inorganic compounds into the atmosphere was the third cause of impact. Climate change and acidification/eutrophication represented other substantial impacts.

  4. EMBIO - The Danish Energy Agency's model for economic and environmental evaluation of bio-fuels. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A methodological concept is established for a life-cycle based model which can be used for socio- and private economic and environmental assessment of automotive bio-fuels. The calculation method must be able to calculate socio-economic, energy, environmental, and other consequences by alternative productions and uses of bio-fuels in a way that makes it possible to compare advantages and disadvantages across alternative production technologies. Furthermore it must be possible to perform private cost-benefit calculations from the model. The model must also be able to evaluate specific bio-fuel project, and therefore the method has been developed in close interaction with analyses of two bio-fuel projects. The main emphasis in the development of the model has been put on the relation between CO 2 reduction and economics. One main result of the model analyses is therefore the calculated shadow price for the CO 2 reduction which expresses the socio-economic costs per ton saved CO 2 . The socio-economic analyses of the model do not include a monetary account of other environmental impacts than the CO 2 emission or other relevant consequences like impacts on employment, balance of payments etc. Thus the socio-economic analyses cannot be the only decision basis for assessing bio-fuel projects. The other environmental aspects are treated only briefly. The model may, however, very easily be extended to a more formalized account of these other aspects. The model may be used for specific experimental projects and for implementation of large full-scale projects. The model development has been limited to use of bio-fuels in the transportation sector. The model may, however, also be used for evaluating bio-fuels in general or other biomass-based energy use in other sectors. (LN) 113 refs

  5. Study of radioprotective effect of the resveratrol;Estudo do efeito radioprotetor do resveratrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Carolina dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5 trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is present at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. This high capacity to scavenge the free radicals generated by several biologic processes by resveratrol can provide a prevention of human cardiovascular diseases and several types of cancer. The main objective of this study was to determine the in vitro radioprotective effect of resveratrol in cell culture with the aid of the tests of cytotoxicity of resveratrol (IC50%) and lethal dose 50% of gamma radiation (LD50). Studies of the level of resveratrol toxicity, found by cytotoxicity test performed by neutral red uptake assay, and lethal dose 50% (LD50) of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) was performed in cell culture NCTC Clone 929 from ATCC. The IC50% of resveratrol was about 50 M/L. The DL50 of gamma radiation showed a value of about 354 Gy. On the basis of these biological results, it was performed studies of radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the same experimental conditions, verifying that the resveratrol in concentrations between 12.5 M/L and 25 M/L showed a more pronounced radioprotective effect. (author)

  6. Radioprotection: Gelam Honey And Other Potential Natural Sources As Radioprotectant Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The application of antioxidant compounds has been studied since the early days of nuclear era, due to the high possibility of overexposure among individuals working in radiation facilities. Ionising radiations can trigger the formation of free radicals which induces biological damage even at a very low dose. It can damage DNA molecules via two mechanisms, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, radioprotectant must have the characteristic of a free radical scavenger to prevent those damages. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation-induced DNA damage and cellular response was determined by DNA damage pathway. Gelam honey was chosen to determine its radioprotective efficacy when normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) were exposed to gamma-rays. HDFs were treated with Gelam Honey at pre-, during- and post-irradiation at 1 Gray dose. Through this study, gamma-irradiation modulated the cell defence system which involved expression of gene/protein of DNA damage detection, subsequently lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Conversely, HDFs pre-treated with Gelam honey maintained the cell proliferation as shown by the decrease in DNA damage and increase in cell survival rate. These mechanisms may be used as one of the guidelines for radioprotection study with other natural resources such as beta-glucan extract from mushrooms. (author)

  7. Analysis of Minocycline as a Radioprotectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shalini

    Exposure to radiation is increasing in a variety of settings including space exploration, diagnostic medical procedures and radiotherapy. Cells of the hematopoietic system, such as white blood cells (WBC), are especially sensitive to radiation and their decline can result in Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). Radiotherapy is often used for cancers of the central nervous system (CNS), but includes the risk for normal tissue damage, often leading to cognitive impairment. The literature suggests that tetracyclines can be radioprotectors of the hematopoietic system with potential utility in radiation emergencies and anticancer radiotherapy. Minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, has anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, anti-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic properties with exceptional penetration into the CNS. These qualities make it a viable candidate for use in combination with radiotherapy for CNS tumors as a normal tissue radioprotectant and for hematopoietoc recovery following whole-body irradiation. This study was undertaken to determine the potential of minocycline as a radioprotective agent of the hematopoietic system and CNS in response to whole-body irradiation with 1, 2 and 3 Gy (γ-rays). C57BL/6 mice were injected with minocycline, 5 times beginning immediately before irradiation. Spleen, blood and brain were collected on days 4 and 32 post-irradiation. WBC and other cell populations were determined in the blood and spleen while cytokines were quantified in CD3-activated splenocytes and homogenized brain supernatants. We also evaluated the impact of minocycline on DNA synthesis and viability of human glioblastoma cells versus astrocytes and microglia. Minocycline increased counts and percentages of splenic macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer (NK), T and CD8 + T cells on day 4 and B cells on day 32. Minocycline up-regulated interleukin-1α (IL-1α)which is radioprotective, as well as granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM

  8. Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne; Estudio in vitro de radioprotectores de origen alimentario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soraino, J. M.; Sebastia, N.; Almonacid, M.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Montoro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Study in vitro of origin radioprotective food the radioprotective effect in vitro of food borne substances studied is a first step in developing effective radioprotectors that can prevent radiation damage to healthy tissue., cannot forget that these studies must be accompanied by in vitro studies of toxicity and bioavailability to profile designing radioprotective substance.

  9. Radioprotection in the operation of accelerator and plasma units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively great problems of radioprotection can be caused by accelerator units, above all in the field of science, because all kinds of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances can be produced in all stages of aggregation. Furthermore, activities with relatively long half-lifes are induced by high particle streams with energies beyond the thresholds of many nuclear reations, to that the conditions of a control zone, even of a prohibited zone exist at many points after having switched off the accelerator. Not all of these radioprotective problems can be solved by constructive or technical measures. A sufficient skill of the persons responsible for radioprotection is very important in this connection. Efficient radioprotective measures are only possible by a close cooperation between the radiation protection officer, the competent authority, and the expert. (orig.) [de

  10. Radioprotection in the medical applications of the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents information about of the radiological safety in the medical application of the ionizing radiation compiled in 11 chapter and 1 annex. The first four chapters are principally dedicated to technical uses in radioprotection, the external and internal irradiation and the biological radiation effects. The radioprotection principles, the individual monitoring techniques, and the radioprotection systems are developed afterwards in the followings three chapters. The second half of the document is dedicated entirely to the medical practices using ionizing radiations, specially to the radioprotection aspects in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The final chapter is dedicated to radiological accidents happened worldwide in the field of the medical applications of the ionizing radiations. The annex, about of the regulatory area, established a set of standards, laws, decrees and other force regulations in radiological safety, related in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

  11. Evaluation of the radioprotective efficacy of rifaximin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Woo; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hee Jong [Dept. of Radiation Treatment Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Radiation exposure causes severe intestinal damage, and intestinal injury has been shown to plays a pivotal role in survival. The non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, is used in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea due to bacterial enteropathogens and has an anti-biotic and an anti-inflammatory effect with low gastrointestinal absorption of < 0.4%. Rifaximin also has been used for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, pouchitis. Jahraus et al. reported that rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethalmwhole-body radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rifaximin on ionizing radiation-induced intestinal injury. Rifaximin showed increased survival rate as well as decreased weight loss between pre treatment and post treatment. Fortunately rifaximin seems to involveincreased number of crypt cells and length of villus. These findings suggest that rifaximin can be a strategy by protecting intestinal injury.

  12. Radioprotective effectiveness of adeturone in monkey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, I.; Pantev, T.; Rogozkin, P.; Chertkov, K.; Dikovenko, E.; Kosarenkov, V.

    1976-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of adeturone (adenosine triphsophate salt of AET) was tested on 28 monkeys (Macaca mulata). The animals were gamma-irradiated (cobalt 60) with a dose of 680 R (17,6 R/min, LDsub(100/18)). Adeturone was administered intravenously for 5 minutes, from 6 to 15 minutes before irradiation in a dose of 150 mg/kg (1/2 of thr maximal tolerable dose). It was found that adeturone administration before the absolute lethal irradiation will ensure survival of 50 % of the monkeys. Radiation sickness in protected animals runs a milder course as shown by the duration of the latency period, the manifestation of the hemorrhagic syndrome, the leukopenia and erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Some symptoms do not appear at all (diarrhoea) or develop later(hyperthermia, hypodynamia). (A.B.)

  13. Researches on radioprotective effects of dendrobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Cui Fengmei

    2004-01-01

    Effects of Dendrobium on the LPO content in the mouse tissues, the white blood cells and platelets in the mouse peripheral blood after whole-body γ-ray irradiation exposure were studied. Besides, the 30-day survival rates of irradiated mice treated with three different doses of Dendrobium were observed. The results show that Dendrobium was effective in reducing the LPO contents in the tissues (p<0.01); and could increase the platelets in the peripheral blood of irradiated mice; and white blood cells had a tendency toward rising; different doses of Dendrobium could raise the survival rates of irradiated mice and prolong the survival duration. The above-mentioned findings suggest that Dendrobium has the radioprotective effect and its mechanism probably relates to scavenging of free radicals and restoration of haematopoiesis. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of the radioprotective efficacy of rifaximin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Woo; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hee Jong

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes severe intestinal damage, and intestinal injury has been shown to plays a pivotal role in survival. The non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, is used in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea due to bacterial enteropathogens and has an anti-biotic and an anti-inflammatory effect with low gastrointestinal absorption of < 0.4%. Rifaximin also has been used for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, pouchitis. Jahraus et al. reported that rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethalmwhole-body radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rifaximin on ionizing radiation-induced intestinal injury. Rifaximin showed increased survival rate as well as decreased weight loss between pre treatment and post treatment. Fortunately rifaximin seems to involveincreased number of crypt cells and length of villus. These findings suggest that rifaximin can be a strategy by protecting intestinal injury

  15. Main issues in research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generally summarize the main issues in the operational period of water conservancy and hydropower projects in China over the past several decades. First, the adverse impacts of these projects since the technical guidelines were proposed in 2006 are analyzed. Then, combined with projects and experience from 2006 to 2014, the four main issues are summarized: (1 There exist many questions in the design and construction of fishways, which are useful for fish migration, and the migration effects are not as expected. (2 Temperature stratification affecting the downstream fish is the major impact of temperature, and alters fish spawning in the reproduction season. (3 Ecological base flow has been one of the primary questions of the last 30 years in China, the greatest related difficulty being quantification of the amount and flow process necessary to satisfy fish life history. (4 Fish habitat protection and restoration are popular topics in recent years with the development of river ecosystem restoration. Fish habitat loss due to the impacts of dam construction and habitat fragmentation has become more and more serious. These four issues are now the main difficulties in water project management, and interact with one another to bear combined effects on river ecosystems. The issues of eco-hydraulic consideration in the design period are the key factors. Finally, future priorities for research and practice of environmental protection for water conservancy and hydropower projects in China are proposed. The main purpose of this paper is to enhance the scientific research, monitoring, and assessment of operating effectiveness.

  16. Training in radioprotection in the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Elena; Cremaschi, Graciela; Martin, Graciela; Zubillaga, Marcela; Davio, Carlos; Genaro, Ana; Cricco, Graciela; Mohamad, Nora; Bianchin, Ana; Goldman, Cinthia; Salgueiro, Jimena; Klecha, Alicia; Nunez, Mariel; Medina, Vanina; Cocca, Claudia; Leonardi, Natalia; Collia, Nicolas; Gutierrez, Alicia; Massari, Noelia; Bomben, Ana; Bergoc, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    The radioisotopes techniques have notably contributed to the advancement of knowledge in medicine and biomedicine during the last 60 years. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, offers different Courses on methodology of radioisotopes in which the specialized knowledge on radioprotection is adapted to the following different groups: 1) A course for biochemistry students; 2) A course for physicians; 3) A course for graduates in biochemistry, biology, chemistry or other disciplines related to the health; 4) An up-dating course for licensed professionals; 5) A course for nuclear medicine technicians; and finally: 6) A course for Pharmacy students. The main objective of radiological protection teaching is specific and fitted to each level: the course (1) has been given (optional or mandatory) since 1960 for more than 7500 students. Part of the learning process in radioprotection is only informative, because in this case the students are not allowed to ask the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority authorization for radioactive material handling. Course (2) has been taken by more than 800 physicians since 1962. Here, the students receive a very intensive training in radioprotection which includes: justification, optimization and dose limits; dosimetric magnitudes and units; internal and external dosimetry of 99m Tc, 201 Tl, 60 Co and other isotopes used in medicine; safety in occupational exposure; national and international legislation. Since 1962, more than 1000 graduates have attended course (3). In this case the training in radioprotection is as intensive as in course (2) with special focusing in 125 I, 3 H, 14 C, 32 P and other isotopes used in biomedicine. Course (4) has been given from 1992 and the objective is to up-date knowledge and the intensity of training depends on the requirements of each professional. Course (5) has been given since 1997 and it is mainly directed to the operational aspects of

  17. Phase 2 environmental site assessment SW corner of plan 954 GV, block 7 : Main Street, Turner Valley, AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinson, E.; Harvey, K.; Brooks, N.; Burton, K.; Reinson, K.; Cropley, K.

    2010-05-01

    This document described the second phase of an environmental site assessment (ESA) at a parking lot in front of the Flare and Derrik on Main Street in Turner Valley, Alberta. The objective of this ESA was to confirm the presence of any substances of concern. The site has been occupied by an outdoor ice rink, and there is pipeline right-of-way along the east portion of the site. There is also an abandoned crude oil pipeline along the east portion of the property and an abandoned natural gas pipeline on the west side of the property. This ESA investigated the impact of the pipelines, the underground storage tanks on the adjacent sites, and the oil and gas lease on the adjacent site. Seven exploratory testholes were drilled and 3 monitoring wells were installed. The study involved soil inspection and field VOC measurements every 60 centimeters, or as required. Groundwater sampling and surveying was also performed. Groundwater and soil samples were analyzed for hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salinity and metals. All the results for soil were below Tier 1 guidelines. There appeared to be a layer of clay fill which had some hydrocarbons, PAHs and barium present, but they were below the applicable criteria. In terms of groundwater, PAHs and selenium exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in monitoring well no. 4 (MW4). In another well, manganese exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines. Copper exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in all three wells. All the results were below the Tier 2 guidelines in all 3 wells with the exception of carcinogenic PAHs (B(a)P TPE) in MW4. Due to the minor presence of hydrocarbons (below criteria) located in the surficial soil layer, Ballast Environmental Consultants recommended that an environmental professional be present during the excavation and that further soil samples be taken from the suspect layer to confirm all the soils in the area of the library are below the applicable criteria. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Phase 2 environmental site assessment SW corner of plan 954 GV, block 7 : Main Street, Turner Valley, AB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinson, E.; Harvey, K.; Brooks, N.; Burton, K.; Reinson, K.; Cropley, K. [Ballast Environmental Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This document described the second phase of an environmental site assessment (ESA) at a parking lot in front of the Flare and Derrik on Main Street in Turner Valley, Alberta. The objective of this ESA was to confirm the presence of any substances of concern. The site has been occupied by an outdoor ice rink, and there is pipeline right-of-way along the east portion of the site. There is also an abandoned crude oil pipeline along the east portion of the property and an abandoned natural gas pipeline on the west side of the property. This ESA investigated the impact of the pipelines, the underground storage tanks on the adjacent sites, and the oil and gas lease on the adjacent site. Seven exploratory testholes were drilled and 3 monitoring wells were installed. The study involved soil inspection and field VOC measurements every 60 centimeters, or as required. Groundwater sampling and surveying was also performed. Groundwater and soil samples were analyzed for hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salinity and metals. All the results for soil were below Tier 1 guidelines. There appeared to be a layer of clay fill which had some hydrocarbons, PAHs and barium present, but they were below the applicable criteria. In terms of groundwater, PAHs and selenium exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in monitoring well no. 4 (MW4). In another well, manganese exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines. Copper exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in all three wells. All the results were below the Tier 2 guidelines in all 3 wells with the exception of carcinogenic PAHs (B(a)P TPE) in MW4. Due to the minor presence of hydrocarbons (below criteria) located in the surficial soil layer, Ballast Environmental Consultants recommended that an environmental professional be present during the excavation and that further soil samples be taken from the suspect layer to confirm all the soils in the area of the library are below the applicable criteria. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Radioprotective effects of some commonly used calcium blockers (deltiazem, nifidine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    2002-11-01

    The main aim of this study is looking for other radio protectors less or non-toxic with a favorable therapeutic index and good tolerance in human body. Wistar rats of both sexes were used; control animals were irradiated (total body irradiation) in perforated plexiglas by using the 60 Co source. Dose of irradiation was 9 Gy (lethal dose of 100% of animals-LD 1 00) and dose rate was 80-85 rad/min -1 . Irradiated animals have been monitored for two weeks and percentage of survival has been calculated. Different concentrations of deltiazem and nifidine were used at 15 or 30 minutes before the time of irradiation. Irradiation and treated animals have been monitored for 30 days post-irradiation and the percentage of survival has been calculated. The results showed that the Ca 2+ antagonists in question could be used as radio protectors. moreover, results of this undertaken study revealed that deltiazem is more effective than nifidine, survival rates of deltiazem-treated animals were, significantly, higher than those, which were treated with nifidine. The radio protective effects of these drugs vary according to animals' sex and age. Drugs concentration and time of administration play an important role in their radioprotective effects. These drugs can attenuate radiation injuries and thus they can protect animals from radiation syndromes, especially bone marrow syndrome and gastrointestinal syndrome the matter that causes decreasing in lethality induced by lethal doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  20. Interventional techniques in medicine and radioprotection; Les techniques interventionnelles en medecine et radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, B.; Bar, O.; Benderitter, M.; Bourguignon, M.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Maccia, C.; Sapoval, M.; Bernier, M.O.; Pirard, Ph.; Jacob, S.; Donadille, L.; Aubert, B.; Clairand, I.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Brot, A.M.; Jarrige, V.; Huet, Ch.; Marchal, C.; Martin, M.; Bar, O.; Degrange, J.P.; Livarek, B.; Menechal, Ph.; Sapoval, M.; Pellerin, O.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Nineteen presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - Interventional radiology: why is it developing? (M. Sapoval); 2 - exposure particularities in interventional radiology (O. Bar); 3 - doses received by organs in interventional cardiology (C. Maccia); 4 - Patients exposure: description of cumulated exposure of patients treated in interventional cardiology (M.O. Bernier); 5 - 2004 inquiry to dermatologists about post-interventional radiology radio-dermatitis (P. Pirard); 6 - exposure and risks to operators (S. Jacob); 7 - dosimetric evaluation techniques and results about interventional imaging operators' extremities (L. Donadille and F. Merat); 8 - bibliographic study of doses received by operators with non-protected organs (B. Aubert); 9 - ORAMED European project: optimization of operational dosimeter uses in interventional radiology (I. Clairand); 10 - reference levels and dosimetric evaluation of patients (C. Maccia); 11 - optimization in coronary angioplasty (J.G. Mozziconacci, A.M. Brot and V. Jarrige); 12 - dosimetry in medical over-exposure situation (C. Huet); 13 - significant radioprotection events in interventional radiology declared to the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - status and experience feedback (C. Marchal); 14 - interventional radiology and unwanted effects (M. Benderitter); 15 - global analyses and new exposure indicators in human epidermis cells (M. Martin); 16 - radioprotection regulations and training (O. Bar); 17 - zoning and workplace analysis in interventional cardiology (J.P. Degrange); 18 - guide of good clinical practices: example of interventional cardiology (B. Livarek); 19 - how to encourage the radioprotection optimization in interventional radiology: the ASN's point of view (P. Menechal). (J.S.)

  1. Environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing - Main results and recommendations from two studies on behalf of the German Environment Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischbaum, Bernd; Bertram, Andreas; Böttcher, Christian; Iyimen-Schwarz, Züleyha; Rechenberg, Jörg; Dannwolf, Uwe; Meiners, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The German Environment Agency (UBA) accompanies the debate on fracking for years. Two major reports on risks and environmental impacts regarding the exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas, in particular shale gas have been published. On the basis of these studies as well as on scientific evidence UBA considers ecological barriers as a sustainable means to minimize the risks to environment and human health. 1) Recent studies show that the contamination of shallow aquifers by rise of fluids through natural faults or artificially created fractures is extremely unlikely. However, activities on the surface and lack of wellbore integrity pose threats and substantial risks for the quality of shallow aquifers. 2) The need for thorough groundwater monitoring is fully accepted, yet its range and design is subject to discussion. 3) Formerly, analysis and mass balances of flowback and produced water have been insufficient, thus there is a lack of exact information on proportions of frac-fluids, flowback and formation water respectively, as well as data on possible reaction products. 4) Currently, neither on national nor on European level best reference techniques (BREF) for the treatment and disposal of flowback and produced water are available. 5) In addition, land consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, and induced seismicity are major issues. UBA recommends amongst others the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for fracking activities, the prohibition of fracking in water protection areas as well as their catchments, and the disclosure of all frac-fluid chemicals within a national chemical registry. To achieve these objectives the German Environment Agency suggests a step-by-step approach. The paper will present the main results from the studies and the recommendations of the German Environment Agency regarding hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas exploitation.

  2. Investigations with beagles about toxicity and radioprotective effect of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Sedlmeier, H.; Wustrow, T.; Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl-thiophosphate) was examined in 25 beagles. The study showed that the toxicity of the substance increases as the dose gets higher. Between the doses 200 and 250 mg/kg of body weight, the increase of toxicity was significantly greater than could be expected on the basis of the dose difference. Until a dose of 200 mg/kg, the authors found no side effects which would have disturbed vital functions, but higher doses led to marked symptoms of intoxication. (orig.) [de

  3. Carbon dioxide fluxes from a degraded woodland in West Africa and their responses to main environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Expedit Evariste; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Galle, Sylvie; Aubinet, Marc

    2015-12-01

    In West Africa, natural ecosystems such as woodlands are the main source for energy, building poles and livestock fodder. They probably behave like net carbon sinks, but there are only few studies focusing on their carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Here, we have analyzed CO 2 fluxes measured for 17 months by an eddy-covariance system over a degraded woodland in northern Benin. Specially, temporal evolution of the fluxes and their relationships with the main environmental factors were investigated between the seasons. This study shows a clear response of CO 2 absorption to photosynthetic photon flux density (Q p ), but it varies according to the seasons. After a significant and long dry period, the ecosystem respiration (R) has increased immediately to the first significant rains. No clear dependency of ecosystem respiration on temperature has been observed. The degraded woodlands are probably the "carbon neutral" at the annual scale. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was negative during wet season and positive during dry season, and its annual accumulation was equal to +29 ± 16 g C m -2 . The ecosystem appears to be more efficient in the morning and during the wet season than in the afternoon and during the dry season. This study shows diurnal and seasonal contrasted variations in the CO 2 fluxes in relation to the alternation between dry and wet seasons. The Nangatchori site is close to the equilibrium state according to its carbon exchanges with the atmosphere. The length of the observation period was too short to justify the hypothesis about the "carbon neutrality" of the degraded woodlands at the annual scale in West Africa. Besides, the annual net ecosystem exchange depends on the intensity of disturbances due to the site management system. Further research works are needed to define a woodland management policy that might keep these ecosystems as carbon sinks.

  4. Radioactive characterization of the main materials involved in the titanium dioxide production process and their environmental radiological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, J; Gazquez, M J; Bolivar, J P; Garcia-Tenorio, R; Vaca, F

    2013-06-01

    A study about the distribution of several radionuclides from the uranium and the thorium series radionuclides along the production process of a typical NORM industry devoted to the production of titanium dioxide has been performed. With this end the activity concentrations in raw materials, final product, co-products, and wastes of the production process have been determined by both gamma-ray and alpha-particle spectrometry. The main raw material used in the studied process (ilmenite) presents activity concentrations of around 300 Bq kg(-1) for Th-series radionuclides and 100 Bq kg(-1) for the U-series ones. These radionuclides in the industrial process are distributed in the different steps of the production process according mostly to the chemical behaviour of each radioelement, following different routes. As an example, most of the radium remains associated with the un-dissolved material waste, with activity concentrations around 3 kBq kg(-1) of (228)Ra and around 1 kBq kg(-1) of (226)Ra, while the final commercial products (TiO2 pigments and co-products) contain negligible amounts of radioactivity. The obtained results have allowed assessing the possible public radiological impact associated with the use of the products and co-products obtained in this type of industry, as well as the environmental radiological impact associated with the solid residues and liquid generated discharges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studying and developing main nuclear analytical techniques for assessment of the present situation of marine environmental radioactivity in some typical regions of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Mai Thi Huong; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Mong Sinh, Truong Y; Le Ngoc Chung

    2003-01-01

    Typical output of the study is presented, including: 1/ establishing standard procedures for the determination of 238 U and 230 Th radionuclide concentration in marine environmental samples; 2/ acquiring baseline data for the main radionuclide concentration in marine environmental materials (water, sediment and biota) collected from suitable key coastal locations of Vietnam. (NTN)

  6. Opinion of the IRSN on French electronuclear stock safety and radioprotection in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this annual report presents the main trends which emerge after a global examination of nuclear safety and radioprotection of the operated nuclear power plants in France during 2009. The second part reports, comments and discusses events which occurred in 2009 and are considered as important as far as safety is concerned. The third part deals with generic anomalies, i.e. those affecting several nuclear plants. The fourth part discusses significant evolutions implemented or planned by EDF, whether they are modifications or arrangements in plant operation aimed at treating safety issues, but also economic constraints

  7. Radioprotective Effects of Gallic Acid in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan

    2013-01-01

    Radioprotecting ability of the natural polyphenol, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of GA (100 mg/kg body weight), one hour prior to whole body gamma radiation exposure (2–8 Gy; 6 animals/group), reduced the radiation-induced cellular DNA damage in mouse peripheral blood leukocytes, bone marrow cells, and spleenocytes as revealed by comet assay. The GA administration also prevented the radiation-induced decrease in the levels of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidise (GPx), and nonprotein thiol glutathione (GSH) and inhibited the peroxidation of membrane lipids in these animals. Exposure of mice to whole body gamma radiation also caused the formation of micronuclei in blood reticulocytes and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, and the administration of GA resulted in the inhibition of micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations. In irradiated animals, administration of GA elicited an enhancement in the rate of DNA repair process and a significant increase in endogenous spleen colony formation. The administration of GA also prevented the radiation-induced weight loss and mortality in animals (10 animals/group) exposed to lethal dose (10 Gy) of gamma radiation. (For every experiment unirradiated animals without GA administration were taken as normal control; specific dose (Gy) irradiated animals without GA administration serve as radiation control; and unirradiated GA treated animals were taken as drug alone control). PMID:24069607

  8. Radioprotective effects of flurbiprofen and its nitroderivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchelkova, L.; Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Pipalova, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioprotective effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, flurbiprofen (FBP) and its novel nitroderivative flurbiprofen 4-nitroxy butylester (NO-FBP), which exhibits decreased gastrointestinal toxicity, were compared in mice. The drugs were administered in equimolar single doses, 2 hours before whole-body gamma irradiation of the animals. After a sublethal radiation dose of 6.5 Gy, significantly increased numbers of endogenous haemopoietic spleen colonies and enhanced granulopoiesis were found in mice given either FBP or NO-FBP, when compared to vehicle-treated controls. There were no differences in the effectiveness of either drug to enhance postirradiation haemopoietic recovery. Survival of FBP- or NO-FBP-treated mice subjected to a lethal dose of 9.5 Gy was slightly but insignificantly enhanced, both drugs showing the same effect. These results clearly indicate the ability of both drugs to enhance haemopoietic recovery after sublethal radiation exposure and the absence of unfavourable effects under higher radiation doses. Because of its lower potential for gastrointestinal damage, NO-FBP seems to be a promising drug which can find a use in the protection of postirradiation myelosuppression. (author)

  9. Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

    Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

  10. Discussion on posting and labeling for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.

    2009-01-01

    The radioprotection aims the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation or radioactive substances as well as the safety of radiation sources. As ionizing radiation is not perceived by human senses, the warning signs and labels on radiation sources and the safety posters in controlled and supervised areas have an important role to keep the doses and risks as low as reasonably achievable, to prevent radiological accidents and to mitigate their consequences. In Brazil, several technical regulations require such safety labels and posters, however, despite their importance, there is quite few guidance about their format or contents. In this paper the posting and labeling requirements for radiological control existing in Brazilian technical regulations are discussed, confronting them with national, foreign and international technical standards and by drawing up a parallel with requirements of technical regulations from other countries. Changes are suggested in some parts of the national regulations, to prevent some differences in the current guidance, allowing the optimization of posting and labeling programs of radiological facilities. (author)

  11. Gamma irradiation of radioprotectant drugs. 1. Levamisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, C R; Elhardt, C E; May, L [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1980-09-01

    Levamisole ((S)-(-)-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-6-phenyl-imidazo-(2, 1-b) thiazole), an immunomodulating drug and veterinary antihelminthic, is converted by tissues to a sulfhydryl derivative. The drug and its metabolite have mediating effects on lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations. Because levamisole, as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, is a radioprotectant drug, it was of interest to study the response of the drug itself to ionizing radiation. Experiments were directed toward an examination of the effects of gamma radiation on aqueous solutions of levamisole. Chromatographic analysis (TLC) revealed two distinct groups of radiation products. Further separation and analysis of these groups by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) demonstrated that each group of radiation products consists of several components, indicating that the gamma irradiation of non-deaerated solutions of levamisole gives rise to varying amounts of a multiproduct mixture, no constituent of which corresponds to the natural metabolite. Dose effect curves for the levamisole irradiation indicate that the drug is markedly resistant to molecular alteration under the experimental radiation conditions.

  12. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  13. On the radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, R.; Bernard, Y.

    1964-01-01

    Continuing their study of the possible radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds, the authors study certain derivatives of imidazole and other compounds of similar structure. The results obtained showed: 1 - that the derivatives resulting from the presence in the imidazole ring of the mercapto, methyl, carbonyl, or benzyl groups are inactive: these substitutions appear to destroy the significant radioprotective activity of the imidazole, 2 - that benzimidazole, on the contrary, seems to possess highly interesting properties. The percentage of survivals obtained with mice treated with benzimidazole and exposed to lethal irradiation has encouraged the authors to undertake careful study of this substance, with a view to define optimum activity conditions, and to determine the mechanism responsible for its radioprotective action. Further on and so as to of clarify certain points that might give useful data concerning the mechanisms of action of radioprotective chemicals, in respect of each of the products the authors have studied: a - the action of these bodies on the internal temperature of mice, b - their radioprotective activity in vitro, in a solution of irradiated hemin. (authors) [fr

  14. Investigation of radioprotective properties of synthetic antagonist of glucocorticoids RU 38 486

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejliev, A.A.; Zvonareva, N.B.; Zhivotovskij, B.D.; Khanson, K.P.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of synthetic antiglucocorticoid RU 38 486 were investigated. It was demonstrated that this antigonist of glucocorticoids possesses radioprotective effect in vitro and in vivo systems. Radioprotective properties at molecular level exhibited in inhibition of postirradiation endonuclease activation and in prevention of internucleosome chromatin degradation. Involvement of cytosol glucocorticoid receptors in initiation of radiation-induced programmed cell death is discussed

  15. Impact of radioactivity on the environment: problems, state of current knowledge and approaches for identification of radioprotection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently a revitalized concern about the potential impact of ionizing radiation on the environment that calls for the construction of a system ensuring an adequate radioprotection of the non-human biota and their associated biotopes. This paper first sets the context of the problem both, with respect to the general philosophy of environmental protection as a whole, but also with respect to the consideration of the environment achieved so far in the purpose of human radioprotection. The current accumulated knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation to biota (fauna and flora) is then briefly reviewed, encompassing effects at individual and community/ecosystem level, situations of acute and chronic exposure to high and low doses, finally leading to the identification of the most critical gaps in scientific knowledge: effects of mixed low dose rates in chronic exposure to communities and ecosystems. The most significant current international efforts towards the identification of environmental radioprotection criteria and standards are finally presented along with some relevant national examples. (author)

  16. [Growth characteristics of Porites lutea skeleton in east sea area of Hainan Island, China and main affecting environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiao Wen; Cao, Zhi Min; Wang, Dao Ru; Li, Yuan Chao; Ni, Jian Yu

    2016-03-01

    The growth characteristics of Porites lutea skeleton in east sea area of Hainan Island were studied by CoralXDS software based on X-ray chronology. The growth parameters obtained included extension rate (ER), skeleton density (D), and calcification rate (CR). The results showed that ER varied from 0.49 to 1.10 cm·a -1 with an annual average of 0.76 cm·a -1 , D varied from 1.11 to 1.35 g·cm -3 with an annual average of 1.22 g·cm -3 , and CR varied from 0.55 to 1.41 g·cm -2 ·a -1 with an annual average of 0.94 g·cm -2 ·a -1 . Statistical analyses indicated that sea surface temperature (SST) was the key environmental factor that controlled the growth characteristics, as it highly co-varied with ER and CR, less so with D. All of the three growth characteristics increased with the increase of SST. There were other factors that influenced the growth characteristics of the coral column, such as light, water salinity, and hydrodynamics, etc. In addition, typhoon and severe tropical storms also imposed a significant impact on the growth pattern of Porites lutea coral. The change in growth pattern of coral skeleton in east of Hainan Island was a response to complex climate fluctuation. Over the past century, SST of east Hainan Island dramatically increased at a rate of 0.15 ℃·(10 a) -1 . The SST increase trend for the oceanic region could be divided into two stages, early 1940s and early 1980s. The human activities and global warming was the main causes for the increase of SST.

  17. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  18. Radioprotection of targeted and bystander cells by methylproamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdak-Rothkamm, Susanne; Smith, Andrea; Lobachevsky, Pavel; Martin, Roger; Prise, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotective agents are of interest for application in radiotherapy for cancer and in public health medicine in the context of accidental radiation exposure. Methylproamine is the lead compound of a class of radioprotectors which act as DNA binding anti-oxidants, enabling the repair of transient radiation-induced oxidative DNA lesions. This study tested methylproamine for the radioprotection of both directly targeted and bystander cells. T98G glioma cells were treated with 15 μM methylproamine and exposed to 137 Cs γ-ray/X-ray irradiation and He 2+ microbeam irradiation. Radioprotection of directly targeted cells and bystander cells was measured by clonogenic survival or γH2AX assay. Radioprotection of directly targeted T98G cells by methylproamine was observed for 137 Cs γ-rays and X-rays but not for He 2+ charged particle irradiation. The effect of methylproamine on the bystander cell population was tested for both X-ray irradiation and He 2+ ion microbeam irradiation. The X-ray bystander experiments were carried out by medium transfer from irradiated to non-irradiated cultures and three experimental designs were tested. Radioprotection was only observed when recipient cells were pretreated with the drug prior to exposure to the conditioned medium. In microbeam bystander experiments targeted and nontargeted cells were co-cultured with continuous methylproamine treatment during irradiation and postradiation incubation; radioprotection of bystander cells was observed. Methylproamine protected targeted cells from DNA damage caused by γ-ray or X-ray radiation but not He 2+ ion radiation. Protection of bystander cells was independent of the type of radiation which the donor population received. (orig.) [de

  19. Radioprotective property of the ethanolic extract of Piper betel leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Subramanian, M.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kamat, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The radioprotective activity of Piper betel ethanolic extract (PE) has been studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. The extract effectively prevented γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene. Likewise, it prevented radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective activity of PE could be attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging capacity of PE was primarily due to its constituent phenolics, which were isolated and identified as chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol. (author)

  20. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  1. Melatonin as a radioprotective agent: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalaxmi; Reiter, Russel J.; Tan, D.-X.; Herman, Terence S.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2004-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief secretory product of the pineal gland in the brain, is well known for its functional versatility. In hundreds of investigations, melatonin has been documented as a direct free radical scavenger and an indirect antioxidant, as well as an important immunomodulatory agent. The radical scavenging ability of melatonin is believed to work via electron donation to detoxify a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. It has long been recognized that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are brought about by both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct action produces disruption of sensitive molecules in the cells, whereas the indirect effects (∼70%) result from its interaction with water molecules, which results in the production of highly reactive free radicals such as · OH, · H, and e aq - and their subsequent action on subcellular structures. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of melatonin was used as a rationale to determine its radioprotective efficiency. Indeed, the results from many in vitro and in vivo investigations have confirmed that melatonin protects mammalian cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, several clinical reports indicate that melatonin administration, either alone or in combination with traditional radiotherapy, results in a favorable efficacy:toxicity ratio during the treatment of human cancers. This article reviews the literature from laboratory investigations that document the ability of melatonin to scavenge a variety of free radicals (including the hydroxyl radical induced by ionizing radiation) and summarizes the evidence that should be used to design larger translational research-based clinical trials using melatonin as a radioprotector and also in cancer radiotherapy. The potential use of melatonin for protecting individuals from radiation terrorism is also considered

  2. Distinct radioprotective activities of major heat shock proteins in irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabakov, Alexander; Malyutina, Yana; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Several years ago we have suggested that heat shock proteins (Hsps) can be involved in cellular and tissue mechanisms of protection from ionizing radiation. At present, the accumulated experimental data do allow us to characterize three major mammalian Hsps, Hsp70, Hsp27 and Hsp90, as specific endogenous radioprotectors which are able to prevent or minimize cell death resulting from the radiation exposure. It follows from the many findings that the radioprotective effect of these Hsps is particularly manifested in their ability to attenuate apoptosis in various normal and tumor cells irradiated in vivo or in vitro. The obtained data already enable to suggest three main mechanisms of the radioprotection conferred by the excess Hsps: 1) Modulation of the intracellular signaling so that the apoptotic signal transduction is blocked, whereas the 'cell survival' signal transduction is stimulated; 2) Suppression of the radiation-associated free radical generation and apoptosis induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS); 3) Attenuation of the genotoxic impact of ionizing radiation. The latter suggested mechanism seems particularly intriguing and implies that the excess Hsps can somehow contribute to protection/repair of genomic DNA from radiation-induced damage. According to our recent results, Hsp90 is indeed involved in the post-irradiation repair of nuclear DNA, while excess Hsp70 can beneficially affect the p53-mediated DNA damage response in irradiated cells to ensure their long-term survival and recovery. As for Hsp27, we found that its accumulation in target cells increases their radioresistance by enhancing the irradiation-responsive activation of anti apoptotic pathways. While the Hsp70 and Hsp27 seem to perform different functions in irradiated cells, the synergistic enhancement of radioprotection was clearly observed in the cells enriched by the both the Hsps. In vivo, such radioprotective activities of the major mammalian Hsps may play a role in

  3. On the radioprotective effect of biotin (vitamin H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelkin, S.R.; Egorova, N.D.; Katsitadze, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been shown on rats exposed to a whole-body X-irradiation with 600 R that food rich in vitamin H (biotin) causes a radioprotective effect. Most effective were the vitamin doses of 4.0 and 8.0 μg/rat

  4. Phytochemicals with radioprotection and radio-sensitizing potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Yamini B., E-mail: yaminiok@yahoo.com [Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2012-07-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA damage and are harmful to mankind. They act through free radical generation, which target the double bonds of all cellular macromolecules. The radiation damage may be classified as probabilistic or deterministic, depending on the dose of radiation exposure. Since radiation affects multiple organs so those drugs which protect many organs, would be more beneficial. In this process herbal extracts, which are cocktail of several phyto-chemicals, would be more promising. Initially sulphur containing bio-molecules were identified as radio-protector, but now many secondary metabolites from plant kingdom, have been reported to be radio-protective. They have different mechanism of action, but most of them either prevent the FR induced DNA damage or accelerate the DNA repair process. Aminofostine, WR-2721, 159243, 2926 are some of the examples. However they have limited use because of associated cytotoxicity. Eicosanoids, topoisornerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N have shown radioprotecting potential. Several plant products, derived from Tulsi, Vinca alkaloids, taxans, turmeric, Rubia cordifolia, Semecarpus anacardium and several plants rich in polyphenols and flavones have shown hemotherapeutic potential. Similarly, Hippophae, rhodiola imbricata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Ocimum sancturn, Plumbago zeylanica etc have shown radioprotection. Rubia cordifolia has shown both chemotherapeutic and radioprotective property in rats and A-431 cells. Similarly Semecarpus anacardium extract has shown cell cycle arrest in DU-145 cells. (author)

  5. Phytochemicals with radioprotection and radio-sensitizing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Yamini B.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA damage and are harmful to mankind. They act through free radical generation, which target the double bonds of all cellular macromolecules. The radiation damage may be classified as probabilistic or deterministic, depending on the dose of radiation exposure. Since radiation affects multiple organs so those drugs which protect many organs, would be more beneficial. In this process herbal extracts, which are cocktail of several phyto-chemicals, would be more promising. Initially sulphur containing bio-molecules were identified as radio-protector, but now many secondary metabolites from plant kingdom, have been reported to be radio-protective. They have different mechanism of action, but most of them either prevent the FR induced DNA damage or accelerate the DNA repair process. Aminofostine, WR-2721, 159243, 2926 are some of the examples. However they have limited use because of associated cytotoxicity. Eicosanoids, topoisornerase inhibitors (e.g. camptothecin, topotecan), and the hypoxia-activated anthraquinone AQ4N have shown radioprotecting potential. Several plant products, derived from Tulsi, Vinca alkaloids, taxans, turmeric, Rubia cordifolia, Semecarpus anacardium and several plants rich in polyphenols and flavones have shown hemotherapeutic potential. Similarly, Hippophae, rhodiola imbricata, Podophyllum hexandrum, Ocimum sancturn, Plumbago zeylanica etc have shown radioprotection. Rubia cordifolia has shown both chemotherapeutic and radioprotective property in rats and A-431 cells. Similarly Semecarpus anacardium extract has shown cell cycle arrest in DU-145 cells. (author)

  6. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before 60 Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following 60 Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors

  7. Radioprotection et ingénierie nucléaire

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Le développement de l'énergie nucléaire repose sur deux piliers essentiels : la sûreté nucléaire, qui concerne la machine, et la radioprotection, qui se préoccupe des hommes. Construit de manière fiable, un réacteur nucléaire se doit d'irradier le moins possible ses opérateurs et conduire à un impact très faible pour les populations avoisinantes. Tout cela est soumis à des règles strictes, élaborées au niveau international, et qui ne tolèrent aucun écart. Les ingénieurs qui ont à concevoir, construire et conduire ces machines doivent maîtriser les règles de protection : cet ouvrage leur est destiné. La radioprotection, si elle se fonde principalement sur des bases scientifiques, intègre également une dimension sociétale exigeante. Ces activités sont en effet sous le regard critique et permanent de nos concitoyens, qui exigent des acteurs de cette industrie une maîtrise totale de la radioprotection ; un ingénieur qui ne connaîtrait pas la genèse de la radioprotection, ses règle...

