WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental radioactivity studies

  1. Natural radioactivity in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnis, H.; Jenkinson, A.; Chisari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use natural radioactivity in environmental studies has proven a very powerful tool to determine the dynamics of both natural and antrophogenic processes in our environment. The use of 14 C in archeology and past climate studies has led to many scientific discoveries (i.e. shroud of Turin and Utze 'the ice-man' from Austria). The use of the 238 U-decay series is of at least equal value to studies in archeology and past climates. Some of the Isotopes studied supplement 14 C (which is limited to 40,000 years) up to 350,000 years and others can be utilized to date very young sediments, which can't be dated by 14 C. The so-called 210 Pb dating method has been used over the past 3 decades to date recent sediment. The method uses the disequilibrium in the 238 U decay chain, caused by the escape of the intermediate daughter 222 Rn (a noble gas) from the earth's crust. In the atmosphere the 222 Rn decays via short-lived daughter isotopes to 210 Pb. This 210 Pb with a very convenient half-life of 22,3 years decays to stable 206 Pb. By measuring the surface activity of a sediment core and subsequent samples at regular intervals one can establish a chronology for the sediment core. By studying the trace metals in these cores, one could deduce a contamination history for the region. Examples of studies supported by AINSE and ANSTO will be given

  2. SPERA 98: radioactivity and the environment, environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Presentations were grouped around the themes of soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways and foodchains, sediment studies and atmospheric radon. This volume contains extended abstracts. A list of participants is also included

  3. Environmental radioactivity studies and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkina, I.L.; Sarkisov, A.A.; Linge, I.I.; Kazakov, S.V.; Panchenko, S.V.; Savelieva, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Russia has developed regulations applying to the territories affected by radioactive contamination. Some regulatory approaches appear to be quite ineffective and contradictory. This paper shows by means of examples the problems and issues associated with some existing situations. A better way for the future is indicated

  4. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Adam Khatir [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Po, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 40} K and fallout radionuclide {sup 137} Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and {alpha} spectrometry. The external exposure due to {gamma} radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 {+-} 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 {mu}Sv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs determined were 31.6 {+-} 27, 20.1 {+-} 16.4, 19.1 {+-} 8.1, 280.3 {+-} 137.6 and 4.1 {+-} 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that {sup 238} U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m{sup 2} with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m{sup 2} respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10

  5. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Adam Khatir

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 40 K and fallout radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and α spectrometry. The external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 ± 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.6 ± 27, 20.1 ± 16.4, 19.1 ± 8.1, 280.3 ± 137.6 and 4.1 ± 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that 238 U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m 2 with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m 2 respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10 -9 Gy/h and 2.59 x 10 -9 Gy/h at 1 m above ground level for Uro and Kurun rock phosphate fertilizers

  6. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.

    1987-06-01

    Five stations collecting samples of atmospheric deposition were set up in north Cumbria along a line running inland from the coast for about 17 km. Sampling was continuous from September 1980 to September 1981. Monthly samples were analysed for 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu, 241 Am, 7 Be and stable Na, Cl and Al. The objective of the work was to measure the deposition of radionuclides as a function of distance from the sea. By estimating the contributions to the deposition of nuclear weapon test material and of the atmospheric discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels plc works at Sellafield, the effects of the transfer to air and land of radionuclides in the sea could be established. The marine radionuclides were due to the discharges to sea from the Sellafield works. The measurements showed that the deposition was largely due to the sea-to-land transfer process. The highest depositions observed were at 20 m from high water mark, the annual values (rounded, in Bq m -2 ) being 106 Ru, 500; 137 Cs, 650; plutonium, 70; 241 Am, 30. The highest concentrations in rainwater for the radionuclides studied were less than 3 per cent of the fresh water limits (drinking only) GDL values. The highest estimated accumulations in soil due to atmospheric deposition were less than 1 per cent of the limits. (author)

  7. Environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Outline summary of a report prepared under contract to the DOE: Research Priorities and UK Estuaries: An Overview identifying Research Requirements. Topics considered include the study of radionuclides released into the NE Irish Sea from BNFL, Sellafields, differences in the isotopic composition of stable lead in various sediments, the concentration and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from BNFL in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas, together with attempts to separate hot particles from sediments, and the composition and properties of marine surfaces in relation to uptake and loss of radionuclides, particularly in relation to the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. The problem of the presence of transuranic radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the NE Irish Sea is considered. Profiles of radioactivity are being developed at the shelf-break in order to determine the transfer of radionuclides from the sea surface to the deep sea and to coastal waters; organisms examined include phytoplankton, zooplankton and crustacea (shrimps). Organisms such as Acantharia have been examined to determine transfer of elements and radionuclides to skeletal structures eg Sr, Ba and Si. (U.K.)

  8. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose M.; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Lopez, Edith; Jara, Raul; Anaya, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs- 134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  9. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies

  10. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies.

  11. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  12. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  13. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  14. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Badano, A.; Dellepere, A.; Artucio, G.; Bertolotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps

  15. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The results are described of monitoring radioactivity of atmospheric fallout, surface waters, soils, plant feeds, cereals, and other agricultural produce. The results were obtained over a long time period. Radioactivity was also measured of milk, milk products, vegetables and fruits, meat and hen eggs, flour and bakery products with a view to radionuclide migration in the food chain. The daily intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from food was determined from the values obtained and the consumption of the individual types of food. Strontium-90 distribution was studied in the bones and the teeth of the population in Slovakia. With the commissioning of nuclear power plants, emissions and liquid wastes were monitored and their environmental impact assessed. (E.S.)

  16. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  17. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  18. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1989 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  19. Studies on environmental radioactivity in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, M.; Blomqvist, L.; Rahola, T.; Rantavaara, A.

    1991-03-01

    The detailed results of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in 1987 are given in 10 supplementary reports to this 1987 annual report which summarizes only the data needed for radiation dose estimates. In 1987, two radionuclides, 137 Cs and 134 Cs originating in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were important in determining external and internal radiation doses. The population-weighted mean external dose rate in October 1987 was 0.037 x 10 - 6 Svh - 1. The decline in the dose rate was slower than predicted in 1986. The mean effective dose equivalent was 0.10 mSv in 1987, one third lower than in 1986. The predicted dose commitment from external radiation was estimated at 1.7 mSv. The internal radiation doses were calculated in two different ways, via estimation of dietary intake and using whole-body counting results. The intake estimate was obtained from the nationwide survey of radiocesium concentrations in foodstuffs and consumption statistics. The mean annual intake of 137 Cs was 14 000 and that of 134 Cs 5600 Bq in 1987. About half of the intake came from agricultural products, one third from fish and the rest from wild berries, mushrooms and game. The resulting committed effective dose equivalent, 0.3 mSv, provides an upper estimate for the mean internal dose in 1987. The population group whole-body counted was selected from the whole population in 1986 using stratified sampling. As in 1986, the 137 Cs and 134 Cs body burdens reflected the deposition activity in the region in which people lived. The mean committed effective dose equivalent for the whole population based on whole-body counting was 0.13 mSv. About 0.08 mSv of this dose was delivered in 1987. The contribution of 134 Cs was less than 40 per cent

  20. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    This part of the bibliography series, which has changed its name with issue no. 24 (formerly: 'Contamination and decontamination of foods') lists 208 pieces of literature, mainly of the last two years. The literature is classified according to the following main fields. General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foods. (MG) [de

  1. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  3. Salt Repository Project site study plan for background environmental radioactivity: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Background Environmental Radioactivity describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management, and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 43 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    The present volume is a continuation of the earlier bibliographie series 'Contamination and decontamination of foods'. The reduced importance of nuclear weapons tests and decontamination problems in foodstuffs and the increasing amount of literature on environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities and on radioecology made a change of title and a new classification of contents necessary. The main subjects are now: General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The present volume contains 208 citations on these subjects, mainly from the last two years. (orig.) [de

  6. Environmental behaviour of radioactivity from Chernobyl: Brothers Water study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnett, P.J.P.; Appleby, P.G.; Oldfield, F.; Haworth, E.Y.; Hilton, J.; Davison, W.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been carried out to examine the short term behaviour of Chernobyl derived radionuclides together with the longer term patterns of transport of weapons fallout derived 137 Cs first studied on the Brothers Water catchment in the English Lake District in the 1970's. Chernobyl derived radiocaesium is observable in the soils and lake sediments of the catchment. 210 Pb dating and diatom analysis were used to confirm that the lake sediments sampled were undisturbed. A simple box model is used to estimate radionuclide inventories in Brothers Water Lake sediments. Estimates derived using this model are reasonably consistent with estimates obtained from a variety of other sources. (author)

  7. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  8. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Pt. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otlet, R.; Longley, H.; Walker, A.J.

    1989-04-01

    The main objective of the project was to reconstruct a chronology of past 14 C levels in atmospheric CO 2 in the vicinity of the Sellafield reprocessing plant by measuring the 14 C in individual tree rings from trees felled at a number of sites. The profile obtained from the results reflects the build up of the plant operations and related aerial emissions and a conversion of the tree ring records to past annual aerial discharges of 14 C has been attempted. This is compared with values provided from recent estimates of aerial emissions. The effect of dispersion along a coastal transect to a distance of 30km from BNFL Sellafield has also been studied. Comparable, but attenuated profiles to the inland sites are observed although the major peaks are not precisely mirrored along the transect. This is attributed to greater year to year variation due to sea breezes. (author)

  9. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  10. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria - Pt. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Walker, M.I.

    1989-04-01

    A small fraction of the radionuclides discharged into coastal waters is blown back onto land in seaspray. Man is exposed directly through inhalation of the spray and indirectly via inhalation of resuspended soil and consumption of food stuffs. Sea to land transfer is most readily observed in Cumbria, and for the actinides plutonium and americium, where doses at the μSv year -1 level result. Another exposure route for some members of the population of the Cumbrian coast is the ingestion of actinides in seafood, particularly in winkles. In predicting the magnitude of sea to land transfer and uptake in seafood and their radiological consequence in the short and long term, some understanding of the processes controlling radionuclide levels in the adjacent near-shore waters is necessary. A recent study of Pu and Am concentrations in the coastal waters near Sellafield, Cumbria is described and discussed in this report. The results suggest that the actinides remain available for sea-to-land transfer in these near-shore waters for more than 6 years following their discharge from Sellafield. During this time, variations in suspended particulate loadings appear to be the most important influence on the seawater concentration. (author)

  11. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  14. The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the study of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Takaku, Yuichi.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses how far inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied in the field of environmental radioactivity. An outline of the apparatus for ICP-MS is given. Interferences associated with ICP-MS are explained in terms of spectrum interference, blocking phenomenon for sampling cone and other elements, and matrix effects. Detection efficiency of ICP-MS is discussed in view of sample induction efficiency, ionization efficiency, sampling efficiency or ion permeability efficiency, and double-focus ICP-MS. Finally, some problems of ICP-MS in measuring long-lived radionuclides are presented, which may be associated with extremely small ratio of radionuclides, measurement accuracy of radionuclide ratio, and extremely small almounts of radionuclides. A great contribution of ICP-MS to the study of environmental radioactivity is stressed. (N.K.) 112 refs

  15. Environmental radioactivity in the antarctic station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Osores, J.; Martinez, J.; Lopez, E.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Study about environmental radioactivity in the Peruvian antarctic station Machu Pichu they were carried out during the last three periods to the southern summer. The objective of the project it is to evaluate environmental component in order to elaborate a study it base on the levels background radioactivity and artificial in the antarctic region

  16. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  17. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  18. Study programme on safety for environmental radioactivity during the period from 1986 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The study programme is divided into four topics. The first topic is a study on environmental doses, which was designed to identify levels of radioactivity, and characteristics and behavior of radiation sources in the ambient air, and to elucidate population dose estimates. The second topic concerning biological effects of radiation focusses on the elucidation for mechanism whereby radiation acts on the living body, for effects of low dose radiation using experimental animals, and for radiation effects on the human body using epidemiological approaches. The aim of the third topic is to study incorporation of alpha radiators, including transuranic elements, and tritium in the human body. The last topic is the safety evaluation, for which it is required to establish methods of evaluating human risk of environmental radiation and to prepare data base. An outline of these topics is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  20. Study of Efficiency Calibrations of HPGe Detectors for Radioactivity Measurements of Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of calibrating of efficiency of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry of bulk environmental samples (Tea, crops, water, and soil) is a significant part of the environmental radioactivity measurements. Here we will discuss the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of three HPGe detectors it as a consequence, it is essential that the efficiency is determined for each set-up employed. Besides to take full advantage at gamma-ray spectrometry, a set of efficiency at several energies which covers the wide the range in energy, the large the number of radionuclides whose concentration can be determined to measure the main natural gamma-ray emitters, the efficiency should be known at least from 46.54 keV ( 210 Pb) to 1836 keV ( 88 Y). Radioactive sources were prepared from two different standards, a first mixed standard QC Y 40 containing 210 Pb, 241 Am, 109 Cd, and Co 57 , and the second QC Y 48 containing 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 139 Ce, 113 Sn, 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 88 Y, and 60 Co is necessary in order to calculate the activity of the different radionuclides contained in a sample. In this work, we will study the efficiency calibration as a function of different parameters as:- Energy of gamma ray from 46.54 keV ( 210 Pb) to 1836 keV ( 88 Y), three different detectors A, B, and C, geometry of containers (point source, marinelli beaker, and cylindrical bottle 1 L), height of standard soil samples in bottle 250 ml, and density of standard environmental samples. These standard environmental sample must be measured before added standard solution because we will use the same environmental samples in order to consider the self absorption especially and composition in the case of volume samples.