  8. Training on Radioisotopes Techniques and Radioprotection Aspects at The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the Buenos Aires University (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R. M.; Rivera, E. S.; Bomba, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation sources and radioisotopes in Argentina takes place at more than 1700 facilities, which operate in Nuclear Medicine, in telecobaltherapy, in Industry, in Biochemistry, and in research. All of these centers have one or more professional trained in the specific field of radioprotection and they have been authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. At the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the Buenos Aires University, Argentina, we consider of great interest to teach radioisotopes methodology at different levels, to harmonize the use of these methodologies with environmental preservation and to provide education and training on radioprotection. Currently, the school offers five different courses in all of which the radioprotection is one of the most important subjects: 1) Course on Methodology of Radioisotopes for students at the undergraduate level, in the Biochemistry Career (140 hrs). Since 1960, more than 6000 students have passed their examinations. 2) Course on Methodology of Radioisotopes for post-Graduates in Biochemistry, Biology, Chemists or other related disciplines. 3) Course for Graduates in Medicine. Since 1962, the School delivers every year these two courses. Their syllabus (212 hrs) dedicates a 50% of the time schedule to subjects related to radioprotection aspects. More than 1800 professional have passed their examinations, many of them from different Latin American countries. 4) Up-date on Methodology of Radioisotopes (100 hrs) a course delivered since 1992 for professionals wishing to up-date their knowledge. 5) Course for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine (more than 200 hrs). At present, this course is the basic level of the Technicians in Nuclear Medicine Career. At the present paper it will be presented statistics regarding the different courses and the experience that has been gathered for the last 40 years organizing courses and carrying out research activity on radiobiology, radioimmunoanalysis

  9. Training on radioisotopes techniques and radioprotection aspects at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the Buenos Aires University (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation sources and radioisotopes in Argentina takes place at more than 1700 facilities, which operate in Nuclear Medicine, in Telecobaltherapy, in Industry, in Biochemistry, and in Research. All of these centers have one or more professional trained in the specific field of radioprotection and they have been authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. At the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the Buenos Aires University, Argentina, we consider of great interest to teach radioisotopes methodology at different levels, to harmonize the use of these methodologies with environmental preservation and to provide education and training on radioprotection. Currently, the school offers five different courses in all of which the radioprotection is one of the most important subjects: 1) Course on Methodology of Radioisotopes for students at the undergraduate level, in the Biochemistry Career (140 hs). Since 1960, more than 6000 students have passed their examinations. 2) Course on Methodology of Radioisotopes for post-Graduates in Biochemistry, Biology, Chemists or other related disciplines. 3) Course for Graduates in Medicine. Since 1962, the School delivers every year these two courses. Their syllabus (212 hs) dedicates a 50% of the time schedule to subjects related to radioprotection aspects. More than 1800 professional have passed their examinations, many of them from different Latin American countries. 4) Up-date on Methodology of Radioisotopes (100 hs) a course delivered since 1992 for professionals wishing to up-date their knowledge. 5) Course for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine (more than 200 hs). At present, this course is the basic level of the Technicians in Nuclear Medicine Career. At the present paper it will be presented statistics regarding the different courses and the experience that has been gathered for the last 40 years organizing courses and carrying out research activity on radiobiology, radioimmunoanalysis, radioreceptors

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  11. Environmental contaminants in fillets of sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between 2008 and 2010, skin‐on fillets from seven dead adult sea‐run Atlantic salmon from the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment (GOM DPS) were analyzed for...

  12. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 1. Main Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    of navigation season extension. The Federal Clean Air Act sets forth National Ambient Air Quality Standards, defining maximum allowable ambient ...programmatic EIS reduces excessive paper work’by covee-ing a specific p rogram within a broad geological area, su- ..i~gthe environmental impactO within

  13. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S H.M. [Durng Research Dept., National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Radioprotection of patients and workers in interventional and operating block radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menechal, P.; Valero, M.; Megnigbeto, C.; Marchal, C.; Godet, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, extensive development in radiological and implantable equipment has generated significant growth in radio-guided procedures. The real benefit of these practices to patients explains their development. These procedures can be undertaken using not only dedicated, specific fixed installations and computed tomography scanners, but also mobile installations in facilities not designed for radiography, such as operating blocks. The complexity of these procedures and the times spent implementing the required radiation can lead to major detrimental effects on personnel and patients, if they are not fully controlled. Many specialist medical disciplines now perform invasive procedures guided by images. Optimisation of patient doses mainly depends on the training level of medical teams, the intrinsic performance characteristics of the equipment used, adjustment of the technical parameters and the presence or absence of qualified personnel. Optimisation of professional personnel exposure is complex and depends on the performance conditions of procedures, which can expose workers extensively and non-uniformly. Designation of personnel competent in radioprotection, assessment of risks and definition of controlled areas, analysis of workstations and dosimetric monitoring of operators (especially of body extremities) are difficult to implement. Use of collective and personal protective equipment must be improved. The general manager of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has referred the matter to the permanent group of radioprotection experts (GPMED) to ensure that recommendations are drawn up in the short term. (authors)

  16. Environmental Assessment for Replacement of the Main Gate Facility at New Boston Air Force Station, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    rural with interspersed forests and residential areas. Land cover on the station is consistent with the surrounding area, and much of the habitat ...deciduous and mixed forest habitat types. The environmental assessment evaluates the potential impacts of two configurations (A and B) of the proposed...with air quality, topography, vegetation, soils, surface waters, and listed and non-listed wildlife and habitat resources. Demolition of Building 102

  17. Computed tomography and radioprotection: Knowing and acting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducou Le Pointe, H.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the population to ionizing radiation for medical purposes is increasing throughout the world. In the United States of America, this exposure (3 mSv) has reached, even exceeded, exposure from natural sources. In France, the report of the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) on exposure of the French population to ionizing radiation in 2007, based on the 74.6 million medical diagnostic procedures, estimates the mean individual effective dose to be 1.3 mSv. This value is much lower than the value in the United States but has progressed in 5 years by 62.5%. Computed tomography accounts for 10.1% of the procedures and 58% of the collective effective dose. This is why computed tomography is receiving very special attention from all those involved in radioprotection. It must be remembered, nevertheless, that we are well within the low dose range (effective dose less than 100 mSv), and indeed, in the large majority of CT examinations exposure values are lower than 15 mSv. The biological effects of low doses are still a matter of debate. First of all, it has not been possible to demonstrate the risk of cancer due to this level of exposure, neither on the survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan nor on workers in the nuclear industry in the United Kingdom. The year 2012 marked a change; for the first time, epidemiology took over from statistical studies. Despite the low risk demonstrated, reserves concerning methodology, and waiting for further European epidemiological studies underway, we must continue to act to encourage radiological protection. Before considering the action to take and without under-estimating the risks, it is important to remember that a computed tomography investigation is conducted in patients, and not in individuals in good health. Acting to provide patients with protection from radiation means involving all those concerned with justifying it, with substituting it, and with optimising it. For some years

  18. Contribution to Energy Management of the Main Standards for Environmental Management Systems: The Case of ISO 14001 and EMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Laskurain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Energy Management Systems (EnMSs based on international standards has gained momentum since the ISO 50001 standard was launched in 2011. Before that, the potential to improve the energy management with Environmental Management Systems (EMSs based on ISO 14001 and EMAS was identified in the literature. However, no in-depth analysis reported in the literature has explored this claim. The need for research is now even more evident with the development of new versions of the standards for environmental management―ISO 14001:2015 and EMAS III. Since many companies that already have a certified EMSs might be uncertain whether to adopt an ISO 50001 based EnMSs, the present work aims to shed light on the contribution of ISO 14001:2015 and EMAS III to energy management. Furthermore, the work summarizes the results of an empirical exploratory study carried out in eight Spanish organizations, four with an EMS implemented and certified based on ISO 14001:2015 and four more with an EMS registered to EMAS III. The findings show that both ISO14001 and EMAS certified organizations carry out energy management practices, even though they have no formal EnMSs implemented. Implications for managers and policy makers are discussed, together with avenues for further research.

  19. The development of software and formation of a database on the main sources of environmental contamination in areas around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palitskaya, T.A.; Novikov, A.V.; Makeicheva, M.A.; Ivanov, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Providing of environmental safety control in the process of nuclear power plants (NPPs) operation, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources is one of the most important tasks of the Rosenergoatom Concern. To ensure the environmental safety, trustworthy, complete and timely information is needed on the natural resources availability and condition, on the natural environment quality and its contamination level. The industrial environmental monitoring allows obtaining, processing and evaluating data for making environmentally acceptable and economically efficient decisions. The industrial environmental monitoring system at NPPs is formed taking into account both radiation and non-radiation factors of impact. Obtaining data on non-radiation factors of the NPP impact is provide by a complex of special observations carried out by NPP's environment protection services. The gained information is transmitted to the Rosenergoatom Concern and input to a database of the Environment Protection Division of the Concern Department of Radiation Safety, Environment Protection and Nuclear Materials Accounting. The database on the main sources of environmental contamination in the areas around NPPs will provide the high level of the environmental control authenticity, maintenance of the set standards, and also - automation of the most labor-consuming and frequently repeating types of operations. he applied software is being developed by specialists from the All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plants on the basis of the database management system Microsoft SQL Server using VBA and Microsoft Access. The data will be transmitted through open communication channels. The geo-referenced digital mapping information, basing on the ArcGIS and MapInfo will be the main forms of output data presentation. The Federal authority bodies, their regional units and the Concern's sub-divisions involved in the environmental protection activities will be the database

  20. The development of software and formation of a database on the main sources of environmental contamination in areas around nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palitskaya, T.A.; Novikov, A.V. [Rosenergoatom Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation); Makeicheva, M.A.; Ivanov, E.A. [All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plants, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Providing of environmental safety control in the process of nuclear power plants (NPPs) operation, environmental protection and rational use of the natural resources is one of the most important tasks of the Rosenergoatom Concern. To ensure the environmental safety, trustworthy, complete and timely information is needed on the natural resources availability and condition, on the natural environment quality and its contamination level. The industrial environmental monitoring allows obtaining, processing and evaluating data for making environmentally acceptable and economically efficient decisions. The industrial environmental monitoring system at NPPs is formed taking into account both radiation and non-radiation factors of impact. Obtaining data on non-radiation factors of the NPP impact is provide by a complex of special observations carried out by NPP's environment protection services. The gained information is transmitted to the Rosenergoatom Concern and input to a database of the Environment Protection Division of the Concern Department of Radiation Safety, Environment Protection and Nuclear Materials Accounting. The database on the main sources of environmental contamination in the areas around NPPs will provide the high level of the environmental control authenticity, maintenance of the set standards, and also - automation of the most labor-consuming and frequently repeating types of operations. he applied software is being developed by specialists from the All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plants on the basis of the database management system Microsoft SQL Server using VBA and Microsoft Access. The data will be transmitted through open communication channels. The geo-referenced digital mapping information, basing on the ArcGIS and MapInfo will be the main forms of output data presentation. The Federal authority bodies, their regional units and the Concern's sub-divisions involved in the environmental protection activities will be the

  1. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol (20-PRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolabela, M.F.; Lopes, M.T.P.; Pereira, M.T.; Steffani, G.M.; Pilo-Veloso, D.; Salas, C.E.; Nelson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclohexane thiol (20-PRA) on a human leukemic cell line (K562) following various radiation doses (5,7.5 and 20 Gy) using a source of 60 Co γ-rays. At 5 Gy and 1nM 20-PRA, a substantial protective effect (58%) was seen 24 h after irradiation, followed by a decrease at 48 h (11%). At the high radiation dose (20 Gy) a low protective effect was also seen (35%). In addition, the anti tumorigenic potential of 10 nM 20-PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of 20-PRA is 10 5- 10 6 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR-1065 (N(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diamino propane) whose protective effect is in the 0.1 to 1.0 nM range. (author)

  2. Radioprotection in the infirmary praxis in service of hemodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flor, Rita de Cassia; Gelbcke, Francine Lima

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative study made in a hemodynamic service at Santa Catarina, Brazil, viewing to analyse the attitude of workers in infirmary related to the use of radioprotection measurements in interventionist procedures. A methodology of Labor Psycho dynamics was used through the observations, collective interviews and the document analysis. Totally it was realized 36 encounters, completed a total of 54 observation hours. The results have shown that the workers used defense strategies for justification the not use of some radioprotection measurements. Yet, become evident that the measurements related to the distance from the radiation source and the exposure time have not used sometimes, perhaps due to negligence. Finally, it was concluded that, some attitudes adopted by the workers referred to the lack of a continued educational program

  3. Radioprotection of vitamin D on mice injured by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Zhou Zhengyu; Li Bingyan; Nie Jihua; Tong Jian; Zhang Zengli

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of vitamin D against irradiation injury, the mice exposed to 60 Co γ-rays at 6 Gy was treated with preparation of vitamin D(Alfacalcidol Soft Capsules). Cell cycle and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) following staining of cells with propidium iodide (PI). Peripheral blood cell counts were analyzed by autoanalyzer. It has been found that vitamin D significantly increases white blood cell (WBC) counts, decreases bone marrow PEC micronucleus rate. FCM analysis shows that compared with damaged group, G2 and S phases of bone marrow cells in vitamin D protection group increases significantly at 24 h after whole body irradiation, whereas G1 phase cells decrease at the same times. So vitamin D might be a new radioprotection agent and it should be deserved further study. (authors)

  4. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol (20-PRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Dolabela

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclo-hexanethiol (20-PRA on a human leukemic cell line (K562 following various radiation doses (5, 7.5 and 20 Gy using a source of 60Co g-rays. At 5 Gy and 1 nM 20-PRA, a substantial protective effect (58% was seen 24 h after irradiation, followed by a decrease at 48 h (11%. At the high radiation dose (20 Gy a low protective effect was also seen (35%. In addition, the antitumorigenic potential of 10 nM 20-PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of 20-PRA is 105-106 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR-1065 (N-(2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane whose protective effect is in the 0.1 to 1.0 mM range.

  5. Radioprotective activity of Gentiana lutea extract and mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkovic, Nebojsa; Juranic, Zorica; Stanojkovic, Tatjana; Raonic-Stevanovic, Tatjana; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Borojevic, Nenad

    2010-11-01

    Radioprotective/sensitizing actions of Gentiana lutea aqueous-ethanol extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced effects on different types of cells were investigated. The study focused on the decreasing survival of normal human immunocompetent cells, the survival of the malignant cells in vitro, and the survival of ex vivo irradiated cells before and after consumption of the extract by healthy volunteers. The in vitro experiments showed that mangiferin could inhibit cytotoxic action of ionizing irradiation (doses of 6 and 8 Gy) only on normal resting human PBMC, not stimulated for proliferation. Orally consumed G. lutea extract showed the potential to reduce the cytotoxic effect of x-ray irradiation on normal human immunocompetent cells PBMC of some healthy people, without changing the susceptibility of malignant cells to be destroyed by irradiation. Since the radioprotective effect was individually dependent, further clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the radioprotective potential of the polyphenol norbadione A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, Antoine; Josset, Elodie; Benzina, Sami; Bischoff, Pierre; Nadal, Brice; Desage-El Murr, Marine; Heurtaux, Benoit; Taran, Frederic; Le Gall, Thierry; Meunier, Stephane; Denis, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is an obvious need to develop efficient countermeasure agents for use in emergency situations or as adjuncts to radiotherapy to protect healthy tissues from the consequences of an irradiation. To this end, we have investigated the capacity of norbadione A, a polyphenol extracted from the edible mushroom Bay boletus to reduce the toxicity of ionizing radiation towards cultured cells and whole-body exposed mice. Results indicate that this compound could slightly enhance the resistance of TK6 lymphoid cells to radiation and increase the survival rate in lethally irradiated mice. However, norbadione A was found to be cytotoxic at concentrations over 30 μM in vitro. The acute toxicity of this compound also precluded its use at higher doses for enhanced in vivo radioprotection. Norbadione A may nevertheless serve as lead for development of less toxic analogs with potentially cytoprotective/radioprotective activities. (authors)

  7. Local-regional networks of persons with abilities in radioprotection and other actors in radioprotection. Audit report; Les reseaux loco-regionaux de personnes competentes en radioprotection et autres acteurs de la radioprotection. Rapport d'audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    As the regulation requires the existence of persons with abilities in radioprotection (PCR, personnes competentes en radioprotection) in many industrial, medical or research activities where ionizing radiations are present, in order to improve worker protection, these professionals who are much less acknowledged in these sectors than in the nuclear sector, felt the need to gather in regional and sector-based networks. This report proposes a presentation of three existing networks (the APCRAP, the Grand-Ouest network, and the Aquitaine-Sud-Ouest network). For each of them, the report addresses the following aspects: creation, objectives, statutes, members, activities, human, technical and financial resources, role. Then answers to a survey and to interviews are analyzed with respect to the professional sector and to the region, in terms of expectations towards the networks, and in terms of network operation and services. Interviews of institutional actors and union and management representatives are also analysed

  8. Analysis and environmental concentrations of the herbicide dichlobenil and its main metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Bengt Erland; Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    in the environment, and primarily bound to solid matrices. Of great concern is its main degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide which is water soluble and therefore transported downward in aquifers, contaminating groundwater resources. It is often found in concentrations exceeding 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum...... allowed concentration of pesticides in groundwater set by the European Commission. In many countries, the usage of dichlobenil and the problems associated with groundwater contamination by 2,6-dichlorobenzamide have resulted in intensive research and monitoring of these compounds. This review gives...

  9. Perculiarities of the toxicity and radioprotective activity of aminopropyl aminoethyl thiophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terekhov, A.V.; Besedina, L.N.; Zherebchenko, P.G.; Znamenskij, V.V.; Suslikov, V.I.; Titov, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    Toxicity and radioprotective activity of aminopropyl aminoethyl thiophosphate (APAETP) has been compared to those of cystaphos. APAETP has been shown to exceed cystaphos slightly by the value of the radioprotective effect but it is inferior to the latter in the duration of the action after intraperitoneal administration. APAETP, used in toxic doses, does not cause spastic reactions in animals. The range of radioprotective effect of APAETP is almost twice as high as that of cystaphos. Both APAETP and cystaphos have a pronounced radioprotective action not only at high (355 R/min) but also at comparatively low (10.7 R/min) dose-rates of γ-radiation

  10. Activity report of the medical section of radioprotection, 1974-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This report supersides the activities of the medical section of the Radioprotection Department of the Orsay Institute of Nuclear Physics: industrial medicine, monitoring of ionizing radiation effects [fr

  11. Radioprotection in E. coli by an agent from M. radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L S; Gersten, D M; Bruce, A K [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA). Dept. of Biology

    1978-10-01

    An agent extracted from the radioresistant bacterium M. radiodurans was found to protect several strains of E. coli from X-radiation. Optimal radioprotection was observed when the repair-proficient B/r strain was irradiated in the presence of the agent under hypoxic conditions. It is proposed that this agent acts to modify damage incurred in the presence of reduced oxygen concentrations so that this damage might be subsequently repaired.

  12. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP

  13. Improved chemical radioprotection following activation with dextran sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonickova, A.; Vacek, A.; Rotkovska, D.

    1982-01-01

    The radioresistance was observed of mice after sublethal and lethal gamma irradiation following a combined application of dextran sulphate and the chemical radioprotectors cystamine and mexamine. The mechanism of the radioprotection by mexamine and cystamine is connected with their effect on the oxygen tension in tissues. With the application of dextran sulphate an increase was observed in metabolic activity of tissues and a reduced oxygen tension in the medium will result in a deeper cell hypoxia in the tissue. (M.D.)

  14. Radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Lima, Maíra V.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2017-01-01

    Several substances of synthetic and natural origin have been studied in relation to their ability to protect the body from damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among these substances, quercetin has been shown to be a molecule of natural origin with high radioprotective potential due to its antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine, in vitro, the radioprotective effect of quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. Blood was irradiated at the 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 Gy doses and then lymphocyte culture with quercetin at preselected concentrations of 37.5 and 75 μM. Subsequently, slides were prepared for analysis and quantification of the metaphases present in lymphocyte cells. The results demonstrated that irradiated lymphocytes and later exposed to quercetin presented a lower number of chromosomal alterations compared to the control group which was irradiated and not exposed to quercetin. Therefore, the results suggest a radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed, in vitro, to ionizing radiation

  15. Radioprotection of mouse intestine by inhibitors of cyclic amp phosphodiesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1979-01-01

    The survival of colony-forming units of the jejunal crypt was used to assay the radioprotective capacity of various inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. DL-152, RO-20-1724 and the methyl xanthines, caffeine, theophylline, and methyl isbutyl xanthine (MIX) were all found to have some radioprotective effect. The degree of radioprotecton depended on the route of administration of the drug and on the timing of administration with respect to irradiation. Optimum survival of crypt stem cells was found following intraperitoneal administration of DL-152 (60 min before irradiation) or MIX (30 min before irradiaton), and following intravenous administration of caffeine (60 to 120 min before irradiaton) or theophylline (60 min before irradiation). When these protocols were used, crypt stem cell survival could be enhanced by a factor of from 6 to 7. All the compounds investigated produced some elevation of cyclic AMP content of the whole jejunum; this was found to be simultaneous with or to precede the period of maximum radioprotection. Cyclic AMP was localized with immunofluorescent staining; following injection of DL-152 it was found to be elevated in all parts of the jejunum but to the greatest extent in the lower part of the crypt. Survival curves for crypt stem cells from MIX and DL-152 treated mice were found to have almost the same exponential slope as the saline-injected control, suggesting that the mechanism of protection does not depend on induction of hypoxia

  16. Biochemical basis for the action of radioprotective drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romantsev, E.F.; Blokhina, V.D.; Zhulanova, Z.I.; Koshcheenko, N.N.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis of complex biochemical mechanism of action of radioprotective drugs is described. Shortly after injection of radioprotective aminothiols into animals the inhibition of radiosensitive biochemical processes: DNA and RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation has been observed. The molecular mechanism of these phenomena consists of radioprotectors ability to form adsorption, thioester, amide, and disulphide bonds with appropriate enzymes. The curve reflecting the formation and breakdown of mixed disulphides between radioprotectors and proteins coincides well with that reflecting the radioprotective effect dependence on time. The radiobiological significance of molecular interactions observed may be interpreted as the diminution in ''spoiled'' molecules formation (inhibition of replication) and elevation in repartion rate. The inhibition of biochemical processes has the reversible nature and last for short time. The drugs acting according to so-called oxygen effect protect also by means of biochemical mechanisms. The molecular mechanism is mediated through their ability to bind to receptors, and biologically important molecules and macromolecules. As a result the inhibition of radiosensitive processes occurs, the ''spoiled'' molecules number is diminished and reparation takes place more easily. The idea on the complex biochemical mechanism of action of radioprotectors correlates with the proposal on complex biochemical mechanism responsible for interphase death occured after irradiation

  17. Osnovnye jekologicheskie problemy Baltijskogo morja i puti ih reshenija [The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  18. Osnovnye jekologicheskie problemy Baltijskogo morja i puti ih reshenija [The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    OpenAIRE

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  19. Analysis and environmental concentrations of the herbicide dichlobenil and its main metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Erland; Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Dichlobenil is an herbicide which has been applied in many countries for weed control in non-agricultural areas such as railroads, car parks and private gardens. In the aquatic environment it has been used for control of floating aquatic weeds. Dichlobenil is relatively persistent in the environm......Dichlobenil is an herbicide which has been applied in many countries for weed control in non-agricultural areas such as railroads, car parks and private gardens. In the aquatic environment it has been used for control of floating aquatic weeds. Dichlobenil is relatively persistent...... in the environment, and primarily bound to solid matrices. Of great concern is its main degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide which is water soluble and therefore transported downward in aquifers, contaminating groundwater resources. It is often found in concentrations exceeding 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum...

  20. Environmental monitoring program of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.

    1985-09-01

    This environmental monitoring program of CDTN aim to do a survey that permit to verify if the radioactive wastes release by CDTN agree with basic rudiments of radioprotection, evaluate the environmental impact, verify the adjustment of using proceedings to effluents control, to evaluate the maximum radiation doses that public persons will be able to get yearly. (C.M.) [pt

  1. Local-regional networks of persons with abilities in radioprotection and other actors in radioprotection. Audit report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    As the regulation requires the existence of persons with abilities in radioprotection (PCR, personnes competentes en radioprotection) in many industrial, medical or research activities where ionizing radiations are present, in order to improve worker protection, these professionals who are much less acknowledged in these sectors than in the nuclear sector, felt the need to gather in regional and sector-based networks. This report proposes a presentation of three existing networks (the APCRAP, the Grand-Ouest network, and the Aquitaine-Sud-Ouest network). For each of them, the report addresses the following aspects: creation, objectives, statutes, members, activities, human, technical and financial resources, role. Then answers to a survey and to interviews are analyzed with respect to the professional sector and to the region, in terms of expectations towards the networks, and in terms of network operation and services. Interviews of institutional actors and union and management representatives are also analysed

  2. Monitoring and surveillance of former uranium sites in Haute-Vienne (France): main outcomes of the review of a ten-year environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallerand, Marie-Odile; Gay, Didier; Andres, Christian

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, more than 200 sites were prospected and mined to extract uranium in France. Haute-Vienne, in the Midwest of the country, played a leading position. Up to the present, rehabilitation of the sites is nearly complete and surveillance is the way of assessing its efficiency. In 2003, AREVA NC was asked to produce a report presenting the results of the ten-year (1994-2003) monitoring and surveillance of the rehabilitated sites and their environment. In 2006, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) was asked to perform the technical review of this report. This review led IRSN to recommend actions to improve the monitoring systems and minimise discharges to the environment. Results and recommendations were presented to and discussed with the pluralistic expert group (GEP) created in 2006 by the French ministries of environment, health and industry. (author)

  3. Radioprotection of the environment: Towards the coming of age of radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Howard, B.; Copplestone, D.

    2004-01-01

    Stimulated by the apparition of large-scale environmental problems, the protection of the environment is becoming increasingly prominent within current concerns of human societies. Industrial and economical activities are experiencing detrimental impacts, which sometimes only become apparent after some delay, making it difficult or illusory to set corrective measures. Hence, a better capacity for anticipation needs to be targeted with a concomitant emphasis on regulation efforts to promote 'sustainable development', where there is a balance achieved between technological innovation and the potential for mastering the associated environmental risk. It is within this general context that radioprotection is called on today not only to fulfil the goal of protecting man, but also to that of protecting biota within a wide variety of complex environments. This has led the ICRP to reconsider its prior position which stated that protecting humans would implicitly also protect the environment to an adequate extent. This view particularly needed reconsideration due to the lack of an explicit scientific demonstration of its validity and because some exceptions have been identified. Since 2000, the ICRP has therefore worked at constructing a general framework for the radiological protection of non-human biota which is currently based on 4 main elements: 1) an approach channelled through the definition of 'reference organisms' to circumvent the difficulty of tackling the overall biodiversity of life forms, and the variety of their life spans, habitats, and metabolisms, 2) units and reference dosimetry models scaled to these reference organisms to be able to estimate radiation doses received by various biota, 3) a set of endpoints that would both ensure fulfilling the protection goals, and be accessible to quantification, and 4) a scale of risk based on the best interpretation of the information available on dose-effects relationships at the level of individuals. This progress

  4. What are the main environmental exposures associated with elevated IgE in Cuban infants? A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venero-Fernández, Silvia J; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Mora-Faife, Esperanza de la C; García-García, Gladys; del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergy disease pathogenesis, but little is known about the environmental factors associated with higher IgE levels in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for elevated serum total IgE infants living in Havana. Methods Eight hundred and seventy-seven infants provided blood samples. Data on allergic disease symptoms and a wide range of exposures were collected. Results The median IgE was 35IU/ml (interquartile range 13–96). The risk of having an IgE level above the median was higher for children who had been breastfed for 4 months or more (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.61) and for children who reported cockroaches in their home (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03–1.63). The risk was lower for children whose mother was in paid employment (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.97 compared with those who did not), for children living in homes where gas and electricity were used for cooking (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32–0.62 compared with electricity only) and for children with domestic pets at birth (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00). There was no association between paracetamol use and serum IgE levels. Conclusions Associations between gas fuel use and maternal employment indicate that IgE levels in early life are lower in children who may be living in relative affluence. The discrepancy in the effect of early exposure to pets or cockroaches may reflect differences in these allergens, or be confounded by relative affluence. Further investigation of this cohort will determine how these effects translate into the expression of allergic disease in later life. Objectif Les immunoglobulines E (IgE) jouent un rôle clé dans la pathogenèse de la maladie allergique, mais on sait peu sur les facteurs environnementaux associés à des taux plus élevés d'IgE chez les nourrissons. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque pour un taux élevé d'IgE s

  5. Evaluation of qualification and radioprotection knowledge of dentists in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Borges, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The status and implications of the actual radioprotection knowledge of people studying dentistry is evaluated. A brief research of the current situation in Brazil is presented. The inclusion of a discipline - or the remaking of existing ones - in the curricula of Brazilian dentistry schools, covering subjects from radioprotection to images quality control is suggested

  6. Potentiation of the protective effect of S-containing radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Zajtseva, T.G.; Smirnova, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the radioprotective efficiency and toxicity of mixtures containing cystamine or aminopropyl aminoethylthiophosphoric acid and one of the thiourea derivatives (gutimine or ethyrone). It was shown that these preparations delivered in a combination enhance the radioprotective effect while the toxicity was decreased [ru

  7. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  8. Occupational radioprotection program at Nuclear Engineering Institute -IEN: results obtained in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Pastura, V.F.S.; Soares, M.L.; LeRoy, C.L.; Teixeira, M.V.; Santos, I.H.T.; Pujol Filho, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    The results of occupational radioprotection program at Nuclear Engineering Institute-IEN- in 1991 are presented. The personnel monitoring, the routine monitoring of limited areas, the operational monitoring during the operation and the cyclotron CV-28 maintenance, the radioisotope processing and Argonauta Reactor operation, the control of radioprotection equipment and the control of radiation sources are included. (C.G.C.)

  9. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Nephropathia Epidemica Incidence and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Rodent Hosts: Identification of the Main Environmental Factors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchatre-Leroy, E; Crespin, L; Boué, F; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2017-08-01

    In Europe, the increasing number of nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in humans, caused by Puumala virus carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), has triggered studies of environmental factors driving these infections. NE infections have been shown to occur in specific geographical areas characterized by environmental factors that influence the distribution and dynamics of host populations and virus persistence in the soil. Here, we review the influence of environmental conditions (including climate factors, food availability and habitat conditions) with respect to incidence in humans and seroprevalence in rodents, considering both direct and indirect transmission pathways. For each type of environmental factor, results and discrepancies between studies are presented and examined in the light of biological hypotheses. Overall, food availability and temperature appear to be the main drivers of host seroprevalence and NE incidence, but data quality and statistical approaches varied greatly among studies. We highlight the issues that now need to be addressed and suggest improvements for study design in regard to the current knowledge on hantavirus epidemiology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Biomedical laboratories: architecture and radioprotection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Renata

    2005-01-01

    In institutions where biological research are made and some technologies make use of radioisotope, the radiation protection is an issue of biosecurity for conceptual reasons. In the process of architectural design of Biomedical Laboratories, engineering and architecture reveal interfaces with other areas of knowledge and specific concepts. Exploring the role of architectural design in favor of personal and environmental protection in biological containment laboratories that handle non-sealed sources in research, the work discusses the triad that compose the principle of containment in health environments: best practices, protective equipment, physical facilities, with greater emphasis on the latter component. The shortcomings of the design process are reflected in construction and in use-operation and maintenance of these buildings, with direct consequences on the occupational health and safety, environmental and credibility of work processes. In this context, the importance of adoption of alternatives to improve the design process is confirmed, taking into account the early consideration of several variables involved and providing subsidies to the related laboratories . The research, conducted at FIOCRUZ - a Brazilian health institution, developed from the analysis of the participants in the architectural project, aiming at the formulation of design guidelines which could contribute to the rationalisation of this kind of building construction

  11. The evolution of radioprotection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.

    1995-01-01

    We have reviewed the main issues that must now be faced in radiological protection. Many of them are linked to the ICRP recommendations in the report number 60. The impact of microelectronics in this field is significant and is leading to rapidly improved techniques and increasing sensitivity. A particularly important advance is the ''credit card'' dosemeter for X and gamma rays. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tab

  12. Radioprotection optimization in the electronuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Abela, G.; Ammerich, M.; Balduyck, S.; Batalla, A.; Drouet, F.; Fracas, P.; Gauron, Ch.; Le Guen, B.; Lombard, J.; Mougnard, Ph.; Murith, Ch.; Rannou, A.; Rodde, S.; Selva, M.; Tranchant, Ph.; Schieber, C.; Solaire, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Jolivet, P.; Chauveau, D.; Mathevet, L.; Juhel, T.; Mertz, L.; Bochud, F.O.; Desmaris, G.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Roy, C.; Delacroix, S.; Sevilla, A.; Rehel, J.L.; Bernhard, S.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Lochard, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Wack, G.; Barange, K.; Delabre, H.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty one presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - implementation of the ALARA principle in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains: status and challenges (C. Schieber); 2 - image quality and scanner irradiation: what ingredients to chose? (T. Solaire); 3 - radioprotection stakes and implementation of the ALARA approach during the IFMIF design (Y. Le Tonqueze); 4 - ALARA at the design stage of the EPR (P. Jolivet); 5 - alternative techniques to iridium 192 gamma-graphy for welds control: results and recommendations from the ALTER-X project (D. Chauveau); 6 - alternative techniques to ionizing radiations use in the medical domain: implementation of navigation strategies (L. Mathevet); 7 - justification of ionizing radiations use in non-medical imaging: overview of the French situation and perspectives status (S. Rodde); 8 - ISOE: task scheduling for radioprotection optimization in nuclear power plants (G. Abela); 9 - Practices and ALARA prospects among big nuclear operators (T. Juhel); 10 - experience feedback on the use of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in diagnostic imaging optimization (L. Mertz); 11 - DRLs: Swiss strategy and concept limits (F.O. Bochud); 12 - external dosimetry tools: the existing, the developing and the remaining problems (A. Rannou); 13 - is the optimization principle applicable to the aircraft personnel's exposure to cosmic radiation? (G. Desmaris); 14-15 - experience feedback of the ALARA approach concerning an operation with strong dosimetric stakes (P. Mougnard and N. Fontaine); 16 - optimization of reactor pool decontaminations ((P. Tranchant); 17 - radiopharmaceuticals transport - ALARA principle related stakes (G. Turquet de Beauregard); 18 - ALARA in vet radio-diagnosis activity: good practices guide (C. Roy); 19 - implementation of the ALARA approach at the Proton-therapy centre of Orsay's Curie Institute

  13. Radioprotection of targeted and bystander cells by methylproamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdak-Rothkamm, Susanne [Queen' s University Belfast, Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Belfast (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals, Cellular Pathology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Smith, Andrea; Lobachevsky, Pavel; Martin, Roger [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Prise, Kevin M. [Queen' s University Belfast, Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-23

    Radioprotective agents are of interest for application in radiotherapy for cancer and in public health medicine in the context of accidental radiation exposure. Methylproamine is the lead compound of a class of radioprotectors which act as DNA binding anti-oxidants, enabling the repair of transient radiation-induced oxidative DNA lesions. This study tested methylproamine for the radioprotection of both directly targeted and bystander cells. T98G glioma cells were treated with 15 μM methylproamine and exposed to {sup 137}Cs γ-ray/X-ray irradiation and He{sup 2+} microbeam irradiation. Radioprotection of directly targeted cells and bystander cells was measured by clonogenic survival or γH2AX assay. Radioprotection of directly targeted T98G cells by methylproamine was observed for {sup 137}Cs γ-rays and X-rays but not for He{sup 2+} charged particle irradiation. The effect of methylproamine on the bystander cell population was tested for both X-ray irradiation and He{sup 2+} ion microbeam irradiation. The X-ray bystander experiments were carried out by medium transfer from irradiated to non-irradiated cultures and three experimental designs were tested. Radioprotection was only observed when recipient cells were pretreated with the drug prior to exposure to the conditioned medium. In microbeam bystander experiments targeted and nontargeted cells were co-cultured with continuous methylproamine treatment during irradiation and postradiation incubation; radioprotection of bystander cells was observed. Methylproamine protected targeted cells from DNA damage caused by γ-ray or X-ray radiation but not He{sup 2+} ion radiation. Protection of bystander cells was independent of the type of radiation which the donor population received. (orig.) [German] Radioprotektive Agenzien sind sowohl in der Strahlentherapie von Krebserkrankungen als auch im Strahlenschutz im Zusammenhang mit akzidenteller Exposition von Bedeutung. Methylproamine ist die Leitsubstanz einer Klasse von

  14. Comparison of radioprotective effects of caffeine and ascorbic acid in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Lee, Byoung Hun [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Dal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    The oxygen effect in radiation biology is well known. Since oxygen enhances radiation-induced biological damage, antioxidants should be radioprotectors. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or caffeine is an essential component in the diet of humans and a small range of other mammals. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Caffeine is the main psychoactive ingredient of coffee, tea, even coke with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. Caffeine has been recently reported as a scavenger of hydroxyl radical in millimolar levels and a potently radioprotector in a chronically exposed rodent. This study investigates functional radioprotection of caffeine and ascorbic acid against gamma irradiation in male mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were irradiated with 6.5 Gy. A caffeine treated group was administered with 80 mg/kg body weight by i.p injection, a single exposure 1 hour before irradiation. Ascorbic acid was administered 330 mg/liter in drinking water through all the experimental period. The remaining mice were kept as sham controls. After collecting a serum from the experimental mice 6 hr after irradiation, qualitative analysis of testosterone was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA). For histological investigation, testes were removed 1 week after irradiation and fixed in NBF. Fixed testes were processed for paraffin sections and stained by H-E. The circulating testosterone significantly decreased in all irradiated groups. The harmful effect of radiation on the body and organ weight and the appearance of semiferous tubules were significantly improved in the caffeine - or ascorbic acid-treated group. In conclusion, caffeine and ascorbic acid protected spermatogenesis from impairment against gamma radiation, acting as a radioprotector.

  15. Comparison of radioprotective effects of caffeine and ascorbic acid in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Lee, Byoung Hun; Yoon, Yong Dal

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen effect in radiation biology is well known. Since oxygen enhances radiation-induced biological damage, antioxidants should be radioprotectors. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or caffeine is an essential component in the diet of humans and a small range of other mammals. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Caffeine is the main psychoactive ingredient of coffee, tea, even coke with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. Caffeine has been recently reported as a scavenger of hydroxyl radical in millimolar levels and a potently radioprotector in a chronically exposed rodent. This study investigates functional radioprotection of caffeine and ascorbic acid against gamma irradiation in male mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were irradiated with 6.5 Gy. A caffeine treated group was administered with 80 mg/kg body weight by i.p injection, a single exposure 1 hour before irradiation. Ascorbic acid was administered 330 mg/liter in drinking water through all the experimental period. The remaining mice were kept as sham controls. After collecting a serum from the experimental mice 6 hr after irradiation, qualitative analysis of testosterone was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA). For histological investigation, testes were removed 1 week after irradiation and fixed in NBF. Fixed testes were processed for paraffin sections and stained by H-E. The circulating testosterone significantly decreased in all irradiated groups. The harmful effect of radiation on the body and organ weight and the appearance of semiferous tubules were significantly improved in the caffeine - or ascorbic acid-treated group. In conclusion, caffeine and ascorbic acid protected spermatogenesis from impairment against gamma radiation, acting as a radioprotector

  16. Nanocomposite polymer materials used in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherestes, Codrut; Cherestes, Margareta; Constantinescu, Livia

    2004-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer-tungsten composite has been developed with characteristics that preserve the performance attributes of Pb (good radiation absorption, easy of forming, etc.) while avoiding its toxicity. This poly-metal composite formed primarily of tungsten and polymeric resins can be used in a wide range of applications in which lead and other toxic heavy metals have been historically applied. With density equal to that of Pb, the new material offers greater yield strength than Pb, can be injection molded, is nontoxic, and can be formulated to be very flexible or very stiff, depending on the application. With a large applicability in radiation shielding for nuclear medicine, radiology and nuclear power, the new material represents an ecologically sound alternative to toxic, environmentally undesirable traditional materials. The properties of the new material, its applications and its characteristics relative to Pb will be examined. (authors)

  17. Radioprotective action of 3-(imidazoline-2-alkyl)-5-methoxyindoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitny-Szlachto, S.; Kwiek, S.; Piotrowska, H.; Serafin, B.; Wejroch-Matacz, K.

    1977-01-01

    Radioprotective action in mice of four 3-(imidazoline-2'-alkyl)-5-methoxyindoles was examined and compared with that of 3-(2'-aminoethyl)-5-hydroxyindole (serotonine). The imidazoline-2-methyl derivatives (S 3 , S 4 ), applied in doses of 50 μmole/kg 10 min prior to irrdiation were found to reduce mortality of mice with LD 50 DRF of 1.14-1.15, while serotonine displayed DRF of 1.45. The imidazoline-2-ethyl derivatives (S 7 , S 8 ) have turned out to be ineffective. (author)

  18. Radioprotective effects of bacterial superoxide dismutase on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tianxi

    1992-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of bacterial superoxide dismutase (b-SOD) on the mice irradiated by 8 Gy γ-ray were investigated. The results showed that when b-SOD was injected before and after irradiation, the survival fraction of mice is increased 50% and 30% respectively. The former treatment could increase the DNA synthesis of the myeloid cells and spleen's lymphocytes, decrease the LPO of tissue homogenates and the hemolysis of erythrocytes significantly. The mechanism that b-SOD can drop the radiation injury of the mice was discussed

  19. Radioprotective and radiotherapeutic properties of biotechnological agent MD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, C.V.; Komar, V.E.; Sobol, Y.T.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years as the result of nuclear testing and accidents at nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl, etc. radiation exposure has become a major issue in various parts of the world. Experience of recent nuclear accidents has shown there is no effective treatment for patients expose to doses of radiation that result in fatal hematopoietic failure and /or secondary infections. Therefore, agents that are effective when administered after irradiation, are of great interest. In this study, the possibility of using biotechnological agent MD2 after lethal total body irradiation (TBI) and radiotherapy has been demonstrated. In addition, the considerable radioprotection without toxic effect can be obtained. (author)

  20. The environmental impacts on the star formation main sequence: An Hα study of the newly discovered rich cluster at z = 1.52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimakawa, Rhythm, E-mail: koyama.yusei@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a strong over-density of galaxies in the field of a radio galaxy at z = 1.52 (4C 65.22) based on our broadband and narrow-band (Hα) photometry with the Subaru Telescope. We find that Hα emitters are located in the outskirts of the density peak (cluster core) dominated by passive red-sequence galaxies. This resembles the situation in lower-redshift clusters, suggesting that the newly discovered structure is a well-evolved rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.5. Our data suggest that the color-density and stellar mass-density relations are already in place at z ∼ 1.5, mostly driven by the passive red massive galaxies residing within r{sub c} ≲ 200 kpc from the cluster core. These environmental trends almost disappear when we consider only star-forming (SF) galaxies. We do not find SFR-density or SSFR-density relations amongst SF galaxies, and the location of the SF main sequence does not significantly change with environment. Nevertheless, we find a tentative hint that star-bursting galaxies (up-scattered objects from the main sequence) are preferentially located in a small group at ∼1 Mpc away from the main body of the cluster. We also argue that the scatter of the SF main sequence could be dependent on the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy.

  1. Radioprotection optimization in the electronuclear, industrial and medical domains; Optimisation de la radioprotection dans les domaines electronucleaire, industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Abela, G.; Ammerich, M.; Balduyck, S.; Batalla, A.; Drouet, F.; Fracas, P.; Gauron, Ch.; Le Guen, B.; Lombard, J.; Mougnard, Ph.; Murith, Ch.; Rannou, A.; Rodde, S.; Selva, M.; Tranchant, Ph.; Schieber, C.; Solaire, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Jolivet, P.; Chauveau, D.; Mathevet, L.; Juhel, T.; Mertz, L.; Bochud, F.O.; Desmaris, G.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Roy, C.; Delacroix, S.; Sevilla, A.; Rehel, J.L.; Bernhard, S.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Lochard, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Wack, G.; Barange, K.; Delabre, H.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty one presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - implementation of the ALARA principle in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains: status and challenges (C. Schieber); 2 - image quality and scanner irradiation: what ingredients to chose? (T. Solaire); 3 - radioprotection stakes and implementation of the ALARA approach during the IFMIF design (Y. Le Tonqueze); 4 - ALARA at the design stage of the EPR (P. Jolivet); 5 - alternative techniques to iridium 192 gamma-graphy for welds control: results and recommendations from the ALTER-X project (D. Chauveau); 6 - alternative techniques to ionizing radiations use in the medical domain: implementation of navigation strategies (L. Mathevet); 7 - justification of ionizing radiations use in non-medical imaging: overview of the French situation and perspectives status (S. Rodde); 8 - ISOE: task scheduling for radioprotection optimization in nuclear power plants (G. Abela); 9 - Practices and ALARA prospects among big nuclear operators (T. Juhel); 10 - experience feedback on the use of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in diagnostic imaging optimization (L. Mertz); 11 - DRLs: Swiss strategy and concept limits (F.O. Bochud); 12 - external dosimetry tools: the existing, the developing and the remaining problems (A. Rannou); 13 - is the optimization principle applicable to the aircraft personnel's exposure to cosmic radiation? (G. Desmaris); 14-15 - experience feedback of the ALARA approach concerning an operation with strong dosimetric stakes (P. Mougnard and N. Fontaine); 16 - optimization of reactor pool decontaminations ((P. Tranchant); 17 - radiopharmaceuticals transport - ALARA principle related stakes (G. Turquet de Beauregard); 18 - ALARA in vet radio-diagnosis activity: good practices guide (C. Roy); 19 - implementation of the ALARA approach at the Proton-therapy centre of Orsay's Curie

  2. A contingent valuation study of buriti ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f. in the main region of production in Brazil: is environmental conservation a collective responsibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlaine R. Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The immature leaves of the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa are widely harvested in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão, for the production of handicrafts, which are sold to locals and tourists. The increasing demand for these artisanal goods is stimulating the emergence of an informal market for immature buriti leaves, leading to an intensification of their extraction and resulting in negative effects on local buriti palm populations and the ecosystem. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the environmental value of the buriti palm tree based on the maximum willingness to pay (WTP for its conservation, using the contingent valuation method. Among the respondents, 99.74% reported that the palm species should be protected and the majority of them (65.75% agreed to pay for its conservation (annual WTP R$ 179.49 ± 222.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that the WTP was not influenced by the socio-economic profile of the respondents. The main reasons for non-WTP are related to dissatisfaction with the government and the belief that financial contributions would not solve problems of environmental damage. Overall, the evaluated population believes that environmental conservation is not an obligation of the government or that of the population, but is a collective responsibility.

  3. Characteristics and environmental fate of the anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) used as the main component in foaming agents for mechanized tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Cardoni, Martina; Pescatore, Tanita; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) is the main component of most commercial products used for soil conditioning in the excavation industry, in particular as lubricants for mechanized tunnelling. Its use during the excavation processes can result in either the subsequent possible re-use of the huge amount of soil debris as by-products (e.g. land covering) or its discharge as waste. Currently, there are neither SLES soil threshold limits in European legislation, nor comprehensive studies on the environmental risk for soil ecosystems in these exposure scenarios. In this context, the present paper reviews the available data on the intrinsic characteristics of persistence and the ecotoxicological effects of the anionic surfactant SLES. Although SLES is generally reported to be biodegradable in standard tests, with degradation rates between 7 h and 30 days, depending on the initial conditions, data on its biodegradation in environmental studies are quite scarce. Consequently, assessing SLES biodegradation rates in field conditions is crucial for evaluating if in residual concentrations (typically in the range 40–500 mg/kg in excavated soils) it can or not be a potential hazard for terrestrial and water organisms. Laboratory ecotoxicological tests pointed out detrimental effects of SLES for aquatic organisms, while data on the terrestrial species are rather poor so far and further studies at the expected environmental concentrations are necessary. Finally, the review reports the main analytical methods available for detecting anionic surfactants in solid matrices and the future research needed to improve knowledge on the possible environmental risks posed by the use of SLES in foaming agents for mechanized tunnelling. - Highlights: • Tons of excavated soil containing SLES are reused posing an environmental risk. • SLES can have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms exposed in lab test. • There is a need to improve knowledge on SLES

  4. Radioprotective efficacy of dipyridamole and AMP combination in fractionated radiation regimen, and its dependence on the time of administration of the drugs prior to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Hola, J.; Znojil, V.; Vacha, J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have recently demonstrated that a combined administration of dipyridamole and adenosine monophosphate to mice induces radioprotective effects in terms of postirradiation hematopoietic recovery in animals irradiated with a single dose. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the radioprotective ability of the drug combination under conditions of fractionated radiation. It was shown that administration of the drugs either 15 or 60 min before each of the five daily 3-Gy doses of gamma radiation enhances hematopoietic recovery and survival of mice exposed to an additional 'top-up' dose of 3.5 Gy. Furthermore, it was ascertained that administration of the drugs 60 min prior to irradiation is more effective than administration of the drugs 15 min prior to irradiation. Due to the evidence that administration of the drugs 15 min prior to irradiation protects the organism mainly via mechanisms of systemic hypoxia while the pretreatment 60 min before irradiation avoids the role of hypoxia and mainly induces cell proliferation effects, the present results suggest a more protective role of mechanisms stimulating hematopoiesis under conditions of fractionated radiation. The data may provide a basis for more rational use of radioprotection in fractionated radiation techniques. (author) 1 tab., 1 fig., 25 refs

  5. Radioprotective effects of antioxidative plant flavonoids in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoi, Kayoko; Masuda, Shuichi; Shen, Bingrong; Furugori, Michiyo; Kinae, Naohide

    1996-01-01

    Radioprotective effects of tea infusions and plant flavonoids were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity and the thiobarbituric acid assay for antioxidative activity. A single gastric intubation of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) infusion at 1 ml per mouse 2 h prior to γ-ray irradiation (1.5 Gy) reduced the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs). After the fractionation of rooibos tea infusion, the flavonoid fraction was found to be most anticlastogenic and antioxidative. From this fraction, luteolin was isolated as an effective component. Then, anticlastogenic effects of 12 flavonoids containing luteolin and their antioxidative activities against lipid peroxidation by Fenton's reagent were examined. A good correlation (r=0.717) was observed between both activities. Luteolin showed the most effective potency. A gastric intubation of luteolin (10 μmol/kg) 2 h prior to γ-ray irradiation (6 Gy) suppressed lipid peroxidation in mouse bone marrow and spleen and a trend of protective effect of luteolin against the decrease of endogenous ascorbic acid in mouse bone marrow after γ-ray irradiation (3 Gy) was observed. These results suggest that plant flavonoids, which show antioxidative potency in vitro, work as antioxidants in vivo and their radioprotective effects may be attributed to their scavenging potency towards free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, the flavonoids contained in tea, vegetables and fruits seem to be important as antioxidants in the human diet

  6. Stabilization of glucocorticoid receptors in isolated rat hepatocytes by radioprotectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karle, J.M.; Ridder, W.E.; Wright, N.; Olmeda, R.; Nielsen, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work has shown that glucocorticoid receptors in rat liver homogenate can be stabilized by the addition of MoO 4 plus the sulfhydryl-containing compounds dithiothreitol and WR 1065. The latter is the dephosphorylated, principal metabolite of the radioprotectant WR 2721 (or S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanesphosphorothioic acid). The current work results from applying this knowledge to intact rat hepatocytes. Cells were isolated by collagenase perfusion and incubated in supplemented minimum essential medium at 37 0 C with various concentrations of WR 2721, WR 1065, or vehicle. Samples of these cell suspensions were analyzed at various times for steroid binding capacity by incubating homogenates (27,000 x g supernates) with 50 nM 3 H-triamcinolone acetonide in the presence or absence of excess unlabelled dexamethasone. Concentrations of 10 mM WR 2721 provided marked preservation of the binding capacity (>85% of the initial value at 5 hours) compared to control at 60% of the binding capacity. WR 1065 at 10 mM provided no such protection. This is consistent with the observation that WR 1065 does not pass cell membranes. The authors propose that supplying reducing equivalents to intracellular components such as the glucocorticoid receptor may be one mechanism of the radioprotection afforded by WR 2721

  7. Radioprotection of normal tissues of the mouse by hypoxic breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Joiner, B.; Denekamp, J.

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxic breathing during irradiation has been advocated as a therapeutic modality, to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. In this form of treatment, the total and daily X-ray dose is increased by a factor of 1.25, on the assumption that all normal tissues in the beam will be protected to a similar extent by breathing gas containing a reduced oxygen concentration (usually 10%). To test this concept, we have determined the effect of varying the inspired oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of 3 normal tissues in the mouse (kidney, jejunum and skin), and have compared these results with data from the literature for mouse lung. Reduction of the inspired oxygen tension from 21% (air) to 7-8% led to much greater radioprotection of skin (protection factor 1.37) than of lung (1.09). Protection factors for jejunum and kidney were 1.16 and 1.36 respectively. The results show that the extent of radioprotection afforded by hypoxic breathing is tissue dependent, and that great care must be taken clinically in choosing the increased radiation dose to be used in conjunction with hypoxic breathing

  8. Hydrogen as a New Class of Radioprotective Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liren; Shen, Jianliang; Chuai, Yunhai; Cai, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that most of the ionizing radiation-induced damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) follows radiolysis of H2O. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has antioxidant activities by selectively reducing ·OH and peroxynitrite(ONOO-). We firstly hypothesized and demonstrated the radioprotective effect of H2 in vitro and in vivo, which was also repeated on different experimental animal models by different departments. A randomized, placebo-controlled study showed that consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects. These encouraging results suggested that H2 represents a potentially novel preventative strategy for radiation-induced oxidative injuries. H2 is explosive. Therefore, administration of hydrogen-rich solution (physiological saline/pure water/other solutions saturated with H2) may be more practical in daily life and more suitable for daily consumption. This review focuses on major scientific and clinical advances of hydrogen-rich solution/H2 as a new class of radioprotective agent. PMID:24155664

  9. The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Mary Judith Q.; Gomez, Marlyn O.

    1999-03-01

    The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'trihydroxystilbene or resveratrol, a compound abundant in grapes, was investigated using the micronucleus test. Gamma radiation (6 Gy) was used to induce micronucleus formation in 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice. Five groups with five mice each were used. Three groups were given corresponding treatments (low, normal, high doses of reservatrol) via oral gavage for one week. The negative control group was not given any radiation nor any compound while the positive control group was exposed to radiation but was not given any compound. The mean micronucleus frequencies arranged from highest to lowest are as follows: low dose, positive control, normal dose, high dose and negative control. Using the analysis of variance-complete random design followed by the Duncan multiple range test, it was proven that resveratrol was able to inhibit micronucleus formation in polychromatic erythrocytes of 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice at the normal (60 micrograms) and high (120 micrograms) concentrations assigned. This suggests that its radioprotective potential may follow a dose-dependent pattern. (Author)

  10. Antagonism of ascorbate against the radioprotective action of cysteamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M; Ehrenberg, L; Djalali-Behzad, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Radiobiologiska Institutionen

    1976-07-01

    An investigation has been carried out into the interaction of cysteamine (MEA) and ascorbate on the radiosensitivity of E.coli, with painstaking removal of autoxidation products from glassware. Trace amounts of copper could be effectively removed, and the influence of small amounts of iron contaminating the analytical grade phosphate was assessed. The bacteria were exposed to MEA and/or ascorbate for 1 hour at 37/sup 0/C, irradiation with 42 or 58 krad of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..rays taking place 30 to 40 minutes after the additions. Survival studies demonstrated the reversion of a major fraction of the radioprotective action of MEA (2 or 6 mM) by ascorbate (5 mM) simultaneously present in the medium. Net RNA synthesis, determined by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-uridine, was suppressed by MEA and this was partly reversed by ascorbate. The irradiation of bacterium suspensions containing MEA and ascorbate was found to provoke a conspicuous stimulation of RNA synthesis above the level of unirradiated parallel samples. The effects of some oxidizing treatments (dehydroascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 3.6 ..mu..M FeSO/sub 4/ or 1 ..mu..M CuSO/sub 4/) together with MEA were also studied. Possible mechanisms for the ability of ascorbate to counteract the radioprotective action of MEA are discussed, and the implication of monodehydroascorbate formed during irradiation is suggested.

  11. Role of peroxide in the radioprotective action of thiols in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeslund, M.; Fedorcsak, I.; Ehrenberg, L.

    1976-01-01

    The radioprotective action of cysteamine (MEA) and cysteine in E. coli is due partly to autoxidatively generated hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ). This effect, which predominates at low concentrations of the thiols (1-2 mM in neutral solution), is regularly correlated with a metabolic block, measured as inhibition of RNA synthesis. In experiments with E. coli 15 (autotroph) under exponential growth in complete medium, the role of H 2 0 2 was demonstrated by (a) a decreased radioprotective action if catalase was present in the medium; (b) a radioprotective action if H 2 0 2 added to the medium; (c) a decreased protective action in the absence of catalytically active copper; and (d) oxygen being required for the radioprotective action to develop. At higher concentrations of the thiols, their radioprotective action, and the accompanying metabolic block, are less dependent on H 2 0 2 generation and presumably due to a different mechanism. The radioprotective action of H 2 0 2 is possibly related to the radioprotective action in mammals of catalase inhibitors. (author)

  12. Actual knowledge about some plants with radioprotective effect and about the research of possibilities their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalka, J.

    2004-01-01

    Study was undertaken to refer to me importance of radiological protection of human and animal species, especially. After the crash of nuclear power station in Chernobyl, Ukraine, an enormous natural catastrophe. The world wide research programs are dedicated to vearch for plants with radioprotective effect. Apparently representing sea vegetation, brown algae, were considered to have a radioprotective effect just as a large amount of plants representing terrestrial flora. The direction of research programs in the world continues in identification of other unknown plants having radioprotective effect. We would like to direct our research interests in this direction and use enormous possibilities of our rich and various vegetation. (author)

  13. Statistical Classification Of the Environmental Isotopes and the Hydrochemical data in the main Shallow Coastal Aquifer System in North West, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; AL-Gamal, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data and environmental isotopes were used in differentiating ground waters of different types within the quaternary aquifer in the north western coast of Egypt. Three main groups of water types were differentiated, in close agreement with three isotopic water groups, based on field and laboratory studies. The first group includes the sodium bicarbonate water type of meteoric origin (cluster 1 in multivariate analysis and isotopic water group 1) whereas, the second group includes both sodium chloride and sodium sulphate waters.(cluster in multivariate analysis and isotopic group 2). The third group represents ground water of salt water intrusion whose water type is sodium chloride (cluster 111 and isotopic water groups 3) .The data show that salinity ranges from 385 mg/L representing very fresh water to 12260 mg/L representing water contaminated with marine water due to excessive pumping in some Localities.

  14. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. Summary and main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  15. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m(sup 3)) (30 cubic yards[yd(sup 3)]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet[ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m(sup 3) (3000 yd(sup 3)) of construction-related debris

  17. Radioprotective effects of aronia on radiation irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Hwan Sik; Lee, Jun Haeng [Dept. of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The present study was intended to orally administer aronia to rats, irradiate radiation once to the whole bodies of the rats, and conduct blood tests to observe, compare, and analyze changes in blood cells, such as leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets, in order to examine the radioprotective effects of aronia. As experimental animals, 15 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged six weeks weighing 200∼250 g were taken and divided into the normal group (A) of five rats, the 5 Gy control group (B) of five rats, and the 5 Gy experimental group (C) of five rats. The normal group (A) was not irradiated at all, the control group (B) was administered with general diets and irradiated, and the experimental group(C) was orally administered with 50 mg/kg/day of aronia two times per day to achieve a distilled water oral dose of 100 mg/kg/day and irradiated thereafter (5 Gy at 500 cGy/min) for 14 days. After the experiment, differences in leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets among the normal group (A), the control group (B), and the experimental group (C) were examined by comparing the counts of the blood cells and the results showed no statistically significant differences. However, on a detailed review, the normal group (A) showed statistically higher mean values for all of lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin as compared to the control group (B) and the experimental group (C). Statistically significant differences in the counts of lymphocytes were shown between the normal group (A) and the control group (B), and between the normal group (A) and the experimental group (C); furthermore, statistically significant differences in mean corpuscular hemoglobin were shown between the normal group (A) and the experimental group (C). Given the results of the present study, in irradiated rats, aronia was generally considered as having no radioprotective effect on leukocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet while having statistically significant radioprotective effects on

  18. Meta-analysis of dragon’s blood resin extract as radio-protective agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaika Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In health sciences, much efforts had been made in past years to explore the radio-protective agents from natural resources due to rapid exposure of radiations to environment such as space traveling, radiotherapy and largely growing telecommunication industry. It becomes crucial to find natural sources for radio-protection. In correspondence, dragon’s blood (DB is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that possesses great medicinal values due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. For a long time, DB has been used in treatment of blood stasis, inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and tumors, but recently it has been extensively used as radio-protective agent. There is no comprehensive review on radio- protective characterization of DB resin extract in literature. In our review, an attempt has been made to highlight unique and inherent radio-protection in liver, brain, kidney, lung, spleen and cerebrum. This review will help people in exploring the radioactive protectants from natural resources.

  19. Radioprotection of the patient in nuclear medicine; Proteccion radiologica del paciente en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Maria del R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are developed: concepts on radioprotection; stochastic and deterministic effects; the prenatal irradiation; different types of radiation exposition (medical, occupational and public irradiation); and the justification of the levels of radiation.

  20. Industrial radioprotection - interpretations of the standard CNEN-NE-3.01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnino, R.; Zaniolo, C.

    1989-01-01

    The safety standard established by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Brazilian CNEN, to rule the activities related to radioprotection, embodies various professionals activities. In this article a specific analysis about the application of the standard to industry is presented. (author)

  1. In vitro analysis of radioprotective effect of monoterpenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichi Kudo; Tadashi Hanafusa; Toshiro Ono

    2017-01-01

    Monoterpenes are naturally occurring hydrocarbons composed of two units of isoprenes. They exhibit antioxidant activity to scavenge reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals. We investigated the potential of monoterpenes such as thymol, linalool, and menthol to act as radioprotectants. The proliferation of EL4 cells, a mouse lymphoma cell line, treated with linalool at a concentration of 500 μM or more was not affected by X-ray irradiation. Plasmid-nicking assay performed using formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase showed that linalool prevented single strand breaks and oxidized purines on pUC19 plasmid DNA. These findings indicate that linalool has the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and is a potential radioprotector. (author)

  2. Radioprotective action on bone marrow CFU during immobilization of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizer, H.J.; van Putten, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Anesthesia and restraint without anesthesia during whole-body x-irradiation decrease the mortality from both the bone marrow and the intestinal syndromes (30- and 5-day mortality). The two types of immobilization decrease the radiosensitivity of the hemopoietic stem cells, as shown by an increased survival of hemopoietic stem cells in the marrow of immobilized mice. The hypoxic cell radiosensitizer Ro-07-0582 reversed the radioprotective effect during restraint without anesthesia, but not during pentobarbital anesthesia. This indicates that hypoxia of the femur bone marrow cannot explain the decreased radiosensitivity of the stem cells during pentobarbital anesthesia. Pentobarbital was also shown to inhibit the recruitment of resting femur bone marrow stem cells (G 0 -phase cells) into cycle following a sublethal dose of x rays. The relevance of these observations is discussed

  3. Relationship between electronic structure and radioprotective activity of some indazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.A.

    2000-01-01

    The quantum-chemical study of electronic structure of 29 indasoles with complete optimization of geometry and search of quantitative link between the established characteristics and radioprotective activity (RPA) was carried out through the MNDO method with application of multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis and the basic component method. The equations of correlation relationship between the RPA and electronic characteristics are presented. 10 indasole structures, the forecasted RPA values whereof (survival rate, %) equal 50% and above, are selected. The statistic significance of the obtained correlation equations and their regression coefficients make it possible to conclude, that the established relationships are not accidental and are prospective for forecasting RPA of other close compounds of the indasole series [ru

  4. Radioprotection by Rubia cordifolia: studies on mitochondrial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, J.P.; Mishra, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is inevitable to living cells and induces several adverse effects in human ill health. Ionizing radiations are the major sources of ROS. Our present study was aimed to examine the radioprotective role of one popular ayurvedic herbal drug, Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) (Rc) against cellular damage. The results showed that aqueous extract of Rc ( ∼50 μg/ml) significantly prevented rat liver mitochondrial damage induced by ionizing radiation. Single strand breaks induced in plasmid pBR322 DNA following ionizing radiations was effectively prevented by Rc extract. Based on several biochemical results as well as radical scavenging ability of the extract, it can be suggested that extract of Rc may have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of radiation-induced cellular damage. (author)

  5. Advances in radioprotection through the use of combined agent regimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J F; Kumar, K S; Walden, T L; Neta, R; Landauer, M R; Clark, E P [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1990-04-01

    Improved radioprotection and reduced lethal toxicity of the phosphorothioate WR 2721 was observed after administration with metals (selenium, zinc or copper). A number of receptor-mediated protectors and other biological compounds, including endotoxin, eicosanoids and cytokines, have at least an additive effect when administered with thiol protectors. Eicosanoids and other bioactive lipids must be administered before exposure, whereas some immunomodulators have activity when administered either before or after exposure, e.g. interleukin administered simultaneously with WR 2721 before or after irradiation enhances the efficacy of WR 2721. The most effective single or combinations of protectors result in a decrement in locomotor activity (index of behavioural toxicity). Recent evidence indicates that caffeine mitigates toxicity of an effective dose of phosphorothioate WR 3689 without altering its efficacy. (UK).

  6. Radioprotective action of endoneous and exogenous natural compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mastro, N.L.

    1991-04-01

    In last years at the Radiobiology Division of our Institute several studies have been performed to determine the radioprotective capacity of some natural products from microbial, vegetal or endogenous origin. This substances have been chosen for some of their specific biological characteristics, among them: immunoestimulating (bacillus of Calmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum), anti-inflammatory (Cordia verbanacea), anti-carcinogenic and anti-oxidant ones (α-tocopherol). Assays were performed using albino mice previously injected intraperitoneally with those agents and then irradiated with lethal doses of sup(60)Co gamma radiation. Survival and body weight curves after irradiation have been studied during 30 days comparing to normal controls. Depending on the specific properties of tested substances the induction of splenomegalia and the behavior of peritoneal cellularity were concomitantly analyzed. (author)

  7. Radioprotection of intestinal crypt cells by cox-inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnar, Paul O.; Dones, Rosa Angela S.A.; Serna, Paulene-Ver A.; Deocaris, Chester C.; Guttierez, Kalangitan V.; Deocaris, Custer C.

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of tissue homeostasis in the gastrointestinal epithelium after epithelial injury focuses on the prostaglandins(PGs) as its major mediators. The two cyclooxygenase isoforms, cox-1 and cox-2, catalyze synthesis of PGs. Cox-1 is the predominant cyclooxygenase isoform found in the normal intestine. In contrast, cox-2 is present at low levels in normal intestine but is elevated at sites of inflammation, and in adenomas and carcinomas. To study the effects of various commercially-available cox-inhibitors (Ketorolac: cox-1 selective; Celecoxib: cox-2 selective; and Indocid: cox-1/2 non-selective), we determine mouse crypt epithelial cell fate after genotoxic injury with whole-body gamma-ray exposure at 15 Gy. Intestinal tissues of mice treated with cox-2 inhibitors that showed invariable apoptotic event, however, have increased occurrence of regenerating cells. Our results suggest a potential application of cox-2 selective inhibitors as radioprotective agent for normal cells after radiotherapy. (Author)

  8. Performance of ionization chambers in X radiation beams, radioprotection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Ana C.M.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Narrow beams, radioprotection level, were implanted in an X ray system, based on ISO 4037-1, as recommended by IAEA (SRS 16). Energy dependency tests were carried out and short-term stability in ionization chambers for use in radiation protection of trademark Physikalisch-Technische Werkstaetten (PTW), 32002 and 23361 models. The ionization chambers were studied with regard to short-term stability within the program of quality control of the laboratory, with a 90 Sr + 90 Y. The results of the short-term stability test were compared with the recommendations of IEC 60731, respect to dosemeters used in radiotherapy, since this standard presents the more restrictive limits with regard to the behaviour of ionization chambers. All cameras showed results within the limits recommended by this standard. With respect to the energy dependency of the response, the model Chamber 32002 presented a maximum dependence of only 2.7%, and the model Chamber 23361, 4.5%

  9. Radioprotective effects of ascorbic acid in barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B V

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring reducing agent, ascorbic acid, on seeds (caryopses) of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. emend Lam. Seeds were soaked either before or after ..gamma.. or fission neutron irradiation in distilled water or ascorbic acid solutions ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 1.00 M. Results are reported as percentage germination, seedling height, seedling growth reduction, and (in one experiment) percent of cells with chromosome aberrations. As evidenced by both reduced germination and seedling growth, ascorbic acid was toxic when seeds were soaked for 1 hr at ambient temperature prior to irradiation and then planted immediately. When seeds were soaked in ascorbic acid before irradiation and soaked after irradiation in air-bubbled water at 0/sup 0/C for 18 hr, the toxicity disappeared, and a protective effect (which increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration) was observed for ..gamma.. and, to a lesser extent, for neutron irradiation. Additional studies suggested that the protective effect was related to reduced hydration of the embryos of seeds soaked in ascorbic acid. Also, no radioprotective effect was observed when seeds were presoaked for 2 or 16 hr in 0.01 M ascorbic acid solutions buffered at pH 3 or pH 7. A protective effect was observed for seeds of 1.5 percent water content soaked after irradiation in an oxygen-bubbled ascorbic acid solution of 0.5 M but was not observed for seeds soaked in nitrogen-bubbled ascorbic acid. The protective effect against oxygen-dependent damage may be a result of interaction of ascorbic acid with radiation-induced free radicals.

  10. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  11. Development of Functional Foods and Advanced Technology for Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-05-01

    We have previously developed two medicinal herb mixtures that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against irradiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we have developed two pilot products by adding the effective fractions to the hot water extract of the herb mixtures and investigated their efficacy. In irradiated mice, pilot products protected hematopoietic stem cells, promoted the regeneration and activation of immune cells, normalized the unbalanced immune reaction, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells. Polysaccharide was active fraction and mechanisms were elucidated. The products also protected the stem cells in self-renewal tissues. DNA/membrane damages, apoptotic cell signals, chromosome/DNA alterations, and oxidation of protein/lipid were inhibited by pilot products, and their radical scavenging activities were observed. Five active components were isolated and identified. Pilot products also inhibited the cancer development by 30% in irradiated mice. In clinical investigation, pilot products inhibited the side-effects of cancer therapy including immune/hematopoietic depression. Therefore, the pilot products may be used as functional foods for overcoming of immune/hematopoietic depression and self-renewal tissue damages induced by irradiation, as well as for the immune/hematopoietic enhancement. Also we have screened food materials for inhibition of radiation-induced chronic damage (carcinogenesis), and selected effective 4 materials and elicited two mixture preparations with enhanced activity, and confirmed their inhibitory activities in cancer initiation model systems. To obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs. Also, screening of new radioprotective materials and basic biological research for the enhancement of

  12. Natural radioprotection of cells. Radiochemical, biochemical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent investigations on natural radioprotection are reviewed, carried out with human fibroblast strains and lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from individuals heterozygous or homozygous with regard to an inborn error in glutathione synthetase activity. The cells have a decreased content of non-protein bound sulphydryls and lack specifically glutathione either almost totally, or have a glutathione level about fifty per cent of the normal. Using single-strand DNA breaks as the end-point of the radiation effect, oxygen and misonidazole fail to enhance the radiosensitivity of cells deficient in glutathione, and OER and DMF close to unity are calculated. Substitution of glutathione deficiency by treatment with different radioprotective aminothiols decreases the sensitivity of the cells, and makes them susceptible to the oxygen effect. In glutathione deficient cells, rejoining of the single strand breaks proceeds at a normal rate after anoxic radiation exposure, but is inhibited after oxic exposure. Using clonogenic survival as the end-point for the radiation effect, sensitization of glutathione deficient cells is again greatly decreased, but OER and DMF differ significantly from unity. The data were interpreted to indicate that endogenous glutathione or some exogenous aminothiols repair radiation induced radicals in key target molecules by hydrogen transfer in a competition with oxygen and/or misonidazole which permanent the damage. The outcome of the radical reactions will be modified by further post-irradiation enzymatic repair processes of which at least one is glutathione dependent. For the appropriate clinical application of hypoxic cell sensitizers, the use of a ''vascularization index'', possibly determined by morphometric analysis of histological preparations, is suggested as a diagnostic parameter to characterize neoplasms besides current routine staging and grading of differentiation

  13. Radioprotective effects of sodium arginate on radiation induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Yukawa, Yutaka; Abe, Mitsuyuki.

    1988-05-01

    Effects of sodium arginate were examined on radiation-induced intestinal death of mice and on the pathological changes of the ileum after whole or partial abdominal X-irradiation. BALB/c male mice (SPF, 7 approx. 8 week old, 21 approx. 28 g body weight) were irradiated with various doses of 10 MV of X-rays under general anesthesia (dose rate : 4 Gy/min). A radiation field covers either 2.5 or 5.0 cm width of abdomen from the anus. Sterilized water or 5 % sodium arginate solution (0.2 ml/body) was daily given per os through a stomach tube until the death of mice or 15 approx. 21 days after X-ray exposure. Intestinal death was examined daily. In another experiment, mice were daily sacrificed and pathological specimens were made. In order to study the effects of sodium arginate on peripheral blood circulation in the ileum after X-ray exposure, the microangiograms with Ba contrast media were also taken. Sodium arginate showed statistically significant radioprotective effects on intestinal death after 14.5 approx. 15.0 Gy of X-ray irradiation to the abdomen through a radiation field of 5.0 cm width or after 18.0 Gy of X-irradiation to the abdomen through a field of 2.5 cm width. The pathological studies suggest that the drug may protect the surface of the intestine against infection and potentiate the recovery processes of the mucosal membrane. This may elucidate the possible mechanisms of radioprotective effects of sodium arginate on esophagitis or on rectal ulcer induced by radiotherapy.

  14. The actual research of radioprotective education on the educational facilities for radiological technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Tadashi; Koga, Sukehiko.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to grasp the actual conditions of the radioprotective education in the educational facilities for radiological technologists, and to discuss the ideal way of radioprotective education toward the 21st century. For this purpose, we sent out the questionnaire concerning the circumstances of radioprotective education to 38 educational facilities for radiological technologists in Japan, including 6 universities, 15 junior colleges and 15 technical schools. This research was carried out on March, 1997, and the answers were obtained total 34 educational facilities (86.8%) (6 universities, 15 junior colleges and 13 technical schools) in total. Among the educational facilities in Japan, universities were much richer than the other two facilities in every respect on the educational circumstances including number and the quality of teaching staffs, educational institutions and equipment, practical training facilities and equipment, the number of collection of books in the library, etc. In the process of education for radiological technologists, the background to cause problems concerning the radioprotective education was largely dependent on the difference of educational schemes in Japan. From the view point of the elevation of educational standard for radiological technologists, it is better to transfer all educational processes to the universities, and give high and full level of radioprotective education in universities. And in the field of the medical radiology, the radioprotection and the management system should also be strengthened. For this purpose, it is also required to revise the related laws drastically, to strengthen lessons related to the radioprotection and to plan the richness in contents of the radioprotective education. (K.H.)

  15. The cytogenetic estimate of the radioprotective effect of antioxydant on normal and defected human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvereva, S.V.; Mutovina, G.R.; Khandogina, E.K.; Marchenko, L.F.; Neudakhin, E.V.; Artamonov, R.G.; Akif'ev, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    In studying the radioprotective action of natural and synthesised antioxydants a decreased yield of chromosome aberrations with respect to those in untreated cells was noted in normal cells irradiated in phase G 1 whereas no radioprotective effect was found in cells irradiated in G 0 . The addition of antioxydants into the cell cultures from patients with Turner's syndrome did not change their radiosensitivity. No adaptive response was induced in lymphocytes from patients with Down's syndrome cultivated with vitamine E

  16. Some aspects of radioprotection assurance in radiodiagnostic service activity from Chisinau municipality in 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, A.; Stanchevici, V.; Balanel, V.; Danga, V.