  1. Environmental radioactivity measurement. Ispra 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Risposi, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1990 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are give on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, HTO and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  3. Uncertainties in environmental impact assessments due to expert opinion. Case study. Radioactive waste in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontic, B.; Ravnik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive study was done at the J. Stefan Institute in Ljubljana and the School of Environmental Sciences in Nova Gorica in relation to sources of uncertainties in long-term environmental impact assessment (EIA). Under the research two main components were examined: first, methodology of the preparation of an EIA, and second validity of an expert opinion. Following the findings of the research a survey was performed in relation to assessing acceptability of radioactive waste repository by the regulatory. The components of dose evaluation in different time frames were examined in terms of susceptibility to uncertainty. Uncertainty associated to human exposure in the far future is so large that dose and risk, as individual numerical indicators of safety, by our opinion, should not be used in compliance assessment for radioactive waste repository. On the other hand, results of the calculations on the amount and activity of low and intermediate level waste and the spent fuel from the Krsko NPP show that expert's understanding of the treated questions can be expressed in transparent way giving credible output of the models used.(author)

  4. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report simonizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples : Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2003 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  5. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2002 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  7. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60 Co≤4.6%, 134 Cs≤4.7%, 137 Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3 H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  8. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  11. Environmental Radioactivity Studies Within The Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute During The Time Period 1980 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Duc Nhan; Pham Duy Hien; Ngo Quang Huy; Nguyen Hao Quang; Nguyen Trong Trang; Tran Ngoc Toan; Vuong Thu Bac; Nguyen Quang Long; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Trong Ngo; Truong Y

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the monitoring activities for natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment such as in surface soil, in surface and groundwater, in the atmosphere and food of Viet Nam that have been conducted by the staff of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI) since the first day of its foundation. Among natural radionuclide, uranium/radium, thorium, potassium-40 in surface soils and 222 Rn in the atmosphere are of particular interest for estimating the annual effective dose resulted from gamma radiation and inhalation to the public. The total annual effective dose (outdoor and indoor dose) from gamma radiation of natural radioactivity (U, Th, 40 K) in surface soil to the public of all the 63 provinces over Viet Nam was estimated as high as 0.54 mSv that is in 10% higher than those reported in the UN SCEAR-2000. The annual effective dose due to inhalation with the air containing 222 Rn to the habitant in the Ha Noi city was found to be as high as 1.13 mSv that is in the range of the dose reported for the Asian region. The anthropogenic radionuclides under the monitoring are 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu originated from nuclear weapon tests during the 1950-1960. Concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide in surface soil gives an idea about the fall-out inventory of the radio-isotopes from the nuclear explosion in the past. This information would be necessary for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Nuclear Power Construction Project in Viet Nam. The results of environmental radioactivity monitoring activities of the VAEI has been composed in twelve scientific papers published in numerous International Scientific Journals like J. Environ. Radioact. and Radiat. Prot. Dosim. Two books entitled: Radioactivity in the Environment and Radioactivity Measurement Applied in the Environmental Researches has been drafted and submitted to the Science and Technique Publisher for printing out soon. (author)

  12. Environmental impact assessment for a radioactive waste facility: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A 77-ha site, known as the Niagara Falls Storage Site and located in northwestern New York State, holds about 190, 000 m 3 of soils, wastes, and residues contaminated with radium and uranium. The facility is owned by the US Department of Energy. The storage of residues resulting from the processing of uranium ores started in 1944, and by 1950 residues from a number of plants were received at the site. The residues, with a volume of about 18,000 m 3 , account for the bulk of the radioactivity, which is primarily due to Ra-226; because of the extraction of uranium from the ore, the amount of uranium remaining in the residues is quite small. An analysis of the environmental impact assessment and environmental compliance actions taken to date at this site and their effectiveness are discussed. This case study provides an illustrative example of the complexity of technical and nontechnical issues for a large radiative waste facility. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  14. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  15. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  16. Measurement of environmental radioactivity in Toki district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    When the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, expressed the hope to move into Toki district, the environmental problems accompanying the movement were discussed. The effect of the radioactivity leaking from the nuclear facility on human bodies must be far smaller than that of natural radiation, and for the purpose, the amount and fluctuation range of the natural radiation in the district must be known. The initial objectives of this cooperative research were to study on environmental radiation and to make a Geiger counter for the measurement. In 1981, a scintillation counter will be completed, and using a multi-channel pulse height analyzer, the nuclides which are the source of environmental radiation emission will be identified, and the tritium in natural water will be detected. Thus, the evaluation of environmental radiation can be carried out, and the situation before the movement of the research facility can be grasped. In this paper, the natural radioactivity in earth, atmosphere and water and cosmic ray, artificial radioactivity, and environmental radiation exposure dose are reported. Also, the manufacture of a GM counter measuring instrument and the measurements of cosmic ray background, typical earth samples and environmental radioactivity with the GM counter are reported. The related data are attached. (Kako, I.)

  17. Study on radioactive material management plan and environmental analysis of water (I) study of radioactive substance in water management and analyse to eat of the US environmental protection agency (environmental protection agency)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae; Min, Hye Lim; Han, Seong Gyu; Lim, Hyun Jong; Jo, Han Byeol; Noh, Young Hoon; Lee, Ho Sun [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Suk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The interest of the people in the radioactive contamination of the water has increased significantly and the study about analysis and management of radioactive materials are being actively conducted. And monitoring spots have been expanded to the range of public water as well as drinking water by publishing the rule of drinking water quality standards and examination in the Environmental Enforcement Ordinance No. 553 of Korea. In this study, US EPA was investigated as the foreign advanced cases and the way that is appropriate for the Korea was sought by analyzing investigate radionuclide, interval and management. As a result, in the selection part of investigate radionuclide, geological survey, status of nuclear power plants and the presence of the use of artificial radionuclides of the Korea should be investigated and additionally after the selection of a few radionuclides, the systems should be extended to cover all possible radionuclides by considering radioactive pollution levels in humans may be exposed due to the annual drinking water. In the part of the investigate interval, the concept(MCL, DL) should be set up for preventing concentration detection of above MCL and it needs to the maintenance and management. For example, when the concentration is more than MCL, it should be investigated on a quarterly and when the concentration is lower than MCL, it should be investigated to each different interval and management. And the US EPA divided the management area and make the road map for managing drinking water. The each classified area has been organized to match the state budget and labor force and the individual data have been managed effectively by HPGe, the NaI, TLD and so on.

  18. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  20. Effects of Environmental Radioactive Pollution on the Cardiovascular Systems of Ural Region Residents: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Konstantinova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this comparative study was to evaluate the effects of radioactive pollution in river water and confounding risk factors on the prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in people living in the Ural region. Methods: We selected this region as a case territory for study because it is exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. The area is composed of coastal localities situated along the Techa River, into which liquid radioactive waste materials have been released. As a control, we selected settlements that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between radioactive contamination of a territory and the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular systems of people living in the Techa riverside villages (OR=2.31, p<0.001. The influence of covariates (gender, age, overweight status, and others on the development of cardiovascular pathologies was analyzed. Some of these factors have been recognized as confounding factors. After accounting for confounding factors, the odds ratio for the impact of radiation on the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system decreased to (OR=1.58, p=0.02. Conclusions: Statistically significant gender and age differences were observed in the prevalence of pathologies of the cardiovascular system in residents of radioactively contaminated areas compared to residents of control areas. These differences show a more pronounced reaction to contamination in older residents, residents with an overweight status and residents with meteotropic reactions.

  1. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Republic of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksic, J.; Radenkovic, M.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vujovic, M.; Vuletic

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental radioactivity monitoring programme continuous measurements of radioactivity in different samples are performed. Measurements are performed in aerosol samples, fallout, soil, surface waters, drinking water, food of animal and plant origin, milk and feeding stuffs. [sr

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  3. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.) [de

  4. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  5. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  6. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental γ radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many sample are

  7. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S; Osores, J; Jara, R [Direccion General de Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1998-07-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40.

  8. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Osores, J.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  9. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Teofilo Y.

    2002-11-01

    The rejection of the 1991 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which sought to extend the military bases agreement (MBA), paved the way for the Americans to abandon Clark Air Base in Angeles, Pampanga, which had served as an American military base since 1947. The total and immediate pullout of the Americans left the base in an ''as is'' condition and without the benefits of restoration efforts. Various studies and reports have been conducted to determine the presence of hazardous wastes in the former Clark Air Base. The issue of hazardous wastes purportedly left there by the Americans is a continuing and a growing concern particularly of citizens living within its area. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) In November of 1997 and in April of 1998, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute PNRI, upon the request of Clark Development Corporation, conducted a thorough radiological monitoring in CSEZ in order to determine the presence of radioactive contamination. Radioactive materials such as cesium-137 and tritium are considered hazardous wastes. Results of monitoring showed that radiation levels in CSEZ were within allowable standards. This means that the workers and residents at the Clark Air Base ( t he base ) are free from dangers of exposure to radiation. Despite the findings, however, reports by the media and environmental NGOs on the presence of hazardous wastes, including radioactive wastes, in Clark have proliferated. This action plan and project (APP) intends to address the issue of environmental radioactivity contamination (if any) within the CSEZ. The APP results are geared towards dispelling the persistent fear of the public in general, and the base stakeholders especially its residents, in particular, regarding the presence of radioactive contamination which results in untoward health effects to those exposed to such contaminants. Thus, the sectoral concern of this APP is to heighten the level of social acceptability by the base

  10. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Teofilo Y

    2002-11-01

    The rejection of the 1991 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which sought to extend the military bases agreement (MBA), paved the way for the Americans to abandon Clark Air Base in Angeles, Pampanga, which had served as an American military base since 1947. The total and immediate pullout of the Americans left the base in an ''as is'' condition and without the benefits of restoration efforts. Various studies and reports have been conducted to determine the presence of hazardous wastes in the former Clark Air Base. The issue of hazardous wastes purportedly left there by the Americans is a continuing and a growing concern particularly of citizens living within its area. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) In November of 1997 and in April of 1998, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute PNRI, upon the request of Clark Development Corporation, conducted a thorough radiological monitoring in CSEZ in order to determine the presence of radioactive contamination. Radioactive materials such as cesium-137 and tritium are considered hazardous wastes. Results of monitoring showed that radiation levels in CSEZ were within allowable standards. This means that the workers and residents at the Clark Air Base ({sup t}he base{sup )} are free from dangers of exposure to radiation. Despite the findings, however, reports by the media and environmental NGOs on the presence of hazardous wastes, including radioactive wastes, in Clark have proliferated. This action plan and project (APP) intends to address the issue of environmental radioactivity contamination (if any) within the CSEZ. The APP results are geared towards dispelling the persistent fear of the public in general, and the base stakeholders especially its residents, in particular, regarding the presence of radioactive contamination which results in untoward health effects to those exposed to such contaminants. Thus, the sectoral concern of this APP is to heighten the level of social acceptability by the base

  11. Environmental pathways of radioactivity to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    The report reviews and discusses the environmental pathways by which radioactive materials can lead to the irradiation of man, in a way that should be understood by non-specialists who have neither the time nor the knowledge to study all of the relevant literature on this subject. The role of these environmental pathways in the general structure of radiological protection is considered, and the various mechanisms which lead to the dispersion or re-concentration of radioactive materials are discussed at some length. Particular groups of radionuclides from the nuclear power industry are considered in some detail. Similarly the question of the corresponding pathways from naturally-occurring radioactive materials is covered. The doses to animals and plants resulting from the nuclear industry are examined, and it is concluded that there is no reason to expect that these doses will lead to significant harm. Finally a summary is presented, and it is noted that it has been possible to obtain a very extensive knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment only because of the extreme sensitivity of the techniques available for their detection, identification and assay. As a result a fund of knowledge has been built up about the behaviour of radioactive materials in the environment which is far more extensive than our knowledge of the behaviour of many highly toxic chemicals which are also discharged into the environment. (UK)

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and to assess the resulting population exposures. The report is prepared as a summary of work in progress and as a means of publishing the results of ongoing programs. Special studies reported on included the evaluation of the contamination by cesium-137 of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities; the development of methods for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples; and monitoring of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. Environmental monitoring programs conducted included external radiation exposure, tritium in water vapour, gross beta radioactivity, and monitoring of air, drinking water, precipitation and milk. A list of reports and presentations is also included.

  13. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring; Umweltradioaktivitaet. Messung und Ueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from 81 provinces of the country within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2010 and outdoor gamma dose rates obtained by means of car-borne measurement system are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 28.11±1.23 Bq kg - 1, 32.4±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and 430.8±12.5, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 9.78±0.79 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 50.5 nGy h - 1 and 0.062 mSv y - 1, respectively. Total indicative doses of the analyzed drinking water samples were below the limit values. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 1.01 Bq L - 1 and 0.29 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 196.6 Sv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring program in 2010 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  16. Determination of environmental radioactivity, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinji; Nakaoka, Akira; Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    According to the fundamental design proposed for the purpose of dose assessment of the general public around a nuclear facility corresponding to the guideline issued by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, 5 mrem/yr, the authors developed a rapid and simple determination method of radioactivity in food and related environmental samples by pretreating with a modified microwave dehydration apparatus followed by radiation counting. Equation to estimate heating condition by the apparatus was derived, and estimation by the equation was in good agreement with experimental data. It took less than 4.5 hours to dehydrate by the proposed method. This value was much smaller in comparison with the value of more than 10 hours by a conventional hot-air drying method, and radiation counting was able to be started in the same day of sampling and dehydration procedure. It was cralified that lower limits of detection for each radionuclide by the proposed method by using a Ge(Li) detector of 20 % relative efficiency was lower than half level of needed detection limits to determine and evaluate the 5 mrem/yr level. Radionuclide levels in food samples such as vegetables and crustaceans was determined by the proposed method and it was found that they were below the lower detection limit of the method except natural radionuclide 40 K and fallout originated 137 Cs. (author)

  17. On - Site Assessment Methods For Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrinec, B.; Babic, D.; Bituh, T.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the rapid determination of radioactivity in cases of release into the environment as well as in cases of nuclear/radiological accidents is described. These measurements would enable a direct risk assessment for humans and biota, without any sampling and at a considerably larger number of locations than in previous studies. Thus obtained, the substantially expanded dataset is expected to shed more light on the properties of environmental radioactivity both in the region studied and in other similar areas. Field measurements will be performed and samples of soil and biota will be collected in order to compare field results with laboratory measurements. Once the method has been validated, previously unexplored locations will be included in the study. Our measurements at numerous locations will also provide control values for comparison in cases of any unplanned or accidental radiological event. An assessment of the possible effects of radionuclide concentrations on the human food chain and biota will be performed within the appropriate models used worldwide exactly for this purpose. In this way, the project should contribute to regional, European, and global efforts towards understanding the radiological impact on ecosystems. Field measurements will also address certain issues in the environmental metrology of radioactive substances, e.g., simultaneous determination of activity concentrations and related dose rates. This will serve as a tool for rapid risk assessment in emergency situations. (author).

  18. Study of environmental radioactivity in three important Italian rivers using sediment mineral organic detritus indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Aebischer, M.L.; Musumeci, R.G.; Sogni, R.; Borio, R.; Bucci, S.; Giannardi, C.; Magnoni, M.; Margini, G.

    1997-01-01

    When studying radionuclides introduced into the environment because of accidental spillage of radioactive substances from the atmosphere into running water and rivers, as in the accident at Chernobyl, a series of measurements and a knowledge of appropriate indicators are needed in order to best use the information. Radionuclides enter the water in the following way: they fall directly onto the surface of the water and then spread and sink, forming sediment on the river bed. S.M.O.D., sediments mineral organic detritus, is an important matrix for research on contaminants present in running water.This has been demonstrated in Italy where repeated research was done in various portions of the Po River. The studies have shown that S.M.O.D. is a good indicator for many radionuclides, both of fission as in Cs-137, Cs-134, Sb-125, Ru-106, and activation as in Mn-54 and Co-60. S.M.O.D. reveals the spatial radio contamination both of a diffuse source present in the river as in the case of fall-out from the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl or of a specific source as in spillage from a nuclear power plant or from hospital or industrial waste.It has been shown that S.M.O.D. is also an efficient indicator for other kinds of containments like heavy metals and pesticides. The work carried out on three major rivers: the Po, the Arno and the Tiber. (authors)

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  20. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  1. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant

  2. Environmental radiochemistry and radioactivity. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1999-01-01

    A current bibliography with 146 references has been compiled on environmental radiochemistry and radioactivity for years 1993-1997 based on INIS Atomindex. The references are arranged alphabetically by first authors' names. (N.T.)

  3. Measurement of environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1977 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishement. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  4. Environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1973-1974 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  5. Measurements of environmental radioactivity, Ispra 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1988 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  6. Measurement of environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1977-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1976 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establisment. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  7. Characterization of the InSTEC's low-background gamma spectrometer for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Reyes, H.; Padilla Cabal, F.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Casanova Diaz, A.O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Rodenas Palomino, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of the Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC were studied for environmental purposes. Fifty three γ-lines were identified in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activity for 2 10 Pb, 2 38 U, 2 26 Ra, 1 37 Cs, 2 32 Th and 4 0K were calculated using the detector's volumetric efficiency simulated by the Monte Carlo method. Validation was performed by absolute and relative analysis of radionuclide activities present in a marine sediment certified material. (author)

  8. Characterization of the InSTEC's low-background gamma spectrometer for environmental radioactivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Lopez Pino, N.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Reyes, H.; Padilla Cabal, F.; Arado Lopez, J.O.; Casanova Diaz, A.O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; Rodenas Palomino, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of the Low-Background Gamma Spectrometer (LBGS) at InSTEC were studied for environmental purposes. Fifty three ?-lines were fixed/identified? in the LBGS background spectrum. The Minimum Detectable Activity for 2 10 Pb, 2 38 U, 2 26 Ra, 1 37 Cs, 2 32 Th and 4 0K were calculated using the detector's volumetric efficiency simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The radionuclide activities in a marine sediment standard reference material? were determined by absolute and relative methods for validation./¿absolute and relative validation? (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  10. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi

    2003-12-01

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  11. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  12. Development of monitoring technology for environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Young Hyun; Lee, M. H.; Choi, K. S.; Hong, K. H.; Sin, H. S.; Kim, M. K.; Pak, J. H.