    2007-01-01

    Together with the accordance of specialized medical assistance, the population of Chisinau municipality needs the accordance of general radiodiagnostic and interventional qualitative assistance. The permanent multi-institutional supervision offers partial optimization of radioprotection in the Republic Medical and Sanitary Institutions (PMSI) of Chisinau municipality. The qualitative optimization of radioprotection in PMSI of Chisinau municipality can be assured while being supplied with the operation radio diagnostic equipment. (authors)

  17. The choice of iron-containing filling for composite radioprotective material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyukhin, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the data the composition of modern composite building materials including materials which in addition to high physical-mechanical have radio-protective properties. The article presents infrared researches and differential thermal data of fine-grained magnetite and hematite beneficiated iron-ore concentrates. The choice of the most suitable filling for new composite radio-protective building material engineering and development was made basing on the magnetite and hematite data presented in the paper.

  18. Trigger factors mainly from the environmental type are reported by adolescents with migraine Fatores desencadeantes de migrânea relatados por adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dalla Bernardina Fraga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Migraine can be triggered by many factors such as stress, sleep, fasting and environmental causes. There are few studies that evaluated migraine trigger factors in the adolescent population. Methods: A total of 100 participants from 10 to 19 years were subjected to a detailed headache questionnaire, with demographic and clinical data, and a headache diary including trigger factors during a two-month period was asked. Results: Fifty of the participants exhibited chronic migraine and the other 50 participants demonstrated episodic migraine. The most common group of trigger factors reported was the environmental one, mainly sun/clarity, followed by hot weather and the smell of perfume. Conclusions: Ninety-one percent of children and adolescents with migraine reported a trigger factor precipitating the migraine attack.Crises de migrânea podem ser desencadeadas por muitos fatores, como estresse, sono, jejum e causas ambientais. Poucos estudos avaliaram os fatores desencadeantes de migrânea em adolescentes. Métodos: Cem pacientes, de 10 a 19 anos, foram submetidos a um questionário detalhado sobre sua cefaleia, com dados demográficos e clínicos e um diário da cefaleia, incluindo perguntas sobre os fatores desencadeantes, por um período de dois meses. Resultados: Cinquenta pacientes apresentavam migrânea episódica e 50, migrânea crônica. O grupo de fatores desencadeantes mais frequentemente relatado foi o ambiental, principalmente sol ou claridade, seguido pelo clima quente e pelo cheiro de perfume. Conclusões: Noventa e um por cento dos adolescentes com migrânea relataram pelo menos um fator desencadeante de crises álgicas.

  19. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  20. RADIOPROTECTION CAMPAIGN AND CARD: EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES THAT REDUCE CHILDREN'S EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO RADIOLOGICAL EXAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Mônica Oliveira; Almeida, Fernando Antonio de; Morgado, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the results of an initiative aimed at improving the reasonable use of radiological examinations, ensuring their technical quality, implementing a radioprotection campaign that includes training of the professional team, and introducing the radioprotection card for children under 12 years old as a tool for parents and doctors to control children's exposure to radiation. The study was held in a health care insurance system covering 140,000 people. A radioprotection campaign was implemented according to Image Gently • protocols, ensuring the lowest dose of radiation and the quality of examinations, and the radioprotection card was implemented. To assess the effectiveness of these actions, the number of radiological examinations performed at the pediatric emergency room in a period of one year preceding the campaign was compared with the number of radiological examinations performed one year after the campaign. The campaign was well accepted by all professionals, families, and patients involved. In the year following the implementation of radioprotection strategies, there was a 22% reduction of radiological examinations performed at the pediatric emergency room. There was also a 29% reduction in the request of two or more radiological examinations for the same child or examinations with two or more incidences. The campaign and the radioprotection card for children under 12 years old proved to be feasible strategies and correlated with a reduction in radiological examinations requested and performed at the pediatric emergency room.

  1. A comparative study of radioprotective effect of several antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Zhu Gengbai; Gu Xuandi

    1992-01-01

    By means of improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as the fluorometric agent, radioprotective effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, i.e. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes were in human blood lymphocytes were compared by using relative protective efficiency (RPE) as an indicator. The LPO level in human lymphocytes which had been treated with an antioxidant at an concentration of 5 x 10 -3 g/L for 1 hr was measured 2 hr after exposure to 4 Gy of γ-rays, and the RPE values of antioxidants were calculated under these conditions: SOD, 38.23; VE, 23.75:VC, 19.32 and Se +4 , 18.27, thus the anticipation that the compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD), 2-tocopherols (VE), ascorbic acid (VC) and Na 2 SeO 3 (Se +4 ) had radioprotective effects was confirmed. It was found that the radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged as SOD>VE>VC,Se +4 . The results show that radioprotective effects of exogenous antioxidants on radiation induced LPO damage are dependent not only on irradiation dosage, but also especially on property of antioxidants, drug concentration, pretreatment and monitoring time, etc. The mechanism of these antioxidants effecting as radioprotectants on human lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  2. Synergistic Radioprotection by Gamma-Tocotrienol and Pentoxifylline: Role of cAMP Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Chakraborty, Kushal; Kumar, K. Sree; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and mechanisms of radioprotection by the combination of gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) and pentoxifylline (PTX) against acute radiation injury. Materials and Methods. Post-irradiation survival was monitored to determine the most efficacious dose and time of administration of PTX. Dose reduction factor (DRF) was calculated to compare the radioprotective efficacy of the combination. To determine the mechanism of synergistic radioprotection by the combination, mevalonate or calmodulin were coadministered with the GT3-PTX combination. Mevalonate was used to reverse the inhibitory effect of GT3 on 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and calmodulin was used to reverse the inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) by PTX. Results. The combination was most effective when 200 mg/kg of PTX was administered 15 min before irradiation along with 200 mg/kg of GT3 (−24 h) and resulted in a DRF of 1.5. White blood cells and neutrophil counts showed accelerated recovery in GT3-PTX-treated groups compared to GT3. Mevalonate had no effect on the radioprotection of GT3-PTX; calmodulin abrogated the synergistic radioprotection by GT3-PTX. Conclusion. The mechanism of radioprotection by GT3-PTX may involve PDE inhibition

  3. Training in radioprotection at undergraduate and postgraduate level at the school of pharmacy and biochemistry, Buenos Aires University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.; Caro, R.A.; Rivera, E.S.; Menossi, C.

    2000-01-01

    The advancement of knowledge in physics studies, medicine, pharmacology, cell biology and other disciplines that take place during the last 60 years is principally due to radioisotopes techniques. For this reason, the importance to teach radioisotopes methodologies at undergraduate and postgraduate levels kept growing. At the same time it was necessary to harmonize the use of these methodologies with environmental preservation. The School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires offers four different Courses on Methodology of Radioisotopes in which the Radiological Protection is focalized under different aspects: 1) A Course for students in the Biochemistry Cycle; 2) A Course for post-Graduate in Medicine, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemists or other disciplines related to the health. 3) Another one for professionals wishing to up-date their knowledge; and finally, 4) one for Technicians in Nuclear Medicine and/or Biomedicine. The aims for teaching Radiological Protection are different for the four levels; in 1), the subject was done from 1960, (optional or mandatory) and with a arrived number of students. In some aspects the teaching of radioprotection is formative and in others informative, because the approval of the a signature does not habitable to ask from the Nuclear Regulatory Authority the authorization to work with radioactive material; in 2), the Course begun in 1962 and 1520 professionals have approved it. In this case the training in radioprotection aspects is theoretical and practical and very intensive, encompassing: dosimetric magnitudes and units, internal and external dosimetry of 125 I, 131 I, 201 Tl, 99M Tc, 60 Co and other isotopes, qualification of area, working conditions, contamination barriers, shielding; justification, optimization and dose limits; radioactive wastes; legal aspects; national and international legislation. The intensity of the training is in accord with that required by each professional and their

  4. Statistical study of the activity developed in the Unit of Environmental Dosimetry and Personnel of the Radioprotection Service of the National Center of Environmental Health; Estudio estadístico de la actividad desarrollada en la Unidad de Dosimetría Ambiental y Personal del Servicio de Radioprotección del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Gimeno, G.; Moracho, J.; Sánchez, L.; Ballesteros, G.; Medina, P.; Castro, J.

    2016-07-01

    The service of radiation protection of the National Center for Environmental Health, which belongs to the Institute of Health Carlos III, began its activities in the 80’s. This study shows the dosimetry data of professionals working in the fields of health, research and/ or education, and the industry in radioactive installations controlled by the unit between 1992 and 2013. This work presents the different kinds of dosimeter and the evolution of the number of controlled people in the diverse activity fields during these 22 years, the trend of the average annual doses and the highest received doses, as well as the effect of the administrative doses. Finally a summary of the conclusions from these data is presented. [Spanish] El Servicio de Radioprotección (SRP) del Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental, perteneciente al Instituto de Salud Carlos III, inició sus actividades en la década de los 80. Este estudio contiene los datos dosimétricos de los profesionales, que desarrollaron su actividad en instalaciones radiactivas controladas dosimétricamente por la unidad desde el año 1992 hasta 2013, dentro de los campos sanitario, de investigación y/o docencia, e industrial. En él se presenta los tipos de dosímetros utilizados y la evolución durante estos 22 años del número de personas controladas en las distintas ramas de actividad, la tendencia de las dosis individuales medias anuales y las dosis más altas recibidas, así como la incidencia de las dosis administrativas. Finalmente se hace un resumen de las conclusiones obtenidas a partir de estos datos.

  5. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  6. Proposal of a weight factor for alpha radiation aiming biota radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Goncalves, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Several proposals based on the environmental radioprotection of calculating the absorbed dose in biota have been suggested. The absorbed dose expresses the deposition of energy per mass unit. The differences in biological effects of the absorbed dose can be quantified by applying a correction factor to the absorbed dose. The correction factor for radiation is easier to establish, because radiations exist in smaller number (alpha, beta, neutrons and photons) and can be set for groups of organisms. This work aims to propose a correction factor for radiation, in order to adequate the concept of absorbed dose currently used to the concept of equivalent dose. A survey of the literature on correction factors proposed for alpha radiation was carried out and, when possible, the biological endpoint was identified, as well as the radionuclide and the biological target. A variation of the weight factor for alpha radiation from 1 to 377 was observed and a number of biological endpoints, biological target and alpha emitter radionuclide were identified. Finally we propose a weight value for alpha radiation of 40, and we propose also the name of correction factor for radiation alpha as being ecological radiation weighting factor (WRE) the name 'equivalent dose for flora and fauna' (HTFF) to name of the new dose. (author)

  7. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousdhy, H.; Pierotti, T.; Polverelli, M.

    1969-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [fr

  8. Experience of the Argentine Radioprotection Society in training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    From its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radioprotection Society (SAR) has as basic purpose promoting all the aspects related with the radiological protection and the nuclear safety. Due to the great increment in the use of radioactive sources in diverse areas, soon it was evident for the SAR the importance and necessity to promote the knowledge of the radioprotection approaches between the users of radioactive sources and ionizing radiations in all its application fields, be these industrial, academic or doctors. From the year 2000, the SAR comes organizing in regular and periodical form basic and specialized courses about radiological safety of radioactive sources for industrial use and profile of oil wells, among others. In this work, the characteristics of the different dictated courses are described whose programs have been developed keeping in mind the requirements of the competent authorities of Argentina. Also, statistical information on the dictated courses and its participants is presented. The number of dictated courses was incremented from 6 (year 2000) up to 16 (year 2005), being also increased significantly the number of participants for course. The dictated courses are theoretical-practical, with a duration average of 20 hs. The educational body is constituted by specialists in the different topics with recognized experience. Its given to the participants notes and support material, as well as copies of the material presented to develop the course. When concluding the courses, its deliver to the participants certifies of attendance and/or approval, as it corresponds. In their headquarters the SAR has didactic facilities and specific equipment for the dictation of the courses. Also accounts with the easiness of dictating those courses outside of their headquarters. This is particularly advantageous for companies or organizations that are seated in points far from the main cities and they should qualify in radiological safety to the personnel but, by

  9. An experimental study of radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction on cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    This paper is to assess the effect of Adaptagen as a radioprotector in which main component is alkaloid fraction of ginseng. Evaluation was made in vitro and in vivo study with NIGP(S) mouse by the measurement of regeneration of jejunal crypt cell and micronucleus assay to analyze radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction in comparison with that of water fraction after whole body irradiation. The results were as follows, 1. The degree of radiation damage of mouse jejunal crypt cell was diminished in both of alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group. 2. Regeneration of mouse jejunal crypt cell was higher both in alkaloid and water fraction groups than control group. 3. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in tendency for the treated groups than control group but statistically insignificant. 4. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in both alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group.

  10. Contamination and cancers: low-dose risks and standards of radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation of the population due to the running of nuclear power stations represents less than 1% of the natural radioactivity today, and should amount to 3% at most by the year 2 000. The main effects of ionizing radiations are reviewed and their undetectability below 100 rems is underlined. Thus the evaluation of low-dose risks can only be speculative and the cautions hypothesis adopted is that of a linear relationship between dose and effect, together with the absence of threshold. According to calculations the worker, supposedly exposed to 500 mrem a year between ages 18 and 65, would run a 22.2% instead of the normal 22% risk of dying of cancer. As for the population, the risk would increase by only 1 per 10 000 in the year 2 000. This means that no other mutagenic and carcinogenic agent is as well regulated as radioactive pollution and efforts directed at a better control of harmful chemicals, for instance, are only taking an example from the ruling on radioprotection [fr

  11. The radioprotective effects of methylprednisolone and Sho-Saikoto on mouse lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kure, Fumio [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1992-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of methylprednisolone and Sho-Saikoto (a herbal medicine) on radiation damage to lung tissue were evaluated in four main groups of female Slc-ICR mice, one control group and three groups irradiated with single doses (6 Gy, 12 Gy, 18 Gy) of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. Subgroups were established with administration of methylprednisolone and Sho-Saikoto, alone and together. Direct quantitative measurements of collagen accumulation in lung (lung fibrosis) were made by analysis of digitally processed microscopic images of Azan-Mallory stained sections 24 weeks after irradiation. Administration of methylprednisolone supressed the expected development of fibrotic lung tissue in each of the irradiated groups. In a further study, peplomycin, a lung fibrosis enhancing agent, was administered to all four groups in addition to methylprednisolone and Sho-Saikoto, alone and together. Methylprednisolone was demonstrated to be effective only in 12 Gy group. Overall, Sho-Saikoto showed a lesser degree of effect in the prevention of the fibrosis than methylprednisolone, but the administration of both was demonstrated to be more effective than either alone. (author).

  12. Radioprotective effects of flavonoids against to chromosomal damage: relation between the structure and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Castillo, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2004-01-01

    The polyphenolic distribution of Vitis vinifera seeds (GSE), Citrus spp, frutis (CE) and Olea europaea L. leaves (OL) extracts were characterized and quantified by HPLC methods. Radioprotective effects of these extracts and the reference flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, evaluating the reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order GSE>CE>rutin>dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)>OL>diosmin. Thes results show that the free radicals scavenging capacity, mainly vs hydroxyl radical, and consequently, the anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic compounds are based, structurally, on the presence of specific functional groups in their structures, aminly the B-ring catechol, the 3-hydroxyl group and the 2,3-double bond conjugated with 4-oxo function and, in addition by the stability of the aroxyl radical generated in the processes. (Author) 80 refs

  13. Calculation codes in radioprotection, radio-physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S.; Laedermann, J.P.; Bochud, F.; Ferragut, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Parisi, L.L.; Abou-Khalil, R.; Longeot, M.; Kitsos, S.; Groetz, J.E.; Villagrasa, C.; Daures, J.; Martin, E.; Henriet, J.; Tsilanizara, A.; Farah, J.; Uyttenhove, W.; Perrot, Y.; De Carlan, L.; Vivier, A.; Kodeli, I.; Sayah, R.; Hadid, L.; Courageot, E.; Fritsch, P.; Davesne, E.; Michel, X.

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty seven presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - GATE: calculation code for medical imaging, radiotherapy and dosimetry (S. Jan); 2 - estimation of conversion factors for the measurement of the ambient dose equivalent rate by in-situ spectroscopy (J.P. Laedermann); 3 - geometry specific calibration factors for nuclear medicine activity meters (F. Bochud); 4 - Monte Carlo simulation of a rare gases measurement system - calculation and validation, ASGA/VGM system (A. Ferragut); 5 - design of a realistic radiation field for the calibration of the dosemeters used in interventional radiology/cardiology (medical personnel dosimetry) (J.M. Bordy); 6 - determination of the position and height of the KALINA facility chimney at CEA Cadarache (L.L. Parisi); 7 - MERCURAD TM - 3D simulation software for dose rates calculation (R. Abou-Khalil); 8 - PANTHERE - 3D software for gamma dose rates simulation of complex nuclear facilities (M. Longeot); 9 - radioprotection, from the design to the exploitation of radioactive materials transportation containers (S. Kitsos); 10 - post-simulation processing of MCNPX responses in neutron spectroscopy (J.E. Groetz); 11 - last developments of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code for trace amounts simulation in liquid water at the molecular scale (C. Villagrasa); 12 - Calculation of H p (3)/K air conversion coefficients using PENELOPE Monte-Carlo code and comparison with MCNP calculation results (J. Daures); 13 - artificial neural networks, a new alternative to Monte Carlo calculations for radiotherapy (E. Martin); 14 - use of case-based reasoning for the reconstruction and handling of voxelized fantoms (J. Henriet); 15 - resolution of the radioactive decay inverse problem for dose calculation in radioprotection (A. Tsilanizara); 16 - use of NURBS-type fantoms for the study of the morphological factors influencing the pulmonary

  14. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Tanja; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca 2+ and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer

  15. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  16. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B.; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine

  17. Operational measurements in radioprotection in the industrial and medical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodde, S.; Vial, Th.; Truffert, H.; Kramar, R.; Batalla, A.; Roine, Ph.; Pin, A.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Paquet, F.; Veres, A.; Cadiou, A.; Branthonne, J.Y.; Noel, A.; Laloubere, L.; Moreau, St.; Gensdarmes, F.; Marques, S.; Lestang, M.; Valendru, N.; Tranchant, Ph.; Martel, P.; Bernhard, S.; Chareyre, P.; Gardin, I.; Casanova, Ph.; De Vita, A.; Tenailleau, L.; Masson, B.; Feret, B.; Guerin, M.; Guillot, L.; Gaultier, E.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - enforcement circular of the labor code dispositions relative to workers protection against ionizing radiation hazards (T. Lahaye); 2 - context and regulatory evolutions - public health code (S. Rodde); 3 - references and perspectives in external dosimetry (J.M. Bordy); 4 - CIPR's Committee 2 works (F. Paquet); 5 - from protection data to measurement data (A. Pin); 6 - dosimetric control in radiotherapy (A. Veres); 7 - calibration of irradiation measurement devices in industrial environment (A. Cadiou); 8 - calibration and verification of nuclear measurement devices (J.Y. Branthonne); 9 - calibration of measurement devices in medical environment (J.M. Bordy); 10 - quality control in radiotherapy (A. Batalla); 11 - in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy (A. Noel); 12 - calibration metrology of fixed post irradiation sensors (L. Laloubere); 13 - design requirements for the radiological zoning and the wastes cleanliness of Flamanville 3 EPR reactor (S. Moreau); 14 - efficiency of aerosol capture systems used in CNPE EDF (F. Gensdarmes); 15 - mobile surveillance means of the atmospheric contamination of CNPE EDF's reactor building (S. Marques and M. Lestang); 16 - experience feedback about the security gates at EDF's nuclear facilities (N. Valendru); 17 - metrology needs for radioprotection technical controls (P. Tranchant); 18 - technical evaluation of a flowmeter/dosemeter in the framework of the regulatory control of X-ray electric generators used in radio-diagnosis (P. Martel); 19 - reinforced natural radioactivity - the case of radon measurement (S. Bernhard); 20 - fires during radioactive materials transport (P. Chareyre); 21 - measurement in the framework of medical examinations: radiology service (A. Noel); 22 - operational measurements in nuclear medicine (I. Gardin); 23 - from the operational

  18. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine de radionucleides dans les effluents produits et de

  19. Degradation of the tricyclic antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine under environmental conditions, identification of its main aquatic biotic and abiotic transformation products by LC-MSn and their effects on environmental bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2012-03-15

    The search for environmental transformation products of organic pollutants (like drugs) is a difficult task and usually only few compounds are detected. This might be due to effective degradation but could also be a result of analytical deficits dealing with complex matrices. Especially transformation products of very low concentrations in sludge were difficult to identify so far. Additionally, the use of standard separation techniques might lead to the loss of isomeric compounds, which possess identical spectroscopic and spectrometric properties. To date no complete study investigating the environmental fate of any tricyclic antipsychotic drug has been reported. Therefore, this study investigated the popular neuroleptic drug chlorpromazine and its potential transformation by all main environmental pathways: aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation as well as abiotic photolytic degradation by sunlight. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass-spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) allowed the detection of numerous compounds. Further, the use of a special software allowed distinguishing between transformation products of small intensities and background "noise" caused by sludge or matrix. Three aerobic tests of different bacterial density (the Closed Bottle test, OECD 301D; the Manometric Respiratory test, OECD 301F; the modified Zahn-Wellens test, 302B; one anaerobic test (a modified anaerobic degradation test according to ISO 11734) as well as a photodegradation test were performed in the present study. According to the individual test guidelines, chlorpromazine had to be classified as not biodegradable in all of the biodegradation tests. However, a special chromatographic column and gradient along with mass spectrometric fragmentation experiments of higher order uncovered the presence of a total of 61 abiotic and biotic transformation products which where formed during the course of the tests. The structures of three

  20. Main findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  1. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in two biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Bernardes, D.M.L.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.

    1991-03-01

    The present study was conducted: a) to confirm data from others describing a radioprotective capacity of DMSO in mice; b) to establish whether this protective behavior could be evidenced in an in vitro chemical system utilizing bovine crystalline protein as target. Heterozigous female albino mice were used for the 30-day-survival studies after 9 Gy sup(60)Co gamma irradiation (dose rate: 4.5 Gy/min) injected 1 h prior with 2000 mg/kg DMSO intraperitoneally. Total body weight curves during the same period were also analysed. For the molecular level studies 1 M DMSO was added to a series of aqueous protein solutions from bovine lens and 10 min later irradiated with 5 different doses from 5,000 to 25,000 Gy sup(60)Co (average dose rate 14 Gy/min). After irradiation, spectrophotometric reading at 600 nm and free thiol group determinations were performed in order to evaluate the radiation-induced modifications. (author)

  2. Radioprotection - an example for non-nuclear industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.

    1977-01-01

    Basing himself on the experience acquired for 14 years with the atomic energy commision in the sphere of radiotoxicological surveyance of the personnel, the author observes that very strict controles are ensured in the nuclear industry. Simultaneously the results of measures that has been taken in respect to diversification for the past six years in many non-nuclear industries spread over the whole of French Territory are described. The different harmful effects that has been involved in controlling: mineral toxics (lead, mercury); organic toxics (vinyl chloride, benzenic solvents, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene); physical harmful effects (noise), are studied. The results obtained, both from the biological and toxicological point of view, on the man at work and on the conditions of his exposure to non radioactive harmful effects, are analyzed. The author compares the knowledge acquired in the two fields: nuclear field in which the biological effects of radiation, the metabolism of radioelements, the standards of exposure and radiotoxicological surveyance are now well known and codified; non-nuclear field in which many unknown elements continue, the standards of exposure not being agreed at International Level and even inexistant at national level. The example of vinyl chloride, whose considerable toxicity has recently been displayed, is analyzed. The author can thus conclude that the technology and design of the A.E.C. installations ensure excellent prevention. Radioprotection is an example of what should be attained in all work environments for all other effects harmful to man at work [fr

  3. Radioprotective effect of cysteamine in glutathione synthetase-deficient cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschavanne, P.J.; Debieu, D.; Malaise, E.P.; Midander, J.; Revesz, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radioprotective role of endogenous and exogenous thiols was investigated, with survival as the end-point, after radiation exposure of cells under oxic and hypoxic conditions. Human cell strains originating from a 5-oxoprolinuria patient and from a related control were used. Due to a genetic deficiency in glutathione synthetase, the level of free SH groups, and in particular that of glutathione, is decreased in 5-oxoprolinuria cells. The glutathione synthetase deficient cells have a reduced oxygen enhancement ratio (1.5) compared to control cells (2.7). The radiosensitivity was assessed for both cell strains in the presence of different concentrations of an exogenous radioprotector:cysteamine. At concentrations varying between 0.1 and 20 mM, cysteamine protected the two cell strains to the same extent when irradiated under oxic and hypoxic conditions. The protective effect of cysteamine was lower under hypoxia than under oxic conditions for both cell strains. Consequently, the oxygen enhancement ratio decreased for both cell strains when cysteamine concentration increased. These results suggest that cysteamine cannot replace endogenous thiols as far as they are implicated in the radiobiological oxygen effect. (author)

  4. Study on radioprotective effects of GANRA-like medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Zhu; Hailong, Pei; Wenling, Ye [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); others, and

    2012-03-15

    After three days of medicine administrated, Kunming mice were exposed to 8 Gy of 100 kVp X-rays. Hemogram, viscere, survival, MDA yields and SOD activity were examined. Results showed that, (1) Survival of medicine-administrated mice were similar to the control group. After irradiation, survival dropped significantly. It took 20 days for the control group to reach to 50% survival, while 9 days for DMSO group 29 days for drug group 1, and 24 days for drug group 5. (2) The medicine per se had no obvious impacts on visceral indexes. Liver index and spleen index of the control group and DMSO group were elevated after irradiated, while those of medicine-administrated group did not change much. (3) The groups treated by DMSO and drug group 1 had high yield of MDA, but low activity of SOD. Compared with DMSO group, drug group 5 had high SOD activity while low MDA level. Irradiation increased MDA level but decreased SOD activity of every group, However, group drug 5 still showed higher SOD activity and lower MDA level than DMSO group. (4) The medicine did not show distinctive contributions to variation of hemogram. In summary, our results demonstrated that GANRA-like group drug 1 and group drug 5 medicine had radioprotective effects and their mechanisms might be related to the scavenging ability of free radicals. (authors)

  5. Assessment in vitro of radioprotective efficacy of curcumin and resveratrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastia, Natividad, E-mail: natividad.sebastia@uv.es [Area de Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Montoro, Alegria [Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Universitario La Fe, 46009, Valencia (Spain); Montoro, Amparo [Area de Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Almonacid, Miguel; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio [Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Universitario La Fe, 46009, Valencia (Spain); Cervera, Jose; Such, Esperanza; Silla, Ma Angeles [Servicio de Hematologia, Hospital Universitario La Fe, 46009, Valencia (Spain); Soriano, Jose Miguel [Area de Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Many natural substances have been studied in recent past to be used as radioprotectors to mitigate ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems due to its effectiveness given both pre- and post-irradiation and for long time with out drug-related toxicity. Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are both natural occurring polyphenols, obtained from the root of Curcuma longa and from grapes and other berries, respectively. These compounds have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Our aim was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy, in vitro, of curcumin and trans-resveratrol separately against radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The study was carried out by the pre-treatment of human blood lymphocytes at concentrations from 0 to 500 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and from 0 to 50 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for curcumin and trans-resveratrol, respectively. The results showed that all concentrations tested reduced radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Maximum damage protection was observed at the concentration of 5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for curcumin and 0.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for trans-resveratrol. Thus, our results show that curcumin and trans-resveratrol pre-treatment significantly protect normal lymphocytes against {gamma}-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  6. Assessment in vitro of radioprotective efficacy of curcumin and resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastia, Natividad; Montoro, Alegria; Montoro, Amparo; Almonacid, Miguel; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio; Cervera, Jose; Such, Esperanza; Silla, Ma Angeles; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Many natural substances have been studied in recent past to be used as radioprotectors to mitigate ionizing radiation-induced damage in mammalian systems due to its effectiveness given both pre- and post-irradiation and for long time with out drug-related toxicity. Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are both natural occurring polyphenols, obtained from the root of Curcuma longa and from grapes and other berries, respectively. These compounds have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Our aim was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy, in vitro, of curcumin and trans-resveratrol separately against radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The study was carried out by the pre-treatment of human blood lymphocytes at concentrations from 0 to 500 μg mL -1 and from 0 to 50 μg mL -1 for curcumin and trans-resveratrol, respectively. The results showed that all concentrations tested reduced radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Maximum damage protection was observed at the concentration of 5 μg mL -1 for curcumin and 0.5 μg mL -1 for trans-resveratrol. Thus, our results show that curcumin and trans-resveratrol pre-treatment significantly protect normal lymphocytes against γ-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  7. Study on induction of radioprotection using antioxidant combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J. S.; Choe, Y. K.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Antioxidants are applied in tumor patients during chemo- or radiotherapy due to its cytoprotective effects. Therefore, aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of exposure with a variety of antioxidants on primary bone marrow cells after {gamma}-irradiation. We studied the radiation-induced cell death in comparison to mouse bone marrow cells after single-dose irradiation with 1, 2, 3 or 6 Gy and controls without irradiation. Cells cultured in vitro had been exposed to different concentrations of antioxidants prior to {gamma}-irradiation. The effect was evaluated 6, 8, 17 or 24 h after radiation exposure by propium iodide staining. While sodium selenite and N-acetylcyseine could achieve significant inhibition of radiation-induced cell death, aminoguanidine and alpha-lipoic acid were not shown to inhibit it. Furthermore, the combination of N-acetylcysteine with some mild antioxidants such as BHA, propyl gallate, quercetin or trolox induced the significant inhibition of radiation-induced cell death. However, these effect was different depending on the duration of radiation exposure and the concentration of antioxidants added in culture. Although the radioprotective effect of antioxidants should be compared with the effect on tumor itself, our results indicate that the use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied in tumor patients during radiotherapy. 26 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  8. Study on radioprotective effects of GANRA-like medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingyue; Pei Hailong; Ye Wenling

    2012-01-01

    After three days of medicine administrated, Kunming mice were exposed to 8 Gy of 100 kVp X-rays. Hemogram, viscere, survival, MDA yields and SOD activity were examined. Results showed that, (1) Survival of medicine-administrated mice were similar to the control group. After irradiation, survival dropped significantly. It took 20 days for the control group to reach to 50% survival, while 9 days for DMSO group 29 days for drug group 1, and 24 days for drug group 5. (2) The medicine per se had no obvious impacts on visceral indexes. Liver index and spleen index of the control group and DMSO group were elevated after irradiated, while those of medicine-administrated group did not change much. (3) The groups treated by DMSO and drug group 1 had high yield of MDA, but low activity of SOD. Compared with DMSO group, drug group 5 had high SOD activity while low MDA level. Irradiation increased MDA level but decreased SOD activity of every group, However, group drug 5 still showed higher SOD activity and lower MDA level than DMSO group. (4) The medicine did not show distinctive contributions to variation of hemogram. In summary, our results demonstrated that GANRA-like group drug 1 and group drug 5 medicine had radioprotective effects and their mechanisms might be related to the scavenging ability of free radicals. (authors)

  9. RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, M.I.; ALI, S.E.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

  10. Operational measurements in radioprotection in the industrial and medical environments; Mesures operationnelles en radioprotection dans les milieux industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodde, S.; Vial, Th.; Truffert, H.; Kramar, R.; Batalla, A.; Roine, Ph.; Pin, A.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Paquet, F.; Veres, A.; Cadiou, A.; Branthonne, J.Y.; Noel, A.; Laloubere, L.; Moreau, St.; Gensdarmes, F.; Marques, S.; Lestang, M.; Valendru, N.; Tranchant, Ph.; Martel, P.; Bernhard, S.; Chareyre, P.; Gardin, I.; Casanova, Ph.; De Vita, A.; Tenailleau, L.; Masson, B.; Feret, B.; Guerin, M.; Guillot, L.; Gaultier, E.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - enforcement circular of the labor code dispositions relative to workers protection against ionizing radiation hazards (T. Lahaye); 2 - context and regulatory evolutions - public health code (S. Rodde); 3 - references and perspectives in external dosimetry (J.M. Bordy); 4 - CIPR's Committee 2 works (F. Paquet); 5 - from protection data to measurement data (A. Pin); 6 - dosimetric control in radiotherapy (A. Veres); 7 - calibration of irradiation measurement devices in industrial environment (A. Cadiou); 8 - calibration and verification of nuclear measurement devices (J.Y. Branthonne); 9 - calibration of measurement devices in medical environment (J.M. Bordy); 10 - quality control in radiotherapy (A. Batalla); 11 - in-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy (A. Noel); 12 - calibration metrology of fixed post irradiation sensors (L. Laloubere); 13 - design requirements for the radiological zoning and the wastes cleanliness of Flamanville 3 EPR reactor (S. Moreau); 14 - efficiency of aerosol capture systems used in CNPE EDF (F. Gensdarmes); 15 - mobile surveillance means of the atmospheric contamination of CNPE EDF's reactor building (S. Marques and M. Lestang); 16 - experience feedback about the security gates at EDF's nuclear facilities (N. Valendru); 17 - metrology needs for radioprotection technical controls (P. Tranchant); 18 - technical evaluation of a flowmeter/dosemeter in the framework of the regulatory control of X-ray electric generators used in radio-diagnosis (P. Martel); 19 - reinforced natural radioactivity - the case of radon measurement (S. Bernhard); 20 - fires during radioactive materials transport (P. Chareyre); 21 - measurement in the framework of medical examinations: radiology service (A. Noel); 22 - operational measurements in nuclear medicine (I. Gardin); 23 - from the

  11. Assay for the antioxidant and radioprotectant activity of extracts form endemic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Woo, Hyun Jung; Plewa, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Since radiation damage and oxygen poisoning occur through the formation of reactive oxygen species, it is a challenging task to develop agents with high antioxidant and radioprotectant activities from plant species. In this study, several species of Korean endemic plants were chosen as experimental candidates. Water-and ethanol extracts were made from the candidates and tested for their antioxidant and radioprotectant activities. In vitro antioxidant assay of the aqueous-organic extracts was carried out using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging method. Radioprotective effects were tested by means of experimental on irradiated cell cultures and animals. Among others, the water-extract of Ixeris dentata leaves showed a marked effect on the viability of B16 melanoma cells and provided a radioprotective effect on the number of the leukocytes in the irradiated rodents. DNA damage in the lymphocytes after γ-irradiation decreased in the extract administered animals. Many of the extracts tested in this study showed a slightly lower activity in free radical scavenging than the well-known chemical antiozidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytuluene, and glutathione. However, some extracts showed an antioxidant activity similar to that of α-tocopherol acetate and caffeine. These results support the optimistic view for developing radioprotective agents from the Korean endemic plants that showed a strong antioxidant activity

  12. Murine P-glycoprotein deficiency alters intestinal injury repair and blunts lipopolysaccharide-induced radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Elizabeth M; Yarbrough, Vanisha R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G

    2012-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a(-/-) mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a(-/-) distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1α, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a(-/-) animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1(-/-) animals, indicating a role for IL-1α in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1α gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS.

  13. Assay for the antioxidant and radioprotectant activity of extracts form endemic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Woo, Hyun Jung [KAERI, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Plewa, Michael J. [University of Illinois, Illinosi (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since radiation damage and oxygen poisoning occur through the formation of reactive oxygen species, it is a challenging task to develop agents with high antioxidant and radioprotectant activities from plant species. In this study, several species of Korean endemic plants were chosen as experimental candidates. Water-and ethanol extracts were made from the candidates and tested for their antioxidant and radioprotectant activities. In vitro antioxidant assay of the aqueous-organic extracts was carried out using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging method. Radioprotective effects were tested by means of experimental on irradiated cell cultures and animals. Among others, the water-extract of Ixeris dentata leaves showed a marked effect on the viability of B16 melanoma cells and provided a radioprotective effect on the number of the leukocytes in the irradiated rodents. DNA damage in the lymphocytes after {gamma}-irradiation decreased in the extract administered animals. Many of the extracts tested in this study showed a slightly lower activity in free radical scavenging than the well-known chemical antiozidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytuluene, and glutathione. However, some extracts showed an antioxidant activity similar to that of {alpha}-tocopherol acetate and caffeine. These results support the optimistic view for developing radioprotective agents from the Korean endemic plants that showed a strong antioxidant activity.

  14. Phyto chemical and biological studies of certain plants with potential radioprotective activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, N.H.M.I

    2008-01-01

    One of the promising directions of radiation protection development is the search for natural radioprotective agents.The present work includes: I- Screening of certain edible and medicinal plants growing in Egypt for their radioprotective activities. II- Detailed phyto chemical and biolo-activity studies of the dried leaves of brassaia actinophylla endl. comprising: A-Phyto chemical screening and proximate analysis. B-Investigation of lipoidal matter. C- Isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of phenolic constituents. D- Isolation, characterization and structure elucidation of saponin constituents. E- Evaluation of radioprotective and antitumor activities. I- Evaluation of potential radioprotective activities of certain herbs: In vivo biological screening designed to investigate the radioprotective role of 70% ethanol extract of 11 different herbals was carried out by measuring the lipid peroxide content, as well as the activities of two antioxidant enzymes; viz glutathione, and superoxide dismutase in blood and liver tissues 1 and 7 days after radiation exposure. II : Phyto chemical and biolo-activity studies of the dried leaves of brassaia actinophylla Endl A : preliminary phyto chemical screening, determination and TLC examination of successive extractives. B : Investigation of lipoidal matter. GLC of unsaponifiable matter (USM)

  15. Environmental and Radiological Protection Department - DEPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activities and purposes of the Environmental and Radiological Protection Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry form Brazilian CNEN are presented. It is also presented an historical review of its activities, its personnel and its sections. (J.A.M.M.)

  16. Quantification and classification of the main environmental impacts on a Halodule wrightii seagrass meadow on a tropical island in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Pitanga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stress mechanisms have caused a worldwide decrease in seagrasses, which are vulnerable to environmental and/or anthropogenic pressure. The loss of seagrass meadows of Halodule wrightii is reported for the littoral of Itamaracá Island (Northeastern Brazil. The present study identified the main anthropogenic factors that negatively influenced over the abundance and distribution of seagrass meadows between July and September 2007 at the Jaguaribe and Pilar Beaches, Eastern littoral of Itamaracá. Anthropogenic impact included the discharge of untreated sewage through fluvial channels, urban and commercial development along the coast, the anchoring of motorized and non-motorized boats, diverse fishing techniques and the dumping of solid waste. The data indicates that the Pilar is an environment with a higher impact index (71.43% when compared with the Jaguaribe (57.14%, standing out the number of boats with a central motor, the total number of boats, the presence of shellfish gatherers and coastal urban development. The present study reinforces the need for defining management and conservation measures for this ecosystem, which has high ecological and economic value.Múltiplos mecanismos estressores têm causado em todo mundo declínio das angiospermas marinhas, que são vulneráveis a pressões ambientais e/ou antrópicas. A perda de prados de Halodule wrightii tem sido relatada para o litoral da Ilha de Itamaracá (Nordeste do Brasil. O presente estudo identificou os principais fatores antrópicos que influenciaram negativamente na abundância e distribuição desses prados entre Julho e Setembro de 2007 nas praias de Jaguaribe e do Pilar, litoral leste de Itamaracá. O impacto antropogênico incluiu despejo de efluentes in natura nos canais fluviais, desenvolvimento urbano e comercial na linha de costa, ancoragem de embarcações motorizadas e não-motorizadas, técnicas diversas de pesca e disposição de resíduos sólidos. Os dados

  17. Radioprotective effect of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (2-MPG) on the hematology of Swiss albino mice after radiocalcium internal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Bhagat, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The drug 2-MPG, when administered before 45 Ca treatment, shows its radioprotective effect on total red blood cells, total white blood cells, hemoglobin balues and hematocrit percentage. However, the radioprotective effects of 2 MPG are limited to early intervals only. (author)

  18. Radioprotective role in lung of the flaxseed lignan complex enriched in the phenolic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Dukes, Floyd; Arguiri, Evguenia; Turowski, Jason; Grieshaber, Philip A; Solomides, Charalambos C; Cengel, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    While dietary wholegrain Flaxseed (FS) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties in murine models of acute and chronic lung injury, the main bioactive ingredient that contributes to these protective effects remains unknown. This study evaluated the lignan complex of FS (FLC) enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside with respect to lung radioprotective and tumor radiosensitizing efficacy using a mouse model of thoracic radiation-induced pneumonopathy. C57/Bl6 mice were fed 0% FS, 10% FS, 10% FLC or 20% FLC for 3 weeks, then irradiated with a single fraction (13.5 Gy) of X-ray radiation treatment (XRT). Mouse survival was monitored for 4 months after irradiation and inflammatory lung parameters were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Gene and protein levels of protective antioxidant and phase II enzymes were evaluated in lung tissue using qPCR and protein levels were verified by immunoblotting. Prolonged administration of the FLC diet was well tolerated and was not associated with any toxicity. Importantly, comparable to the whole grain 10% FS diet, irradiated mice fed 10% and 20% FLC diets displayed improved survival. Improved hemodynamic measurements were also recorded in irradiated mice fed 10% FS or 10% FLC diet compared to irradiated 0% FS fed mice. Flaxseed lignan complex diet also attenuated polymorphonuclear infiltration and overall lung inflammation to levels comparable to those in nonirradiated mice. Flaxseed lignan complex, similarly to FS, up-regulated gene expression as well as protein levels of protective antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Dietary FLC induced radiosensitizing effects in our murine model of metastatic lung cancer. Importantly, protection of normal tissue does not thwart tumor cell death by radiation treatment. The dietary lignan complex of FS, mainly consisting of the phenolic secoisolariciresinol, is protective against radiation

  19. Medical and biochemical training in radioprotection at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Buenos Aires University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires offers four different coursers on Radioisotope Methodology in which Radiological Protection concepts are given to: 1) biochemistry undergraduates; 2) physicians, biochemists, biologists and chemists; 3) professionals who need to put their theoretical and practical knowledge up-to-date; 4) technicians working at nuclear medicine centers or at biomedicine laboratories. Each course has a different purpose: the first one, which has been given at different levels of the curricula since 1960, is mainly informative; the second one, given during five months from 1962, is formative. 1513 professionals have passed the examinations of this course and asked for the authorization to handle radioactive materials from Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority. Training is theoretical and practical. It includes: dosimetric magnitudes and units, internal and external dosimetry of 125 I, 131 I, 201 TI, 99m Tc, 60 Co and other isotopes with the intensity required by each professional according to his/her specialty; qualification of areas, working conditions, contamination barriers, shielding; justification, optimization and dose limits; radioactive wastes; legal aspects, national and international regulations. The third course, which has been given since 1992, has the aim to being the knowledge of radioprotection up-to-date. The fourth course, which started in 1997, includes mainly operational aspects: columns elution, injection of radioactive drugs to patients, decontamination of areas. Our results are quite satisfactory: 95% of the enrolled students passed the examinations of the respective levels; the requirement is the acquisition of criteria according to their professional/technical responsibility. (author) [es

  20. Gamma radiation induced enhancement in the antioxidant and radioprotective activities of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul Anantha Kumar, A.; Sonwani, Swetha; Bakkiam, D.

    2018-01-01

    Recently γ-radiation has been used as a tool to induce structural changes in natural biomolecules to enhance their biological and physiological properties. Flavonoids are a family of plant derived polyphenolic compounds having considerable scientific and therapeutic importance. Structurally they are the benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives containing phenolic and pyrane rings. Flavonoid radioprotection is an intense area of research thanks to features like natural origin, effectiveness at non-toxic dose levels and lack of side effects. But till date no report is available on the effect of γ-radiation mediated enhancement in radioprotection activity of flavonoids. In view of this the present study was carried out to determine the γ-radiation induced structural changes in selected flavonoids i.e. apigenin, naringenin and genistein and also to explore the possibility of enhancement in their antioxidant and radioprotective activities

  1. Conceptual design, neutronic and radioprotection study of a fast neutron irradiation station at SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanini, L.; Baluc, N.; Simone, A. De; Eichler, R.; Joray, S.; Manfrin, E.; Pouchon, M.; Rabaioli, S.; Schumann, D.; Welte, J.; Zhernosekov, K.

    2011-12-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the proposals concerning the conceptual design, neutronic and radioprotection study of a fast neutron irradiation station at the PSI's Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ facility. The need for fast neutron irradiation is discussed and the possibility of using SINQ as a fast neutron irradiation facility is considered. The production of isotopes, tracers and medical isotopes is discussed, as are fission and fusion reactor technologies. The characteristics of the neutron spectrum in SINQ are discussed. The neutronic and radioprotection calculations for an irradiation station at SINQ are looked at in detail and extensive examples of work done and results obtained are presented and discussed. Radioprotection issues are also looked at. Further contributions in the report cover the hot/cold irradiation station in the SINQ target. An appendix provides detailed drawings of the facility's pneumatic delivery system

  2. Radioprotective effects of a preparation (HemoHIM) of a herb mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, U Hee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The proliferation of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, scientific and medical research, the military, and as a source of energy has increased the likelihood of an accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Synthetic radioprotective agents have been studied for decades but their application was limited due to their toxicity. Thus, the radioprotective agent to protect individuals against severe radiation damage is required. A preparation (HemoHIM) of a mixture of 3 edible herbs was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. In this study, we evaluated its radioprotective effects with regards to reduction of DNA damage, immune cell repopulation, intestinal crypt survival, and 30-day survival rate.

  3. Use of micronucleus test in evaluating radioprotective action of mixed tremella preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiaben; Huang Yinmei; Zhu Bingchai

    1993-01-01

    The radioprotective action of mixed tremella preparation (Yinshen Yin) on whole body gamma irradiated dogs has been studied. 25 male dogs were divided into five groups: tremella, mercaminum, Yinshen Yin at high dose, Yinshen Yin at low dose and control. All the dogs were given above drugs in 10 successive days before acute exposure of 1 Gy radiation. The results showed that the prophylactic use of Yinshen Yin had good anti-irradiation effect, and the radioprotective effect was similar to the mercaminum, but significantly higher than tremella. Thereby it was considered as a good radioprotective agent. The dose reduction factor in different groups were: Yinshen Yin high dose 2.01, Yinshen Yin low dose group 1.72, mercaminum group 1.55 and tremella group 1.11

  4. Biochemical and molecular genetic approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Sung, Woo Kyung; Piao, Wen Hua [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. About 100 medicinal plants were purchased and methanol extract samples were prepared. Radio-protective and radio-sensitizing activities of these samples were screened. Seven samples showed above 20% radio-protective activities: Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, Alpiniae officinari rhizoma, Meliae fructus, Alpiniae katsumadaii semen, Betulae cortex. Acanthopanax sessiliflous showed the highest radio-sensitizing effect and 10 other samples revealed moderate activities: Melia japonica, Agastache rugosa, Platycodon gradiflorum, Broussonetia bazinoki, Angelica gigas, Inula helenium, Chelidonium majus, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Dioscorea batatas. (author). 49 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana on radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajna, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Intense exposure to ionization radiation by accidental, occupational or therapeutical purpose causes cellular damage mainly by formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by free radicals. Humans are intentionally exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The use of ionising radiation in cancer therapy may lead to transient and/or permanent injury to normal tissues within the treatment field. To increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy, various modes of radioprotection have been developed that selectively reduce cytotoxic effects to normal tissues. Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. Loeseneriella arnottiana, a member of family Hippocrateaceae, is a climbing shrub used by traditional medicine practitioners. To study the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana against electron beam radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Loeseneriella arnottiana roots were dried and extracted using methanol by solvent extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The lymphocytes were incubated for one hour with two different concentrations 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before exposure to 2 Gy electron beam radiation. 30 μg of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana exhibited 96% radical scavenging activity comparable to 15 μg of ascorbic acid. In reducing power assay it showed dose dependent increase in absorbance indicating that extract is capable of donating hydrogen atoms. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before irradiation resulted in reduction in the Comet length, Olive tail moment, percentage of DNA in tail when compared to the radiation control group. Results of this

  6. Radioprotective effect of microelements at the territories contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    The most radioactively contaminated region of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Palesse belongs to a biogeochemical province where soils, plants, and, accordingly, forage for animals and food stuffs are poor with biologically important microelements - iodine, zinc, copper, cobalt, fluorine, manganese, lithium, boron. It is a cause of specific diseases of plants, animals and people known as hypomicroelementhoses. Carrying out the radioprotective measures (countermeasures), particularly liming of soils and applying the heightened doses of phosphoric fertilizers, reduces transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants and also elements of mineral nutrition included the microelements. It aggravates the deficiency of microelements following the decrease of productivity and quality of production in plant and animal breeding and exacerbation of the mentioned diseases. It is known, that many microelements have radioprotective properties, and same of them can influence on uptake of other elements in plants. Therefore, considering the situation with microelements, we can expect of their role in radiation protection of living organisms in a zone affected by accident in Chernobyl NPP. It was shown the applying (root injection) of zinc, manganese, cobalt, copper in the sulfates and chlorides (4-6 kg of metal per hectare) on soddy-podsolic soil, reduced the Sr 90 and Cs 137 transfer factor. Zinc was the most effective: the content of both radionuclides in grain of oats and lupine decreased in 1,5-2 times. Lesser efficiency was observed with manganese and cobalt, much less - with copper. Moreover, in some cases the increase of Sr 90 accumulation was observed. Influence of microelements was stronger in variants without fertilizers, than with their heightened doses. It happened because, firstly, fertilizers contain some various microelements. And, secondly, in favorable conditions for growth and development of plants provided by fertilizers, the action of both factors, positive, and

  7. The synthesis of unsymmetric disulfides for use as radio-protectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.H.H.

    1988-01-01

    Unsymmetric disulfides with radioprotective potential were synthesized by linking biomolecules, and related substances, to known radio-protective aminothiols via a disulfide bond. The biomolecules used in this research include mercaptoalcohols, mercaptopyridines and mercaptophenothiazines. Unsymmetric disulfides were synthesized by reacting two thiols with diethyl azodicarboxylate sequentially at low temperature. The reactions of thiols with thiosulfinate were studied as an alternative for synthesizing disulfides. A cross-linked polystyrene was thiolated by different reagents. The thiolation of polymers is part of a methodological study using solid phase synthesis to synthesize unsymmetric disulfides

  8. S-omega carboxamidinoalkyl isothiurea compounds. VI. Radioprotective testing on E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M; Pantev, T [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of eight newly synthesized potential radioprotectors from the group of the S-omega carboxamidinoalkyl isothiourea compounds is studied. The protective activity of these compounds is evaluated according to the ability of E. coli B to form colonies. Exponential culture of this strain were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 kR of gamma rays (Cobalt 60) in the presence of the tested compounds administered in experimentally established nontoxic concentrations 15 minutes before irradiation. Five of the eight compounds tested showed radioprotective effect which was more prominent at the higher doses. As a result of this, cell survival was increased by one order.

  9. Current knowledge from experimental works with radioprotective drugs from the viewpoint of latest scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalka, J.

    2008-01-01

    The protection of both human and animal population against a radiation impairment proves to be an impulse for continuous intensive searching for plants with radioprotective properties, identification of their radioprotective components and examination of their effects both in vivo an in vitro. I am presenting the results as well as knowledge of a latest scientific research in this field with testing the following plants: Vigna radiata, Mentha piperita, Citrus aurantium var. amara, Syzygium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus amarus, Aloe vera, Angelica sinensis, Rosemarinus officinalis, Panax ginseng, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Crataegus microphylla. (authors)

  10. Aminoacids used as radioprotective substances against Cs137 and Sr90 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danetskaya, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Troitskaya, M.N.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study on white rats into the radioprotective action of ten essential amino acids has that valine, arginine, and histidine all effect appreciably the life span and absorbed doses of the principal radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. When these amino acids are fed to rats, the survival rate increases and hemopoiesis tends to return to normal more rapidly; the reproductive function is unaffected. The mechanism of radioprotective action of these amino acids has been studied inadequately, but they seem to have a role to play in the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds. The remaining amino acids have no protective action

  11. Radiobiological study of the radioprotective activity of a natural Iranian compound, ''Shir-Khecht''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhanizadeh, N.

    1967-01-01

    After reviewing the primary mechanisms of the action of ionizing radiation, the possible mechanisms of the action of radioprotective substances, the various chemical structures having a protective effect and the methods for studying chemical radioprotection, the author presents the results he has obtained with natural Iranian product: ''Shir-Khecht''. Tests with this product at lethal and sublethal doses have been carried out on the rat using various means of introduction. The effect of radiation, both with and without protection, has been studied using histological and biochemical methods. The product examined has, in effect, a protective action; it is, furthermore, non-toxic and active when taken orally. (author) [fr

  12. Radioprotection of mouse CNS endothelial cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimova, N.; Coultas, P.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Radioprotection using the minor groove binding DNA ligand Hoechst 33342 has been demonstrated in vitro, and more recently in vivo, in mouse lung. Intravenous administration was used for the lung studies, and both endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells-showed good up-take. Radiation damage to the endothelial cell population has also been postulated as important in late developing radionecrosis of spinal cord and brain. Endothelial cell density in brain can be readily determined by a fluorescent-histochemical technique. Treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and subsequent injection with L-DOPA results in an accumulation of dopamine (DA) in CNS endothelial cells. DA is converted to a fluorophore by exposure to paraformaldehyde, and cell numbers assayed by fluorescence microscopy. Earlier studies used this technique to monitor post-irradiation changes in endothelial cell density in rodent brain and showed the loss, within 24 hours, of a sensitive subpopulation comprising about 15% of the endothelial cells. Ten minutes after intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 (80mg/kg) the ligand is confined by its limited penetration to the endothelial cells in mouse brain. When we irradiated at this time, there was protection against early endothelial cell loss. Ablation of the sensitive subpopulation in unprotected mice takes place over a dose range of 1 to 3 Gy γ-rays, but doses between 12 to 20 Gy are required in the presence of ligand. This protection equates to a very high dose modification factor of about 7 and possibly reflects a suppression of apoptosis in the sensitive endothelial subpopulation. The extent to which there is enhanced survival in the endothelial population as a whole and how the observed protection affects late CNS necrosis development has yet to be determined. However present results clearly show potential for the use of DNA-binding radioprotectors with limited penetration for investigations into the relative significance of

  13. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  14. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically

  15. Antimutagenic and radioprotective properties of products from Lactobacterium Bulgaricum strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Benova, D.; Yagova, A.; Topalova, S.

    1993-01-01

    The antimutagenic properties of the strains LBL-4 and LBL-144 have been studied by the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PE) and endogenous spleen colony forming units (E-CFU) in C57BL mice. The lyophilized lactic acid products have been administered orally in the course of 3 weeks on 5 consecutive days. After the last treatment the mice have been gamma irradiated with 0.5, 3.0, 7.0 and 8.0 Gy. The prophylactic pretreatment of mice with LBL-4 in the schedule 3 x 5 days has shown a reduction of the induced micronuclei in PE after gamma irradiation with 3.0 Gy (37% compared to 50.5%; p < 0.001). The radiation effects caused by a lower dose of 0.5 Gy has not been modified by LBL-4 (36.7% compared to 33.8%). The application of LBL-144 does not reduce the mutagenic activity of both 0.5 and 3.0 Gy gamma rays. Applied independently, both LBL-4 and LBL-144 have shown the same frequency of micro-nucleated PE as the male and female mice controls. The radioprotective properties of LBL-4 have been assessed according to E-CFU and the changes in spleen weights after irradiation with 7.0 and 8.0 Gy gamma rays. The amount of E-CFU have been counted on day 9 after irradiation. A significant increase of spleen colony formation units has been established in mice pretreated with LBL-4. The spleen weights of the protected mice have been increased compared to unprotected animals. The results obtained show a good protection of haemopoietic stem cells by the product LBL-4. (author)

  16. Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W.

    2016-02-01

    The approach was to perform a document search, supplemented by a visual site inspection, to identify potential environmental contamination associated with the property. Factors evaluated included hazardous substances; petroleum products and derivatives; environmental restoration sites; areas of concern; storage tanks; oil/water separators; grease traps; wash racks; waste tanks; pesticides; military munitions/ordnance; medical or bio-hazardous waste; radioactive waste; solid/municipal waste; indoor air quality; groundwater; wastewater treatment, collection, and disposal/discharge; drinking water quality; utilities; asbestos; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); radon; lead-based paint; cultural resources; floodplains; and natural/biological resources.

  17. Optimization of radioprotection in the nuclear power, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.

    2002-06-01

    These 3. SFRP days are devoted to the optimization of radioprotection in the context of the evolution of the regulation in this domain with the introduction of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in the public health regulations. First of all, the optimization of radioprotection is a principle of action aiming at elaborating a practical organization of risk taking based on the responsibility of the different actors and leading to an individual and collective management of the radiological risk. These days are oriented towards practical applications of this optimization and in a lesser extend towards the general radioprotection policies and the technical aspects, in particular the operational dosimetry: 1 - Alara bases and regulation: bases of radioprotection optimization; optimization and Belgium regulation: the contribution of the Royal by-law from July 20, 2001; status of the French regulation; 2 - Alara policies in the nuclear power domain: maintenance of PWR reactor vessels: exploratory approach of a joint safety and radioprotection control by the nuclear safety authority; implementation of the Alara approach at the CEA: status and perspectives; optimization of activities and Alara project at EdF; the file for the intervention in radioactive environment: an Alara tool; 3 - practical applications and experience feedback: optimization in interventional vascular radiology unit; forecast evaluation and personnel exposures optimization in the experiment hall of the laser integration line at CESTA; a French system of radioprotection experience feedback for radiological incidents; the European Alara network: a growing up dialogue and improvement structure; 4 - Alara policies in the medical and first aid services: dosimetry of radiodiagnosis personnel; integration of the radioactive waste management organization to the elimination files of hospital wastes; optimization of patient's radioprotection: a calculation approach of the specific risk by sex

  18. Proceedings of the 6. conference days on radioprotection optimization in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Eric; Bernier, Marie-Odile; De Vita, Antoine; Pignot, Christine; Bardelay, Chantal; Godet, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Marie-Line; Saad, Nawal; Deboodt, Pascal P.A.; Faure, Sophie; Fusil, Laurence; Alvarez, Manuel; Tourneux, C.; Barbey, Pierre; Pigree, Gilbert; Lemarchand, Maxime; Buchaniec, Remi; Rocourt, Nathalie; Bouden, Helene; Lasselin, Stephanie; Moeneclaey, Ludivine; Rebullida, Delphine; Werquin, Marie Odile; Dubus, Francois; Ponsard, Samuel; Marques, Sophie; K-Zerho, R.; Vacher, F.; Vrammout, D.; Guillot, E.; Fucks, I.; Moukarzel, Marianne; Ryckx, Nick; Verdun, Francis R.; Lefaure, Christian; Balduyck, Sebastien; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo; ); Bouvy, Christophe; Geets, Jean-Michel; Nactergal, Benoit; Davet, Laurent; Carlier, Pierre; Lereculey, Clement; Livolsi, Paul; PIN, Alain; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Le Faou, Yann; Courageot, Estelle; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Kutschera, Reinald; Le Meur, Gaelle; Lantheaume, Noel; Schiedts, Dominique; Nouveau, Philippe; Walterscheid, Bertrand; Humbert, Edouard; Tranchant, Philippe; Dabat-Blondeau, Charlotte; Renard, Francois; Lucas, Jean-Yves; Fritioff, Karin; Svedberg, Torgny; Carlson, Marie; Hennigor, Staffan; Schieber, Caroline; Andresz, Sylvain; Roch, Patrice; Celier, David; Aubert, Bernard; Etard, Cecile; Bouette, Aurelien; Carette, M.F.; Haddad, S.; Khalil, A.; Foulquier, J.N.; Parrot, A.; Ceyrolle, C.; Bechard, Pascal; Clero, E.; Leuraud, K.; Laurier, D.; Couzinet, M.; LE GUEN, B.; Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Grandeau, E.; Dumont, N.; Cattelotte, J.; Dine, Pierre Emmanuel; Guersen, Joel; Nwatsock, Joseph Francis; Boyer, Louis; Karmouche, K.; Moyon, J.B.; Cassagnes, L.; Garcier, J.M.; Lortal, B.; Caron, J.; Karst, M.; Rage, Estelle; Caer-Lorho, Sylvaine; Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Sans, Philippe; Tournier, Helene; Zvorykin, Sonia

    2014-06-01

    This 6. ALARA conference was jointly organised by the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) and several professional associations (ABR, AFPPE, ARRAD, ATSR, RAMIP, SFPM, SFR). The conference was the occasion to review all aspects relative to the issues of radioprotection optimization and to its implementation to workers, patients and the public in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains. A particular attention must be given to the application of the ALARA principle in all sectors relevant to radioprotection, especially in a context characterized by: big dismantling works under preparation in the French nuclear park, an increased use of X-radiation in the medical domain - involving both patients and medical personnel, new knowledge concerning the health effects of ionizing radiations, and an evolution of European and international radioprotection safety standards. All these aspects were discussed during these conference days. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Review of the evolution of workers/patients exposure in France and comparison with international data (E. Vial); 2 - Status of low dose epidemiology (M.O. Bernier); 3 - Radioprotection optimization method at the MELOX plant (A. De Vita); 4 - Elaboration method for the annual dosimetric objective of the French nuclear park (C. Pignot); 5 - Optimisation principle in the new EURATOM Directive (N. Saad); 6 - Integrated management of radiological and non-radiological risks: the inevitable challenge (P. Deboodt); 7 - Radiological and conventional risks: the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) integrated approach (S. Faure); 8 - EVEREST (Evolving towards an entry into controlled areas in street clothes, M. Alvarez); 9 - Example of multi-risk management in the medical domain (C. Tourneux); 10 - Radioprotection optimisation in the research domain (P. Barbey); 11 - Child scanning dosimetry

  19. Final environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Volume 1 -- Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document assesses the potential environmental impacts over approximately 10 years of continued operation of Pantex Plant, including foreseeable projects and activities. For Pantex Plant, this document assesses the alternatives of No Action, Relocation of the storage of plutonium components (pits) resulting from nuclear weapon disassembly activities at Pantex Plant to another site, and the Proposed Action (Preferred Alternative) of continuing operations and increasing the quantity of pits in interim storage at Pantex Plant. For the Pit Storage Relocation Alternative, this document also assesses the potential environmental impacts to three DOE candidate sites and one Department of Defense candidate site that could be selected for the relocation of the nuclear component storage activities from Pantex Plant. Evaluations of site infrastructure, land resources, geology and soils, water resources, air quality, acoustics, biotic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic resources, intrasite transportation, waste management, human health, aircraft accidents, and environmental justice for Pantex Plant and the candidate sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed

  20. Gamma-irradiation produces active chlorine species (ACS) in physiological solutions: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) scavenges ACS - A novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Om P; Popov, Anatoliy V; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-09-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF). Dopamine, an SDG structural analog, was used for proton (1)H NMR studies to trap primary ACS radicals. Taurine N-chlorination was determined to demonstrate radiation-induced generation of hypochlorite, a secondary ACS. DNA protection was assessed by determining the extent of DNA fragmentation and plasmid DNA relaxation following exposure to ClO(-) and radiation. Purine base chlorination by ClO(-) and γ-radiation was determined by using 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of 6-aminopurine. Chloride anions (Cl(-)) consumed >90% of hydroxyl radicals in physiological solutions produced by γ-radiation resulting in ACS formation, which was detected by (1)H NMR. Importantly, SDG scavenged hypochlorite- and γ-radiation-induced ACS. In addition, SDG blunted ACS-induced fragmentation of calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA relaxation. SDG treatment before or after ACS exposure decreased the ClO(-) or γ-radiation-induced chlorination of 2-AP. Exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increased taurine chlorination, indicative of ClO(-) generation. NMR studies revealed formation of primary ACS radicals (chlorine atoms (Cl) and dichloro radical anions (Cl2¯)), which were trapped by SDG and its structural analog dopamine. We demonstrate that γ-radiation induces the generation of ACS in physiological solutions. SDG treatment scavenged

  1. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Benedek, Geza Attila [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Su Yuxiong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guanghua (China); Jacobsen, Hans Christian [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Klinger, Matthias [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Dendorfer, Andreas [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Hemmelmann, Claudia [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Meller, Birgit [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Sieg, Peter [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  2. Reduced bone marrow pO2 following treatment with radioprotective drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allalunis-Turner, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitizer adduct technique [(3H]misonidazole binding) was used to assess the extent of murine bone marrow hypoxia following treatment with a variety of radioprotectors. The binding rates previously determined in vivo were compared to those obtained by incubating marrow cells in atmospheres of varying oxygen content. Parallel experiments demonstrated that the oxygen dependence of [3H]misonidazole binding (Km approximately 0.15% oxygen) was similar to the oxygen dependence of marrow radiosensitivity (Km approximately 0.2% oxygen). Maximally radioprotective doses of several drugs have been shown to increase the binding of [3H]misonidazole significantly in vivo. A comparison to the in vitro binding rates suggests that the average oxygen concentration in the marrow at times associated with radioprotection was on the order of 0.5 to 0.8% oxygen. The relative importance of marrow hypoxia to the overall radioprotective effects of different drugs may vary considerably. However, these results have demonstrated that certain radioprotective drugs can induce marrow hypoxia and this reduced pO2 may contribute to the efficacy of these agents

  3. Influence of cesium and lithium ions on radioprotective effectiveness of taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Novosel'tseva, S.D.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro experiments with irradiated cultures of heart cells from cynomolgus monkeys and mice and in vivo experiments on irradiated mice indicated that CsNO 3 , LiOAc and Li 2 CO 3 potentiated the radioprotective effect of taurine. The maximum effect was observed when equimolar conceptions of taurine and the metal salts were used

  4. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Gèza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  5. [Study of the radioprotective effects of TMG on teratogenic malformations in irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Hasegawa, T; Kim, H; Suzuki, I; Mori, T; Yamamoto, Y

    2000-12-01

    ICR mice fetuses in the organogenesis stage were used to clarify experimentally the mechanism of the protective effect of vitamin E derivant (TMG: 2-(alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl) methyl-2, -5, -7, -8-Teramethylchorman-6-working woman) on the effects of radiation. The authors paid careful attention to radiation, and the radioprotective effects of TMG on the induction of malformations was examined. Radiation is an important consideration because of its widespread use in the areas of medicine, nuclear energy, and industry. Malformations induced by radiation at the organogenesis stage, skeletal malformations, and the effects at the cellular level of embryos were examined in this research. Further, the mechanism of the protection effect of TMG against radiation-induced malformations was analyzed and observed experimentally. Thus, this study was done to provide fundamental data on the radioprotective agent TMG. It was clear that TMG exerted radioprotective effects against embryonic death and the rate of teratogenesis when administered before exposure. Such effects were also exerted against skeletal malformations and fetal body weight. In summary, radioprotective effects were observed at the whole-body level as well as at the cellular level.

  6. Modification of the radioprotective effect of hypoxic hypoxia by the artificial hibernation of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovakimov, V.G.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehksperimental'noj i Klinicheskoj Onkologii)

    1975-01-01

    A significant weakening of the radioprotective effect of hypoxic hypoxia has been noted in the hibernated mice the resistance of which to acute oxygen deficiency is artificially hibernated (hypothermia under conditions of neuroplegia). The dose decrease factor is about 1.27 and 2.5 for hibernated and nonhibernated animals, respectively

  7. Study of the radioprotective effects of TMG on teratogenic malformations in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Hasegawa, Takeo; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Mori, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Youichi; Kim, Hwakon

    2000-01-01

    ICR mice fetuses in the organogenesis stage were used to clarify experimentally the mechanism of the protective effect of vitamin E derivant (TMG: 2- (α-D-Glucopyranosyl) methyl-2, -5, -7, -8-Teramethylchorman-6-working woman) on the effects of radiation. The authors paid careful attention to radiation, and the radioprotective effects of TMG on the induction of malformations was examined. Radiation is an important consideration because of its widespread use in the areas of medicine, nuclear energy, and industry. Malformations induced by radiation at the organogenesis stage, skeletal malformations, and the effects at the cellular level of embryos were examined in this research. Further, the mechanism of the protection effect of TMG against radiation-induced malformations was analyzed and observed experimentally. Thus, this study was done to provide fundamental data on the radioprotective agent TMG. It was clear that TMG exerted radioprotective effects against embryonic death and the rate of teratogenesis when administered before exposure. Such effects were also exerted against skeletal malformations and fetal body weight. In summary, radioprotective effects were observed at the whole-body level as well as at the cellular level. (author)

  8. TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstration project: Environmental and economic benefits by environmental management in freight transportation. Main report; TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstrationsprojekt: Miljoemaessige og oekonomiske benefits ved miljoestyring i godstransport. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the transECO{sub 2} project has was to carry out cooperation projects between companies in order to demonstrate an effect for the environment and for the economy of the companies (earnings and costs) of environmental management related to transportation of goods. 10 demonstration projects were carried thorugh in cooperation with 14 companies. 8 subjects were analysed through the transECO{sub 2} project: 1. Environmental data; 2. Benefits from the environmental management work; 3. Use of new technology; 4. Cooperation; 5. Environment and logistics; 6. Education and competence; 7. Environment and business strategy; 8. Environmental statement/tagging. (EHS)

  9. The radioprotective effects of carboxy fullerene C3 on AHH-1 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Husheng; Cai, Jianming; Huang, Yuecheng; Cui, Jianguo; Liu, Hanchen; Sun, Ding; Zhao, Fang; Dong, Junru; Li, Bailong

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radioprotective effects of carboxy fullerene C 3 on AHH-1 cell and it's prospective as a novel radioprotectant. Materials and Methods: Carboxy fullerene C 3 was prepared by chemical synthesis and trypan blue rejection test was performed to detect its cytotoxicity to AHH-1 cell. Then different concentration of C 3 was used to treat AHH-1 cells after radiated with 60 Coγ ray. Annexin-V/PI staining and flow cytometry assay were applied to assess the cell proliferation and apoptosis after irradiation. Results: C 3 showed little toxicity to AHH-1 cells with little change of trypan blue rejection rate during the drug concentration range 0-400 mg/L (P>0.05). We found in this study C 3 had good radioprotective effects to AHH-1 cell radiated with 1-8 Gy γ-ray. When the concentration was 10 mg/L, C 3 showed protection effects to AHH-1 cell irradiated with 4 Gy γ -ray, which was enhanced with increase of C 3 concentration. When the final concentration reached 200-400 mg/L, the cell survival rate after irradiation was similar to that of non-irradiated control cells(P >0.05). And the irradiation induced apoptosis and death rate were significantly lower than that of single radiation group cells(P 3 were time-dependant, and the best protection effects were observed when the C 3 was administered before irradiation (0-24 h). Conclusion: Carboxy fullerene C 3 has good radioprotective effects to AHH-1 cell, which is dose-dependent, and the higher concentration of C 3 is, the better protective effects it shows. In the effective drug concentration range of this study, C 3 do little harm on the survival rate of AHH-1 cell, which suggest that C 3 as a novel promising radioprotectant deserve to be further investigated. (author)

  10. Supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the rare earths facility, West Chicago, Illinois: Volume 1: Main test and appendices A-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement (SFES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. In this SFES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this SFES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action. 220 refs., 7 figs., 125 Tabs

  11. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Main report; Draft report for comment: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The action being considered in this draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, preliminary recommendations were provided. Contained in the GEIS are recommendations related to the definition of decommissioning, the scope of rulemaking, the radiological criteria, restrictions on use, citizen participation, use of the GEIS in site-specific cases, and minimization of contamination

  12. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for license termination of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Final report, main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The action being considered in this Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the final GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, conclusions on radiological criteria for decommissioning were provided. Contained in the GEIS are results and conclusions related to achieving, as an objective of decommissioning ALARA, reduction to preexisting background, the radiological criterion for unrestricted use, decommissioning ALARA analysis for soils and structures containing contamination, restricted use and alternative analysis for special site specific situations, and groundwater cleanup. In its analyses, the final GEIS includes consideration of comments made on the draft GEIS during the public comment period

  13. Environmental impact data for fuels. Part 1: Main report. Resource consumption and emissions from the entire life cycle (New revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Almemark, M.; Brandel, M.; Lindfors, L.G.; Marcus, H.O.; Stripple, H.; Wachtmeister, A.; Zetterberg, L.

    2001-05-01

    This report is a compilation of data concerning environmental impacts from the utilization of different fuels. The entire life cycle is studied, from the extraction of raw materials to combustion. The fuels under study are gasoline, gasoline with MTBE, diesel, fuel oil, LPG, coal, natural gas, peat, refuse, ethanol, RME, DME, methane and wood fuels (forestry residues, Salix, pellets/briquettes). Utilization areas studied are heating plants, cogeneration plants, power plants, domestic boilers, and light and heavy vehicles. In this new edition, the following changes were made: New life cycle analyses have been included, a few new fuels added, electricity from hydroelectric plants, wind power plants and nuclear power plants have been included and some other minor changes

  14. Influence of environmental factors on the contents of active ingredients and radical scavenging property of potentilla fruticosa in the main production areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Yin, D. X.; Wang, D. M.; Li, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from Potentilla fruticosa have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibited antioxidant property, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemicals and properties on this species from different growing environment. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active ingredient contents and radical scavenging property of P. fruticosa from different production areas of China in order to discover a location could produce high-quality resources for pharmaceutical products. The contents of tannin, total flavonoids, and rutin were determined and varied within the range of 7.64 ± 0.43 ∼ 10.68 ± 0.67 percentage, 2.29 ± 0.34 ∼ 5.37 ± 0.36 percentage, and 0.19 ± 0.053 ∼ 0.79 ± 0.125 percentage, respectively. Radical scavenging property was quantified, with the IC /sub 50/ of 7.24 ± 0.423 to 17.23 ± 0.551 μ g mL-1. Principal component analysis, multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis were conducted to further analysis the relationship between the variations of active ingredients and radical scavenging capacity and growth environment. The results showed dominant environmental factors for these variations were rapidly available nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, pH, July average temperature, and annual sunshine duration. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between pH, annual sunshine duration and active ingredients and radical scavenging property (p<0.05). Considering the high active ingredient contents and strong radical scavenging property, leaf extracts from P. fruticosa could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant agent, and Huzhu Northern Mountain in Qinghai Province and E-mei Mountain in Sichuan Province were selected as favorable production locations. (author)

  15. An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for removing environmentally imposed heat loads from the multiplicity and vertex detector's main enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.; Bernardin, J.D.; Simon-Gillo, J.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a closed loop air cooling system designed to control the temperature and humidity in the main enclosure of the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD). Measurements of the cooling air flow rate, the humidity levels inside and outside of the MVD, and the cooling air temperatures were used to assess the performance of the system and to characterize the system limitations and potential assembly problems. The results of the study indicate that several design changes are needed in the final design to meet the temperature and humidity operating requirements. A thorough set of design change recommendations that satisfy these operating criteria completes this report

  16. Proceedings of the Fourth Session of Radioprotection of the patient; Actas de la 4. Jornada de Proteccion Radiologica al Paciente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The Radiology Argentine Society and the Radioprotection Argentine Society have organized the 4. Session of the Protection to the Patient, in order to inform to the technical and scientific community about the scopes of the radioprotection to the patient. The principal treated topics were the following: effects of the radiation in radiodiagnostic; radioprotection of the fetus and the pregnancy woman; radioprotection in dental radiology; radiological protection in TAC; radiation doses in radiodiagnostic; treatment of radiation injuries; fatal accidents in radiotherapy. [Spanish] La Sociedad Argentina de Radiologia, y la Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, han organizado la 4ta. Jornada de Proteccion al Paciente, con el objeto de informar a la comunidad cientifico y tecnica sobre los alcances de la radioproteccion al paciente. Los principales temas tratados fueron los siguientes: efectos de la radiacion en radiodiagnostico; radioproteccion del feto y la mujer gestante; radioproteccion en radiologia odontologica; proteccion radioogica en TAC; dosis de radiacion en radiodiagnostico; tratamiento de lesiones por radiacion; accidentes fatales en radioterapia.

  17. Environmental filtering is the main assembly rule of ground beetles in the forest and its edge but not in the adjacent grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L

    2017-07-04

    In a fragmented landscape, transitional zones between neighboring habitats are common, and our understanding of community organizational forces across such habitats is important. Edge studies are numerous, but the majority of them utilize information on species richness and abundance. Abundance and taxonomic diversity, however, provide little information on the functioning and phylogeny of the co-existing species. Combining the evaluation of their functional and phylogenetic relationships, we aimed to assess whether ground beetle assemblages are deterministically or stochastically structured along grassland-forest gradients. Our results showed different community assembly rules on opposite sides of the forest edge. In the grassland, co-occurring species were functionally and phylogenetically not different from the random null model, indicating a random assembly process. Contrary to this, at the forest edge and the interior, co-occurring species showed functional and phylogenetic clustering, thus environmental filtering was the likely process structuring carabid assemblages. Community assembly in the grassland was considerably affected by asymmetrical species flows (spillover) across the forest edge: more forest species penetrated into the grassland than open-habitat and generalist species entered into the forest. This asymmetrical species flow underlines the importance of the filter function of forest edges. As unfavorable, human-induced changes to the structure, composition and characteristics of forest edges may alter their filter function, edges have to be specifically considered during conservation management. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Use of methods of mathemitical theory of experiment in deVeloping many-component radioprotective preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Zajtseva, T.G.; Kamenko, I.P.; Poddubskij, G.A.; Razorenov, G.S.; Smirnova, S.M.; Tarnopol'skaya, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the possibility of using a mathematical theory of experiment in developing effective many-component radioprotective preparations. The preparations composed of cystamine or S-(ω-aminopropyl)-β-aminoethyl thiophosphate, as the basis, and mexamine, ethyron and gutimine were used as an example to prove the adequacy of such an approach in solving the problems of optimization of composing the radioprotective complexes according to their efficiency and toxicity

  19. Radioprotective effect of low doses of 2-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline alone or associated with phosphorothioates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, J.D.; Roman, V.; Fatome, M.; Laduranty, J.; Miginiac, L.; Lion, C.; Sentenac-Roumanou, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the mouse, the intraperitoneal injection of 2-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline has a radioprotective effect even at low doses. Its association with S-[2-(3-aminopropyl)aminoethyl] phosphorothioate (WR 2721) or S-[3-(3-methylaminopropyl)-aminopropyl]phosphorothioate (WR 151327) at low doses led to an enhancement of their respective radioprotective activities without any apparent side effects. These results strengthen the interest of this non-sulphur compound as a radioprotector

  20. On the radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds; Etude des proprietes radioprotectrices de composes heterocycliques azotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R; Bernard, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Continuing their study of the possible radioprotective properties of heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds, the authors study certain derivatives of imidazole and other compounds of similar structure. The results obtained showed: 1 - that the derivatives resulting from the presence in the imidazole ring of the mercapto, methyl, carbonyl, or benzyl groups are inactive: these substitutions appear to destroy the significant radioprotective activity of the imidazole, 2 - that benzimidazole, on the contrary, seems to possess highly interesting properties. The percentage of survivals obtained with mice treated with benzimidazole and exposed to lethal irradiation has encouraged the authors to undertake careful study of this substance, with a view to define optimum activity conditions, and to determine the mechanism responsible for its radioprotective action. Further on and so as to of clarify certain points that might give useful data concerning the mechanisms of action of radioprotective chemicals, in respect of each of the products the authors have studied: a - the action of these bodies on the internal temperature of mice, b - their radioprotective activity in vitro, in a solution of irradiated hemin. (authors) [French] Les proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole ayant ete mises en evidence dans un precedent travail, les auteurs poursuivent leur experimentation sur certains derives de ce noyau ainsi que des composes de structure voisine. Leurs resultats montrent: 1 - que les composes obtenus par substitution d'un groupement mercapto, methyle, carbonyle ou benzyle, a un hydrogene du noyau imidazole sont inactifs, 2 - que le benzimidazole presente par contre des proprietes interessantes. Pour ce dernier compose le pourcentage de survie pouvant atteindre 90 pour cent les auteurs ont determine les conditions optimales de son activite radioprotectrice; de plus, dans le but d'obtenir des renseignements susceptibles de preciser le mecanisme d'action de la radioprotection

  1. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Interdisciplinary Research - Radiation detection methods for health, earth and environmental sciences - Natural radioactive elements in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Research on natural radioactive elements in the environment has been conducted. The main activities are focused on measurements of isotopes arising from natural radioactive series (especially radon). In 2004, the first two parts of survey within the frame of scientific cooperation between ''Vinca'' Institute and IFJ PAN were completed. Field measurements were carried out in Niska Banja Spa (Serbia and Montenegro). In this region extremely high radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in soil gas, to above 2 000 kBq/m 3 ., very high values of radon exhalation rates (1,5 Bq/m 2 s) and radon concentration in water samples (> 500 Bq/l) were observed. Indoor radon concentrations in some houses exceeded 10 kBq/m 3 . A special model and computer code were developed for calculating and visualising radon distribution and its migration into houses (PhD thesis). At the Radon Study Field located in IFJ PAN, the influence of different parameters on the radon exhalation process are studied and changes of radon concentration in soil are investigated. The natural radiation level plays an important role in low background gamma spectroscopy. Long-term measurements of the gamma background level are being performed and their changes (e.g., post-Chernobyl or solar activity induced) studied

  2. Possible radioprotective effect of folic acid supplementation on low dose ionizing radiation-induced genomic instability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Gisel; Ponzinibbio, María Virginia; Seoane, Analia I

    2016-08-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA damage through production of single and double-strand breaks and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Folic acid (FA) prevents radiation-induced DNA damage by modification of DNA synthesis and/or repair and as a radical scavenger. We hypothesized that in vitro supplementation with FA will decrease the sensitivity of cells to genetic damage induced by low dose of ionizing radiation. Annexin V, comet and micronucleus assays were performed in cultured CHO cells. After 7 days of pre-treatment with 0, 100, 200 or 300 nM FA, cultures were exposed to radiation (100 mSv). Two un-irradiated controls were executed (0 and 100 nM FA). Data were statistically analyzed with X2-test and linear regression analysis (P 0.05). We observed a significantly decreased frequency of apoptotic cells with the increasing FA concentration (P <0.05). The same trend was observed when analyzing DNA damage and chromosomal instability (P <0.05 for 300 nM). Only micronuclei frequencies showed significant differences for linear regression analysis (R2=94.04; P <0.01). Our results have demonstrated the radioprotective effect of folic acid supplementation on low dose ionizing radiation-induced genomic instability in vitro; folate status should be taken into account when studying the effect of low dose radiation in environmental or occupational exposure.