    2000-05-01

    The accurate and reliable determination techniques of the radioactive isotopes in environmental samples are very important to protect public health from the potential hazards of radiation. Isolation and purification of radiostrontium from environmental aqueous sample was performed by using strontium selectively binding resin (Sr-spec) and strontium selectively permeable liquid membrane. Radioactivity of radiostrontium was measured by liquid scintillation counter coupled with dual counting window and spectrum unfolding method. With combustion apparatus a new determination of Tc-99 in the environmental samples was developed for overcoming demerits of conventional TBP extraction method. An optimized method for determining beta-emitting 2 41Pu in the presence of alpha-emitting nuclides was developed using a liquid scintillation counting system. A method for measuring Rn-222 and Ra-226 in aqueous sample using liquid scintillation counting technique has studied. On-line measurement system coupled with ion chromatography and portable liquid scintillation detector was developed. U and Th measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mehtod of flow-injection preconcentration for the analysis of U and Th in seawater was developed. A new electrodeposition method for alpha spectrometry was developed

  13. Development of monitoring technology for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Young Hyun; Lee, M. H.; Choi, K. S.; Hong, K. H.; Sin, H. S.; Kim, M. K.; Pak, J. H

    2000-05-01

    The accurate and reliable determination techniques of the radioactive isotopes in environmental samples are very important to protect public health from the potential hazards of radiation. Isolation and purification of radiostrontium from environmental aqueous sample was performed by using strontium selectively binding resin (Sr-spec) and strontium selectively permeable liquid membrane. Radioactivity of radiostrontium was measured by liquid scintillation counter coupled with dual counting window and spectrum unfolding method. With combustion apparatus a new determination of Tc-99 in the environmental samples was developed for overcoming demerits of conventional TBP extraction method. An optimized method for determining beta-emitting {sup 2}41Pu in the presence of alpha-emitting nuclides was developed using a liquid scintillation counting system. A method for measuring Rn-222 and Ra-226 in aqueous sample using liquid scintillation counting technique has studied. On-line measurement system coupled with ion chromatography and portable liquid scintillation detector was developed. U and Th measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mehtod of flow-injection preconcentration for the analysis of U and Th in seawater was developed. A new electrodeposition method for alpha spectrometry was developed.

  14. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples : vegetables, fishes/shellfishes, fruits, starch and starch roots and drinking waters. Among the all 2001 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  15. ICP-MS Technology and Its Application to Study of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini

    2000-01-01

    Study on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides in environment can be performed by investigation of fallout radionuclides that were distributed in ecosystem components. Fall out radionuclides are artificial radionuclides distributed by the nuclear weapon test explosions at atmosphere in several ten years ago. The concentration of these radionuclides in ecosystem components are very low. For the measurement of their concentrations in environmental samples by conventional radiometric methods need a large samples, complicated chemical separation and long counting time. Application of ICP-MS is good alternative to solve this problem. ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) is multi elements analysis instrument that wide used in the field of analytical chemistry. It can determine elements at a concentration level of pg/ml in several minutes per sample without a long chemical separation and preconcentration process. (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1978-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1977 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1977. (author)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  18. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P.; Flury Herard, A.; Menetrier, F.; Bion, L.; Schoech, C.; Masset, S.

    2004-01-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  19. Development of analytical techniques for studies on dispersion of actinides in the environment and characterization of environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernstroem, J.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive particles from three locations were investigated for elemental composition, oxidation states of matrix elements, and origin. Instrumental techniques applied to the task were scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques comprising X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence tomography, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Uranium-containing low activity particles collected from Irish Sea sediments were characterized in terms of composition and distribution of matrix elements and the oxidation states of uranium. Indications of the origin were obtained from the intensity ratios and the presence of thorium, uranium, and plutonium. Uranium in the particles was found to exist mostly as U(IV). Studies on plutonium particles from Runit Island (Marshall Islands) soil indicated that the samples were weapon fuel fragments originating from two separate detonations: a safety test and a low-yield test. The plutonium in the particles was found to be of similar age. The distribution and oxidation states of uranium and plutonium in the matrix of weapon fuel particles from Thule (Greenland) sediments were investigated. The variations in intensity ratios observed with different techniques indicated more than one origin. Uranium in particle matrixes was mostly U(IV), but plutonium existed in some particles mainly as Pu(IV), and in others mainly as oxidized Pu(VI). The results demonstrated that the various techniques were effectively applied in the characterization of environmental radioactive particles. An on-line method was developed for separating americium from environmental samples. The procedure utilizes extraction chromatography to separate americium from light lanthanides, and cation exchange to concentrate americium before the final separation in an ion chromatography column. The separated radiochemically pure americium fraction

  20. Development of analytical techniques for studies on dispersion of actinides in the environment and characterization of environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstroem, J.

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive particles from three locations were investigated for elemental composition, oxidation states of matrix elements, and origin. Instrumental techniques applied to the task were scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron radiation based microanalytical techniques comprising X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence tomography, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Uranium-containing low activity particles collected from Irish Sea sediments were characterized in terms of composition and distribution of matrix elements and the oxidation states of uranium. Indications of the origin were obtained from the intensity ratios and the presence of thorium, uranium, and plutonium. Uranium in the particles was found to exist mostly as U(IV). Studies on plutonium particles from Runit Island (Marshall Islands) soil indicated that the samples were weapon fuel fragments originating from two separate detonations: a safety test and a low-yield test. The plutonium in the particles was found to be of similar age. The distribution and oxidation states of uranium and plutonium in the matrix of weapon fuel particles from Thule (Greenland) sediments were investigated. The variations in intensity ratios observed with different techniques indicated more than one origin. Uranium in particle matrixes was mostly U(IV), but plutonium existed in some particles mainly as Pu(IV), and in others mainly as oxidized Pu(VI). The results demonstrated that the various techniques were effectively applied in the characterization of environmental radioactive particles. An on-line method was developed for separating americium from environmental samples. The procedure utilizes extraction chromatography to separate americium from light lanthanides, and cation exchange to concentrate americium before the final separation in an ion chromatography column. The separated radiochemically pure americium fraction

  1. Present stage of the use of radioactive tracers in studies carried out at Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, SP, Brazil, in the field of environmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Agudo, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies using radioactive tracers in the field of environmental engineering, carried out at Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, SP, Brazil, from 1975 to 1978 are presented. Future research to be developed in this area is also discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U; Damla, N; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using γ-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and a fission product 137 Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg -1 for 40 K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l -1 , respectively. The concentrations of gross α and β radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross α and β activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l -1 and 1.0 Bq l -1 gross α and β radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m -3 and the average value was 56 Bq m -3 . The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  4. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  5. Proceedings of the cross-over symposium 'new approaches for studies on environmental radioactivity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shiro; Uchida, Shigeo; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Amano, Hikaru

    1999-03-01

    This conference was organized by the Promotion Committee on Nuclear Cross-Over Research and the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks, and co-organized by Microbial Toxicology Lab., RIKEN and Environmental Chemistry Lab., JAERI. In 1991, a project on transfer models and parameters of radionuclides in terrestrial environment was started in the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks. This project was finished successfully to have active cooperation of different organizations which were Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently, we started a new project named 'Development of dynamic models of transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment' with adding a new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) from 1996. The results we obtained so far were presented in this conference. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Proceedings of the cross-over symposium `new approaches for studies on environmental radioactivity`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shiro [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan); Uchida, Shigeo; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Amano, Hikaru [eds.

    1999-03-01

    This conference was organized by the Promotion Committee on Nuclear Cross-Over Research and the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks, and co-organized by Microbial Toxicology Lab., RIKEN and Environmental Chemistry Lab., JAERI. In 1991, a project on transfer models and parameters of radionuclides in terrestrial environment was started in the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks. This project was finished successfully to have active cooperation of different organizations which were Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently, we started a new project named `Development of dynamic models of transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment` with adding a new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) from 1996. The results we obtained so far were presented in this conference. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Environmental pathways of radioactivity to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to discuss environmental pathways and their significance in a way which will be understood by non-specialists. The role of these pathways in the general structure of radiological protection is explained and the more important pathways to man from releases into the air and the aquatic environment are discussed generally. The various mechanisms which lead to the dispersion or reconstruction of radioactive materials are discussed and their importance stressed. The more important pathways for particular groups of radionuclides from the nuclear power industry are dealt with in detail and information resulting from many theoretical and practical studies of the situations at particular locations summarized. There is detailed discussion about the doses to local population groups and about worldwide doses as a result of the release of certain long-lived radioactive species. The corresponding pathways and resulting doses from natural radiation are detailed to illustrate that the doses from the nuclear power industry are small in comparison, and brief consideration is given to animal and plant doses from the industry. (U.K.)

  8. Environmental natural radioactivity concentrations of Tekirdag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, Y.; Kam, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this study, the environmental natural radioactivity concentrations of Tekirdag, a city in the region of Marmara in Turkey, have been measured. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples collected from 40 points of Tekirdag was performed by using an HPGe detector and the radionuclide concentrations of the decay products of 238 U and 232 Th series, 40K and 137 Cs were determined. Gross alpha and gross beta activities of the water samples taken from municipal supplies, springs, wells and fountains were performed by using the Berthold, LB770-PC 10, a gas-flow proportional counter. Gamma exposure dose rates were measured by using an Eberline Smart Portable scintillation detector and the annual effective dose equivalents caused by exposure gamma dose rates were calculated

  9. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author)

  10. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  11. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.

  12. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Samsun province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B.; Maksutoglu, F.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.; Celebi, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with the measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in soil samples and indoor radon concentrations in the Samsun province, Turkey. In soil samples, the values of individual mean activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs radionuclides were found to be 31, 22, 341 and 16 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiological parameters, such as the absorbed dose rate in air, the annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk, were calculated. Indoor radon measurements were carried out with CR-39-based radon dosemeters at 127 dwellings in the Samsun province. The mean annual 222 Rn activity was found to be 106 Bq m -3 (equivalent to an AED of 1.88 mSv). The seasonal variation of 222 Rn activity shows that maximum levels are observed in the winter, while minimum levels are observed in the summer. The mean lifetime fatality risk for the studied area was estimated at 1.45x10 -4 . The results obtained did not significantly differ from those obtained in other parts of the country. (authors)

  13. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria: Part 3. Measurements of radionuclides in airborne and deposited material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Eakins, J.D.; Fisher, E.M.R.

    1980-09-01

    Six stations sampling airborne particulate and deposited material were established in the Cumbrian coastal region. The measurements were undertaken to study current atmospheric levels and to discriminate between material from nuclear weapon tests, routine atmospheric discharges from the nuclear reprocessing works at Windscale and other sources, e.g. the sea. The results show that samples of both airborne and deposited material contain radionuclide concentrations in excess of those expected from nuclear weapon fallout. For Pu and 241 Am isotopes, the excess material comes mainly from a seaward direction. The transfer mechanism is probably resuspension, but the actinide levels are much greater than would be expected from the simple transfer of bulk seawater. For 137 Cs, the material in excess of amounts expected from nuclear weapon fallout can be attributed largely to Windscale discharges to air and seaspray containing the bulk seawater concentration of 137 Cs. Other fission products present in amounts exceeding nuclear weapon fallout were 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs and 144 Ce. Tritium was also observed in amounts slightly in excess of nuclear weapon fallout. The highest observed annual average concentration in air for Pu isotopes was 0.2% of the derived air concentration, modified for members of the public, of 2.3 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  14. Suma-alpha software description. Study of its applications to detection problems and environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Perez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Software named suma-espectros has been developed by TECNASA/CIEMAT for adding counts automatically from the alpha spectra, energy to energy, with the purpose of: evaluating real background of alpha spectrometers, studying its temporal variations, increasing the possibilities of isotopes detection -where it has been impossible to detect due elapsed time of the measurement- and implementing other applications. The programme is written in Visual-Basic and it can export data to Excel spreadsheets for later treatment. The software has established by default a channels range for adding the counts energy by energy but it can be adapted to the analysis of different isotopes and backgrounds simply changing a text file that is incorporated to the programme. The description of the programme management is described for whoever can realise its applications immediately. This software has the advantage of emitting an add-spectrum in cnf format that is used by alpha analyst (Genie 2K) for de convoluting spectra or doing calculations. (Author) 3 refs.

  15. Modern systems for environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, A.; Borodeanu, C.

    1995-01-01

    The system for environmental radioactivity measurements with automatic data transmission represents a better solution for nuclear safety assurance. The 'intelligent probe' will be of real use for surveying the environmental radioactivity. The probes work independently. They measure the dose rate and store the data in their internal memory. Many such probes can be spread all over a large area. They are able to measure dose rate from the background level up to high catastrophic levels. A central computer 'asks' periodically the probes to send their stored data. This computer stores the data from many probes over a long time. It can show in 'windows' manner the dose rate from any probe (either in a numerical or graphical way), the position on a map of every probe and the corresponding results of the measurements. In can alert, if an alarm threshold is crossed or it can print on a printer the data for any single probe. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the International conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The conference contains 404 presentations on: 1) Emergency preparedness and rehabilitation with emphasis on radiation and radioactivity determination and monitoring, protection and contamination and pollution. 2) TNORM/NORM including radon with focus on radioactivity in the environmental and isotope evaluation. 3) Radioecology and speciation including arctic radioecology, focusing on accidents, radiation and radioactivity effects, nuclear waste disposal, handling, impacts, safety and risks, pollution and its sources, accumulation of isotopes and various medical aspects. 4) Risk assessment with emphasis on the environmental and ecological aspects, modeling, recommendations and international cooperation and discussion of the effects of climatic changes. 5) Radiation in society. 6) Environmental protection with focus on radionuclide studies, radiation effects and protection measures, isotope accumulation effects, nuclide distribution, migration and pollution and effects and handling of nuclear accidents. The global aspects of the topics are evident and there are discussions on non-ionizing and ionizing radiation effect, various simulation problems and public and general health aspects (tk)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, January - June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for the first half of 1979 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  18. Environmental radioactivity measurement intercomparison exercise 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, S.M.

    1991-05-01

    In a recent national intercomparison exercise, 49 laboratories involved in making environmental radioactivity measurements took part in the analysis of samples supplied by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom. There were two sets of samples; one containing pure β-emitters and one containing β/γ-emitters. Two thirds of the participants measured the β/γ-emitter sample only, the remainder measured both. The results are presented. (author)

  19. Sampling method of environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This manual provides sampling methods of environmental samples of airborne dust, precipitated dust, precipitated water (rain or snow), fresh water, soil, river sediment or lake sediment, discharged water from a nuclear facility, grains, tea, milk, pasture grass, limnetic organisms, daily diet, index organisms, sea water, marine sediment, marine organisms, and that for tritium and radioiodine determination for radiation monitoring from radioactive fallout or radioactivity release by nuclear facilities. This manual aims at the presentation of standard sampling procedures for environmental radioactivity monitoring regardless of monitoring objectives, and shows preservation method of environmental samples acquired at the samplingpoint for radiation counting for those except human body. Sampling techniques adopted in this manual is decided by the criteria that they are suitable for routine monitoring and any special skillfulness is not necessary. Based on the above-mentioned principle, this manual presents outline and aims of sampling, sampling position or object, sampling quantity, apparatus, equipment or vessel for sampling, sampling location, sampling procedures, pretreatment and preparation procedures of a sample for radiation counting, necessary recording items for sampling and sample transportation procedures. Special attention is described in the chapter of tritium and radioiodine because these radionuclides might be lost by the above-mentioned sample preservation method for radiation counting of less volatile radionuclides than tritium or radioiodine. (Takagi, S.)