  3. S-omega-carboxyl-amidinoalkyl isothiocarbamides. VI. Radioprotective assay on E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M; Pantev, T [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    The radioprotective properties of newly synthesized compounds, members of S-omega-carboxamidino-alkyl-isothiourea are studied. Protective activity is evaluated by the colony-forming capacity of Escherichia coli. Exponential cultures of this strain are irradiated with gamma rays within the 20-120 kr span, in the presence of the compounds submitted to the study. The dose reduction factors are estimated by correlating the regression coefficients of the dose-effect curves obtained in the presence or absence of protection. Five of the eight preparations studied showed radioprotective effect, more conspicuous with the use of higher doses. The dose-reduction factors are lower than those of cysteamine. The relation between chemical structure and effectiveness of the compounds is investigated.

  4. Role of endogenous serotonin in the mechanism of action of radioprotective substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, M.M.; Nekrasova, I.V.; Gusareva, Eh.V.; Dontsova, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of a correlation between radiomodifying activity of noradrenaline (NA), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and a combination of these agents and their effect on the content of endogenous serotonin in cells of Ehrlich's ascites tumor and E. coli B. There is no uniformity in the response of different cells and uniform direction of the changes in their radioresistance and endogenous serotonin content both under the effect of the substances (NA and NEM) given separately and under a combined effect of the protector and the agent, which removes the protective effect or prevents realization of the latter (NEM). This enables us to arrive at a conclusion that endogenous serotonin is not the only factor responsible for the radioprotective effect of the protective substances. At the same time, it is not excluded that endogenous serotonin is involved in the chain of reactions which are necessary for the radioprotective effect to come into play

  5. Radioprotection of the intestinal crypts of mice by recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.G.; Miyamoto, T.

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (rHIL-1 alpha or IL-1) protected the intestinal crypt cells of mice against X-ray-induced damage. The survival of crypt cells measured in terms of their ability to form colonies of regenerating duodenal epithelium in situ was increased when IL-1 was given either before or after irradiation. The maximum degree of radioprotection was seen when the drug was given between 13 and 25 h before irradiation. The IL-1 dose producing maximum protection was about 6.3 micrograms/kg. This is the first report indicating that the cytokine IL-1 has a radioprotective effect in the intestine. The finding suggests that IL-1 may be of potential value in preventing radiation injury to the gut in the clinic

  6. Radioprotective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extracts on {gamma}-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wongwang Health Science College, Iri (Korea, Republic of); Kim, On Joong; Kim, Jae Young [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Effect of single intraperitoneal administration of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) extract at 24 hour before whole-body {gamma} - irradiation on the survival ratio, body weight, organ weight changes and serum metabolites in the irradiated mice were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cs extract increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 66.7 percent to 83.4 percent. The administration of Cs extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by {gamma} - irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cs treated mice. The administration of Cs inhibited the serum hyperglycemia produced by irradiation on the day 7th(P < 0.01). However, it did not influence the serum cholesterol and protein levels on the days examined. The present study is the first report regarding Cs which was tested and found to be radioprotective. (Author)

  7. Radioprotective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extracts on γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kim, On Joong; Kim, Jae Young

    1999-01-01

    Effect of single intraperitoneal administration of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) extract at 24 hour before whole-body γ - irradiation on the survival ratio, body weight, organ weight changes and serum metabolites in the irradiated mice were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cs extract increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 66.7 percent to 83.4 percent. The administration of Cs extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by γ - irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cs treated mice. The administration of Cs inhibited the serum hyperglycemia produced by irradiation on the day 7th(P < 0.01). However, it did not influence the serum cholesterol and protein levels on the days examined. The present study is the first report regarding Cs which was tested and found to be radioprotective. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of radioprotective action of a mutant (E-25) form of Chlorella vulgaris in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, L.; Tiku, A.B.; Kesavan, P.C.; Ogaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    The possible role of orally fed Chlorella vulgaris (E-25) in modulating the gamma-ray induced chromosomal damage in whole-body irradiated mice was evaluated using a micronucleus test. Different doses of E-25 were administered either chronically (once, twice or thrice a day for 28 days) or as single acute doses before/after irradiation. A significant radioprotective effect was observed in both acute and chronic pretreatments, but only at doses above 400 mg/kg body weight. However, in mice that received E-25 (500 mg/kg) three times a day for 28 days, there was no protective effect, and a significant loss in their body weight was observed. Interestingly, E-25 afforded significant radioprotection even when it was administered within 0.4 hr after irradiation. (author)

  9. Chemical radioprotection to bone marrow stem cells after whole body gamma irradiation to mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, J.; Dey, T.B.; Ganguly, S.K.; Nagpal, K.K.; Ghose, A.

    1988-11-01

    Protection to mice bone marrow stem cells has been noted as early as two days after whole body gamma ray exposure by prior treatment with combination of hydroxytryptophan (HT) and one of the two thiol drugs viz., aminoethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET) (20 mg/kg body weight) and B-mercaptopropionylglicine (MPG). The levels of protection to bone marrow stem cells thus obtained have been compared to that obtained by treating with the optimum radioprotecting dose of AET (200 mg/kg body weight). The study reports the bone marrow stem cells status after two days of 3 Gy, 5 Gy and 10 Gy whole body gamma irradiation in relation to the mentioned radioprotecting treatments as studied by spleen colony forming method.

  10. Assessment of the Radioprotection Efficacy of Antioxidant Substances in Foods in regard to Clonogenic Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyosung; Lee, Minho; Kim, Eunhee [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation is perceived as a hazard in spite of its diverse uses. The public are more sensitive than ever to the activities from the nuclear power plant industry since Fukushima accident and the consequential environment contamination. The never-dissolved fear from the public of the nuclear energy costs the nuclear industry too much for safety measures not to mention brings the public uneasy life. Beta carotene, oltipraz and luteolin, which are easily taken from various foods, are substances that may protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. The purpose of this study is to inform people of accessible radiation protection measures in everyday lives. Three antioxidant substances were investigated regarding their radioprotection effects counted in terms of clonogenic cell surviving fraction in vitro. The radioprotection efficacy was observed with those substances at concentrations below certain levels. At concentrations beyond those levels, the efficacy was canceled out by their inherent cytotoxicity.

  11. Enhancement of radioprotective effectiveness of adenosine monophosphate by magnesium aspartate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Kozubik, A.; Chertkov, K.S.; Ministry of Health, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    The enhancing effect of magnesium aspartate on the radioprotective effectiveness of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) administered to whole-body gamma-irradiated mice was studied. Male (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 hybrid mice of a mean body weight of 32 g were used. 5 mg AMP per mouse was injected i.p. 15 min before and 15 min after irradiation; magnesium aspartate (13.3 mg per mouse) was administered s.c. 35 min before irradiation. The benefical effect of the drug combination used was manifested when investigating hematological indices at the recovery phase of sublethally irradiated animals, as well as when observing the survival of lethally irradiated mice. The synergistic radioprotective effects of AMP and magnesium aspartate are explained by the stimulatory action of both these compounds on the cell adenylate cyclase system. (author)

  12. Methodology for inspection parametrization of radioprotection at radioactive installations: a research agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueiras, Bruno Costa; Sauerbronn, Fernanda F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper establishes a research agenda based on documental and bibliographic research for radioprotection inspection parametrization at radioactive installations, which is one of the constitutional attributions of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. Such proposal, aiming to guarantee that the evaluation of normative requests of radiation protection generated a quantitative result, useful for various institutions in the safety and regulation areas, bringing relevant contribution for the sector

  13. Mining adaptation to the radioprotection regulations: evaluation of the regulation CNEN-NN-4.01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Alphonse; Silva, Cleber Jabarra da; Campinhos, Gabriela Michalsky

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a generic model of monitoring to be used in mining with uranium or thorium associated viewing to estimate the dose of workers for classification the mining in the specific question of worker exposure. Besides the monitoring model, a dosimetric model also is proposed. It is indicated some instruments and techniques used in individual and area monitoring, besides to point out the necessity of radioprotection supervisor specific in this area

  14. Modification by caffeine of cysteamine radioprotective effect under different postradiation conditions of the yeast cell cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'yano, N.Ya.; Malinovskij, O.V.

    1981-01-01

    Reversibility kinetics of cysteamine radioprotective effect under different conditions of postradiation incubation of Saccharomyces cerevisial cells, irradiated by 60 Co beams of 530 Gr dose, was studied. Caffeine added just after irradiation into cell suspension, protected before irradiation with cysteamine, reduced protective effect of cysteamine in both variants of experiments - in aqueous suspension and in liquid nutrient medium. Thus, caffeine changes nature only of those radiation damages, which were modified by cysteamine, without affecting survivability and reparation of nonprotected cells

  15. Study and realisation of a microdosimetric detector intended to radioprotection measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinelli, P.

    1986-11-01

    This work concerns the realisation of a tissue equivalent proportional counter. The detector, which is sensitive to neutron and gamma radiations is intended to measure dose equivalent for radioprotection use. The microdosimetric analysis of the pulses allows us to calculate the absorbed dose and the quality factor, it is possible to discriminate the two kinds of particules. This work is a first step before making an electronical individual dosemeter [fr

  16. Radioprotective effect of dextran sulphate and aerogenic hypoxia on intestinal crypt stem cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.; Rotkovska, D.; Konoplyanikova, O.A.; Konoplyanikov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of dextran sulfate given 6 h before irradiation produced higher numbers of microcolonies of intestinal crypt stem cells in whole-body irradiated mice than an injection of saline in control mice. If dextran sulfate and hypoxia are combined, the radioprotective effect of hypoxia on intestinal crypt stem cells depends on the time interval between irradiation and administration of dextran sulfate. (author). 2 figs., 12 refs

  17. Radioprotection to the Gonads in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography: Effectiveness of Developed Bismuth Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Karami; Mansour Zabihzadeh; Nasim Shams; Mehrdad Golami

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use and effectiveness of traditional lead gonad shields in pediatric pelvic radiography has been challenged by several literatures over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to develop a new radioprotective gonad shields to be use in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods: The commercially available 0.06 mm lead equivalent bismuth garment has cropped squarely and used as ovarian shield to cover the entire region of pelvis. In order to prevent deteriorati...

  18. Radioprotective Properties of Detoxified Lipid A from Salmonella minnesota R595

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    irradiated animals treated with bacterial endotoxins. Am. J. Physiol. 191, 124-130 (1957). 3. M. PARANT, Effect of LPS on nonspecific recistance to...Salmonella minnesota R595. Radiat. Res. 107, 107-114(1986). . in the past, the toxicity of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or its principal bioactive...contained significantly less CSA than those receiving either GLY or LAD. DISCUSSION The radioprotective effect of bacterial endotoxins has been known for over

  19. WR-1065 and radioprotection of vascular endothelial cells. I. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Kang, H.J.; Baumann, F.E.; Blazek, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity limits radiation therapy and could depend on the extent of damage to the vascular endothelium. Aminothiols such as WR-1065 [N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane] provide radioprotection for normal tissues, but little is known about how the aminothiols specifically affect the endothelium. Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were exposed to WR-1065 for 2 h before irradiation ( 137 Cs γ rays, 1 Gy/min). Alone, WR-1065 demonstrated an antiproliferative effect that was related to dose (0.5-4 mM) and was evident by lowered counts of adherent cells 48 h after exposure. WR-1065 was clearly radioprotective when assessed by colony formation and incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine. However, when the number of adherent cells was evaluated, radioprotection appeared to be slight and evident only in logarithmically growing cells. WR-1065 at 2 mM suppressed single-strand DNA breaks after 3 Gy by 22% and double-strand breaks after 9 Gy by 47%. Also in the irradiated cells, WR-1065 more than doubled the rate of progression of cells from G 1 to S phase. WR-1065 pretreatment elevated cellular glutathione (GSH) content more than twofold. Although pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine inhibited the elevation of GSH, the radioprotective impact of WR-1065 on total DNA strand breaks and colony formation was unaffected. These results suggest that WR-1065 may enable tissue recovery from irradiation by promoting the replication of endothelial cells, possibly by mechanisms independent of GSH. 46 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Study on radioprotective efficacy of indazolone derivative on γ-radiation induced oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, B.J.; Sarojini, B.K.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the potency of 6-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-indazol-3-one (IND) as radioprotective agent. Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model organism for the study. Oxidative stress was induced by irradiating the flies with 6 Gy γ-radiation.The control and irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers namely, lipid peroxidation (MDA), SOD and CATenzyme. (author)

  1. Hemodynamic changes in rats after radioprotective combination of cystamine administered subcutaneously and 5-methoxytryptamine injected intramuscularly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, P.

    1976-01-01

    Administration of cystamine (20 mg base/kg s.c.) and 5-methoxytryptamine (10 mg base/kg i.m.) with 12 minutes delay to anesthetized rats induced the depression of whole cardiovascular system, hemoconcentration and great blood flow decrease in the radiosensitive tissues. Distribution of lowered cardiac output preferred the fractions to brain, heart, liver and lungs. Hemodynamic responses to protective combination may participate in its radioprotective action. (orig.) [de

  2. Radioprotective efficacy of bisarylidene cyclopentanone on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sarojini, B.K.; Musthafa Khaleel, V.; Ramesh, S.R.; Ramakrishna, M.K.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2010-01-01

    Present study was carried out for evaluating the radioprotective effect of bischalcone (2E, 5E) - 2,5-bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidene) cyclopentanone (curcumin analog (CA)), on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster adults. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants included superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The oxidative stress was induced at 1.5 Gy. (author)

  3. Radioprotective effect of cysteamine entrapped in liposomes oraly administered to the Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Vincent; Bocquier, Francois; Leterrier, Francois; Fatome, Marc

    1982-01-01

    Cysteamine entrapped in liposomes was oraly delivered to Mice and its radioprotective effect observed as a function of the time elapsed between its administration and 60 Co gamma irradiation. A protection is manifest up to 3 hrs after administration. This result contrasts with the absence of protection afforded by cysteamine when oraly given as an aqueous solutions, and with the short lasting activity of its parenteral administration [fr

  4. Physico-chemical basis of radioprotection by melanin: a fungal pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, A.; Kunwar, A.; Singh, B.G.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Raghukumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Melanin is a biopolymer with wide spread biological activity like protection from UV-radiation damage, decrease of oxidative stress, binding to metals and drugs etc. Recently it has been observed that melanized fungal species grow in areas of high-radiation background in Chernobyl, and also in cooling pool water of nuclear reactors. Some of these organisms survived even after radiation exposure up to 6400 Gy. This prompted us to evaluate the radioprotecting ability of melanin. Although there are various types of melanin available, for the present radioprotection studies, melanin isolated from the culture filtrate of a fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex was used. Chemically this particular type of melanin is the oligomeric form of dihydroxy indole and dihydroxy indole carboxylic acid and termed as eumelanin. Due to the presence of dihydroxy group in the benzene ring, they are in equilibrium with the partially oxidized (semiquinone radical form) and fully oxidized (quinone, non-radical) form. The radical nature of melanin was detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum and quantitative estimation of radical was made, in terms of spin density i. e. as 6.62 x 1017 spins/g. The protective activity of melanin was primarily due to inhibition of radiation-induced hematopoietic damages as evidenced by improvement in spleen parameters. To further understand the physico-chemical properties associated with radioprotection, reactions radiolytically generated free radicals with melanin was studied using pulse radiolysis

  5. Radioprotection considerations on the expansion project of an interim storage facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Suzuki, Fabio F.; Dellamano, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management (GRR) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) receives, treats, packs, characterizes and stores institutional radioactive wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP and also those received from several radiological facilities in the country. The current storage areas have been used to store the treated radioactive waste since the early 1980's and their occupation is close to their full capacity, so a storage area expansion is needed. The expansion project includes the rebuilding of two sheds and the enlargement of the third one in the area currently occupied by the GRR and in a small adjacent area. The civil works will be in controlled area, where the waste management operations will be maintained, so all the steps of this project should be planned and optimized, from the radioprotection point of view. The civil construction will be made in steps. During the project implementation there will be transfer operations of radioactive waste packages to the rebuilt area. After these transfer operations, the civil works will proceed in the vacant areas. This project implies on radiological monitoring, dose control of the involved workers, decontamination and clearance of areas and it is also envisaged the need for repacking of some radioactive waste. The objective this paper is to describe the radioprotection study developed to this expansion project, taking into account the national radioprotection and civil construction regulations. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the free radical scavenging activity and radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Krishna V; Sisodia, Rashmi [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan-302055 (India)], E-mail: rashsisodia@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (GAE) which contains anthocyanin-type cyanidin 3-glucoside, vitamins C and A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibre was studied. For the study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: (1) control (vehicle treated); (2) GAE treated (700 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1} for 15 days); (3) irradiated (5 Gy); (4) GAE+irradiated and (5) irradiated+GAE treated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and depletion in glutathione (GSH) and protein levels at all intervals studied, namely 1-30 days, in comparison to the control group. Treatment of mice with GAE before and after irradiation caused a significant depletion in TBARS content followed by a significant elevation in GSH and protein concentration in the intestine and testis of mice at all post-irradiation autopsy intervals in comparison to irradiated mice. Significant protection of DNA and RNA in testis was also noticed. GAE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH{sup *}) and O{sub 2}{sup -} assays and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity in protein carbonyl assay in a dose-dependent manner. The above results prove the radioprotective efficacy of GAE.

  7. Development of enhanced radioprotectors - Biochemical and molecular genetical approaches on the radioprotective mechanism of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Hong, Jung A [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To identify radio-protective agent candidate among medicinal plants and to elucidate the mechanism of action of the candidate material by using modern biochemical and molecular biological methods, we screened radio-protective activity among 48 medicinal plants. Seven samples showed above 20% protective activities against oxidative cell damage: Euryale ferox, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Eucomia ulmoides, Paeonia suffruticosa, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Nelumbo nucifera. We also screened for oxidative stress sensitizing activity among other 51 medicinal plants. Among those samples, 11 samples showed good sensitizing effect; Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Cridium officinale. We also reported the radio-protective effect of DTT. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after UV-C irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. 165 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. Radioprotection against radiation induced bone marrow syndrome by a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryavanshi, Shweta; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Santosh Kumar, S.; Sainis, Krishna B.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of biological properties have been attributed to chlorophyllin (CHL), the water soluble derivative of the green plant pigment chlorophyll. Several studies are available describing its ability to modify genotoxic effects. It has been shown that administration CHL to human lymphopenic individuals led to the recovery and restoration of the immune system and also inhibited aflatoxin B1-DNA binding in individuals residing in high risk exposure to this liver carcinogen. The present study is aimed at establishing radioprotective efficacy of CHL against ionizing radiation induced hematopoietic syndrome. CHL offered complete protection against whole body irradiation (WBI, 7 Gy) induced mortality in mice. This observation was supported by increase in the number of macroscopic endogenous colonies enumerated on the surface of the spleens taken from CHL+WBI group as compared to WBI group. Radioprotection by CHL was found to be mediated by increasing the frequency of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as evaluated by side population assay. Administration of CHL induced G1 arrest in bone marrow cells, increased number of granulocytes and neutrophils in the peripheral blood. At the molecular level, activation of ERK was observed in bone marrow cells obtained from CHL administered mice. In conclusion, CHL mediated radioprotection was attributed to increased stem cell numbers, G1 arrest in bone marrow cells, increased neutrophil numbers and ERK activation. (author)

  9. Studies of the radioprotective properties of nicotinyl compounds, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzel-Kietzmann, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of sodium salts of nicotinyl aspartic acid, nicotinyl methionyl aspartic acid and nicotinyl glutamic acid were tested in mice (NMRI). Experimental animals were irradiated by rayage (9,5 Gy). Parameters were: survival rate, peritoneal fluid cell count, weight and DNA concentration of spleen, hepatic DNA polymerase activity and rate of protein synthesis, lactate dehydrogenase activity in serum, maltase, sucrase and leucine aminopeptidase activitiy in duodenum and jejunum. Following results were obtained: 1. There was no significant difference in survival rate of treated and untreated animals. In treated animals only a short prolongation of survival time was observed. 2. After irradiation a quick reduction of splenic weight and DNA concentration was measured. 3. A reduction of DNA polymerase activity in liver was observed in treated and untreated mice. The rate of hepatic protein synthesis was similar in all animals. A final decrease was observed. 4. Variable activities of maltase, sucrase and leucine aminopeptidase activity in duodenum and jejunum indicated no radioprotective effect of tested substances. In conclusion of these results the tested substances show no significant radioprotective properties. (orig.) [de

  10. The European directive relating to environmental noise - main contents and consequences for the citizens exposed to environmental noise; Umsetzung der EG-Umgebungslaermrichtlinie - wesentliche Inhalte und voraussichtliche Auswirkungen fuer Betroffene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmer, V.K.P. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The European environmental noise directive has been put into force on 18 July 2002. Its goal is to avoid, prevent or reduce harmful effects due to exposure to environmental noise, and to preserve environmental noise quality where it is good. For so called major noise sources (roads with more than 3 Mio. vehicles/year, railways with more than 30 000 trains/year, airports with more than 50 000 movements/year and agglomerations with more than 100 000 inhabitants) strategic noise maps shall be made by the competent authorities. Where national noise limit values or other criteria are exceeded, action plans have to be drawn up. Information on the noise exposure has to be given to the public. Furthermore, the public has to be consulted about proposals for action plans. A time table for implementation is given within the Directive. The Directive does not contain any noise exposure limit values; the fixation of such limits is up to future directives. The Directive shall be transposed into national law. A draft proposal for a German law is available since July 2004, it contains more general provisions on legal and administrative issues. The law will have to be supplemented by ordinances containing technical details. The drawing up of action plans does not lead to a legal entitlement of the citizens to specific measures. The public, however, may put political pressure on the competent authorities to achieve the implementation of the action plans. (orig.)

  11. Study of the radioprotective efficiency of combined administration of natural antioxidants and a sulfhydryl compound in feverish irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the present experiments, a study of the radioprotective effects of natural antioxidants, rutin alone, vitamine E alone or each of them combined with synthetic radioprotector, cysteine have been investigated in irradiated and feverish irradiated rats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress bio markers and certain liver function tests of the irradiated and the feverish whole body irradiated rats were examined. Two main sets of animals were used: The 1st set was constructed in order to study the effect of irradiation, while the second set was used to study the effect of irradiation on feverish rats. The effect of irradiation was evaluated by exposing the whole body of rats to gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy. Rutin was orally daily administered for two weeks before irradiation in a dose of 1.064 mmol/kg , vitamine E was injected intraperitoneally daily for seven days before irradiation in a dose of 50 mg/100 g. While, cysteine was intraperitoneally administered only 30 min. before irradiation in a dose of 30 mg/kg. In order to determine the antipyretic effect of the drugs, body temperature of each animal was measured before induction of hyperthermia as well as 18 hours following yeast injection. Rats were treated with the tested drugs before induction of fever then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy and body temperature of each animal was measured 3 days after irradiation

  12. Study of the radioprotective efficiency of combined administration of natural antioxidants and a sulfhydryl compound in feverish irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, R R [Pharmacist in National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    In the present experiments, a study of the radioprotective effects of natural antioxidants, rutin alone, vitamine E alone or each of them combined with synthetic radioprotector, cysteine have been investigated in irradiated and feverish irradiated rats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress bio markers and certain liver function tests of the irradiated and the feverish whole body irradiated rats were examined. Two main sets of animals were used: The 1st set was constructed in order to study the effect of irradiation, while the second set was used to study the effect of irradiation on feverish rats. The effect of irradiation was evaluated by exposing the whole body of rats to gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy. Rutin was orally daily administered for two weeks before irradiation in a dose of 1.064 mmol/kg , vitamine E was injected intraperitoneally daily for seven days before irradiation in a dose of 50 mg/100 g. While, cysteine was intraperitoneally administered only 30 min. before irradiation in a dose of 30 mg/kg. In order to determine the antipyretic effect of the drugs, body temperature of each animal was measured before induction of hyperthermia as well as 18 hours following yeast injection. Rats were treated with the tested drugs before induction of fever then exposed to whole body gamma radiation at acute single dose level of 6.5 Gy and body temperature of each animal was measured 3 days after irradiation.

  13. Radioprotective activity of curcumin-encapsulated liposomes against genotoxicity caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation in human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hiep; Pham, Ngoc-Duy; Dong, Bingxue; Nguyen, Thi-Huynh-Nga; Bui, Chi-Bao; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2017-11-01

    While the radioprotective activity of curcumin against genotoxicity has been well established, its poor oral bioavailability has limited its successful clinical applications. Nanoscale formulations, including liposomes, have been demonstrated to improve curcumin bioavailability. The objective of the present work was (1) to prepare and characterize curcumin-encapsulated liposomes (i.e. size, colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency, and payload), and (2) subsequently to evaluate their radioprotective activity against genotoxicity in human blood cells caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation. The curcumin-encapsulated liposomes were prepared by lipid-film hydration method using commercial phosphatidylcholine (i.e. Phospholipon ® 90G). The blood cells were obtained from healthy male donors (n = 3) under an approved ethics protocol. The cell uptake and the radioprotective activity of the curcumin-encapsulated liposomes were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and micronucleus assay, respectively. Nanoscale curcumin-encapsulated liposomes exhibiting good physical characteristics and successful uptake by the human blood cells were successfully prepared. The radioprotective activity of the curcumin-encapsulated liposomes was found to be dependent on the curcumin concentration, where an optimal concentration existed (i.e. 30 μg/mL) independent of the irradiation dose, above which the radioprotective activity had become stagnant (i.e. no more reduction in the micronuclei frequency). The present results established for the first time the radioprotective activity of curcumin-encapsulated liposomes in human blood cells, which coupled by its well-established bioavailability, boded well for its potential application as a nanoscale delivery system of other radioprotective phytochemicals.

  14. Radioprotection guidelines to the elaboration of a specific standard for the licensing of radioactive facilities on the practice of oil and gas well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio dos Santos; Gomes, Joana D'Arc Ramos Lopes; Costa, Mara Lucia de Lara; Miranda, Marcia Valeria F.E. Sa

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory process in oil and gas well logging has shown the need for specific standard for the issuance of a license authorizing the use of sealed sources in well logging activities, in order to guarantee the quality of many factors from the point of view of radiation protection. Currently, have been used only generic radiation protection standards, but are not comprehensive or technically suitable for a well logging licensing purpose. The lack of a specific standard for licensing in radioactive well logging operations in Brazil, weakens the nuclear regulatory body in your aim of regulate and licensing the activity. This work establish, as main objective, a guideline for the future Brazilian radioprotection code in well logging operations, presenting relevant aspects not covered by generic radiation protection standards. (author)

  15. Radioprotection guidelines to the elaboration of a specific standard for the licensing of radioactive facilities on the practice of oil and gas well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio dos Santos; Gomes, Joana D'Arc Ramos Lopes; Costa, Mara Lucia de Lara; Miranda, Marcia Valeria F.E. Sa

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory process in oil and gas well logging has shown the need for specific standard for the issuance of a license authorizing the use of sealed sources in well logging activities, in order to guarantee the quality of many factors from the point of view of radiation protection. Currently, have been used only generic radiation protection standards, but are not comprehensive or technically suitable for a well logging licensing purpose. The lack of a specific standard for licensing in radioactive well logging operations in Brazil, weakens the nuclear regulatory body in your aim of regulate and licensing the activity. This work establish, as main objective, a guideline for the future Brazilian radioprotection code in well logging operations, presenting relevant aspects not covered by genetic radiation protection standards. (author)

  16. In vivo radioprotection of mice by 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone; Radicut), a clinical drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Furuse, Masako; Yoshida, Akira; Matsuyama, Azusa; Moritake, Takashi; Ikota, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one; Radicut) is a brain-protecting agent used clinically to treat acute ischemic stroke with a reaction mechanism of free radical scavenging. Since the initial stage of radiation damage involves the formation of free radicals, edaravone is expected to be effective in preventing lethal damage from ionizing radiation. In the present study, we used mice to examine in vivo the radioprotective effect of edaravone on whole body X-ray irradiation. A solution of edaravone was administered intraperitoneally to C3H mice (male, 10 weeks old), and they were irradiated with a total dose of 8.0 Gy. Edaravone exhibited dose-dependent and injection time-dependent radioprotection. When injected 30 min before the X-ray irradiation, it had the greatest radioprotective effect, whereas an injection after the irradiation showed no protective effect. The LD 50/30 was about 8.8 Gy for edaravone-injected mice and 6.6 Gy for control mice, yielding a DRF for edaravone (450 mg/kg body weight) of 1.3. Edaravone decreased the body temperature transiently about 3-6deg C, but this did not seem to be responsible for the radioprotection. Since the radioprotection was observed only when the reagent was administered before the irradiation, the primary action of edaravone might be the quenching of free radicals with a short lifetime generated by the irradiation. (author)

  17. In vivo radioprotection of mice by 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone; Radicut), a clinical drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Furuse, Masako; Yoshida, Akira; Matsuyama, Azusa; Moritake, Takashi; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Safety; Tsuboi, Koji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2004-06-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one; Radicut) is a brain-protecting agent used clinically to treat acute ischemic stroke with a reaction mechanism of free radical scavenging. Since the initial stage of radiation damage involves the formation of free radicals, edaravone is expected to be effective in preventing lethal damage from ionizing radiation. In the present study, we used mice to examine in vivo the radioprotective effect of edaravone on whole body X-ray irradiation. A solution of edaravone was administered intraperitoneally to C3H mice (male, 10 weeks old), and they were irradiated with a total dose of 8.0 Gy. Edaravone exhibited dose-dependent and injection time-dependent radioprotection. When injected 30 min before the X-ray irradiation, it had the greatest radioprotective effect, whereas an injection after the irradiation showed no protective effect. The LD{sub 50/30} was about 8.8 Gy for edaravone-injected mice and 6.6 Gy for control mice, yielding a DRF for edaravone (450 mg/kg body weight) of 1.3. Edaravone decreased the body temperature transiently about 3-6deg C, but this did not seem to be responsible for the radioprotection. Since the radioprotection was observed only when the reagent was administered before the irradiation, the primary action of edaravone might be the quenching of free radicals with a short lifetime generated by the irradiation. (author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Spain): Main activities related to the use of XRF techniques at the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group of the University of Girona (UdG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguí, Eva; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Group (QAA) is a consolidated research group of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Girona (North- East Spain). The main research topics of the group are related to the development and application of analytical methodologies for the determination of inorganic and organic species in different kind of environmental, clinical and industrial samples. From the beginning of the 2000’s, one of the research focuses of the group, is the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) for the determination of trace amounts of metals and metalloids mostly in samples related to the environmental and industrial fields. For instance, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (ICTJA-CSIC, Spain), we have developed and successfully applied several analytical approaches based on the use of EDXRF (Energy dispersive XRF), WDXRF (Wavelength dispersive XRF) and PEDXRF (Polarised EDXRF) for the determination of metals at trace levels in complex liquid samples such as sea water or electroplating waters in vegetation samples collected around mining environments or in active pharmaceutical ingredients. At present, the evaluation of the analytical possibilities of TXRF (Total reflection XRF) in the chemical analysis field is also one of the research topics of QAA. In this sense, several contributions related to the use of this technique for element determination in liquid and solid samples have been developed. A summary of these contributions is summarized in the last section of this review

  19. Environmental monitoring program of a nuclear research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Dias, Fabiana F.

    2009-01-01

    The main activities of the CDTN Research Institute are concentrated in the areas of reactors, materials, process engineering, the environment, health, radioprotection, radioactive waste, and applied physics. Its Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) began in 1985 with the objective of evaluating and controlling its installations' operating conditions as well as the impact on the neighboring environment caused by release of stable and radioactive elements. EMP's adequate planning and management resulted in obtaining an unique database that has generated information which have contributed to improving the credibility of nuclear and non-nuclear activities developed by the Center with the local community. Besides this, the data collection, study and continuous and systematic follow-up processes of environmental variables allowed the Center to be one of the Nation's pioneering research institutions in obtaining an Environmental Operating License from the Brazilian Environment and Natural Resources Institute (IBAMA). The objective of the present work is to present the experience acquired during the years, including a discussion about methodologies employed as well as the importance of using statistical evaluation tools in evaluating, interpreting, and controlling the quality of the results. Liquid effluent control and surface water monitoring results are also presented. (author)

  20. Radioprotection problems resulting from the presence of experimental devices around an atomic reactor; Problemes de radioprotection poses par l'implantation de dispositifs experimentaux aupres d'une pile atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, L; Lebouleux, Ph; Bricard, Ph; Moreau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The setting up of experimental devices around a reactor produces dangers of irradiation and radioactive contamination which can become very great in the case of an accident, especially if the in-pile portion contains fissile matter. This may result in irradiation of personnel, prohibition of access to the experimental zones until the sources of irradiation and contamination have been eliminated, and a prolonged stoppage of the reactor. The plans for an in-pile experiment should take into account radioprotection factors; the aim of these is to reduce to a minimum the radioactive risks normally encountered during the experiment and to eliminate any risks of bad accidents and their consequences. In this report are classified the various types of experiments requiring installations outside the pile itself; for each of these experiments the particular radioprotection factors are given. In order to make possible a study of the radioactive dangers likely to arise during a projected experiment, the authors summarize the physical and technical data required by radioprotection specialists and give the rules and general advice concerning radioprotection which should be useful during the planning of an in-pile experiment and the setting-up of the equipment. (authors) [French] L'implantation de dispositifs experimentaux aupres des reacteurs cree des risques d'irradiation et de contamination radioactive qui peuvent devenir importants en cas d'accident, surtout si la partie en pile comprend des matieres fissiles. Il peut en resulter des irradiations de personne, l'interdiction des aires experimentales jusqu'a elimination des sources d'irradiation et de contamination, un arret prolonge de la pile. L'etude d'un projet d'experience en pile doit donc tenir compte des considerations de radioprotection dont le souci est de reduire aux niveaux tolerables les risques radioactifs inherents au fonctionnement normal de l'experience et d'eliminer les risques d'accidents graves et leurs

  1. Radioprotection of the environment: on the context of biodiversity and evolutionary theory. A reference organism has no genetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedervall, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    The recent efforts to define a basis for radioprotection of the environment include some concepts and ideas related to various endpoints which need a clarification. This paper focuses on the biodiversity concept and the context of individuals of a species as well as that of the species as a gene pool. A major problem with the ambition to radioprotect biodiversity is the concept 'reference organism' which has no genetic properties and therefore is in contradiction with a real biological species. Biodiversity and the species (gene pool) concept are, just as any other areas of biology, integral parts of evolutionary theory. With the reference organism as a basis no meaningful reasoning can take place which relates data on radioactivity levels or mutations to potential effects on populations or biodiversity. It is therefore suggested that the national and international bodies involved in radioprotection of the environment take advantage of evolutionary theory as a reference frame. (author)

  2. Interactive computer codes for education and training on nuclear safety and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Two interactive computer codes for education and training on nuclear safety and radioprotection developed at RA6 Reactor Division-Bariloche Atomic Center-CNEA are presented on this paper. The first code named SIMREACT has been developed in order to simulate the control of a research nuclear reactor in real time with a simple but accurate approach. The code solves the equations of neutron punctual kinetics with time variable reactivity. Utilizing the timer of the computer and the controls of a PC keyboard, with an adequate graphic interface, a simulation in real time of the temporal behavior of a research reactor is obtained. The reactivity can be changed by means of the extraction or insertion of control rods. It was implemented also the simulation of automatic pilot and scram. The use of this code is focalized on practices of nuclear reactor control like start-up from the subcritical state with external source up to power to a desired level, change of power level, calibration of a control rod with different methods, and approach to critical condition by interpolation of the answer in function of reactivity. The second code named LICEN has been developed in order to help the studies of all the topics included in examination programs for obtaining licenses for research reactor operators and radioprotection officials. Using the PC mouse, with an adequate graphic interface, the student can gradually learn the topics related with general and special licenses. The general option includes nuclear reactor engineering, radioprotection, nuclear safety, documentation and normative. The specific option includes mandatory documentation, description of the installation and task on normal and emergency situations. For each of these topics there are sub-items with all the relevant information. The objective of this code is to joint in one electronic place a large amount of information which usually it is disseminated on difficult to find separated papers. (author)

  3. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, N.; Garcia, F.; Parrilla, J.J.; Calaf, J.; Martin-Mateo, M.; Caldes, M. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F 0 ) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F 1 ) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  4. Normal-tissue radioprotection by overexpression of the copper-zinc and manganese superoxide dismutase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldwijk, Marlon R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Pharmacology of Cancer Treatment (G402), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Herskind, Carsten; Wenz, Frederik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Sellner, Leopold; Zeller, W. Jens [Pharmacology of Cancer Treatment (G402), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Radujkovic, Aleksandar [Dept. of Internal Medicine V, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Laufs, Stephanie [Dept. of Experimental Surgery, Univ. Medical Center Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Molecular Oncology of Solid Tumors (G360), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Fruehauf, Stefan [Center for Tumor Diagnostic and Therapy, Paracelsus-Klinik, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Background and Purpose: Protection of normal tissue against radiation-induced damage may increase the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy. A promising strategy for testing this approach is gene therapy-mediated overexpression of the copper-zinc (CuZnSOD) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV2) vectors. The purpose of this study was to test the modulating effects of the SOD genes on human primary lung fibroblasts (HPLF) after irradiation. Material and Methods: HPLF were transduced with rAAV2 vectors containing cDNA for the CuZnSOD, MnSOD or a control gene. The cells were irradiated (1-6 Gy), and gene transfer efficiency, apoptosis, protein expression/activity, and radiosensitivity measured by the colony-forming assay determined. Results: After transduction, 90.0% {+-} 6.4% of the cells expressed the transgene. A significant fivefold overexpression of both SOD was confirmed by an SOD activity assay (control: 21.1 {+-} 12.6, CuZnSOD: 95.1 {+-} 17.1, MnSOD: 108.5 {+-} 36.0 U SOD/mg protein) and immunohistochemistry. CuZnSOD and MnSOD overexpression resulted in a significant radioprotection of HPLF compared to controls (surviving fraction [SF] ratio SOD/control > 1): CuZnSOD: 1.18-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.32; p = 0.005), MnSOD: 1.23-fold (95% CI: 1.07-1.43; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Overexpression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD in HPLF mediated an increase in clonogenic survival after irradiation compared to controls. In previous works, a lack of radioprotection in SOD-overexpressing tumor cells was observed. Therefore, the present results suggest that rAAV2 vectors are promising tools for the delivery of radioprotective genes in normal tissue. (orig.)