  20. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  1. A study on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances and its countermeasure techniques. Part 2. Present situation of radioactive pollution and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Atsuo; Kakuma, Takayuki; Narita, Yasunori; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In present research, in order to clarify the actual condition of contamination, the radioactive concentration of the soil and the plant in Koriyama city was measured. It turned out that the radioactive concentration of soil or plants were heavily polluted by caesium-134 and 137, and iodine-131 was already disappeared by its lifetime. Especially, cesium-134 + 137 was ranged 3400 Bq/kg at the surface of soil in garden, however, it was remarkably decreased in the deeper point at 10 cm and ranged 23 Bq/kg, and we cannot detect the cesium at 15 cm. It is necessary for people in Fukushima to decontaminate for reducing radioactivity level. And it turned out that the evergreen plants have been polluted at high radioactive concentration and decontamination by cutting down the plant was decreased by 14% average. Most of radioactive material is removed by removing soils. (author)

  2. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies; Metodologia de la seguridad radiologica en el empleo de trazadores radiactivos en estudios hidrodinamicos e ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, R; Badano, A; Dellepere, A; Artucio, G; Bertolotti, A [Nuclear Technology National Direction, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1995-07-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps.

  3. Environmental radioactivity: A perspective on industrial contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    This essay aims to show how many non-nuclear industries contributed significantly to natural radioactivity. The examples given include the release of radon-220 and radon-222, as well as other radioisotopes, from the combustion of fossil fuels. Furthermore, edible mussels in the Irish Sea have been found to concentrate polonium-210 from seawater: the original source of the isotope was found to be the waste from a phosphate processing plant. These contributions should be taken into account when the environmental impacts of different industrial activities are compared. 3 tabs

  4. Environmental radioactivity: A perspective on industrial contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, M S [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1993-06-01

    This essay aims to show how many non-nuclear industries contributed significantly to natural radioactivity. The examples given include the release of radon-220 and radon-222, as well as other radioisotopes, from the combustion of fossil fuels. Furthermore, edible mussels in the Irish Sea have been found to concentrate polonium-210 from seawater: the original source of the isotope was found to be the waste from a phosphate processing plant. These contributions should be taken into account when the environmental impacts of different industrial activities are compared. 3 tabs.

  5. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  6. Nuclear power stations: environmental surveillance of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, P.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the radiations they emit, radioactive substances can be detected, identified and measured at extremely low concentrations ? the corresponding masses are lower by a factor ranging from 1000 to 10 000 than those that can be measured by any other chemical or physical method, however precise, applied to non-radioactive substances. Radioisotopes can therefore be detected in the environment at levels much lower than those at which genuine public health problems begin to arise. Unfortunately, we cannot say the same of numerous non-radio active pollutants, which can be measured only at concentrations very close to, or even exceeding, the toxicity threshold. In the mind of the uninformed public confusion seems quite frequently to reign as between the detection threshold and the toxicity threshold. This undoubtedly explains the following situation which is, to say the least, paradoxical: people are afraid of the hypothetical effects of radioactivity at ridiculously low levels, whereas nobody is alarmed at the fact that the toxicity limits for a very large number of non-radioactive, but very real pollutants are being exceeded almost continuously. The sum of all artificial irradiations does not exceed the normal fluctuations of natural irradiation, and if the genetic effects of very low radiation doses were truly cumulative, the natural radiation to which we are all exposed and which is by far the highest would by itself have eliminated every trace of life on earth long ago. Lastly, let us not forget that merely the use of X-rays in medicine, particularly in radiodiagnosis, represents an additional average artificial irradiation of the population amounting to double the natural radiation (100 millirem per year). This is about 100 times the irradiation which would accrue from nuclear industry even according to the most pessimistic estimate. We have seen that the measures described above will make it genuinely possible to maintain environmental radioactivity in all

  7. Study of Environmental Radioactivity Level and Epidemiology in Tin Mining Area in Bangka Island Bangka-Belitung Islands Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Wahyudi

    2003-01-01

    Bangka-Island has become the area contained with natural radioactive substance such as Uranium (U-238), Thorium (Th-232) and Kalium (K-40), and much of mineral substance such tin. Tin mining process producing (side products) such as slag, monazite, ilmenite and mud/tailing, given a negative impact potential to the public health and the environment, especially radioactive substance such Thoron (Rn-220) and Radon (Rn-222). Directorate General CDC and EH, MOH in cooperating with National Nuclear Energy Agency and WHO conduct the assessment (Cross Sectional) to get information about the natural radioactive and the public health. The sample (200 person) are taken from several sub-district such as Belinyu, Pemali, Koba and Mentok. The concentration of natural radio nucleic in soil are relative normal, while on drinking water for the Ra-226 unable condition at several location. The exposure of gamma radiation on two zone given the radiation dose annually more than recommended value (NBD). Radon concentration on bedroom is highest from guest room/family room. Semi permanent is the most common type of house (80, 4 %), guest room ventilation most of them 64,82% met with the requirement. Respondent knowledge regarding radiation still low, but knowledge regarding healthy living behavior found good. Respondent behavior in opening bedroom and guest room window found good and most of them found smoking 62,3 %. Ex in-conventional mining exploration had become potential breeding places for mosquito and resource of exposure the radiation. Blood examination result to 10 workers didn't find any chromosome aberration. Found a description of chronically abnormality cases such lower tract respiratory, neoplasm, pregnancy disturbances and fetus disturbance that has relation with certain risk factor. Therefore, needed a deeper and further study (Epidemiology). In repairing the house suggested to put a modified bamboo under the floor and if building a new house, suggested with rumah

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1975. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, stream and lake water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1975 are given. The gamma-background was measured regularly at locations around Risoe, and at ten of the State experimental farms. Finnaly the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  9. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo; Park, Won Pyo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2002. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Z. K.; Oh, S. H. [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 1997. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  12. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo; Park, Won Pyo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2001. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  13. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    slopes where the surface soil was scraped and litter was cleared, the scraping showed mixed results in radioactivity reduction. It is estimated that by the completion of soil decontamination in 2020, up to 22 million cubic meters of so-called 'contaminated soils' will have been scraped off in the affected areas and transferred to an underground storage. Understanding the radioactive isotope behaviors is crucial to assessing the financial and environmental consequences of such measures. As an example, a 30-year simulation of a 5-13 % hillslope under thick vegetation with GeoWEPP (the Geospatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) resulted in a very small soil loss on the hillslope. However, the results showed about five tons of soil loss through channels and as sediment discharge annually. On the hillslope, the radioactivity level in about the top 4.0 cm of the soil exceeded the 8,000 Bq/kg threshold which the Japanese government has set for surface soil removal. Referring to the case study data in Fukushima, this presentation will discuss how environmental decontamination measures (e.g. forest clearing) and monitoring methods should be considered and planned against dynamic environmental processes.

  14. Environmental radioactivity measurements Using a compton suppression spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The natural and artificial radioactivities of some environmental samples such as soil and vegetables have been studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy with a new constructed compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The spectrometer consists of a 10% p-type HPGe detector as a main detector, an annular NE-102 A plastic scintillator as a guard detector, and a fast-slow coincidence system employing standard electronic modules for anti-compton operation. This study shows that CSS is a powerful tool for measuring the low level activities of environmental samples

  15. Environmental radioactivity networks in Italy, 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.; Notaro, M.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the environmental radioactivity data collected in Italy from 1994 to 1997 by the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks of Italy. The National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) is law-fully responsible for publishing the environmental and dietary contamination data, provided by the organisations participating to the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The complete list of the participants is reported at the end of the present document. The National Environmental Radioactivity Networks of Italy are aimed at survey of the pattern of environmental and dietary contamination in order to assess the radiation doses which the Italian population may receive. The sampling networks have been designed on regional basis, to provide information on the average extent of environmental and dietary contamination. The sampling programmes are planned to obtain representative samples able to reveal the average situation both in time and space. To guarantee that the laboratories of the organisations participating to the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks, perform measurements with a certain degree of accuracy and maintain the quality of their systems, the National Environmental Protection Agency organises yearly an intercalibration programme of the analytical methods used for measuring radioactivity in food and environmental samples. The calibration programme is performed with the collaboration of the National Institute of Ionising Radiation Metrology (ENEA). Routine tests with transfer standards are used for accurate calibration, so that the results can be traceable to a common reference point [it

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik.; Noh, Hyung Ah [Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2000. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J. S.; Kim, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 1998. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period

  1. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah

    2001-12-01

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period

  2. Study of the type of gamma radioactivity in platform carbonaceous rocks: analyses and environmental, diagenetic and geodynamical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddadi, Mohamed-Chaker

    2004-01-01

    In well-logging, values of gamma-activity are measured by scintillometry. A conventional paradigm is to link high γ-activity to Potassium (K) and Thorium (Th) isotopes present in clays and to Uranium isotopes present either in detrital sediments (typically in zircon or monazite minerals) or to sediments rich in organic matter. In shallow-water carbonates platforms, high γ-activities are interpreted in the same way. However, in a first γ-scintillometer survey of the Gorges du Nan section (sub-alpine Vercors massif), we found inconsistencies between lithologies and their expected γ-responses: the highest radioactive beds do not correspond to high argillaceous or detrital limestones and marls, but to some low content argillaceous or 'pure' limestones beds. The aim of this study was to identify the radioactive isotopes associated to different types of carbonates, their localisation, their abundance and their respective contribution to the total gamma response in order to propose a new method for the interpretation of gamma-ray logs in shallow-water carbonates. This study was focused on two intervals: - The first one corresponds to the Ba3 depositional sequence (Upper Barremian) which is composed essentially of limestones. This sequence was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble and in the Swiss Jura near Neuchatel; - The second one corresponds to the 'Lower Oritolina marls' interval. This interval was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble, in Spain (Organya basin) and in central Tunisia near Kairouan. We carried out detailed sedimentological, diagenetic and isotopic studies of all these sections. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes analyses allowed us to establish some large scale correlations between sections in the French Alps, in the Pyrenees and in central Tunisia. The good correlation between Oxygen and Carbon stable isotopes curves of the Lower Orbitolina marls in all the

  3. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  4. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  5. Direct continuous multichannel γspectrometric measurements- one of the main methods for control and study of radioactive environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.; Rumiantsev, O.V.

    1991-01-01

    In Chernobyl along with usual methods of environment radiation control there were used methods and equipment of direct continuous multichannel measurements. The necessary equipment was installed both on permanent observation stations (river Pripyat, Chernobyl, river Dnieper, Kiev) and on mobile units (helicopters, scientific river-boats, automobiles). Together with continuous control of radioactive situation and its estimation in time and space this equipment enabled to carry out the following: - determination of time-spatial structure of radioactive pollution in stationary points and on space (mapping); - selection of representative samples for subsequent radionuclide analysis; - direct data input into the computer, data storage and data base creation. The results and conclusions drawn are important not only for the situation on Chernobyl atomic station - they may and should be used for a continuous radioactive monitoring of the environment. Though the method and its realization remain to be modernized and unified. (author)

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2000. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters. There was no significant difference in environmental radioactivities between 1999 and 2000.

  7. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L. S., E-mail: flidia@ist.utl.pt [Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials, CeFEMA and Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maglione, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  8. Determination of environmental radioactivity for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoaka, A.; Fukushima, M.; Takagi, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method was devised to determine detection limits for radioactivity in environmental samples. The method is based on the 5 mrem/yr whole-body dose objective established by the Japan Atomic Enerty Commission and is valid for assessing the internal dose from radionuclides in the environment around a nuclear facility. Eleven samples and 15 radionuclides were considered. Internal dose was assumed to be one-half of the total dose (5 mrem/yr) and was assessed using the critical pathway method. Needed detection limits (NDLs) were established to confirm the dose of 5 mrem/yr when there was more than one radionuclide per sample. The NDLs for γ-emitters were 10 -5 pCi/l. for air; 10 -3 pCi/l. for seawater; 10 -1 pCi/l. for drinking water; 10 0 pCi/kg for vegetables and fish; 10 0 pCi/l. for milk; and 10 1 pCi/kg for molluscs, crustaceans, seaweeds, soil and submarine sediments. The NDLs for β-emitters were 1-1/100 of those for γ-emitters. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1974. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, drinking water, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1974 are given. The gamma-background was measured regularly at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, in one area in Zealand, one in Jutland, and along the shores of the Great Belt. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1976. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1976 are given. The γ-background was measured regularly at locations around Risoe, and ten of the State experimental farms. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. Results of plutonium determinations in soil and sediments from 1975 and in grain from 1963 and 1965 are presented in this report. (author)

  11. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  12. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.; Smith, V.; Howett, D.; Hayden, E.; Fegan, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of the terrestrial monitoring programme implemented by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland during the period 1994 to 1996. This monitoring programme includes the routine sampling and testing for radioactivity of samples of air, rainwater, drinking water and milk. Atmospheric concentrations of krypton-85 continued to rise over the period. No abnormal readings were observed for gamma dose rate, radioactivity in airborne particulates or radioactivity in rainwater. Significant variation in the concentrations of natural radioactivity was observed between drinking water supplies.The levels of anthropogenic radioactivity recorded during this reporting period in air, rainwater, drinking water and milk continue to be insignificant from a radiological safety point of view

  13. Direct continuous multichannel gamma spectrometric measurements -one of the main methods for control and study of radioactive environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.; Roumyantsev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Six reasons are given for suggesting that radioactivity in the environment should be monitored continuously using multichannel gamma spectrometry. These are the probability of an accident at a nuclear power plant (estimated at one every 4 years for the number of power stations now in operation), the possibility of damage to a reactor from natural disaster, the increased use of nuclear powered ships, missiles etc, the radioactivity released during the course of normal operation of nuclear facilities, the increased use of radioisotope sources and as a basis for modelling radionuclide migration and redistribution over time. The use of stationary monitoring points as well as on vehicles, boats and aircraft is recommended. Some problems are discussed. The experience of continuous gamma monitoring following the Chernobyl accident is discussed and results given. (U.K.)

  14. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1999-01-01

    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  15. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  16. Implementation of the Environmental Management System in Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, M.; Kralj, M.; Rojc, J.

    2008-01-01

    Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) is a public institution assigned to provide effective, safe and responsible management of all kinds of radioactive waste in Slovenia from the moment they arise to their final disposal. Therefore it holds an important role in environmental protection. Its main assignment is to provide conditions for permanent disposal of radioactive waste. It is also authorised to perform public service of radioactive waste management from small producers that includes: collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises, transportation to the storage facility, treatment, conditioning storage of RW from small producers; acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation (e.g. transport accidents); acceptance of radioactive waste in case of unknown producer; operation and management of Central Interim Storage of Radioactive Waste. The quality of ARAO performance in carrying out its mission is assured by implementing the environmental management system according to the standard ISO 14001:2004. Its effectiveness was confirmed by certification in October 2007. The ISO 14001:2004 certificate represents a permanent commitment of ARAO to implement and improve the environmental management system and to include environmental aspects in all its activities, especially in performing the public service. We developed own evaluation criteria for determination of relevant environmental impacts and aspects. ARAO has defined its environmental policy and objectives, it evaluates its environmental impacts yearly, and defines its environmental programmes that not only fulfil legal requirements but tend even to reduce the impacts below legally set levels. A very important environmental programme in the last few years was the reconstruction of the storage facility. Public information and communication programmes are considered to be important also from the environmental management point of view, because public shows great interest in

  17. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Dunne, B.; Colgan, P.A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1990-06-01

    The Nuclear Energy Board measures radionuclides in air, rainwater, total fallout, drinking water supplies and milk as part of its programme to monitor radioactivity in the Irish environment. The report presents the results of measurements made during 1988 and 1989

  18. Radioactive waste management and its implications for environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; Myttenaere, C.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental mobility and biological availability of radioelements in the biosphere is one of the four barriers which assure the segregation of radioactivity when the radioactive wastes are disposed into geologic formations. In carrying out studies on long-term risk assessment associated with waste disposal of this type, the terrestrial and aquatic models are developed to represent the above mentioned barrier so that risk linked with this barrier is realistically evaluated. These models help in identifying areas of research in environmental field for proper assessment of risk and in optimizing the relationship between requirements of risk assessment and ecological investigations. The three basic areas identified for research are realistic transfer coefficients between various ecological compartments, transfer mechanisms, and long-term evolution of various environmental compartments. Both laboratory and in situ studies are carried out and their results are used in developing models. Various research projects in progress under the Radiological Protection Programme of the Commission of European Community (CEC) are mentioned. As expertise from various fields is required for this research and is not possibly available at a single place, CEC has given research contracts for certain projects to national laboratories so that expertise available with them is utilised and CEC also is engaged directly in research activities which are carried out at its Joint Research Centre. Advisory Committee for Programme Management of the CEC provides the link between various actions and the necessary flow of information between the CEC and the national research teams within the European Community. (M.G.B.)