  5. Radioprotective Effect of Moderate Wine Consumption in Patients With Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Digesu, Cinzia; Panunzi, Simona; De Gaetano, Andrea; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Cece, M. Grazia; Cirocco, Massimo; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Iacoviello, Licia; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Gaetano, Giovanni de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Given the high cost and side effects of radioprotective agents such as amifostine, attention has been focused on potentially equally effective but less expensive and toxic natural substances. We evaluated the potential radioprotective effects of wine in preventing skin toxicity in patients with breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Before treatment, the medical history and habits of patients were assessed and the information recorded in their clinical folders. Patients were divided into three groups based on the dose/fractionation scheme used: control group, 60.4 Gy (standard technique); Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy in Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (MARA)-1 protocol group, 44 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed); and MARA-2 protocol group, 60 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed). The impact of the following variables on acute skin toxicity was evaluated by chart review: radiotherapy protocol, planning target volume (PTV), comorbidity (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), hemoglobin level before therapy, adjuvant hormone therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and drinking habits. Results: The study population consisted of 348 patients. More severe skin toxicity was significantly associated with the radiotherapy protocol (p < 0.001) and median PTV (p = 0.005). In addition, the incidence of acute toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was higher in patients without alcohol intake (38.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.021). The daily amount of alcohol intake also influenced the incidence of skin toxicity, with an incidence of 38.4% in patients with no wine intake, 31.8% in patients drinking half a glass per day, 13.6% in patients drinking one glass per day, and 35.0% in patients drinking two glasses per day. Multivariate analysis showed that wine intake, PTV, and radiotherapy protocol were all significantly correlated with acute toxicity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that wine may have a radioprotective effect; however, prospective studies are needed to

  6. Antioxidant and radioprotective effect of the active fraction of Pilea microphylla (L.) ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, K R; Veerapur, V P; Bansal, Punit; Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Reddy Kandadi, Machendar; Bhagath Kumar, P; Priyadarsini, K I; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2007-01-05

    The ethanolic extract of Pilea microphylla (L.) was defatted, successively fractionated with acetone and the residue so obtained was found to be most potent when subjected to detailed free radical scavenging and in vivo radioprotection studies. The most active fraction reacts with free radicals, such as DPPH (50 microM), ABTS(.)(-) (100 microM) and (.)OH (generated by Fenton reaction) with IC(50) value of 23.15 microg/ml, 3.0 microg/ml and 310 microg/ml, respectively. The most active fraction inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in phosphatidyl choline liposomes with an IC(50) of 13.74 microg/ml. The kinetics of scavenging of DPPH and ABTS(.)(-) radicals were followed at different concentrations of the fraction by employing stopped-flow studies. The observed first order decay rate constants at 200 microg/ml and 50 microg/ml of fraction with DPPH (50 microM) and ABTS(.)(-) (50 microM) were found to be 0.4s(-1) and 2.1s(-1), respectively. The fraction when screened for in vivo radioprotection in Swiss albino mice showed 80% protection at a dose of 900 mg/kg and with a DRF of about 1.12. The fraction was also found to protect livers of irradiated mice from depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, GST, SOD, catalase and thiols. The fraction also protected the villi height, increased the number of crypt cells while offering general protection to the intestine from acute radiation effects. The fraction also protected the hematopoietic system as assessed by endogenous spleen colony assay, contributing to the overall radioprotective ability.

  7. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  8. Radioprotective effect of garlic extract on some bacterial strains with different radiation sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Z.S.; Abushady, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of garlic on four bacterial strains with different degrees of radiation sensitivities was investigated. The presence of garlic led to an increase in d-10 value of Ps. Aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhimurium by 160%, 50%, and 30% respectively. The protective efficiency of garlic against radiation was noticed to be proportional to its concentration in a given inoculum size. Garlic extract up to 180 micro liter per 10 8 inoculum size of B. cereus showed no protective effect. This fact was attributed to the existence of sulphur compounds in the given strain. Higher garlic concentrations appeared to affect the cloning efficiency of a given strain. 4fig., 2tab

  9. Calibration of radioprotection equipment gamma radiation at the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - DEN/UFPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazario, Macilene; Khoury, Helen; Hazin, Clovis

    2003-01-01

    This work presents aspects of the radioprotection equipment calibration service of the Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations (LMRI) of the DEN/UFPE related to the calibration procedures, characteristics of the radiation beam and the evaluation of equipment calibrated in the period of 2001-2002. The LMRI-DEN/UFPE is one of the four laboratories in Brazil licensed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission for the execution of calibration services on area, surface contamination and personal monitors used by industries, hospitals, universities and research institutes using radioactive sources

  10. Establishment of standard low energy x-ray, radioprotection levels, for calibration of instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eliane Carmo

    1995-01-01

    Seven standard low energy X-rays fields were established, radioprotection level, at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Five of the standard calibration qualities used at the National Physical Laboratory, England, with energies between 16 and 38 keV, and two recommended by the International Standard Organization, with energies of 33 and 48 keV, were reproduced. The calibration conditions, radiotherapy level, from 14 to 21 keV, were also verified. Different portable radiation monitors as ionization chambers and Geiger-Mueller detectors were studied in relation to their energy dependence. (author)

  11. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Mula, S.; Srinivasan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  12. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mula, S [Bio-Organic Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srinivasan, R [JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund (India)

    2008-01-15

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  13. On the role of endogenous serotin in the radioprotective action of some aminothiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdlov, A.G.; Pavlova, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    It has been studied whether there is a correlation of the radioprotective effect of cystamine (50 and 150 mg/kg by base) and its analogue, N',N'-tetramethyl cystamine (130 mg/kg by base), with the ability of these compounds to rise the endogenous serotonin content of radiosensitive organs 20 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal administration to mice. The ability of sulphur-containing radioprotectors does not necessarily correlate with their preventive properties: an ineffective radioprotector analogue, N',N'-tetramethyl cystamine, has the same effect on the endogeneous serotonin level as the protector itself

  14. Dependence of radioprotective effect of chemical modifying agents on their intracellular concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidus, L.K.; Korystov, Y.N.; Kublik, L.N.; Vexler, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Regularities of the radioprotective effect of chemical modifying agents cysteamine, caffeine benzoate, thioglycolic acid, and caffeine, all weak electrolytes, have been studied in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Efficiency of protection is shown to be dependent on pH and concentrations of the drug inside the cells and in the medium. Based on the theory of the dissociation of weak electrolytes and their distribution between the cells and the medium a strong correlation between the efficiency of modification of the radiation response and intracellular concentration of a modifying agent is shown. (author)

  15. Comparative study of radioprotective properties of serotin derivatives repeatedly applied before gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelova, N.V.; Antipov, V.V.; Vasin, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the experiments on albino mice, the phenomenon of desensitization has been studied by a specific activity and some pharmacologic properties of serotonin, mexamin and 5-acetyloxytryptamine, the time-intervals between injections of the preparations being 5, 30 and 60 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. A correlation has been found between changes in radioprotective and pharmacologic properties (as determined by the accumulation of the dye in the splenic tissue) after repeated administration of mexamin. The phenomenon of desensitization is probably dependent not only on the chemical nature and mechanism of action of the protectors but also on the conditions under which they are repeatedly applied

  16. Radiosensitivity of marrow stromal cells and the effect of some radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuhua

    1992-01-01

    The results showed that marrow stromal cells include fibroblasts, reticular cells, macrophages and adipocytes. The capability of the adherent layer derived from marrow cells of 2 mouse femurs to support hematopoietic stem cells was stronger than those of layers derived from 0.5 or 1 mouse femurs. The radiosensitivity of bone marrow stromal cells was lower than that of hematopoietic stem cells. The radioprotective effect of AET and PLP (polysaccharide of Lobaria Pulmonaria Hoffm) on the bone marrow stromal cells and their capability to support hematopoietic stem cells was clearly demonstrated

  17. Radioprotection shielding for neutrons induced by the reaction (2H (40 MeV, 12C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of design studies for SPIRAL2, the simulation of the neutron flux generated by 40 MeV deuterons on a thick 12C target was performed and compared to experimental data. The calculation of the dose rate of these neutrons allowed to compare four materials being considered for radioprotection shielding: barites, gypsum, ordinary concrete and heavy concrete. The simulated map of the neutron dose rate in the production building shows a very high dose rate around the neutron source and in the environment of some of the accelerator equipment.

  18. Some regularities in the transport and radioprotective efficiency of methylated hematoporphyrin in experiments of cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yartsev, E.I.; Novosel'tseva, S.D.; Shkirman, S.F.; Arabej, S.M.; Solov'ev, K.N.; Ponomarev, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    It was shown on a SOC culture that radioprotective effectiveness (RPE) of a methylated derivative of deuteroporphyrin-9 depends upon the level of accumulation there of in cells. The highest RPE was registered with porphyrin administered to a culture medium 8 h before irradiation of cells. By that time, exogenous porphyrin was accumulated by cells to reach a definite stable level. The content of the preparation in cells decreases depending on radiation dose. It was noted that the radioresistance of cells remained increased with considerable porphyrin excretion from there

  19. Radioprotection on nucleated and anucleated erythrocytes by oxide-reduction coenzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Tomicic, I.; Rojo, I.

    1981-01-01

    The protective effects of NAD, FAD and quinone and mixtures of these compounds were studied on gamma irradiated rabbit and chicken erythrocytes. The dose relative factor (DRF 37) was evaluated by visible absorbancy measurements of liberated hemoglobin. The DRF 37 obtained on rabbit erythrocytes were: NAD+FAD+quinone mixture: 11,1; NAD+ quinone mixture: 6,1; FAD+quinone mixture: 6,1; NAD: 1,6; FAD: 5,5; quinone: 5,1. The DRF 37 obtained with the mixture NAD+FAD+quinone on chicken erythrocytes was 3,9. The high efficiency of the radioprotective mixture NAD+FAD+ quinone is discussed. (author)

  20. Radioprotective efficacy of Carica papaya (L.) leaf extract in electron beam irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-sickling properties and has shown to increase the platelets in patients with dengue fever. In the present study, the radioprotective effects and radioadaptive response of Carica papaya (L.) was evaluated in mice irradiated with electron beam radiation. Radiation induced hematological suppression was seen at sublethal doses of 6 Gy irradiated groups. There was a decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cell, total white blood cell count and platelet counts in irradiated groups whereas papaya leaf extract enhanced platelet levels indicated thrombopoietic effect

  1. Investigation of radioprotective effect of indraline of hematopoietic system in different species of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, M.V.; Antipov, V.V.; Chernov, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The experiments were made on mice, guinea pigs and dogs. Radioprotector indraline increased radioresistant state of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo and in vitro, decreased the amount of post-radiation chromosome aberrations in marrow, induced more early and intensive post-radiation proliferative repair of marrow and spleen, faster regeneration of the initial amount of leukocytes thrombocytes and erytrocytes in blood of mice, guinea pigs and dogs. Antiradiation efficiency of indraline in hematopoietic system is equal to 1.5-2 by FMD. Radioprotective mechanism of indraline effect on hematopoietic system is discussed. 22 refs.; 8 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Influence of different irradiation facilities on the response of radioprotection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeren de Oliveira, A.

    1984-05-01

    An EIC 1 extrapolation chamber, flushed with a methan based tissue equivalent gas is presented. This measuring device serves as a reference instrument to calibrate in tissue absorbed dose beta beams from different irradiation facilities; point radioactive sources, sources used with beam flattening filters, large area sources simulated by moving a point source. The source to detector distance has to be greater than 3 cm, requiring a transfer dosemeter for smaller distances. Influence of these different irradiation geometries has been studied on several radioprotection instruments (babyline, individual dosemeter, ionisation chamber), using three radionucleides: 147 Pm, 204 Tl, 90 Sr + 90 Y [fr

  3. Radioactivity and radioprotection: the every day life in a nuclear installation. Press tour at CEA/GRENOBLE 18 november 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    In the framework of the public information, this paper gives a general information on the radioactivity and the radioprotection at the CEA/Cadarache center. A first part is devoted to a presentation of the radioactivity with definitions and radiation effects on the human being and the environment. An other part presents the radioprotection activities and regulations. The last part deals with specific activities of the CEA/Cadarache: the CASCAD installations for spent fuels storage, the LECA Laboratory for the Examination of Active Fuels and a dismantling installation for big irradiated objects. Historical aspects of the CEA/Cadarache are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Radioprotection by murine and human tumor-necrosis factor; Dose-dependent effects on hematopoiesis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloerdal, L; Muench, M O; Warren, D J; Moore, M A.S. [James Ewing Laboratory of Developmental Hematopoiesis, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) has been shown to confer significant radioprotection in murine models. Herein, we demonstrate a dose-dependent enhancement of hematological recovery when single doses of either murine or human recombinant TNF are administered prior to irradiation. In addition to its action upon leukocytes and erythocytes, TNF also alleviates radiation-induced thrombocytopenia in the mouse. These effects on circulating blood constituents are further reflected in increased numbers of both primitive (CFU-S) and more differentiated (CFU-GM, CFU-Mega) hematopoietic progenitors in TNF-treated animals. This suggests that TNF exerts it radioprotective effects on a pool of primitive multi-potential hematopoietic cells. (author).

  5. Argentine regulatory experience on industrial gammagraphy in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermacora, Marcela G.

    2006-01-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to work load pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the argentine regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [es

  6. Quiz commercial game adaptation to help in the radioprotection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo

    2002-01-01

    An employee will be qualified to operate a gamma irradiation facility at EMBRARAD after doing a radiation protection training of at least 18 months. After that, the main radiation protection subjects are revised every six months. In that half-yearly training the operators become teachers and so they explain the radiation protection subjects, under the supervision of an instructor. After some years attending the same training, operators do not have motivation to participate in this kind of periodic event due to the same issues covered. Therefore something should be made to revival their interest and motivation to take part in this periodic training. The way chose was adapted a quiz commercial game to revised radiation protection subjects and included it in the periodic training. The game was well accepted by the operators, it caused a competition among them because everybody wanted to win the game and consequently stimulated them to study. (author)

  7. Radioprotection: the 5th HSE objective of 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The fifth objective of 2012 in matters of safety at CERN is to increase awareness of best practices in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety all over the laboratory.   The aim of radiation protection is to protect people from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. Naturally, the objective is to keep doses to a person - be they staff, users, contracting personnel or members of the public - to values not only below legal limits but as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This is obtained by a proper knowledge of the risks related to ionising radiation at CERN, individual dosimetry, monitoring of ionising radiation at workplaces and in the environment, accurate planning of interventions in accelerator and experimental areas, etc. The 2012 focus is on job and dose planning, which translates into three main objectives: 1 - Appointment and training of radiation safety support officers (RSSOs) to ensure coverage of all equipment groups working in ra...

  8. Some considerations about ''philia'' and ''phobia'' in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checcucci, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a radiation phobia as the negative issue of misinformation due to irresponsible behavior of some members of the scientific community and media. The author elaborates on that definition. Until the general public will not be an active political subject in health management irrationalist attitudes will predominate. Industry, armed forces and public services pay more attention to the expected benefits of new potentially dangerous agents such as technology products, drugs and even foods, and this causes a series of oscillating phases as regards general health, public concern, risk assessment and research. Alarm sets in on the general public. The following silent phase generally shows a serious commitment to research, regulation, and a more conscious public concern. An increasing health fanaticism and the increasing fear for the environment are two general trends which are present in all industrialized societies. The author advises avoiding conclusive statements in the early phases and to state tentative protection regulations which would supposedly be modified according to the results of compulsory check procedures. He also suggests promoting a serious program of research in all directions: environmental measurements and monitoring, biophysical and pathophysiological experiments, and epidemiologic investigations

  9. Effectiveness of adenoplex forte with or without heparegene as radioprotective and curative agent for controlling radiation induced hepatic metabolic dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.H.; EL-Sayed, N.M.; Hussein, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the combined radioprotective and curative capacities of a known drug namely adenoplex forte [combination of adenosine tetraphosphate (ATP), co carboxylase, cyanocobalamin (Bn) and nicotinamide (vitamin P.P)] in dependency or in combination with heparegen [thiazolidine 4 -carboxylic acid] on liver metabolic processes of rats irradiated at 5 Gy. Therefore, the levels of plasma total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were estimated as indicative parameters for lipid metabolism. Estimations of plasma glucose, pyruvate and lactate levels as well as liver glycogen content were employed as a useful means for testing the carbohydrate metabolism. The tested parameters were undertaken on 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days post-radiation exposure of rats to 5 Gy. Data of the present study revealed that exposure of rats to gamma irradiation at a dose level of 5 Gy was associated with disturbances in liver metabolic functions as reflected by alterations observed in all the tested parameters of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism up to 30 days post-irradiation. The data further indicated that appropriate use of the selected drug adenoplex forte either independently or in combination with heparegen can preferentially modify liver metabolic disturbances induced by radiation exposure, which creates a therapeutic advantage in radiation therapy. In conclusion, this study suggest the potential use of adenoplex forte (with dose of 290 mg/kg) in combination with heparegen (with dose of 2 mg/kg) in patients receiving radiotherapy and suffering disturbed liver metabolic function mainly in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

  10. Timing in administration of a heat-killed Lactobacillus casei preparation for radioprotection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneoka, Kazuko; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Dimchev, A.B.; Shikita, Mikio; Nomoto, Koji; Yokokura, Teruo.

    1994-01-01

    A single subcutaneous injection of a preparation of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018), given before or after irradiation, significantly increased the survival rate of mice that had received 8.5-Gy 137 Cs whole-body γ-irradiation. A similar radioprotective effect was observed when LC 9018 was administered within the period from 2 days before irradiation to 9 h after irradiation, the pre-irradiation treatment being slightly better than the post-irradiation treatment. Increases in the weight of the spleen and in the number of endogenous spleen colonies on days 8 and 12 after irradiation suggested that the radioprotective effect was based on enhanced recovery of hematopoietic tissues. The activity of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in serum was rapidly increased by the treatment and was maintained at the elevated level for 13 days. At the same time, an increased level of M-CSF mRNA was detected in the livers of the treated mice. However, LC 9018 failed to save the lives of mice when administered 3 days after irradiation, although it increased serum M-CSF as effectively as noted above. The small advantage of the pre-irradiation over the post-irradiation treatment was not explained by the increases of metallothionein in the hematopoietic tissues of the treated mice. (author)

  11. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  12. Influence of previous administration of trans-phenylcyclopropylamine on radioprotective and hypothermic effects of serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misustova, J.; Hosek, B.; Novak, L.; Kautska, J.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of a previous administration of trans-phenylcyclopropylamine (t-PCPA) on radioprotective and hypothermic effects of serotonin was studied in male mice of the H strain, which were given t-PCPA in the dose of 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally 2 or 7 hours before application of serotonin (40 mg/kg, i.p.). The time course of protection was studied for exposures to 800 and 900 R. The results have shown that a previous administration of t-PCPA does not alter the short-time protective effect of serotonin, but that it significantly prolongs the time course of protection. The administration of t-PCPA also affects the starting speed and the duration of the serotonin-induced hypothermic reaction. The established correlation between prolongation of the radioprotective and hypothermic effects of serotonin induced by previous application of t-PCPA supplements the results with the existence of mutual relationship between changes of the energetic exchange and radioresistance of the organism. (author)

  13. Radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xia; Li Ping; Zhang En; Liu Ping; Zhou Ping; Zhou Yuanguo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro and explore its possible mechanism. Methods: The effect of soft X-ray irradiation at dose varied from 2 to 8 Gy on cell apoptosis in rat skin fibroblast were determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC-PI labelling. The effect of c-ski gene transfection on cell apoptosis was evaluated after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 after c-ski gene transfection were measured with the Western blot method. Results: Soft X-ray irradiation increases cell apoptosis, and the increase is proportional to the irradiation dose. Apoptosis ratio increases with time since the irradiation, and reaches its peak at 36h after the irradiation, c-ski gene was observed to markedly decrease apoptosis index at 24 h after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy compared to the control group, significant increase of the protein expression of Bcl-2 was observed. C-ski gene was found no significant effect on the protein expression of Bax. Conclusion: c-ski gene can decrease radiation sensitivity of skin fibroblast, promoting Bcl-2 protein expression is one of its possible mechanism for this radioprotective effects. (authors)

  14. Study of the radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams Nascimento de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used in various fields of study, as medicine, industry, energy production, surgical materials sterilization, preservation and sterilization of foods, among others. These radiations may be responsible for adverse effects at molecular level in living organisms, where most important damage occurs in deoxyribonucleic acid molecule, DNA. These harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about radioprotector substances because they can act as protector of living tissue of those effects. In this research was investigated the possible radioprotective effect 'in vitro' of the flavonoid quercetin in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. At first, test was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of quercetin by capturing DPPH free radical molecules. Then, it was collected peripheral blood of volunteers donors. Then the samples were irradiated from linear accelerator (Siemens Primus - energy of 6 MeV and dose rate of 200 cGy/min from IMIP-PE). After samples irradiation, lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and then the culture was carried out to obtain lymphocyte in metaphases and subsequent, analysis of chromosomal abnormalities were done at optical microscope. Statistical analysis was used Student 't' test. The results showed that quercetin at a concentration of 37.5 μM presented radioprotective against damage from gamma radiation on human lymphocytes in vitro. Have been also observed that the irradiated lymphocytes showed morphologically unchanged after undergoing the presence of the flavonoid quercetin. (author)

  15. Fifth meeting of persons competent in radiation protection; Cinquiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    During this meeting will successively be approached: the statutory frame, the practical guide for the realization of the dosimetry studies of work stations presenting a risk of exposure to ionizing radiations, a study of post in conventional and interventional radiology, study of post in interventional cardiology, the roles and the missions of the P.C.R. (person competent in radiation protection) in a subcontractor company in I.N.B. (base nuclear installation), the application of the zoning order for the activities of industrial radiography, the evolution of the statutory measures in protection of the workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations, all which concerns the P.C.R. (training, missions, certification, educational role), the controls of radioprotection, the external controls of radioprotection, the surveillance of working zones, surveillance of effluents,management of the radioactive waste and effluents, classification of the personnel and the surveillance of the exposure, dosimetry by radio photo luminescence, the systeme S.I.S.E.R.I.. (N.C.)

  16. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2. Some properties of the radioprotective substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N.; Takeda, A. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60/sup 0/C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not.

  17. Interspecies comparison of the tissue distribution of WR-2721, a radioprotective drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, L.C.; Rafter, J.J.; Hayes, R.L.; Yuhas, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Pre-irradiation intravenous administration of the radioprotective drug S-2-[3-aminopropylamino]ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) has potential value in radiotherapy because it doubles the radiation resistance of normal mouse tissues while affording only minimal protection to tumors. Deficient deposition of WR- 2721 in tumor tissue has recently been demonstrated and this is thought to be a major reason for the preferential protection of normal tissues by the drug. Data originally obtained in studies using the mouse and rat indicated that the tissue distribution of WR-2721 was possibly more closely related to dose per unit surface area than to dose per unit weight. To test this hypothesis an interspecies comparison of the tissue distribution of 35 S-labeled WR-2721 was carried out in normal mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs at 15 and 30 minutes after intravenous administration. Results suggest that the surface area and body weight exert equal effects on the tissue concentration of WR-2721. The results further suggest that lower absolute doses of WR-2721 in the human, possibly as low as 20 mg/kg, may provide a radioprotective effect equivalent to that produced from 100 mg/kg in the mouse, i.e., a 50 to 80 percent increase in radiation resistance (CH)

  18. The Knowledge of Radiation and the Attitude Towards Radio-Protection among Urology Residents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Tarun

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to radiation is a hazard and precautions are necessary to limit it. This study was done to assess the knowledge of radiation and the attitude towards radio-protection among urology residents in India. A questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge and attitude of urology residents who came from all over the country to attend a clinical meeting at Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India. All the respondents agreed to being exposed to radiation, with 78.2% using radiation in more than five cases a week. Only 65.2% always took some steps for radio-protection. Lead aprons and thyroid shields were the most common radiation protection devices used. None of the residents ever used lead gloves or protective eye glasses or dosimeters. An 82.6% felt that they did not have adequate knowledge, 85.4% of residents did not receive any formal classes regarding the risk of radiation, 21.7% either rarely or never moved out of the operating room when the radiation was being used, 42.4% did not know that the SI unit of the equivalent absorbed dose of radiation & 52.1% did not know about the amount of radiation delivered to an adult during a contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen. Results of the present study reveal that the urology residents of India lack knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure. Majority of them did not take necessary precautions to limit their exposure to radiation.

  19. Evaluation of radioprotective properties of chlorophyllin against the gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Gutierrez, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Several decades ago it had been demonstrated that chlorophyllin, and its water soluble derivates, such as chlorophyllin, have therapeutic values. recently an antimutagenic activity has been observed in several tests. The aim of this work is to investigate if chlorophyllin has some radioprotective effect when the organisms are exposed to gamma-rays. The somatic mutation and recombination test in drosophila was used. This test allows us to detect simultaneously both genetic mutation, chromosomal aberration and mitotic recombination. The conduction of the experiment involved four treatments: 1) 5% sucrose, 2) 5% chlorophyllin, 3) 5% sucrose +20Gyγrays 4) 5% chlorophyllin +20Gyγrays. All the treatments lasted 24 hours and three replicas were performed. The data obtained showed a significant decrease in spot frequency found in the treatment with chlorophyllin and γ rays. From the results we are to conclude that the chlorophyllin has a radioprotective effect, when the drosophila larvae are irradiated with 20 Gy OF γrays. Mitotic recombination was affected in the same way and it is important because genetic recombination process are related to cancer induction. (Author)

  20. Isolation and identification of radioprotective compound (s) from radioresistant culture of Fusarium Moniliforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.M.; Attaby, H.S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Mat extract and filtrate of the radio-resistant strain Fusarium Moniliforme have been prepared and tested for their radioprotective action on the radiosensitive strain Trichoderma Viride. Both extracts gave T. Viride a protective effect against gamma radiation. Analysis of mat extracts and filtrates of both fungi, the radioresistant F. Moniliforme and the radiosensitive T. Viride revealed a pronounced differences in amino acids quantities in addition to the presence of gibberelic acid (GA 3 ) in the filtrate of F. Moniliforme only. Generally, the radioresistant fungus F. Moniliforme was able to accumulate ten amino acids in large quantity than the radiosensitive one. These amino acids comprised, cystine, glutamic acid, serine, methionine, histidine, proline, arginine, alanine, glycine and therionine. The amino acid pool of both fungi was poor in filtrate than in the mat extract. Analysis of filtration of F. Moniliforme was characterized by high content of gibberellic acid, whereas, only traces were detected in mat extract. No gibberellic acid was detected in both mat extract and filtrate of T. Viride. The results of this investigation, revealed also that both amino acids and gibberellic acid were subjected to pronounced disturbances following irradiation compared with the control. A close correlation between the induced radioresistance of T. Viride and the amounts of amino acids and G A, added to its culture medium was observed, suggesting their participation in radioprotection

  1. Radioprotective action of carbimazole in radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis - influence of the drug on iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.M.C.; Alexander, W.D.; Glasgow Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment with carbimazole of patients given radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy for thyrotoxicosis reduces the incidence of early hypothyroidism. The possibility that this radioprotective effect might be a consequence of drug induced alteration in thyroidal iodide turnover, leading to a reduction in thyroid irradiation, was investigated in a prospective study of 24 thyrotoxic patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 131 I alone or to be treated with carbimazole for a minimum of three months before 131 I. Thyroxine supplements were given in the latter group to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism. The effective half-life of therapeutic 131 I in the thyroid was measured using a gamma camera/computer system after oral administration of the dose, allowing the biological half life of the anion and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid to be derived. Effective half life of 131 I, biological half life of 131 I and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid were similar in the two groups of subjects. It is concluded that the radioprotective action of carbimazole is not a consequence of altered thyroidal iodide kinetics. (orig.)

  2. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz, E-mail: flavia.ramosperez@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Novaes, Pedro Duarte [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ({alpha}=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  3. Investigation of radioprotective effects of aqueous extract of sauseurea obyallata on immune system of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoliang; Li Wenhui; Guo Na; Hou Yu; Wang Chenghong; Li Tianqian; Yu Shuhui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radioprotective effects of test compound on immune system of mice from radiation injury. Methods: Immunologic function and general state of mice were shown by swimming experiment with the weighing of spleen, thymus and computing their indexs, hemolysin mensurate experiment and PHA stimulated lymphocyte transformation experiment. All mice were irradiated with 6 Gy and received the test compound by gavage for 14 days, 7 days before irradiation and 7 days after irradiation. All the indicators were measured according to established methods. The data went through Statistical analysis by spss11.5. Results: Irradiation has obvious influence on the immune function and systemic state of mice. In swimming experiment, mice in the treatment group swim longer than the model group, but is of no significant difference. The thymus indexes are higher in treatment groups than in model group, especially the HD group, compared with model group, the differences are obvious (P<0.05). There is no obvious difference between treatment groups and model group with OD value in hemolysin mensurate experiment. Conclusions: Aqueous Extract of Sauseurea Obyallata may have radioprotective effects on immune system of mice, which deserves further exploration in the compound preparing, analysis of Chemical Compositions and the dose and mode and the treatment duration of the compound. (authors)

  4. Radioprotection during the diagnostic use of X-ray in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agata, Philip.

    1978-10-01

    The speed-up of technical progress in the field of radiodiagnosis has led to a huge expansion of this technique. The number of acts per year per inhabitant is rising constantly in industrialised countries. The average population dose has already doubled natural irradiation in certain cases. Considering the established effects on carcinogenesis and heredity the need for restrictive measures can no longer be ignored. Exposed staff are safeguarded by international recommendations, largely incorporated into national legislations. The protection of patients against superfluous irradiations, while nevertheless essential, is still neglected. The means are not lacking and must certainly be developed, but above all employed properly. Medical irradiation can be limited to a considerable extent by checking the competence of X-ray source users, systematically using the possibities of the equipment in such a way as to reduce the doses delivered and keeping an irradiation book for patients. Everyone agrees that a 90% reduction of medical irradiation would in no way impair the quality of the examinations. The following points are developed particularly: institutional organisation of radioprotection; aims of radioprotection in the context of the diagnostic use of X-rays; present reference norms in radiodiagnosis; doses delivered during conventional radiodiagnostic examinations [fr

  5. Radioprotective action of carbimazole in radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis - influence of the drug on iodine kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, J.M.C.; Hilditch, T.E.; Robertson, J.; Alexander, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Pretreatment with carbimazole of patients given radioiodine (/sup 131/I) therapy for thyrotoxicosis reduces the incidence of early hypothyroidism. The possibility that this radioprotective effect might be a consequence of drug induced alteration in thyroidal iodide turnover, leading to a reduction in thyroid irradiation, was investigated in a prospective study of 24 thyrotoxic patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive /sup 131/I alone or to be treated with carbimazole for a minimum of three months before /sup 131/I. Thyroxine supplements were given in the latter group to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism. The effective half-life of therapeutic /sup 131/I in the thyroid was measured using a gamma camera/computer system after oral administration of the dose, allowing the biological half life of the anion and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid to be derived. Effective half life of /sup 131/I, biological half life of /sup 131/I and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid were similar in the two groups of subjects. It is concluded that the radioprotective action of carbimazole is not a consequence of altered thyroidal iodide kinetics.

  6. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindekov, Ivan; Vassilieva, Vladimir; Aljakova, Mitko; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Raynova, Yuliana; Idakieva, Krassimira; Doumanov, Lyuba

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from "1"3"7Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/ min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing 2 hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. Keywords: Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin; acute radiation syndrome; radioprotective effect; spleen colony assay; stomach ulcerations

  7. A radioprotective effect of imatinib (Gleevec registered) in human squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, D.; Hipp, P.R.; Roettinger, E.M.; Mendonca, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation response-modifying effect of imatinib (Gleevec registered ) in a squamous cell carcinoma line, PECA. Patients and Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined by colony forming and multiplying capacity. Drug stability was shown by HPLC. Multidrug resistance phenotype was studied by rhodamine-123 efflux. Cell-cycle responses were measured by flow cytometry. Homologous recombination repair was determined by Rad51 immunohistochemistry. Results: Inactivating 50% of the PECA cells required approximately 7 μM imatinib. The drug did not decay nor was it degraded during test periods. Drug efflux occurred only to a minor extent. Multiplying capacity but not survival fractions revealed a radioprotective effect of imatinib. There were only minor cell-cycle alterations in the presence of imatinib but the rate of Rad51-positive repair foci was significantly increased. Conclusion: PECA cells apparently lack a highly specific target for imatinib. In cells surviving at high drug concentrations, imatinib may exert a radioprotective effect on multiplying capacity by inducing DNA repair. Under prolonged exposure, drug-resistant cells may show an accelerated recovery from acute or delayed radiation damage. (orig.)

  8. The potential effect of taurine as a radioprotective agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharoud, M.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    People can be exposed to irradiation either external or internal. The potential effects of radiation on health depend in part on the radiation dose delivered and the rate of delivery causing oxidation and free radical formation. The main purpose of the present study was to asses the effect of taurine administration in modulating some biochemical and hematological parameters in female rats exposed to 6 gray γ-irradiation. The data showed in this study that the ionizing γradiation (6 Gy) induced a significant (p<0.05) increment in the levels of serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL) and elevation of cardiac enzyme activities (LDH, CK and AST) and elevation in the activities of serum AST , ALT and ALP. on the other hand , the ionizing radiation induced a significant (p < 0.05) decline in the concentrations of serum total protein and albumin . In case of exposing female rat to gamma ray, the level of MDA was significantly elevated compared to their corresponding normal control group. Whereas, the drastic decrease were observed in hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, WBCs and Hct). A significant correction was occurred in all previous parameters after the irradiated rats were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with taurine (500 mg/100 g body weigh / day for one month). Leading to the conclusion that taurine is considered as antioxidant and a radio-protector agent.

  9. Vasoactive and radioprotective properties of isothiourea derivatives having NOS-inhibitory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonova, Marina V.; Shevchenko, Ludmila I.; Ulyanenko, Stepan E.; Makarchuk, Victorya M.; Kuznetsova, Mary N.; Shevchuk, Aza S.; Lushnikova, Galina A.; Chesnakova, Ekaterina A. [Medical Radiological Research Center Health Ministry of Russia, 4, Korolev street, Obninsk, 249036, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We studied vasoactive and radioprotective properties of new original N-acyl, S-alkyl isothiourea derivatives which are potent inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (preferably eNOS and iNOS). These compounds have a moderate toxicity (LD50 - 400-550 mg/kg), and are stable in aqueous solutions. In hemodynamic studies, these compounds exhibited high vasotropic activity. The use of these compounds in doses of 5-15 mg/kg (0,01-0,03 LD{sub 50}) in the experimental animals in a state of the severe hemorrhagic or endo-toxic shock causes a potent vasopressor effect, accompanied by a significant and continuous rise in blood pressure. The increasing of vascular tone developed over 2-5 min after injection and persisted for at least 60-90 minutes, excelling at least 3-5 times the duration of α1-adreno-mimetic vasopressor action. The rapid increase in vascular tone under the influence of these compounds in normo-tonic animals caused protective baroreflex to prevent high blood pressure. At doses of 10-15 mg/kg the reflex reaction was mild, but at higher doses (30-40 mg/kg) the reaction was fierce and prolonged, and was accompanied by severe bradycardia, decreasing of the cardiac output and a significant weakening of the peripheral blood flow. In all cases, the hemodynamic response was reflexive and easily eliminated by atropine. The ability of these compounds to induce circulatory hypoxia was the basis for the study of their radioprotective properties. The study of radioprotective effect on the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of γ-radiation (10 Gy) and on the survival of hematopoietic clonogenic cells showed that these compounds in doses of 80-150 mg/kg (0,2-0,3 LD50) have considerable radioprotective action, which is comparable with the protective effect of the maximum tolerated dose of cystamine. The factor of change in dose for γ-radiation, estimated by the LD{sub 50}, was 1,42-1,58. We also investigated the ability of the test compounds, due to their hypoxic

  10. Radioprotection regulations of working place and the principle of precaution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisseu, A.

    2004-01-01

    The World Council of Nuclear Workers, WONUC is an association of the Unions and any other organized bodies of the world's nuclear professionals and workers from industry, research and administration involved in nuclear technologies. WONUC is recognized as an N.G.O. by United Nations. It has a deep interest in radiation protection and in the assessment of the hazards associated with the biological effects of low and very low doses of ionizing radiation for at least three reasons: 1.The nuclear workers represent, with radiologists and technicians in hospitals, the largest group of workers for whom exposure to ionizing radiation is the main occupational hazard. 2.Their families usually live in the vicinity of nuclear plants. 3.They will be in charge of the implementation of any regulations. For these reasons, nuclear workers are very much concerned by the controversies which have arisen with regard to the dose limit and the LNT assessment of the risks associated with exposure to low and very low doses of radiation. This debate is of major importance for the future of the radiation protection system for our working conditions in ionizing environment. Two pitfalls must be avoided: fuelling unjustified anxiety on doubtful bases (the analysis of the Chernobyl data show that unjustified anxiety has been more harmful than ionising radiation) or underestimating the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. As it is clear that following topics: The linear no threshold relationship, the effect of dose rate, DNA repair mechanisms, or indirect effects such as genomic instability and bystander effects, Hormesis, To assess the uncertainty of the various risk assessments and to analyse the scientific ways through which these uncertainties could be reduced, ought to be still discussed, the World Council of Nuclear Worker is claiming for the application of the principle of precaution to have the best advantage of the radiation protection system which will cover any

  11. Investigation of the porphyrine role at the mechanism of radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoukhamedova, S.D.; Alieva, I.N.; Aliev, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To date, it is well known that unfavourable radioecological conditions capable effect on the oxygen transport system in an living organism, particularly, on the conformational state of hemoglobin. Underlying mechanism is more active autoxidation of Hb(O 2 )4 into met-hemoglobin. Decreasing of the oxygen binding to the heme group of protein as a result of modified effect of ionization was observed into peripheral blood of people living on the polluted territory. Porphyrin, the main component of hemoglobin has been showed a wide range radioprotector properties. So, the conformational reorganization of the porphyrin ring plays an important role at the mechanism of hemoglobin functioning. In this report the result of conformational study, quantum-chemical calculations and theoretical calculation of frequencies and intensities of normal oscillations of IR-absorption spectrum of the porphyrin molecule at the NO-binding are presented. Computational program 'LEV' was used in all carried calculations. Due to changes into IR-spectrum of different complexes, the mechanism underlying the ligand bond formation are discussed. The theoretical frequencies of normal oscillations, satisfactorily described the porphyrin experimental IR-spectrum are received. On the base of both obtained normal oscillation forms and potential energy distribution of vibrational coordinates the detailed theoretical interpretation of the porphyrin molecule vibrational spectrum as well as the analysis of the nature of each absorption band the porphyrin molecule IR-spectrum have been carried out. Porphyrin molecule force field analysis has been showed that the ring electron density is irregular. The results of this study may be used at the theoretical calculations of IR-absorption spectrum of different metallo complexes of the porphyrin

  12. Radioprotective potential of Decalepis hamiltonii: a study on gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, Muzeer; Shivanandappa, T.; Ramesh, S.R.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage to normal tissues restricts the therapeutic use of radiation in clinical application for cancer treatment and thereby limits the efficacy of the treatment. The use of chemical compounds as radioprotectors is a desirable strategy to improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. However, most of the synthetic radioprotective compounds studied have shown to have undesirable properties of toxicity. There is a need for safer, natural radioprotective agents without compromising efficacy of the treatment. We have investigated the radioprotective potential of Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) root extract which is rich in natural antioxidants by employing Drosophila melanogaster as a model. Irradiation of Drosophila with 100, 200, and 400 Gy of gamma radiation induced dose-dependent mortality. Elevation in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and depletion of glutathione (GSH) content suggested radiation-induced oxidative stress. Pretreatment of flies with Dh root extract protected them from radiation-induced mortality and oxidative stress as evidenced by reduction in TBARS and restoration of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT, and GSH to control levels. This is the first report of radioprotective action of Dh root extract in D. melanogaster. (author)

  13. Whole Body Hyperthermia in Mice Confers Delayed Radioprotection at Cellular and Tissue Levels: Inducible Heat Shock Proteins as Endogenous Radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malytina, Y. V.; Sements, T. N.; Semina, O. V.; Mosin, A. F.; Kabakov, A.