  19. The French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunet, P.

    2010-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident in 1986, the government began to implement mechanisms to ensure the quality of measurements of environmental radioactivity and to assure the transparency of information on environmental radioactivity monitoring results. Within this context, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (RNM), is created in 2002 under the Public Health Code. This network is developed under the auspices of ASN in collaboration with IRSN and in partnership with government departments, major nuclear licensees, health agencies and environmental protection associations. In order to centralize information on environmental radioactivity and to provide access to measurement results, a single database that includes an the results of measurements of radioactivity in the environment on the national territory is build and a new web-site www.mesure-radioactivite.fr is launched. It provides quick and easy access to this database. The quality of measurements is performed by a laboratory system through an ASN decision. Novel initiative in Europe, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity web-site gives the user keys to understand the measurement results on the radiological state of the environment. The site will be improved over the time taking into account the feedback of the users. (author)

  20. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised 40 K, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends

  1. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at IPEN in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program - PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of IPEN's Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in ali the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other IPEN's facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of Sao Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinco The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h -1 . The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3 H, 137 CS, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn, which are commonly released into IPEN's sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out

  2. Hydrologic and Meteorological Data for an Unsaturated-Zone Study Area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Pittman, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study provides hydrologic and meteorological data collected at a designated test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC SDA from 1990 through 1996. The test trench area was constructed by the USGS in 1985. Hydrologic data presented in this report were collected during 1990-96 in the USGS test trench area. Soil-moisture content measurement from disturbed and undisturbed soil were collected approximately monthly during 1990-96 from 11 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture gage. In 1994, three additional neutron access holes were completed for monitoring. A meteorological station inside the test trench area provided data for determination of evapotranspiration rates. The soil-moisture and meteorological data are contained in files on 3-1/2 inch diskettes (disks 1 and 2) included with this report. The data are presented in simple American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format with tab-delimited fields. The files occupy a total of 1.5 megabytes of disk space

  3. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around Jeongeup ARTI in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Kwon, Ho Je; Kang, Tai Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    In Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme has been enforced since 2007. This study has been done to guarantee the local residence radiation safety by detecting in early stage a possible radiological effect due to the operation of the ARTI facilities. For the radioactivity measurement, fourteen selected samples were gathered not only monthly, quarterly, half-yearly but also in the harvesting season. Measurement and analysis were done on the samples collected in and around the ARTI. The gamma exposure rates measured in and around ARTI was in the range of 0.05{approx}0.3 {mu}Sv/h. The range of gross-beta-radioactivity analyzed for the water samples except waste water was from <3.451 to 288 mBq/L. The range of 3H concentration detected in the rain sample collected in the ARTI site was 0.951{approx}2.34 Bq/L. 90Sr was not detected from all the samples of soil and honey, pine needles. The above results confirmed that there has been no influence due to operation of the ARTI facilities.. The analysis result reveals that there is no radiological influence due to operation of the ARTI facilities. Also, it is judged that the samples analyzed for the first time in 2009 have to be continuously evaluated afterward

  4. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Huy Uyen; Bui Van Loat; Dang Phuong Nam; Cao Anh Duc; Pham Quang Dien; Nguyen Hao Quang

    1990-01-01

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs 137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10 -5 Bq/g; Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10 -5 Bq/g. Cs 137 is radioactive so Cs 137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K 40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  5. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by 222 Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It's major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented

  6. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  7. Yearly plan of safety research on environmental radioactivity for 1996 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Yearly Plan of Safety Research on Environmental Radioactivity' proposed from the special meeting for safety research of environmental radioactivity on December 14, 1995 was investigated by Nuclear Safety Commission. And the safety research of environmental radioactivity in Japan was decided to be pursued according to the plan. The contents of this plan consisted of the purpose and the contents of research as well as the research period and the facilities to be done for each theme. The following themes were included; 1) study on environment·radiation dose and study on radiation exposure reduction. 2) study on biological effects of radiation. 3) study on internal exposure by specified nuclides. 4) study on medical measures for acute radiation exposure. 5) study on assessment of nuclear safety. 6) investigation on radioactivities released from various nuclear facilities in Japan to demonstrate their safety. (M.N.)

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1976 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1976. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1974 are reported. Strontium 90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1974. Three Greenlanders were measured by wholebody counting. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1978 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Tritium was determined in samples of drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1978. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-07-01

    Measuremtns of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1975 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1975. (author)

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the environmental aspects of potential radioactive waste repository study areas in the Ohio and New York portions of the Salina Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Various geographical regions and geological media are being evaluated to determine their potential suitability as an underground repository for commercial radioactive wastes. All three areas and the subarea of Ohio and New York have good highway and rail-transport access. More information is needed on the agricultural viability of all areas. Surface and ground-water usage are much greater in the urbanized Ohio area; because of its rural nature, New York Study Area 1 and the Beaver Dams Subarea have the lowest demand for either water source. Of the New York areas, Study Area 1 appears to provide greater possibilities, considering the objective of minimizing environmental impact. The Ohio study area includes a large part that is within the urbanized area surrounding Cleveland. In addition, the entire study area is marked by a high density of other screening factors such as historic and archaeological sites, natural areas and scenic highways. While more detailed study in the Ohio area might reveal subareas relatively lightly developed and sufficient in size for a repository, significant land use conflicts are likely for most of the area of geologic interst. The Ohio area, from a nongeologic standpoint, appears to be the least promising of the areas identified

  13. Estimation of collective effective dose equivalent from environmental radiation and radioactive materials in Japan. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Noda, Yutaka; Takeshita, Mitsue; Iwai, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    The peaceful uses of nuclear power and radiations have been developed into a stage of practical applications for human life. Radiation causes harmful effects to human beings, although human beings receives a number of invaluable benefits from the nuclear energy and the uses of radiation. In order to examine the optimization of radiation protection in these practices, collective effective dose equivalent from environmental exposures due to natural and artificial radiations have been preliminarily evaluated using most recent data. The resultant collective doses were compared with those from medical and occupational exposures. It is noted that, in Japan, the collective effective dose from environmental radiation sources can be approximately same to that from medical exposure. (author)

  14. Radon and environmental radioactivity in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandac, I.; Bettini, A.; Borjabad, S.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Perez, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez, P.; Villar, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of more than one year of measurements of Radon and environmental radioactivity in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are presented. Radon and atmospheric parameters have registered by an Alpha guard P30 equipment and the environmental radioactivity has been measured by means of UD-802A Panasonic thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) processed by an UD716 Panasonic unit. Series of results along with their possible correlations are presented. Both the Radon level and the ambient dose equivalent H (10) are much lower than the allowed ones so no radiological risk exists to persons working in the LSC. Also its excellent environmental radiological quality has been confirmed. (Author)

  15. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1979-05-01

    This latest volume of the bibliography series - which from no. 28, 1979, on goes under the title of 'Bibliography in Environmental Radioactivity in Foods' now that the ZEAD-bibl. series have been terminated - lists 197 bibliographic references, mainly from the last two years, with the emphasis on general environmental surveillance and surveillance of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  16. Radioactive kryptonates in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''radioactive Kryptonates'' is used for substances into which atoms or ions of the radioactive nuclide 85 Kr are incorporated. The basis of the use of radioactive Kryptonates in analytical chemistry is that during a chemical reaction the crystalline lattice of the kryptonated carrier is destroyed, the carrier consumed, and the radioactive krypton released (radio-release method). Analysis can be made with a calibration curve or by comparison with a standard. Radio-release methods with the aid of radioactive Kryptonates as analytical reagents are very useful for the analysis of environmental samples, e.g. for the determination of air pollutants (ozone, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, mercury); and water pollutants (oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide). (author)

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  18. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland: 1981 to 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A bulletin, prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The monitoring results for discharges to both the atmosphere and the sea over the period 1981 to 1985 are presented for BNFL's Chapelcross and Sellafield Works, UKAEA Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, SSEB Hunterston Power Station and MOD Naval Installations. It is concluded that public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits.

  19. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of 226 Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs

  20. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in the Faroes in 1976 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1976. (author)

  1. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1980 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes in 1980. (author)

  2. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in the Faroes in 1975 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, whale, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1975. (author)

  3. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1980-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1979 are presented. STrontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1979. (author)

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Lippert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Holm, E.

    1980-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1979 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1979. Provisional results of the 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are presented. (author)

  5. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loes, Rosa Helena Zago

    1997-01-01

    When the capsule of cesium was open ten years ago, in Goiania/GO, provoked a radiologic accident of great consequences for the population. After that, the government, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear Energy, Brazilian CNEN, the non-governmental organizations and the population began a big mobilization to solve this problem. The result was the construction of the Final Deposit for Radioactive Wastes. (author)

  6. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1978-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1977 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1977. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Sequeira, S.; Smith, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish

  10. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; Smith, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish

  11. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  12. 30 years of environmental radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoc, S.; Alexandrescu, M.; Dovlete, C.; Halasz, A.; Sonoc, N.

    1993-01-01

    A short history of environmental radioactivity monitoring in Romania is presented. Started in 1962 in a few number of sites this activity is performed now by the National Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) consisting in 44 local laboratories in each county of the country and a central laboratory, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (ERL). The measured values of fallout samples in six points of the network during the period 1962-1992 and the average values of the Cs-137 deposits on Romanian territory from 1977 to 1992 are also presented. The main scientific results of the staff of the central laboratory during the years are mentioned. All these results were possible only due to a persuasive work done during the years by all the staff of the local and central laboratories. (author). 7 figs., 14 refs

  13. NPL support for environmental radioactivity measurements in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The United Kingdom was one of the first nations to initiate a civil nuclear power programme in the 1950s, with the first commercial generation of electricity being achieved in 1957. As the civil nuclear programme grew in size, an ongoing programme of environmental monitoring was instituted by central government that placed the responsibility for monitoring radioactivity in the local environment and the measurement of discharges of radioactive gases and liquids with the site operator, the Environment Agency, the Environment and Heritage Service, the Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (or their predecessors). This presentation will discuss the sources of radioactivity in the UK environment from the nuclear industry, natural and other sources, focussing on how these sources of radioactivity are monitored and what future trends may be, taking the Windscale fire of 1957, the Chernobyl accident and the Litvinenko incident of 2006 as examples of how unexpected events have been addressed in the UK. As the national metrology institute for the UK, the NPL is required to provide support to the National Measurement System infrastructure of the UK, including the measurement of radioactivity. The presentation will also describe the absolute standardisation of radioactivity at the NPL, and how this is disseminated to organisations measuring environmental radioactivity in the UK by means of directly traceable standards of radioactivity and through the provision of an ongoing series of proficiency test exercises. The outcomes of some recent proficiency tests will be discussed, with emphasis on how the general performance of laboratories participating in these proficiency tests has matured over the years since their inception in 1989. In addition, the data treatment of such proficiency tests will also be examined in order to illustrate that statutory regulatory bodies, laboratory accreditation organisations and customers are able to

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988. Radiological monitoring annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.).

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Holm, E.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1981 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1981. Further results of the 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are prsented. Brown algae collected in East Greenland in 1969 were analysed for Pu and Am. (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Lippert, J.; Hallstadius, L.; Holm, E.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1981 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1981. In Appendix the results from samplings of sea water and biota along the Icelandic and the Norwegian coasts are given. (author)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in the Faroes in 1974 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking wster. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1974. Whole body measurements were made on six individuals from the Faroes. (author)

  18. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1978 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Tritium was determined in samples of drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1978. (author)

  19. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Holm, E.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1983-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1982 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of potatoes, sea plants, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1982. In Appendix the results from a sampling of sea water and biota along the English and the Scottish coasts are given. (author)

  20. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  1. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  2. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R ampersand D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R ampersand D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action

  3. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  4. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points

  5. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points. (LK)

  6. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 4 Caesium-137 and plutonium in soils of Cumbria and the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1980-08-01

    A network of soil sampling sites covering an area of some 2500 km 2 in Cumbria and the whole of the Isle of Man was selected and sampled in 1978. Soils from permanent grassland, coniferous woodland and deciduous woodland were examined, to a depth of 30 cm. The spatial distribution of sampling points is based on a grid of 10 km side. The objective of the study is to provide information on the integrated deposition of Cs-137, Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 from the atmosphere, and to determine the distribution of possible emissions from the nuclear establishment at Windscale in the presence of radioactivity deposited from nuclear weapons fallout, that is superimposed upon the natural background of radioactivity in soil. Results from soil samples collected in 1978 in Cumbria and the Isle of Man are compared with the average integrated deposition for UK soils from nuclear fallout. In the Isle of Man no radioactivity is observed in excess of nuclear weapons fallout, but in Cumbria excess levels of plutonium are detected in coastal lowland areas under permanent grassland probably due to the transport of radioactive material from sea to land. At three sampling sites on grassland and woodland within 2.3 km of the Windscale stacks, the excess plutonium and Cs-137 in soil could be attributed mainly to atmospheric discharges from Windscale. The observed deposition of radioactivity has little radiological significance, based on assessment of risk by inhalation of soil dust that contains plutonium. (author)

  7. New measurement techniques of environmental radioactivity. Methods of surveying marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshii

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in solution or suspension in sea-water, bottom sediments and specific marine organisms. The general approach to radionuclide measurement in seawater and bottom sediments has been concentration by coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange or solvent extraction. These methods employed are based primarily on shipboard collection of samples followed by land-based laboratory analyses and are too time-consuming. For rapid measurement, in situ measurement of seawater or seabed gamma-ray has developed. A gamma-ray detecting probe containing the NaI(Tl) scintillation or germanium detector is enclosed in a sealed cylinder. The measurements are made by suspending the probe in a 200-300 liter tank and passing seawater through the tank by means of ship deck pumping system, towing the probe across the seafloor, hanging down the probe to the seabed, or loading the probe on a remotely operated undersea vehicle. In situ measurement of gamma-ray in the marine environment has some application to a mineral exploration and to monitoring of sea areas which may become contaminated as the result of accidents or contamination incidents. This article reviews several gamma-ray detecting probes and describes the recent studies at JAERI on the development of a small electric-cooled Ge gamma-ray detector and a marine environmental radioactivity investigation system for in situ measurement of gamma-ray. (J.P.N.)

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Dong Wan; An, Mi Jeong [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Kangnung province during the period of January 1- December 31, 2001. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Gangnung province during the period of January 1 - December 31, 2003. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Kangnung province during the period of January 1- December 31, 2002. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  11. Some issues on environmental impact report of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaming

    2001-01-01

    The author puts forward some issues which should be paid attention to when compiling a environmental impact report of radioactive material transport. The main issues discussed are as follows: (1) Optimization analysis for transport routes. (2) Source terms under accident conditions in transport. (3) Precautions against accidents and emergency preparedness. (4) Quality assurance of transport, etc

  12. Building and application of environmental radioactivity data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumicak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The main characteristics and the way of functioning of the complex system of acquisition, storage and processing of data on environmental radioactivity of a data bank type are described. Its advantages and disadvantages and possible ways of its utilization in different fields are shown. (author)

  13. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1981-10-01

    This is the most recent bibliographic volume; it lists 226 citations, most of them of the last two years. The citations are grouped according to the main subjects of general aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The publication contains a conference index, an author index, a report number index, a subject index, a corporation index, and a journal index. (MG) [de

  14. Ash contents of foodstuff samples in environmental radioactivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayano, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Statistical data of the ash content in various environmental samples obtained from an environmental radioactivity survey project commissioned by the Japanese government of Science and Technology Agency (at present Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Sciences and Technology) during the past 10 years are expressed for establishing a standard of ash content in environmental samples based on radioactivity analysis. The ash content for some kinds of environmental samples such as dietary food, milk, Japanese radish, spinach, fish, green tea and potato was reviewed in the light of statistical and stochastic viewpoints. For all of the samples reviewed in this paper, the coefficient of variation varied from 4.7% for milk to 36.3% for cabbage. Dietary food and milk samples were reviewed more than 1900 and 1400 samples, respectively. Especially, ash content of dietary food depended mainly on the dietary culture reflected on the period. However it showed an almost invariant distribution within 18.7% of coefficient of variation during the past 10 years. Pretreatment of environmental samples especially ashing processes are important from the viewpoint on environmental radioactivity analysis, which is one of the especial fields in analytical chemistry. Statistical reviewed data obtained in this paper may be useful for sample preparation. (author)

  15. Observation of environmental radioactivity at definite time and definite point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Fukuchi, Ryoichi; Irie, Takayuki; Hosoda, Nagako; Okano, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Koutaro

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of environmental radioactivity in Tokyo Metropolis was carried out. The objects of measurement were rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts, spatial dose and the activated sludge in sewage treatment plants. Rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose were analyzed mainly considering radioactive fallout, and activated sludge was analyzed mainly considering radioactive medical matters. For the analysis of nuclides, a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was used, and spatial dose rate was measured with a DBM type dose rate meter. In activated sludge, the nuclides used for radioactive medicines were found, but in rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose, particular abnormality was not found. The objective of this investigation is to collect over long period at definite time and definite points the data on environmental radioactivity in Tokyo, thus to grasp the level of normal values, and in abnormal case, to clarify the cause and to evaluate the exposure dose. The instruments used, the method of measuring each object and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, Jorge; Perez, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the data evaluation of measurements of gamma radiation in environmental samples in soils of Guatemala using high-purity Ge detectors, also measurements of background radiation using thermoluminiscent dosimeters based on LiF 700 (from Harshaw) were carried out in the points of higher population density. From data evaluation was found that precipitation of Cesium-137 from nuclear testing is present in soils of Guatemala, the results of background measured with TLD are normal

  17. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  18. TLD system for the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochioiu, Ana; Sahagia, Maria; Tudor, Ion

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a high sensitivity TLD system, designed for the survey of the environmental radioactivity. It is based on the use of TL detectors type LiF:Mg, Cu, P, commercially known as GR-200A. The dosimeter designed in our Institute, contains 3 detectors, and the measurement value is calculated as the arithmetic mean. A very sensitive, TL Reader, READER ANALYSER RA'94 was chosen and an optimal thermal cycle was designed, such as to enhance the measurement performances. For each placement, a set of 3 dosemeters is used, and survey intervals from 1 to 100 days, depending on the radioactivity level and reporting requirements, are selected. The technical characteristics of the system were determined by exposing the dosimeters in reference X and gamma radiation fields, such as required by the IEC standard 61066:iun.2006 'Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring'. The main technical parameters are of highest quality and recommend it for use in the survey of the environmental radioactivity, at the level of ambient dose equivalent rate, due to normal natural radioactivity, in open areas. The paper describes the method of characterisation and measurement results, as well as their relevance. (author)

  19. Environmental and human exposure as a result of radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear accidents can lead to the discharge of radioactive particulates, gases, and liquid effluents into the environment. Effluents are characterized by their composition, duration and by other characteristics which can influence the dispersion of radioactivity in the environment. Populations can be exposed directly or through the contamination of the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, it is necessary to take into consideration both the environmental contamination pathways and the human contamination pathways through the environment. This document summarizes these different pathways: contamination by atmospheric discharge (surface contamination, surface waters, terrestrial fauna and flora); contamination by liquid discharge; spreading of contaminated areas; human contamination pathways (external irradiation, internal contamination, skin contamination). (J.S.)

  20. Environmental pollution: influence on the operation of a sensor of radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Martin Delgado, J.; Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Perez Lopez, M.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. c.

    2013-01-01

    The content of radioactive aerosols in the air is an important component to estimate the ambient radiation dose. In the laboratories of environmental radioactivity, measurements of radionuclides in air they are performed using sensors. The flow picked up by the equipment can be changed if the degree of air pollution changes for some reason. It handles this study and the population doses are estimated due to inhalation of ambient air. (Author)

  1. Examination of the new index creatures for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Saito, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the environmental radioactivity monitoring is to watch over the radiation hazard to the human body, fallout resting from the nuclear test and the environmental pollution around the nuclear facilities and so forth. The measurement of the environmental radioactivity is done using samples like the atmosphere, land water, land soil, bottom soil of the sea and lake, drainage, food, marine samples, index creatures, etc. The index creatures in the land are pine needle, cryptomeria leaf, mugwort and so on. However, in recent years, they are decreasing at the city. Therefore, Kin-mokusei and Pothos are examined using the microwave heating distillation system developed by Radioisotope Research Center of Osaka University, it was proved that they had possibility of the new index creature. (author)

  2. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  3. Natural radioactive environmental pollution and meteorological characteristics of Faisalabad environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.K.; Sharif, R.; Hussain, K.

    1999-01-01

    This study is about Faisalabad, the third largest and industrial city of Pakistan, where the maximum temperature in summer reaches up to 50 deg. C and in winter it may fall below the freezing point. In this study on attempt has been made to find co-relation between local weather conditions and natural radioactive concentrations. The natural radioactivity was found to have no co-relation with meteorological parameters. Thus the natural activity is independent of meteorological characteristics, which confirms the random nature of radioactivity. (author)

  4. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  5. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the fourth edition of the original book which was written as a reference source for the scientist, engineer, or administrator with a professional interest in the subject, but it may also be a value to the reader who wishes to understand the technical facts behind the public debate. The subject of environmental radioactivity has aspects of vast dimensions. The text of the book concerns primarily with the behavior of radioactive substances when they enter the environment. The important and elaborate technology by which passage of radioactive materials to the environment may be prevented and the equally important field of health physics that is concerned with protecting the atomic energy worker were thus placed beyond the bounds of this work.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Lee, Hae Young; Yang, Chan Sun

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region

  7. Environmental effects associated with the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Pope, R.B.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper has been to describe some of the background information concerning nuclear materials transportation systems, accident statistics, accident severities, and test information - all of which when combined yield an environmental statement of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials. The results of the ultimate risk analysis are expressed in terms of numbers of fatalities and, in that sense at least, tend to be an absolute measure of risk. When these risks are compared with other accepted societal risks, the relative risks associated with radioactive material transportation can be established. This information can be used to make decisions at the governmental level and to inform an interested public about these risks. It can be concluded that the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material are low relative to the other risks that society has already accepted

  8. ROKO-Database of the environmental radioactivity measurements in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mitic, D.

    2005-01-01

    ROKO is the acronym of the Environmental Radioactivity in Slovenian language R adioaktivnost v OKOlju . Computer database ROKO contains data of all measurements of the radioactivity in the environment in Slovenia. Data about radioactivity in the environment have been collected in Slovenia more or less regularly since 1961 on. Most results are gathered in the form of paper reports. Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has initiated the project of transfer of all those data into the electronic form and making it available for easy research. The database is designed so, that it contains all records, relevant for any kind of analyses and for the transfer to the international data systems. By the end of the summer 2005 a major part of data from previous years have already been transferred into the database and the user interface software is under development. It will allow the users to examine individual data records, to plot time history graphs or geographical contour plots. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Chen Qing Jiang; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.; Lauridsen, B.; Nielsen, S.P.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.

    1988-11-01

    Strontium-90, radiocesium and other radionuclides were determined in samples from all over the country of air, precipitation, stream water, lake water, ground water, drinking water, sea water, soil, sediments, dried milk, fresh milk, meat, fish, chese, eggs, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, grass, moss, lichen, sea plants, total diet, and humans. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1986 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, ground water, other fresh waters and sea water. The gamma-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site gamma-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137Cs and corrosion products (58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn). The Chernobyl accident caused a substantial expansion of the environmental monitoring activities in Denmark. The programme was expanded to an extent similar to that in the sixties. (author) 178 tabs., 70 ills., 34 refs

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, drinking water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, soil, sediments, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air, precipitation, sea water, lake water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1980 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh water and sea water. Plutonium and Americium were measured in sea water sediments, sea plants and mussels. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at the of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1978-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe Health Physics Department. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1977 are given. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γspectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Results of plutonium determinations in soil and sediments from 1977 are presented in this report. Tritium was determined in groundwater and precipitation. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1979-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe Health Physics Department. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1978 are given. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barseback and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Results of plutonium determinations in soil and sediments from 1978 are presented in this report. Tritium was determined in groundwater and precipitation. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1982-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, lake and stream water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, soil, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air precipitation, sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1981 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh water and sea water. Plutonium and Americium were measured in sea water, sediments, sea plants and mussels. The ν-background was measured regularly by TLD,ionization chamber and site ν-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1980-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, lake and stream water, drinking water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1979 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, ground water and sea water. Plutonium and americium were measured in sediments and sea plants. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  15. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  16. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland, 1983 to 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin, which has been prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The results presented cover the period 1983 to 1987. The first section of the bulletin draws together the results of the monitoring and presents the principal conclusions; the second section summarises the procedures underlying the monitoring; and the remaining sections present detailed monitoring results. The principal conclusions of this bulletin are that: public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits including the ICRP's recommended principal limit of 1 millisievert per year; the levels of radiation exposure have been consistent with the recommendation of the NRPB that procedures leading to exposure of the public should be controlled so that the life-time effective dose equivalent does not exceed 70 millisieverts; any doses received have been small and correspond to negligible levels of risk to individuals; and the effects of waste disposals have been limited in accordance with the national standards of radiological safety, which are designed to protect the population from the harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  17. Selected research works published in international journals on Vietnam environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity is object of many studies of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VINATOM). The VINATOM for long time has carried out monitoring of environmental radioactivity and application of isotopes in investigation of natural resources for socio-economic development in Vietnam. A lot of results of the studies in monitoring and application of radiation and isotopes have been presented at conferences. Some excellent research works have been published in prestigious international journals and selected to republish in this collection. The publication is expected to be as reference material for researchers, postgraduates in the field of environment protection. (NHA)

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  20. Interpretation of low-level environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Levels of radioactivity in the environment from worldwide fallout have decreased by about a factor of 10 since the early 1970's and many environmental concentrations are now less than the routine estimated lower limit of detection. To accurately represent these data and to assist in evaluating very low levels of radioactivity, each instrumental value with its statistical counting error should be reported. In some instances the background count of the instrument exceeds the sample count resulting in a value that is less than zero (a negative concentration). Evaluation of these negative numbers along with zero and positive concentrations over a suitable sample population can yield important information about concentrations that are less than routine minimum levels of detection. Actual instrumental values (negative, zero and positive) with associated statistical counting errors have been reported by the Environmental Monitoring Group at the Savannah River Plant since 1977. Methods for evaluating these data are discussed and empirical data presented to illustrate important points

  1. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  2. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A.

    2003-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk

    2002-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of 137 Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants

  4. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  5. An assessment methodology of environmental risks associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.M.; Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    One major environmental concern associated with the projected increase in nuclear power generation is the treatment and storage or disposal of radioactive wastes. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, has been developing a detailed assessment methodology of short- and long-term quantitative risks to the environment resulting from release of radionuclides during all phases of radioactive waste management operations. The paper describes a comprehensive model developed during 1976 for the public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of high-level and transuranic waste in geological formations. Parametric studies have been performed with this model for various geological disposal media and for waste in different forms. EPA has planned to utilize these parametric risk calculations to translate probabilities and consequences of risk occurrences into a cost-effectiveness perspective for decision-making purposes. This comprehensive model consisted of a release or fault-tree model, an environmental model and an economic model. Fault trees have been constructed to provide the relationships between various geophysical, meteorological and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material to the environment from waste repositories. The environmental model includes transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, including a determination of pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to man. Finally, the economic results are used to compare and assess the various disposal concepts as a basis for formulating policy decisions. Implementation of this assessment methodology is possible for a whole range of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous materials which require perpetual care. Further, the output will be used by EPA in the short term to develop general environmental standards applicable to any radioactive waste management

  6. An assessment methodology of environmental risks associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.M.; Logan, S.E.; Brebano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    One of the major environmental concerns associated with the projected increase in nuclear power generation is the treatment and storage or disposal of radioactive wastes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with the University of New Mexico has been developing a detailed assessment methodology of both the short-term as well as long-term quantitative risks on the environment resulting from the release of radionuclides during all phases of radioactive waste management operations. This past year a comprehensive model has been developed for the public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of high-level and transuranic waste in geological formations. Parametric studies have been performed with this model for various geological disposal media and for waste in different forms. EPA has planned to utilize these parametric risk calculations to translate probabilities and consequences of risk occurrences into a cost-effectiveness perspective for decision-making purposes. This comprehensive model has consisted of a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. Fault trees have been constructed to provide the relationships between various geophysical, meteorological, and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material to the environment from waste repositories. The environmental model includes the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, including a determination of pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to man. Finally, the economic results are used to compare and assess the various disposal concepts as a basis for formulating policy decisions. Implementation of this assessment methodology is possible for a whole range of both radioactive as well as non-radioactive hazardous materials which require perpetual care. Further, the output will be used by EPA in the short-term to develop general environmental standards

  7. Environmental radioactivity levels, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, conducted in 1983. Dose estimates were calculated from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of air, milk, water, and fish. It was concluded there were no significant increases in the exposure to members of the general public attributable to the operation of SQN. 11 figures, 34 tables

  8. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  9. Use of Statistics for Data Evaluation in Environmental Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman

    2001-01-01

    Counting statistics will give a correction on environmental radioactivity measurement result. Statistics provides formulas to determine standard deviation (S B ) and minimum detectable concentration (MDC) according to the Poisson distribution. Both formulas depend on the background count rate, counting time, counting efficiency, gamma intensity, and sample size. A long time background counting results in relatively low S B and MDC that can present relatively accurate measurement results. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity of the Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    General characteristics of the contaminated areas at the territory of Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is presented. Greatest areas of 137 Cs contamination (1-5 Ci/km 2 ) were revealed in Russia as compared with Belarus Ukraine and Moldova Russian territory was studied less than that of other republics affected due to the Chernobyl accident. Ratio of regions of Russia by 137 Cs contamination degree was considered. 3 tabs

  11. Data acquisition system and analysis programme for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, S.; Kannan, V.; Hegde, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In every Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) many nuclear radiation detecting instruments such as low level Gas Flow Beta Counting Systems, Gross Alpha Counting Systems, Gamma Counting Systems (Single Channel Analyser) are in use to detect the environmental radiation level. These instruments give output in terms of number (total pulse event counts), which is further manually converted into activity concentration per unit weight of the environmental samples. There is considerable difficulty and delay in obtaining the data, since calculations are done manually and also it is very difficult to maintain database of these results for future reference. In order to overcome all this difficulties a Data Acquisition System and Analysing Software Programme has been designed and developed. This paper describes the design and development of the Data Acquisition System using PCL-830 Counter Timer add on card, for networking the environmental radioactivity monitoring equipment's, which is under routine operation at ESL Kalpakkam

  12. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 4.Application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to the Study of Environmental Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    Applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples were summarized. In order to predict the long-term behavior of the radionuclides, related stable elements were also determined. Compared with radioactivity measurements, the ICP-MS method has advantages in terms of its simple analytical procedures, prompt measurement time, and capability of determining the isotope ratio such as240Pu/239Pu, which can not be separated by radiation. Concentration of U and Th in Japanese surface soils were determined in order to determine the background level of the natural radionuclides. The 235U/238U ratio was successfully used to detect the release of enriched U from reconversion facilities to the environment and to understand the source term. The 240Pu/239Pu ratios in environmental samples varied widely depending on the Pu sources. Applications of ICP-MS to the measurement of I and Tc isotopes were also described. The ratio between radiocesium and stable Cs is useful for judging the equilibrium of deposited radiocesium in a forest ecosystem.