    2004-01-01

    It was previously shown on heat shock protein (Hsp)-over expressing cell lines that the increased intracellular content of Hsp 70 or Hsp27 is associated with the elevated radioresistance. However, it was so far unknown whether the in vivo Fsp induction by stressful preconditioning can confer radioprotection at the tissue and cellular levels. In the present study, we examined how the in vivo up-regulation of the Hsp expression in response to mild whole body hyperthermia (42 degrees C, 10 min) in mice changes susceptibility of their bone marrow stem cells and thymocytes to subsequent gamma-irradiation. to assess the expectable contribution of stress-inducible Hsp we used injections with Quercetin, a flavonoid inhibiting the stress-responsive Hsp induction. The results demonstrate that the bone marrow stem cells and thymocytes from heat-preconditioned mice were more radioresistant than those from the non-preconditioned animals. the radioprotection was well manifested if mice or their isolated thymocytes were irradiated 18-25 h after the in vivo hyperthermia. This delayed radioprotection resulting from the heat preconditioning was suppressed in Quercetin-injected mice. The revealed correlation between the intracellular Hsp accumulation and the acquired Quercetin-sensitive radioprotection suggests a beneficial role of Hsps as of endogenous radioprotectors. Our finding discovers new ways for artificial modulation of effects of irradiation on target cells via manipulating the Hsp expression. (Author) 17 refs

  14. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  15. Synthesis and radioprotective study of novel amino-alkyl dithiocarbamic acid derivatives against γ-irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinimehr, S. J.; Beiki, D.; Kebriaeezadeh, A.; Khalaj, A.; Pirali Hamedani, M.; Akhlaghpoor, S.; Esmaeili, H.; Barazesh, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of some novel amino alkylated dithiocarbamic acid potassium salts against γ-irradiation in mice. Materials and Methods: Eight compounds containing 2-aminoethyl-, 3-aminopropyl-, 4-aminobutyl-, 5-aminopentyl-, 6-aminohexyl-, 7-amino heptyl-, 8-amino octyl and 9-amino nonyl of dithiocarbamate derivatives were prepared. Male NMRI mice were injected intraperitoneally with a geometric progression of doses (300 -1000 mg/kg), through the dose response range for lethal toxicity. To evaluate the radioprotective activity, one-half of the toxic LD 50 of each compound were injected intraperitoneally to groups of twenty mice, 30 minutes prior to γ-irradiation. The treated animals were kept for 30 days, and the lethality was recorded each day. Results: Among Eight compounds of alkyl dithiocarbamic acid derivatives, 5-aminopentyl, 7-amino heptyl, 8-amino octyl and 9-amino nonyl dithiocarbamic acid mono potassium salts are new compounds. All evaluated compounds showed a concentration dependent effect on the survival in mice. The LD 50 values were found to be more than 599 mg/kg. The percentages of 30-day survival of mice for 2-aminoethyl, 7-amino heptyl and 8-amino octyl dithiocarbamic acid derivatives were 7%, 40% and 13.5%, respectively, when injected 30 minutes before γ-irradiation. Other compounds had no radioprotective effects. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the treated and control groups for the 7-amino heptyl derivative (p<0.05). Conclusion: Among the compounds investigated in this study, 7-amino heptyl dithiocarbamate derivative showed more radioprotective effects in comparison with the others. Although it seems that the radioprotective effects in these derivatives correlate with the size of the alkyl chain, more experiments are required to support this hypothesis.

  16. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  17. Effect of extraction method and orientin content on radio-protective effect of tulsi extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Mrinalini; Dwarakanath, B. S.; Agrawala, Paban K., E-mail: pkagrawal@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Murugan, R.; Parimelazhagan, T. [Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Uma Devi, P. [ARA-B-3SA, Plavilakonam,Trivandrum (India); Gota, V.; Sarin, R. K. [Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Navi Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Extract of tulsi leaves (Ocimum sanctum) has been reported for its radioprotective efficacy. In our initial studies we observed significant variation in the survival of irradiated mice with different batches of tulsi extracts and therefore we employed different extraction methods on leaves collected during various seasons from different localities to study any variation in the radioprotective efficacy. Orientin, a component of tulsi extract, was considered a marker. Mice whole body survival (at 10 Gy lethal whole body irradiation) study and day 11 endo-CFU-s assay (at 5 Gy WBI) were performed employing 3 treatment schedules, 50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg b.w (single injection, 30 min irradiation), and 10 mg/kgb.w (one injection per day for 5 day, last injection being 30 min before irradiation). Single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w (both aqueous and alcoholic) did not provide any significant survival benefit. The orientin concentrations in the extracts tested varied from 3.3 to 9.91 mg/g extract as studied by HPLC method. With a single administration (i.p) of 50 mg/kg, the aqueous extract from leaves of monsoon season had an orientin content of 9.91 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 60% with a CFU-s count of 37, while extract of leaf summer leaves had an orientin content of 4.15 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 50% with a CFU-s count of 11.6. At the same dose (50 mg/kg), the aqueous extract from the winter season had an orientin content of 3.30 mg/g extract and gave 25% survival with a CFU-s count of 19, while the ethanolic extract had an orientin content of 7.70 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 50% with a CFU-s count of 13. These observations suggest that different climatic factors, orientin content and the doses of administration are important factors regulating radioprotection afforded by different extracts of tulsi. (author)

  18. Radioprotective effects of CBLB502 on γ-radiated Rhesus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing SHEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective A Rhesus monkey model was employed to study the radioprotective effects of a Toll-like receptor 5 agonist, CBLB502, against 7.0Gy whole-body irradiation of 60Co gamma-rays. Methods Thirty animals were assigned to a placebo treatment group, a WR-2721 positive control group, and three CBLB502 treatment groups (n=6 animals/group. Each animal was irradiated with 7.0Gy 60Co γ and given CBLB502 at 2.5, 10 and 40μg/kg, respectively in treatment groups, or WR-2721 at 30mg/kg, or physiological saline 0.3ml/kg for the placebo treatment group. The treatment was given once by intramuscular injection 30 min before irradiation. All irradiated animals received symptomatic treatment based on same guidelines. General observation, peripheral blood tests, hemopoietic progenitor cell colony-counting, and histopathological examination were performed. Results We found that 10 or 40μg/kg CBLB502 treatment resulted in 100% survival, while the survival rate was 33% in placebo treatment group. Hematopoietic recovery in the WR-2721 treatment group was marginally superior to the irradiation control group. Nadirs of peripheral white cell and platelet counts of animals treated with 40μg/kg of CBLB502 were significantly higher than those of the placebo treatment group (P<0.05. CBLB502 at 40μg/kg also gave a shortened duration of low platelet count, earlier recovery time, reduced the amount of blood transfusion and damage to the bone marrow and intestine. Conclusion All Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 7.0Gy 60Co γ-rays would suffer from severe acute radiation sickness of hematopoietic system. CBLB502 at 40μg/kg is radioprotective in this model and a single intramuscular injection of CBLB502 in a dose of 40μg/kg 30min before irradiation gives better radioprotective effects than WR-2721. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.04.07

  19. Main Memory DBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA main memory database system is a DBMS that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage. In contrast, normal database management systems employ hard disk based persisntent storage.

  20. Modulation of Radioprotective Effects of Respiratory Hypoxia by Changing the Duration of Hypoxia before Irradiation and by Combining Hypoxia and Administration of Hemopoiesis-Stimulating Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, Antonín; Tačev, T.; Hofer, Michal

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 177, č. 9 (2001), s. 474-481 ISSN 0179-7158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : radioprotection * mice * hypoxia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2001

  1. Genetic determination of the radioprotective effect of cysteamine on γ-irradiated Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, V.L.; Oskolkova, O.B.; Stepanova, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of a lethal effect of 60 Co-γ-rays on Bacillus subtilis cells: a wild type strain and recombination-deficient mutants rec A, rec B, rec D, rec F, rec K, rec L and rec O exposed in the absence and in the presence of cysteamine (H -2 M). It was established that the protective efficiency of cysteamine for repair- and recombination-deficient mutants is significantly lower than that for the wild type (DMF 2.2-3.0). The most deficient in sensitivity to the protective action of cysteamine are rec B mutants (DMF 0.8-1.2). These data suggest that in B. subtilis, like in E. coli, the radioprotective effect of cysteamine is genetically determined and depends on the activity of repair systems

  2. Rich radioprotective profiles of two indigenous medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Rakshamani [V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur (India); Mohan, H [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kamat, J P [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2005-01-01

    The extracts of two indigenous medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) were selected to study if they could prevent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during radiation exposure. Rat liver mitochondria exposed to {gamma}-radiation (450Gy) resulted significant oxidative damage as exemplified by enhanced formation in various lipid peroxidation products, conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), TBARS as well as hydroxylnonenals. Simultaneous addition of Ap or Sc (50 mg/ml) extracts during radiation could significantly reverse such damage. Extracts showed high reducing equivalents, phenolic contents and displayed high scavenging activity with superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The pulse radiolysis studies exhibited high reactivity with ABTS. Based on these observation, the plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata and Swertia chirata may emerge as effective radioprotective agents, protecting cells from radiation-induced injury. (author)

  3. Rich radioprotective profiles of two indigenous medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Rakshamani; Mohan, H.; Kamat, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The extracts of two indigenous medicinal plants, Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) were selected to study if they could prevent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during radiation exposure. Rat liver mitochondria exposed to γ-radiation (450Gy) resulted significant oxidative damage as exemplified by enhanced formation in various lipid peroxidation products, conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), TBARS as well as hydroxylnonenals. Simultaneous addition of Ap or Sc (50 mg/ml) extracts during radiation could significantly reverse such damage. Extracts showed high reducing equivalents, phenolic contents and displayed high scavenging activity with superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The pulse radiolysis studies exhibited high reactivity with ABTS. Based on these observation, the plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata and Swertia chirata may emerge as effective radioprotective agents, protecting cells from radiation-induced injury. (author)

  4. Evaluation of radioprotective activities Rhodiola imbricata Edgew--a high altitude plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Sagar, Ravinder; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Surendar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Singh, Shikha; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2005-05-01

    The present study reports the radioprotective properties of a hydro-alcoholic rhizome extract of Rhodiola imbricata (code named REC-7004), a plant native to the high-altitude Himalayas. The radioprotective effect, along with its relevant superoxide ion scavenging, metal chelation, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activities was evaluated under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Chemical analysis showed the presence of high content of polyphenolics (0.971 +/- 0.01 mg% of quercetin). Absorption spectra analysis revealed constituents that absorb in the range of 220-290 nm, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the presence of four major peaks with retention times of 4.780, 5.767, 6.397 and 7.577 min. REC-7004 was found to lower lipid oxidation significantly (p degradation within first 24 h. The metal chelation activity of REC-7004 was found to increase concomitantly from 1 to 50 microg/ml. REC-7004 (10-50 microg/ml) exhibited significant metal chelation activity (p < 0.05), as compared to control, and maximum percentage inhibition (30%) of formation of iron-2,2'-bi-pyridyl complex was observed at 50 microg/ml, which correlated well with quercetin (34.9%), taken as standard. The reducing power of REC-7004 increased in a dose-dependent manner. The absorption unit value of REC-7004 was significantly lower (0.0183 +/- 0.0033) as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene, a standard antioxidant (0.230 +/- 0.091), confirming its high reducing ability. Superoxide ion scavenging ability of REC-7004 exhibited a dose-dependent increase (1-100 microg/ml) and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of quercetin at lower concentrations (1-10 microg/ml), while at 100 microg/ml, both quercetin and REC-7004 scavenged over 90% superoxide anions. MTT assay in U87 cell line revealed an increase in percent survival of cells at doses between 25 and 125 microg/ml in case of drug + radiation group. In vivo evaluation of radio-protective

  5. Radioprotection of mouse skin by WR-2721: the critical influence of oxygen tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; Michael, B.D.; Rojas, A.; Stewart, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The epidermal clone assay has been used to study the radioprotective effect of WR-2721 on mouse skin under different conditions of oxygenation and under anoxia. The skin has shown a progressive decrease in sensitivity as the inspired gas has changed from 100% oxygen towards 0% oxygen. Compared with mice breathning 100% oxygen, those breathing air are partially protected. The inspired oxygen concentration to give half the full oxygen effect is 10-12%. The radioprotecton observed with 400 mg/kg WR-2721 is markedly dependent on the ambient oxygen concentration. The protection factor is 1.1 or less in mice breathing 5%, 1% or 0% oxygen. Protection is maximal (1.95) in air and in 50% oxygen and diminishes to 1.6 at higher oxygen tensions

  6. Radioprotection and management of radioactive residues study in the radiopharmaceuticals laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, Priscila M.; Silva, Maria Isabel B. da

    2002-01-01

    The 123 I, used in the thyroid cancer diagnoses, is being used at several clinics of nuclear medicine, instead of 131 I. This last one, for presenting half-life 15 times bigger than the first one, causes larger doses to the patient and slower exams. Another subject is the management of the residues generated by radiopharmaceutical laboratories, which requests lager physical space, in the case of 131 I. In the present work, six radiopharmaceutical laboratories of the state of Rio de Janeiro were visited. All of them use the 131 I produced by the Nuclear Engineering Institute. In these visits radioprotection procedures and the management of residues of those laboratories were evaluated, as well as the available infrastructure

  7. Synthesis of morpholine derivatives and Bunte's salt as compounds of potential radioprotective activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain several compounds possessing radioprotective activity. The syntheses yielded seven undescribed compounds i.e.: benzyl ester of the N-morpholinecarbathionothioglicol acid, ester bis S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-2-thioethyl, morpholine salt of the N-morpholinecarbothionothiolic acid, sodium and potassium salt of S-morpholine-4-carbonyl, methylthiosulfate, sodium and potassium salt of beta-hydroxyethyl thiosulfate. Moreover, with the aid of other methods following compounds were synthetized: beta-S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl) ethyl thiopropioniane, amide of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, acid S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid, sodium salt of the S-(morpholine-4-thiocarbonyl)-thioglicol acid. The structure of these compounds was confirmed using elementary and spectral analysis.

  8. Synthesis of esters of morpholino-4-carbothionothiolic acid as compounds of potential radioprotective action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelczyk, M.; Kucharski, A. (Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    The compounds of the group of dithiocarbaminianes as complexing compounds are of importance in radioprotection. Present paper concerns the synthesis of 19, as yet undescribed dithiocarbaminianes esters of morpholino-4-carbothionothiolic acid. They were obtained in the reaction of the potassium salt of the mentioned acid with adequate alkyl or alkyloaryl halogenatas. Potassium salt of the morpholino-4-carbothionothiolic acid was obtained in the reaction of morpholine with carbon disulphite in the presence of potassium hydroxide. Obtaining of the pure potassium salt of the mentioned acid enabled the accurate calculation of the used substarate in further reactions and conduction of reaction in different solvents. Phenyloalkyl, phenacyl and morpholino-4-carbonyloalkyl esters were obtained. Their chemical structure was confirmed by elementary and spectral infrared analysis.

  9. Radio-protective effect of sodium meclofenamate. A prospective clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahafzah, M.; Halpern, J.; Nava, H.R.; Huben, R.P.; Sayyid, S.; Bryson, W.; Ambrus, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Twentyfour patients treated with irradiation to either their pelvis or their chest for neoplastic disease were included in a randomized study of radioprotection with sodium meclofenamate (Meclomen) (SM). Seventeen patients received SM 100 mg, p.os, t.i.d., and seven received placebo. The long-range radiation related chronic gastrointestinal and urinary tract toxicity was diminished by SM. At 12 months post irradiation, SM treated patients experienced less gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms, as well as less measured bladder contraction, than the controls. Acute gastrointestinal signs of radiotoxicity, however, seemed to have been enhanced by SM. The treated patients suffered from nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These acute toxic effects were temporary and reversible

  10. Enzymeaticial analysis and soluble proteins assays on radioprotective effects of cordyceps militaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joon Chul [Ansan 1 College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Effect of single pre-administration of Cordyceps militaries (Cm) extract on the survival ratio, body weight and organ weight changes and blood cell counts after whole-body {gamma}-irradiation were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cm extract at 24 hrs before {gamma}-irradiation increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 60.1% to 71/4%. The administration of Cm extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by {gamma}-irradiation (P<0.01, P<0.05). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cm treated mice. The administration of Cm extract retarded the reduction of both leukocyte and lymphocyte counts occured during the first 7 days and accelerated the recovery of the counts thereafter. The extract also accelerated the recovery of the erythrocyte counts occurred after the day 21th. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the soluble proteins extracted from various organs did not reveal differences to any extent in all groups except in the levers of the irradiated and extract treated groups, in which some proteins were missing or less present. Also, the result of general intra and extra mycelial enzyme assays with Cm, extramycelial enzyme activity was relatively higher than the intramycelial enzyme. Cm appeared to indicate that {alpha}-amylase was the highest among the enzymes and gluosidase and chitinase were followed. Since the spleen, thymus and testis have been well known as radiosensitive organs, the protective action of Cm extract on irradiated mice may be responsible for its enhancing recovery of these organs. Although the exact mechanism in protective effect of Cm extract on irradiated mice is not clear yet, the present study is the first report regarding the Cm which was tested and found to be a potential radioprotective agent.

  11. Combined effect of hormones and radioprotective substances in case of animal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, D.; Bodo-Sekejchidinch, K.; Ehanta, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of anabolic and other relative preparations used in the national therapy in combination with radioprotective compounds tested earlier in experiments with animals was studied. The investigations were carried out on albino male mice of CFLP line. X-ray exposure was carried out with the help of a TNH-250 type unit for deep irradiation (630 R and 800 R doses). For gamma irradiation, a 60 Co facility was utilized. AET radioprotective compounds (S 2 -beta-aminoethylisothiouronium-bromide-hydrobromide) and ixeprin (bis-alfa-propinyl-glycyl-sodium disulfide) were used. Nerobolyl (norandrostenolon-phenylpropionate) and retabolyl (norandrostenolon-decanoat) were studied among anabolic hormones. Experiments were also conducted using retandrolom (testosteron-phenylpropionate) which did not belong to anabolics but was used in oncology as a supporting agent. Three days prior to the irradiation, intraperitoneal injections of nerobolyl (10 mg/kg) dissolved in oil for injections, ratabolyl (50 mg/kg) and retandrol (25 mg/kg) began to be made to groups of animals, 15 mice in each. Control groups received intraperitoneally only 0.5 ml of oil. In another series of experiments hormones were used even after the irradiation. Radioprotectors were introduced, as a rule, 20 min. prior to the radiation exposure. Ixeprin, as an effective radioprotector, was introduced 3 hours after the irradiation. When evaluating the results of the experiments, the number of animals which survived during 30 days after the irradiation and the rate of mortality were taken into consideration, gain in weig was also taken into accout. A single introduction of an anabolic in combination with a radioprotector (AET or ixeprin) usually did not contribute to an increase of the survival rate of irradiated animals

  12. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time

  13. Enzymeaticial analysis and soluble proteins assays on radioprotective effects of cordyceps militaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Park, Joon Chul

    2001-01-01

    Effect of single pre-administration of Cordyceps militaries (Cm) extract on the survival ratio, body weight and organ weight changes and blood cell counts after whole-body γ-irradiation were investigated. The single pre-administration of Cm extract at 24 hrs before γ-irradiation increased the 40-day survival ration of irradiated mice from 60.1% to 71/4%. The administration of Cm extract completely prevented weight reductions of spleen and thymus produced by γ-irradiation (P<0.01, P<0.05). Similar but somewhat less radioprotective effect was also found in the testis of the Cm treated mice. The administration of Cm extract retarded the reduction of both leukocyte and lymphocyte counts occured during the first 7 days and accelerated the recovery of the counts thereafter. The extract also accelerated the recovery of the erythrocyte counts occurred after the day 21th. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the soluble proteins extracted from various organs did not reveal differences to any extent in all groups except in the levers of the irradiated and extract treated groups, in which some proteins were missing or less present. Also, the result of general intra and extra mycelial enzyme assays with Cm, extramycelial enzyme activity was relatively higher than the intramycelial enzyme. Cm appeared to indicate that α-amylase was the highest among the enzymes and gluosidase and chitinase were followed. Since the spleen, thymus and testis have been well known as radiosensitive organs, the protective action of Cm extract on irradiated mice may be responsible for its enhancing recovery of these organs. Although the exact mechanism in protective effect of Cm extract on irradiated mice is not clear yet, the present study is the first report regarding the Cm which was tested and found to be a potential radioprotective agent

  14. Radioprotective effect of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative to modulate the radiation-induced clastogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari, N.; Madhu, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, relieving oxidative stress, promoting antioxidant activity and modulating immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. It has long been known that some of the most effective radioprotective agents are those which contain sulphydryl groups. The present study reports an evaluation of radical scavenging property and radioprotective property of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative. The lethal dose of Electron beam radiation (EBR) was studied by survival assay. The dose reduction factor (DRF) of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole (TR1) was calculated by taking the ratio between LD 50 of EBR with and without TR1 treatment. Radical scavenging property of TR1 was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The clastogenic effects of EBR were recorded by Micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and DNA fragmentation assay in hepatic cells of mice. The survival assay results showed that 10Gy was the LD 50 of EBR. The calculated DRF for TR1 was found to be 1.2. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a positive result when it compared with the standard glutathione. Treatment of mice with 100 mg of TR1 for 15 days before irradiation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the frequency of micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells and also reduced the DNA fragmentation in hepatic cells. The result obtained in the present study concludes that TR1 has a protective effect against the EBR-induced mortality and clastogenicity. (author)

  15. Oahu Sewer Main Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear features representing sewer main lines as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. Includes an inventory of sewer mains used for...

  16. On the correlation between the radioprotective effectiveness of serotonin and its derivatives and their ability to modify the local blood flow in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, M.M.; Vasin, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    Radioprotective effectiveness of serotonin and its alkoxy derivatives and their ability to modify a local blood flow in hemopoietic tissues have been comparatively studied in albino mice and rats. The correlation between these two parameters is nonlinear and may be approximated by a hyperbola equation. The correlation coefficient is - 0.88. A high radioprotective effect of serotonin and its derivatives is observed in the case of a three-fold decrease of the blood flow in the spleen

  17. On the role played by direct protection of the haemopoietic system cells in radioprotective action of some biogenous amines on the animal organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, I.B.; Dontsova, G.V.; Yanushevskaya, M.I.; Graevskij, E.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    It has been found in mice, by a method of splenic exocolonies, that: (1) serotonin, adrenaline and noradrenaline can protect both isolated bone marrow cells and cells in situ (2) a considerable contribution to a radioprotective action of the amines under study on the animal organism is made by their direct protective effect on cells, (3) with serotonin and adrenaline, ''cell'' protection in the organism is added by a radioprotective action of tissue hypoxia caused by these amines

  18. Presentation of the main regulatory provisions applicable in medical and dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give an overview of the regulation framework to physicians, radiologists, dental surgeons, medical personnel employers, and persons with abilities in radioprotection. It addresses the procedures of declaration and authorization of possession and use of electric equipment generating ionizing radiation, the different persons intervening to ensure the radioprotection of patients and workers, the laying-out conditions for a radiology installation, the different aspects of population and worker radioprotection and of patient radioprotection, the maintenance and quality control of medical equipment, the declaration of incidents at the ASN, and radioprotection inspection

  19. Presentation of the main regulatory provisions applicable in medical and dental radiology. October 2016 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    This document is an update of a previous version published in 2013. Its aim is to give an overview of the regulation framework to physicians, radiologists, dental surgeons, medical personnel employers, and persons with abilities in radioprotection. It addresses the procedures of declaration and authorization of possession and use of electric equipment generating ionizing radiation, the different persons intervening to ensure the radioprotection of patients and workers, the laying-out conditions for a radiology installation, the different aspects of population and worker radioprotection and of patient radioprotection, the maintenance and quality control of medical equipment, the declaration of incidents at the ASN, and radioprotection inspection

  20. Presentation of the main regulatory provisions applicable in medical and dental radiology - October 2013 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    This document is an update of a previous version published in May 2012. Its aim is to give an overview of the regulation framework to physicians, radiologists, dental surgeons, medical personnel employers, and persons with abilities in radioprotection. It addresses the procedures of declaration and authorization of possession and use of electric equipment generating ionizing radiation, the different persons intervening to ensure the radioprotection of patients and workers, the laying-out conditions for a radiology installation, the different aspects of population and worker radioprotection and of patient radioprotection, the maintenance and quality control of medical equipment, the declaration of incidents at the ASN, and radioprotection inspection

  1. Presentation of the main regulatory provisions applicable in medical and dental radiology - May 2012 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This document is an update of a previous version published in 2010. Its aim is to give an overview of the regulation framework to physicians, radiologists, dental surgeons, medical personnel employers, and persons with abilities in radioprotection. It addresses the procedures of declaration and authorization of possession and use of electric equipment generating ionizing radiation, the different persons intervening to ensure the radioprotection of patients and workers, the laying-out conditions for a radiology installation, the different aspects of population and worker radioprotection and of patient radioprotection, the maintenance and quality control of medical equipment, the declaration of incidents at the ASN, and radioprotection inspection

  2. Radio-protection problems presented by iodine isotopes in nuclear fuel chemical treatment plants (1962); Les problemes de radioprotection poses par les isotopes de l'iode dans les installations de traitement chimique des combustibles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzigues, H; Scheidhauer, J; Messainguiral, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The origin of radio-iodine and the conditions in which it is liberated are given. The authors review the question of the risks associated with the presence of this radioelement In the atmosphere. Finally a method is proposed for the trapping and rapid measuring of the iodine in the vapour form, applicable to radioprotection. (authors) [French] L'origine et les conditions de liberation du radioiode sont exposees. Les auteurs font le point de la question des risques associes a la presence de ce radioelement dans l'atmosphere. Enfin, une methode de piegeage et de mesure rapide de l'iode a l'etat de vapeur applicable a la radioprotection, est proposee. (auteurs)

  3. A study of some radioprotection apparatuses used in the case of pool reactors; Etude de quelques dispositifs de radioprotection en service aupres des piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robien, E de; Choudens, H de; Delpuech, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Various problems of radioprotection concerning swimming-pool reactors in Grenoble have led us to study adequate solutions: a) The automatic verification of the staff-radioactivity when coming out of Melusine or Siloe has been realized thanks to a {beta}{gamma} gate which is insensitive to the ambient background in the reactor-hall; b) The automatic verification of the contamination of the shoes of the agents working in these reactors has been realized with a dedicated device; c) The necessity to measure precisely {gamma} doses with the help of an autonomous apparatus has led to the making of a plastic-scintillator {gamma} dosimeter; d) The obligation to forbid the opening of doors in some places where there might be a great intensity of radiation, has led us to make doors open according to the intensity of radiation inside the rooms; e) The releases of radioactive iodine have been measured with activated charcoal cartridges that surround a scintillator connected with a unique channel selector; f) Finally the control of reactor safety rod fall in case of a radioactive accident has been secured by a chain whose detector is a chamber immersed in the swimming-pool, which offers, in the particular case of the hot thickness swimming-pool reactor a double advantage: first it enables us to regulate the upper hot water layer, second to get free of transitory radiations which appear in the reactor hall as the experimental apparatuses are taken out from the core. (authors) [French] Differents problemes de radioprotection se posant aupres des piles piscines de Grenoble, ils ont necessite l'etude de solutions particulieres: a) le controle automatique de la radioactivite du personnel sortant de Melusine ou de Siloe a ete realise a l'aide d'un portique {beta}{gamma} insensible au bruit de fond ambiant du hall des piles; b) le controle automatique de la contamination des souliers des agents travaillant dans ces piles a ete realise par une passerelle pieds {beta}{gamma}; c) la

  4. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  5. Radio-protection and decontamination operations on the central vibrating channels of the reactor G 3; Radioprotection et operations de decontamination sur le couloir vibrant central de la pile G.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J Ph; Cohendy, G; Rodier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The dose rate in the vibrating channels room of the discharge system, which is due to the contamination of one of the channels by a ruptured can after clad failure was high. It was necessary to intervene in order that normal maintenance could be carried out on this equipment. The operation was carried out from a neighbouring room using cleaning tubes, and then directly, after numerous precautions had been taken. Radio-protection was made very difficult because of the irradiation and of the powdery state of the contamination. The average individual integrated dose for the 122 persons having taken part in this 2-month operation was 362 mrem. Thanks to the close collaboration between the operational, emergency and radio-protection personnel, this operation was executed smoothly and rapidly. (authors) [French] Le debit de dose dans la salle des couloirs vibrants du systeme de dechargement, provenant de la contamination de l'un d'entre eux par une cartouche a rupture de gaine etait important. Une intervention a ete necessaire pour permettre l'entretien normal de ce materiel. Elle s'est faite d'abord a partir d'une salle voisine, en utilisant des tuyaux de lavage, puis directement, moyennant de nombreuses precautions. La radioprotection a ete rendue tres difficile a cause de l'irradiation et de la forme particulierement pulverulente de la contamination. La dose individuelle moyenne integree par les 122 agents ayant participe a cette operation qui a dure 2 mois, a ete de 362 mrem. C'est grace a la collaboration etroite de l'exploitation, de l'intervention et de la radioprotection qu'elle a pu se derouler aussi rapidement dans de bonnes conditions. (auteurs)

  6. Scientific production of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD): preliminary bibliometric evaluation of the journal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusmao Pedrini, A. de; Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    1994-01-01

    A total of 114 articles (1974-1991, this last year the most productive) in 28 periodicals were published. The periodical core production is made up of: Health Physics, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Radiologia Brasileira. 53% were written in cooperation with 33 institutions. The 155 authors and 376 authorship were mainly in collective and triple-authorship articles. Mean productivity/author was 2.8 articles which is lower than that of Price. The most productivity author produced 14 articles + 19 co-authors in 7 periodicals on environmental radiation protection while 88 authors produced 1 article. The productive elite (12 authors) accounted for 72 articles, 26% above the average according to Lotka, with 111 out of a total of 376 authorships in 20 periodicals. The elite forms an inter departmental communication network with authors who write about environmental, occupational and individual radiation protection. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  7. Comparative radioprotective studies of chlorpromazine and cysteamine on rat bone development; Effect on serum and bone proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeen, A M; Ibrahim, H A; Badawy, M; Elkholy, W M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were planned to study the radioprotective effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and Cysteamine (Cys), when injected separately or combined before irradiation, on some factors affecting the development of rat bone. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) The body weight decreased due to gamma-irradiation. (2) The mortality rate increased after irradiation, but diminished by single or double chemical injection before irradiation. (3) The serum total protein; albumin, globulin contents and A/G ratio were significantly increased, 6 hrs. After irradiation, then declined afterwards. (4) Histochemically, a decrease in bone protein content was demonstrates after irradiation. The above irradiation effects were suppressed by injection of the radioprotective substances. Their effect seems to be cumulative. 4 fig.,3 tab.

  8. Radioprotective action of glycerol and cysteamine on inactivation and mutagenesis in Salmonella tester strains after γ- and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.

    1992-01-01

    Inactivation and mutagenesis were studied in Salmonella tester strains after γ-irradiation and after heavy ion irradiation in the presence of glycerol and cysteamine. Ions from deuteron to carbon with residual energies of 2-9 MeV/n were used. Cell sensitivity slightly increased with LET before decreasing. In the presence of glycerol the maximum was shifted to higher values of LET. The radioprotective effect of glycerol for cell killing diminished gradually with increasing LET from 2.0 for γ-radiation to 1.1 for carbon ions. Mutagenic effectiveness increased slightly for deuterium and helium ions. The radioprotective effect of cysteamine on mutagenesis was found to be very small in the case of γ-radiation for the three strains examined. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Radioprotection in the infirmary praxis in service of hemodynamic; Radioprotecao na praxis da enfermagem em servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Rita de Cassia, E-mail: flor@ifsc.edu.br; Gelbcke, Francine Lima, E-mail: fgelbcke@ccs.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarinha (CCS/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Secretaria do Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Enfermagem

    2011-10-26

    Qualitative study made in a hemodynamic service at Santa Catarina, Brazil, viewing to analyse the attitude of workers in infirmary related to the use of radioprotection measurements in interventionist procedures. A methodology of Labor Psycho dynamics was used through the observations, collective interviews and the document analysis. Totally it was realized 36 encounters, completed a total of 54 observation hours. The results have shown that the workers used defense strategies for justification the not use of some radioprotection measurements. Yet, become evident that the measurements related to the distance from the radiation source and the exposure time have not used sometimes, perhaps due to negligence. Finally, it was concluded that, some attitudes adopted by the workers referred to the lack of a continued educational program

  10. Further studies on selective radioprotection by organic zinc salts and synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.; Bieri, A.

    1990-01-01

    Protection of the haematocrit and thrombocytes by small doses of the aminothiol radioprotector WR 2721 was markedly improved by the concomitant administration of small doses of zinc aspartate. Zinc aspartate was the only one of the tested zinc salts not inhibiting the regression induced by radiotherapy of human tumours grown as xenografts in immunosuppressed mice. This also applied to zinc aspartate with WR 2721. A dose of zinc aspartate which afforded synergistic haematological protection did not enhance the toxicity of WR 2721. The synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721 and the differential radioprotection of the combined protocol may make it possible in clinical cancer radiotherapy to obtain selective radioprotection at a lower toxicity giving an improved therapeutic ratio compared with WR 2721 alone. (author)

  11. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  12. Experience of the Argentine Radioprotection Society in training in radiological protection; Experiencia de la Sociedad Argentina de radioproteccion en capacitacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, A M [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion (SAR), Av. del Libertador 8250 of. 122, (1429), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    From its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radioprotection Society (SAR) has as basic purpose promoting all the aspects related with the radiological protection and the nuclear safety. Due to the great increment in the use of radioactive sources in diverse areas, soon it was evident for the SAR the importance and necessity to promote the knowledge of the radioprotection approaches between the users of radioactive sources and ionizing radiations in all its application fields, be these industrial, academic or doctors. From the year 2000, the SAR comes organizing in regular and periodical form basic and specialized courses about radiological safety of radioactive sources for industrial use and profile of oil wells, among others. In this work, the characteristics of the different dictated courses are described whose programs have been developed keeping in mind the requirements of the competent authorities of Argentina. Also, statistical information on the dictated courses and its participants is presented. The number of dictated courses was incremented from 6 (year 2000) up to 16 (year 2005), being also increased significantly the number of participants for course. The dictated courses are theoretical-practical, with a duration average of 20 hs. The educational body is constituted by specialists in the different topics with recognized experience. Its given to the participants notes and support material, as well as copies of the material presented to develop the course. When concluding the courses, its deliver to the participants certifies of attendance and/or approval, as it corresponds. In their headquarters the SAR has didactic facilities and specific equipment for the dictation of the courses. Also accounts with the easiness of dictating those courses outside of their headquarters. This is particularly advantageous for companies or organizations that are seated in points far from the main cities and they should qualify in radiological safety to the personnel but, by

  13. Evaluation of radioprotective efficacy of pyrimidine-5-carboxylate derivative on radiation induced oxidative stress using Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarojini, B.K.; Mohan, B.J.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, radioprotection efficacy of Ethyl 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetra hydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (PYR) was evaluated against the gamma ray induced oxidative stress using drosophila melanogaster (Oregon K). The gamma ray irradiated flies were assayed for oxidative stress markers namely; Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and enzymatic antioxidant SOD and CAT. The oxidative stress was induced at 6 Gy. (author)

  14. Radioprotective action of WR-1065 on radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.; VanAnkeren, S.C.; Milas, L.; Meyn, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the radioprotective effect of WR-1065 on cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. The effects of the drug on the induction and rejoining of gamma-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured using alkaline (pH 12.1) and neutral (pH 7.0) elution, respectively. Molecular protection factors (PFs) calculated from these data allowed us to determine whether the degree of modification of strand breakage accurately predicted the PFs measured using the biological end point of cell survival. The drug did protect against the induction of both SSBs and DSBs, although to an extent that did not appear to fully account for the degree of radioprotection in terms of cell killing measured under identical conditions. It is therefore unlikely that radioprotection by WR-1065 occurs simply as a consequence of a general lowering of all types of gamma-ray-induced DNA lesions, and it is possible that the drug could differentially protect against the induction of subsets of these DNA lesions. The rate of SSB rejoining was retarded following preirradiation treatment of cells with WR-1065, but there was no effect on DSB rejoining. Postirradiation treatment with WR-1065 also appeared to retard SSB rejoining but without an accompanying effect on either DSB rejoining or cell survival; however, this effect was largely reversed by the addition of catalase and was, therefore, probably a result of H 2 O 2 generated by autoxidation of the drug. Based on these observations, it would appear that the molecular actions of aminothiol radioprotective compounds that lead to reduced cell killing are much more complex than previously thought

  15. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  16. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  17. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  18. Maine Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  19. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Ronaldo C.; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of 60 Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and χ 2 . Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  20. Genotoxic, radioprotective and radiosensitizing effect of curcumin and trans-resveratrol in vitro cultures of human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, V.A.; Tirsa Muñoz, B.; Sebastià, N.; Gómez-Cabrero, L.; La Parra, V.; Hervás, D.; Rodrigo, R.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Soriano, J.M.; Montoro, A.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are natural polyphenol compounds. Curcumin is obtained from the rhizomes of the Curcumin plant (Curcuma longa), while trans-resveratrol is found in grapes, blackberries and other types of berry. These compounds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant and anticarcinogenic properties among others. In addition, they are also known for their radiomodulating properties since they are capable of providing radioprotection or radiosensitization for normal or tumours cells depending on different factors. This dual action may be the result of their properties, such as free radicals scavenging, as well as their influence on cell cycle checkpoints or control mechanisms. These are activated in response to the genetic damage induced by radiation. Despite the many beneficial properties attributed to these polyphenol compounds, some studies suggest that they are able to be genotoxic agents for some cellular lines. The results obtained indicate that both compounds possess a radioprotective effect on the lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the quiescent phase of the cellular cycle (G0). Nevertheless, they are capable of induce radiosensitivity on these type of cells in the growth phase (G2), and in addition, a different genotoxic effect can be seen according to the concentration of each compound. This study suggests, therefore, that curcumin and trans-resveratrol are able to exert a triple effect, genotoxic, radioprotective and radiosensitizing on in vitro cultures of human lymphocytes depending on the study parameters. [es