  13. Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM). Operational safety, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. Release: December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report overviews the monitoring activities of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection at the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM), focussing the ERAM inventory of radioactive waste and the measures and results of geomechanical and hydrogeological monitoring, operational radiation protection, the monitoring of discharges of radioactive substances, environmental monitoring, and the dose levels expected from discharges of radioactive substances. (orig.)

  14. Studying and developing main nuclear analytical techniques for assessment of the present situation of marine environmental radioactivity in some typical regions of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Mai Thi Huong; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Mong Sinh, Truong Y; Le Ngoc Chung

    2003-01-01

    Typical output of the study is presented, including: 1/ establishing standard procedures for the determination of 238 U and 230 Th radionuclide concentration in marine environmental samples; 2/ acquiring baseline data for the main radionuclide concentration in marine environmental materials (water, sediment and biota) collected from suitable key coastal locations of Vietnam. (NTN)

  15. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2002 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 19 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2003 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137} Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 22 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 10 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2000 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussed) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngsoe area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA value, except {sup 40}K nuclide. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclide in tap water are less(or is slightly higher in one sample) than the MDA value.

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  19. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu

    2001-12-01

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of 7 Be and 137 Cs on airborne dust, and 7 Be, 40 K and 137 Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The 7 Be, 40 K, 137 Cs and 226 Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of 7 Be, 40 K, and 137 Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except 40 K nuclide. All the concentrations of 137 Cs and 226 Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values

  1. A study on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances and its countermeasure techniques. Part 3. Development on decontamination techniques with high pressure cleaning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yasunori; Nozaki, Atsuo; Kakuma, Takayuki; Shinohara, Naohide; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A huge area of Fukushima was contaminated by the radiation released from the nuclear disaster. As a result, decontamination has become an urgent task in densely populated area and developments of an effective decontamination method are desired. So, we carried out the plan of the decontamination methods with a high pressure cleaner in present study. Surface with covered with concrete materials at horizontal plane was washed with high pressure cleaner, consequently, radioactivity was approximately 80% decreased. Further, the wash act with brushing are raised efficiency by 10%. So, the case of washing with surfactant shows no increase efficiency. (author)

  2. Use of environmental radioactive isotopes in geothermal prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez M, A.; Huerta, M.; Flores R, J. H.; Pena, P.

    2010-10-01

    Oil resources decrease and environmental impact of burning fossil fuels support the use of alternative energies around the world. By far nuclear energy is the alternative which can supply huge amount of clean energy. Mexico has two nuclear units and has also explored and exploited the use of other complementary renewal energies, as wind and geothermal. Mexico is the third geothermal-energy producer in the world with an installed capacity of 960 MW and is planning the installation of 146 MW for the period 2010-2011, according to information of the Mexican Federal Electricity Board. This paper presents a study case, whose goal is to look for areas where the heat source can be located in geothermal energy fields under prospecting. The method consist in detecting a natural radioactive tracer, which is transported to the earth surface by geo-gases, generated close to the heat source, revealing areas of high permeability properties and open active fractures. Those areas are cross correlated to other resistivity, gravimetric and magnetic geophysical parameters in the geothermal filed to better define the heat source in the field. (Author)

  3. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, E.; Ball, R.; Simpson, C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 2001. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 2001 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  4. Environmental monitoring and deep ocean disposal of packaged radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Preston, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aims and objectives of environmental monitoring as laid down, for example by the ICRP and the IAEA include the assessment of actual or potential radiation exposure of man and the requirements of scientific investigations. The fulfillment of these aims is discussed in the context of the disposal of packaged radioactive waste in the deep Atlantic Ocean within the terms of the London Dumping Convention and within a regional agreement, the consultation/surveillance mechanism of the Nuclear Energy Agency. The paper discusses UK attitudes to such environmental monitoring, concentrates on the first of these ICRP objectives and shows how this is unlikely to be achieved by direct measurement in view of the small quantities of radioactive material involved relative to the scale of the receiving environment, and the timescale on which return to man can be conceived. Whilst meaningful environmental measurement is very unlikely to facilitate direct estimation of public radiation exposure by monitoring, it is still held that the basic objective of environmental monitoring can be met. A means by which this may be achieved is by oceanographic models. These procedures are discussed, illustrating the application of this philosophy in practice. (H.K.)

  5. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jester, W.A.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the current rationale behind the environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials are as follows: Committee 4 of the International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined three broad objectives for environmental monitoring: 1) assessment of the actual or potential exposure of humans to radioactive materials or radiation present in their environment or the estimation of the probable upper limits of such exposure; 2) scientific investigation, sometimes related to the assessment of exposures, sometimes to other objectives; 3) improved public relations. Various regulations have been written requiring environmental monitoring to ensure that the public is not being exposed to excessive amounts of radiation from natural sources or from human activities. An example of the monitoring of natural sources of radiation is a requirement of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations whereby U.S. water supply companies must have drinking water monitored at least once every four years for radionuclides, primarily the naturally occurring radium-226

  6. Evaluation of environmental impact of radioactive waste from reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Pages, P.

    1989-10-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental impact of radioactive wastes from reactors operation. We estimate a case of a plant of 20 GWe power operating for 30 years which is equivalent to 600 tons of uranium per year. According to the properties, the waste is stored on surface (Aube site). Starting from the year of storage, we have defined the maximum dose equivalent for an individual from the reference group. The calculation depends on water of outlet water in which some initially stored radionuclides have migrated. Under the most pessimistic estimation, maximum annual dose was of the order of magnitude 0.5 μ Sv (0.05 mrem) for the storage 400 years after opening the site, and after 4000 years. Compared to the values obtained for the radioactive waste storage, the value of this impact is five times higher than the respective surface storage, but two time less than values for underground storage [fr

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, January-June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. In this report the results for the first half of 1978 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. Radioactivity measurements are now given in in the SI unit, the becquerel (Bq). One becquerel is equivalent to about 27 picocuries. The graphical format used in previous reports has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (auth)

  8. Dynamics of radioactive lead isotopes in the global environmental atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental information of radioactive lead isotopes, which used as the atmospheric tracer in the global environmental atmosphere, is reviewed. Emanation and exhalation of Rn and Tn, parent nuclide, is stated. Some reports on measurement and application of short-lived lead isotopes are reported. Transfer of radioactive lead isotopes in the atmosphere, vertical profiles of radon, thoron, and short-lived lead isotopes for different turbulent mixing conditions, deposition to aerosol, basic processes of Rn decay product behavior in air defining 'unattached' and 'aerosol-attached' activities, seasonal variation of atmospheric 210 Pb concentration at Beijing and Chengdu, seasonal variation of atmospheric 212 Pb concentration at several observation sites in Japan Islands, and variation in the atmospheric concentration of 212 Pb along with SO 2 are shown. (S.Y.)

  9. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  10. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Mishra, U.C.

    1999-09-01

    It was recognised quite early in India's nuclear power programme that the safe management of radioactive waste is vital for its success. An entirely self-sustained fuel cycle based on indigenous resources necessitated evaluation of hazard potential vis-a-vis radioactive wastes generated at different stages of the cycle, starting from mining and milling; fuel fabrication and through the stages of reactor operation and finally spent fuel reprocessing. Emphasis was laid on studies related to impact of radioactivity in the environment and on developing technologies to effectively isolate and contain them. The radiological safety assessment for a radioactive waste management practice is a regulatory mandate and it requires quantitative estimate of the maximum burden to the present and future generation. Safety assessment models are employed to derive this estimate that could be compared with regulatory criteria to ensure the safety of the public. Decades of experience have proved that the present practices are safe, yet there is a constant endeavour to use new technologies to further restrict the releases so that ultimate goal of radioactive waste management should go beyond merely satisfying prevailing regulations. The comprehensive system of waste management, from water generation to its disposal developed in India, is briefly presented in this report. (author)

  11. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use...

  12. Strategic environmental assessment of the national programme for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhoff, Mathias; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Claus, Manuel [Oeko-Institut e.V. Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-03-27

    The report on the strategic environmental audit for the national waste disposal program covers the following issues: aim of the study, active factors, environmental objectives; description and evaluation of environmental impact including site selection criteria for final repositories of heat generating radioactive waste, intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and waste from reprocessing plants, disposal of wastes retrieved from Asse II; hypothetical zero variants.

  13. Strategic environmental assessment of the national programme for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhoff, Mathias; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Claus, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The report on the strategic environmental audit for the national waste disposal program covers the following issues: aim of the study, active factors, environmental objectives; description and evaluation of environmental impact including site selection criteria for final repositories of heat generating radioactive waste, intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and waste from reprocessing plants, disposal of wastes retrieved from Asse II; hypothetical zero variants.

  14. Leukemia in the proximity of a German boiling water nuclear reactor: Evidence of population exposure by chromosome studies and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannheim, B.; Heimers, A.; Oberheitmann, B.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.; Schroeder, H.; Ziggel, H.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of an exceptional elevation of leukemia in children appearing 5 years after the start-up of the nuclear power plant Kruemmel in 1983, accompanied by a significant increase of leukemia cases in adults gave rise for investigations of radiation exposures of the population living near to the plant. The rate of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 7 parents of leukemia children and 14 other inhabitants in the proximity of the plant was significantly elevated and showed ongoing exposures over the years of operation. This finding gives rise to the hypothesis that chronic leakages by the reactor had occurred. This assumption is supported by the identification of artificial radioactivity in air, rain water, soil, and vegetation registered by the regular environmental monitoring programme of the nuclear power plant. Calculations of the corresponding source terms show that the originating emissions must have been well above authorized annual limits. The bone marrow dose is supposed to be originated mainly by incorporating of bone-seeking β- and α-emitters. (author)

  15. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities In its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and me variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU during 2001, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality during 2001 and were similar to the results obtained in the past 5 years. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities In its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and me variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross β - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU during 2001, and also the levels of the γ - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the γ - and gross β - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality during 2001 and were similar to the results obtained in the past 5 years. The γ - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values

  17. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brits, R.J.N.; Van der Westhuizen, G.S.H.; Annandale, J.

    1983-06-01

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1982. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartebeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131 I, 90 Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Due to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity due to releases from the Pelindaba site could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. Unplanned releases of UF 6 occur sometimes. Accordingly, some of the environmental samples were also analysed for uranium. The results obtained so far do not indicate an increase in uranium levels in the environment

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities in its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and the variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU in 2000, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality in 2000 and were similar to the results obtained in the past years. Also levels of the {gamma} - activities of Cs-137 in those samples were below the MDA values. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few food samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  19. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities in its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and the variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU during 2003, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Gwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality during 2003 and were similar to the results obtained in the past 5 years. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  1. Environmental radioactivity at the heat power complex enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, D.A.; Putintseva, V.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity at the heat power complex enterprises (coal mines, oil and gas deposits, coal thermal power plants and heat-electric generation plant) is considered. IT is shown that elevated level of radiation effect on the personnel lungs (2-3 times higher than that of safety standard) is observed at 80 coal mines. High levels of gamma radiation from natural radionuclides (300 μR/h and above) are marked at the separate objects of oil and gas mining industry. It is revealed that the contamination of ash wastes resulted from certain coals combustion reaches 520 Bq/kg at separate thermal power plants

  2. Environmental impact statement on management of commercially generated radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic environmental impact statement on the management of generated high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. The contents of the statement are summarized. The alternatives considered include: geologic disposal; chemical resynthesis; very deep hole disposal; rock melting concept; island disposal; subseabed disposal; icesheet disposal; reverse well disposal; transmutation treatment; and space disposal concepts. The types and quantities of wastes considered are from 3 different fuel cycles for the LWR reactor: once through; uranium-only recycle; and uranium and platinum recycle

  3. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The newest issue in the line of this bibliography contains 249 quotations which are based on the original documents, primarily of the last two years. The bibliography is divided into the following chapters: general aspects (38 quotations), environmental radioactivity (70 quotations), radio ecology (114 quotations) and radio nuclide in food (27 quotations). The main emphasis is as the number of quotations shows, on the area of radio ecology and that contains: eco-systems in country and nourishment connections, eco-systems in water and nourishment connections and bibliographical effects. (MG) [de

  4. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of high-resolution liquid chromatography for separating organophosphorus compounds from natural waters and effluents from coal processing plants was investigated. The procedures were optimized for the separation of phenol-type compounds from aqueous effluents from coal liquefaction processes. Preliminary results are reported from applications for the analysis of marine waters from estuaries and municipal drinking water. An automated analytical system, using a bifurcated, fiber-optic fluorometer, was developed for the isolation and identification of trace polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for the continuous monitoring of coal liquefaction and coal gasification liquid effluents. The practice of chlorinating cooling waters was evaluated with respect to the formation of toxic chlorinated organic compounds of environmental importance

  5. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around Jeongeup ARTI in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Kwon, Ho Je; Kang, Tai Jin

    2008-03-01

    Because Jeongeup ARTI was designed so that there was not a leakage possibility based on the use of radioactive material and has been operated after acquired an usage permission according to the relevant laws associated with making the use of radiation. It is judged that there may not be the radioactive influence on the surroundings of Jeongeup ARTI. However, an investigation on radioactivity distribution before radiation-use-facilities are installed was not performed, and there is also a possibility that those can be installed additionally. Therefore, it is judged that a preliminary investigation is required to prevents local dwellers from feeling anxious about radiation-use-facilities. The objective of this investigation is to guarantee the health and safety of local residences by detecting a possible radiological effect a prior due to an operation of Jeongeup ARTI, providing the basic data that can estimate environmental effect by radiation, and also to establish a stable research mood by acquiring confidence on analysis results from local dwellers through an scientific and a continuous inspection

  6. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland has been performing systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and in food for forty years. This report contains the results of measurements made in the course of 1995 and the consequential radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, soil, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other operations using radionuclides, as well as miscellaneous radiation sources. All the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1995, and environmental measurements revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv, with some 40% of this due to radon in the home (but with extreme values as high as 100 mSv), another 30% coming from natural radiation, a quarter from medical applications and less than 5% from artificial radiation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around Jeongeup ARTI in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Kwon, Ho Je; Kang, Tai Jin (and others)

    2008-03-15

    Because Jeongeup ARTI was designed so that there was not a leakage possibility based on the use of radioactive material and has been operated after acquired an usage permission according to the relevant laws associated with making the use of radiation. It is judged that there may not be the radioactive influence on the surroundings of Jeongeup ARTI. However, an investigation on radioactivity distribution before radiation-use-facilities are installed was not performed, and there is also a possibility that those can be installed additionally. Therefore, it is judged that a preliminary investigation is required to prevents local dwellers from feeling anxious about radiation-use-facilities. The objective of this investigation is to guarantee the health and safety of local residences by detecting a possible radiological effect a prior due to an operation of Jeongeup ARTI, providing the basic data that can estimate environmental effect by radiation, and also to establish a stable research mood by acquiring confidence on analysis results from local dwellers through an scientific and a continuous inspection.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H. S.; Lee, J. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    At Pusan Regional Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan, vegetables, fishes, shellfish, drinking water (total 23ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KlNS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  9. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  10. Environmental monitoring and deep ocean disposal of packaged radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Preston, A.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of the dumping of packaged radioactive waste in the deep ocean is discussed in detail. The principles and objectives laid down by the IAEA and the ICRP are reviewed. Monitoring and its relationships to radiation exposure, research, control measures and public information are described. Finally, the actual practice in the UK of environmental monitoring is detailed for the measurable case of liquid wastes in coastal waters and also for package waste in deep oceans which has to be calculated. It is concluded that better mathematical models are needed to predict the dose to man and that more research into oceanographic and biological transfer processes should be carried out. (UK)

  11. Data Processing and Programming Applied to an Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Palacios, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is the original research work presented for the attainment of the author master degree and its main objective has been the resolution -by means of friendly programming- of some of the observed problems in the environmental radioactivity laboratory belonging to the Department of Radiological Surveillance and Environmental Radioactivity from CIEMAT. The software has been developed in Visual Basic for applications in Excel files and it solves by macro orders three of the detected problems: a) calculation of characteristic limits for the measurements of the beta total and beta rest activity concentrations according to standards MARLAP, ISO and UNE and the comparison of the three results b) Pb-210 and Po-210 decontamination factor determination in the ultra-low level Am-241 analysis in air samples by alpha spectrometry and c) comparison of two analytical techniques for measuring Pb-210 in air ( direct-by gamma spectrometry- and indirect -by radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry). The organization processes of the different excel files implied in the subroutines, calculations and required formulae are explained graphically for its comprehension. The advantage of using this kind of programmes is based on their versatility and the ease for obtaining data that lately are required by tables that can be modified as time goes by and the laboratory gets more data with the special applications for describing a method (Pb-210 decontamination factors for americium analysis in air) or comparing temporal series of Pb-210 data analysed by different methods (Pb-210 in air). (Author)

  12. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brits, R.J.N; Prinsloo, L.; De Jesus, A.S.M.

    1981-07-01

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1980. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131 I, 0 Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborn activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Due to the absence of fresh fallout, the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels [af

  13. Artificial radioactivity in the environmental samples as IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactivity levels of 110m Ag, 241 Am, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 125 Sb in some biological and environmental materials have been determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the frame of 15 intercomparison runs organized by IAEA during 1986-1995. The investigated materials were polluted by various nuclear activities, as follows: 1. Nuclear experiments: IAEA-367, sediment collected in 1982 at the Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean). This atoll was used by the USA during 1948-1958 to test nuclear devices; IAEA-368, sediment collected in June 1989 from the Pacific Ocean at the Mururoa Atoll. Since 1966 this atoll has been used by France to test different nuclear devices. 2. Nuclear installations: IAEA-134, cockle flesh of Cardium edule collected in March 1991 from the Irish Sea (Morecambe Bay), England, about 45 km S-E of Sellafield radioactive discharge; IAEA-135, sediment collected in July 1991 in Lune Estuary-England. This area is influenced by the radioactive discharges of the nuclear installations of Sellafield; IAEA-326, soil collected in 1990 in the region of Kursk Atomic Power Plant (Russia). 3. Nuclear accidents (Chernobyl): IAEA-306, sediment collected in the Baltic Sea during October-November 1986; IAEA-307, seaplant Posidonia oceanica, collected in October 1986 in Mediterranean Sea along the shore, in the vicinity of the Principality of Monaco; IAEA-308, mixed seaweeds collected in October 1986 in Mediterranean Sea along the shore, in the vicinity of the Principality of Monaco; IAEA-156, clover collected during the summer harvest 1986 in Austria; IAEA-321, milk powder collected in autumn 1987 from a processing plant in Europe; IAEA-352, tuna fish flesh collected in April 1988 in the Western Mediterranean Sea; IAEA-373, grass collected from Kiev region during the summer harvest 1990; IAEA-375, soil collected in July 1990 from Brjansk region, Russia; IAEA-300, sediment collected in July 1992 in Bothnian Sea (Baltic Sea). 4

  14. Antiprotonic Radioactive Atom for Nuclear Structure Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A future experiment to synthesize antiprotonic radioactive nuclear ions is proposed for nuclear structure studies. Antiprotonic radioactive nuclear atom can be synthesized in a nested Penning trap where a cloud of antiprotons is prestored and slow radioactive nuclear ions are bunch-injected into the trap. By observing of the ratio of π+ and π- produced in the annihilation process, we can deduce the different abundance of protons and neutrons at the surface of the nuclei. The proposed method would provide a unique probe for investigating the nuclear structure of unstable nuclei

  15. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies assessing the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.

    1998-01-01

    A growing number of sources of radioactivity from human activities are found in the marine environment. They are known to include global nuclear fallout following atmospheric weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations, past dumping of radioactive wastes, nuclear submarine accidents, contributions from nuclear testing sites, loss of radioactive sources, and the burn-up of satellites using radioisotopes as power sources. Overall, the world's marine environment contains radionuclides that differ from one region to another. Differences are due to dynamic marine environmental processes and the particular source of radionuclides in a region. Scientific assessments of marine radioactivity, therefore, require knowledge of both the source terms and oceanic processes. Radioactivity now is deposited unevenly over the world's oceans. Global fallout is known to be mainly due to nuclear weapon tests carried out in the 1960s. On the other hand, discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or past dumping of liquid and solid radioactive wastes generally are confined to more localized areas. Even so, soluble radionuclides have been transported over long distances by prevailing ocean currents. To estimate radionuclide inputs from local sources, scientists need to better understand the distribution of radionuclides throughout the world's oceans and seas. The understanding is important for analysing the results from scientific investigations of localized areas, such as part dumping sites, which then can be reviewed more thoroughly. As a contribution to fuller understanding of the marine environment, the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) started a five-year project in 1996 entitled ''Research on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity (MARS)''. The work is supported by Japan's Science and Technology Agency (STA). This article briefly review this project, and describes related research activities and scientific investigations of MEL

  16. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document, which describes the content of an environmental assessment report, will assist national authorities to meet their obligations under the London Dumping Convention (LDC, 1972) by initiating those steps which are to be undertaken to ensure that ''the procedure to be followed and the nature of such reports shall be agreed by the parties in consultation'' (Article VI. 4). In the context of sea disposal of radioactive wastes, environmental assessments are taken to mean those evaluations which are undertaken to assist in the decision-making processes used by national authorities to determine: 1) How the option of sea disposal compares environmentally, technically, socially and economically with other disposal options (this constitutes the comparison with land-based alternatives); and 2) Whether the impact of a proposed sea disposal option is acceptable (this requires a detailed evaluation of the proposed operation including site selection, quantities and types of waste to be dumped, operational requirements and calculation of radiological and other risks). The term ''environmental assessment'' in these respects is deemed to include both the evaluation of the impact of sea dumping and the document that describes this evaluation

  17. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Ahmet; Yorulmaz, Nuri; Kam, Erol; Karahan, Gursel; Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the level of background radiation for Sanliurfa province of southeastern Turkey. Measurements of outdoor gamma radiation (of terrestrial and cosmic origin) in air were performed at 112 locations using a plastic scintillator and the average absorbed dose was found as 60.9 nGy/h (corresponding to an effective dose of 74.7μSv/y). The radionuclide activity concentrations in 45 soil samples collected from the study area were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 20.8, 24.95 and 298.6 for the natural radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, and 9.08 Bq/kg for the fission product 137 Cs. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an effective dose of 46.9μSv/y. The radioactivity levels of 53 drinking water samples were measured as 0.038 Bq/l for gross-alpha activity and 0.1324 Bq/l for gross-beta activity using gross-alpha and gross-beta counting methods (equivalent to an effective dose of 7.76μSv/y). When compared with the data available for other Turkish cities, the outdoor gamma doses and soil radioactivity concentrations obtained in this study indicate a background radiation level that falls within natural limits. On the other hand, the measured gross-alpha and -beta activities in drinking water are relatively higher

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Slovakia/Czechoslovakia in 1961 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.; Carach, J.; Petrasova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of environmental monitoring of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Slovakia between 1961 to 1975. Samples of radioactive fallout, milk and water were taken monthly, samples of forage, cereals and vegetables were taken in the ripening stage, and samples of foodstuffs were taken in shops. The following amounts of samples were used for the analyses: 100 g of soil, 100 g of dry forage, 100 g of dry cereals, 3 kg of fresh fruit and vegetables, 2 l of water, 1 l of milk, 2 kg of fresh meat, and flour and flour products amounting to 2 kg. The samples were dried, burned and mineralized for 24 hours with HCl. After removal of interfering elements, ie., Fe, 140 Ba, 140 La, rare earths, phosphates and 90 Y, the 90 Sr activity was determined by the yttrium method. The yttrium chemical yield was 90%. 137 Cs beta activity was determined after precipitation from a solution in the form of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and after removal of oxalates, alkali elements and rare earth elements. Chemical yield was 60 to 70%. An anticoincidence low-level beta counter by Philips was used in activity measurement. The detection efficiency was 22% for 90 Sr- 90 Y and 17% for 137 Cs. The relative mean square error of the measurement was lower than 15% for 90 Y and 10% for 137 Cs. The measurement results are classified in five parts, viz., radioactivity in fallout, in soils, in water, in plants, and in food. (J.P.)

  19. On the data processing related to environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Isamu

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring and measurement of environmental radioactivity have been undertaken by many organizations in Japan. The Japan Chemical Analysis Center has been entrusted by the government to gather and edit these measured results. The computer processing of these data started in 1978, and it is expected that by the end of fiscal year 1984, all fallout data since 1957 and all radioactivity monitoring data since 1969 can be registered. The computer programs for processing the data such as the output of tables and figures have also been developed, and the edition of reports has been made. The replacement of the computer and the development of a new processing system capable of handing Kanji (Japanese-Chinese characters) are now scheduled. This document outlines the data system such as the quality, quantity and origin of the measured data and the frequency of report publication. Some results of the analysis of fallout nuclides, space gamma dose rate and the total β-activity in rain are presented. The effects of the nuclear explosion tests in China are very obvious in these figures. A chronological table of the explosion tests in China is also presented. The different effects of time lag at the different places of measurement are also seen. The effects of the presence of nuclear power plants were also investigated at some sites of the plants, but no discernible effect was observed. (Aoki, K.)

  20. History and environmental setting of LASL near-surface land disposal facilities for radioactive wastes (Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T). A source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.A.

    1977-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. The LASL Materials Disposal Areas examined in this report, Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T, are solid radioactive disposal areas with the exception of Area T which is a part of the liquid radioactive waste disposal operation. Areas A, G, and T are currently active. Environmental studies of and monitoring for radioactive contamination have been done at LASL since 1944

  1. History and environmental setting of LASL near-surface land disposal facilities for radioactive wastes (Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T). A source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.A.

    1977-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. The LASL Materials Disposal Areas examined in this report, Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T, are solid radioactive disposal areas with the exception of Area T which is a part of the liquid radioactive waste disposal operation. Areas A, G, and T are currently active. Environmental studies of and monitoring for radioactive contamination have been done at LASL since 1944.

  2. Environmental behavior and impact assessment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Ryu, B.S.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, G.J.; Shim, A.R.; Park, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    It was studied to investigate the bioconcentration processes of strontium-90 in aquatic and terrestrial plants. The concentration and retention of strontium-90 from seawater by the seaweed Undaria pinnatifida varied depending on the plant part, exposure time, radionuclide concentration, salinity, contents of stable calcium and strontium, and presence of chelating agent in the seawater. The concentration factors attained at equilibrium were in the range of 50, and it was evident that the bioconcentration was largely due to the adsorption of the radionuclide on the surface of seaweed. In the foliar application of strontium-90 to a terrestrial plant soybean, Glycine max, only a portion of the radioactivity was translocated to other parts, and most of it remained in the applied leaves, causing soil contamination by falling. In the soil application of strontium-90 during the growth period of the plant, the radioactivity was absorbed through the root and translocated to other parts by different patterns according to the growth stage. (Author)

  3. Recent advances in nuclear techniques for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity monitoring was first started in the late 1950s following the global fallout from testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Nuclear analytical techniques are generally classified into two categories: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive techniques are carried out through several analytical methods such as α-spectrometry, liquid Scintillation counting system, solid state nuclear track detector, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), chromatography techniques, electro-analytical techniques etc. However, nondestructive methods include gamma spectrometry, X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, neutron activation analysis (NAA) etc. The development of radiochemical methods and measurement techniques using alpha and gamma spectrometry have been described in brief

  4. Marine environmental radioactivity survey of Holy Loch 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Cowling, G.; Manson, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents results of a marine environmental radioactivity monitoring survey of intertidal and underwater areas around the former United States Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out jointly by DRPS and U.S. Navy staff in March 1992 following the departure of U.S. Navy submarine support facilities. Results are reported for in-situ measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of over 460 samples covering over 150 separate locations. Included is a report by the U.S. Navy summarising their results for the survey. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples from the intertidal zone and in all underwater sediment samples, but concentrations were low. The calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the public due to cobalt-60 is 1 μSv. (Author)

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    A network of soil sampling sites on permanent grassland was selected and sampled in 1979, covering an area of about 2200 km 2 in Caithness and Sutherland, in northern Scotland. In autumn 1978, agricultural crops and arable soils were sampled at two farms, near to and distant from the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. In autumn 1978 and in the summer of 1979, peat profiles were sampled to a depth of 2 m at eight sites. Finally, litter from coniferous woodland was sampled at seven locations. The objective of the study was to provide information on the integrated local deposition of 137 Cs, 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr to soil and peat, and the concentrations of these radionuclides in crop plants. Thus it was necessary to determine the distribution of possible emissions from the nuclear establishment at Dounreay in the presence of radioactivity deposited from nuclear weapons fallout, that is superimposed on the natural background of radioactivity in soil. Results from soil and peat samples collected in Caithness and Sutherland are compared with the average integrated deposition in British soils from nuclear fallout. The observed deposition of radioactivity has little radioligical significance, based on assessment of risk by inhalation of soil dust that contains plutonium, and by concentrations of 137 Cs and plutonium in crops. (author)

  6. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a highway construction project in Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the field environmental investigation and monitoring result, the radioactive environmental impact for a highway construction project in Guangdong province has been analyzed and assessed and forecacted. (authors)

  7. The dispersion of alpha and beta radioactivity to the environmental from spent fuel testing in RMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuwono, I.; Pudjadi, E.

    1996-01-01

    The destructive testing of 2 spent fuels in RMI and radioactivity air release monitoring to the environmental have been done. The monitoring equipment used alpha-beta particulate monitor, Berthold LB 150 D type. The calculations using the Gaussian plume model and distributions factor showed there were no radiological effect of alpha and beta radioactivity dispersion and contribution to the environmental. The maximum average construction of alpha and beta radioactivity are 0.002% and 0.05%. (author)

  8. Bases for an environmental liability management system: application to a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tostes, Marcelo Mallat

    1999-03-01

    This thesis aims the establishment of conceptual bases for the development of Environmental Liability Management System - instruments designed to provide financial and managerial coverage to financial liabilities arising from activities that impact the environment. The document analyses the theories that link the evolution of economic thought and environment, as a means of establish the necessary framework for the development of up-to-date environmental policy instruments. From these concepts and from the analysis of environmental liability system being implemented in several countries, the bases for environmental liability systems development are drawn. Finally, a study is carried out on the application of these bases for the development of an environmental liability management system for a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  9. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  10. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    parameters, concerning mainly to residue matrix and to surrounding environment. The objective of this review is to summarize the regulations dealing with solid residues that presents radioactivity, with emphasis on the parameters for the environmental impact assessment and chemical availability studies. (author)

  11. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, D.; Loose, A.; Urbanc, J.

    1998-01-01

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  12. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  14. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; McKirdy, B.; Askarieh, M.; Bond, A.; Russell, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  15. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental and radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencova, M.; Peter Tkac, P.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium is known for its high mobility in a soil-water system in non-reducing aerobic condition and also high bio-availability for plants, because the most stable form of technetium in natural surface environment is pertechnetate which is highly soluble. The chemical form of technetium changes with environmental conditions. Concentration of technetium in the environment is very low, therefore many separation steps are needed for technetium determination. It has been developed a method for the routine determination of technetium-99 from environmental matrices and radioactive wastes using technetium-99m as an internal yield monitor. Technetium-99 is extracted from the soil samples with nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and technetium in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of technetium was achieved by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from sulphuric acid or pure water. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of technetium-99m by scintillation counting system and the technetium-99 activity is measured using proportional counter after decay of the technetium-99m activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 50-60 % (authors)

  16. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous sources of different radioactive substances, irradiating installations are used in many manufacturing, transportation, industrial, oil-producing, nuclear energy, sterilization and multi-purpose scientific research enterprises of Azerbaijan and the storage of radioactive waste and nuclear materials is built in the territory of special plant of the Ministry of Emergency Situations.Control of safety of operational procedures of the radioactive sources and samples of nuclear materials is carried out by the State Agency on Settlement of Nuclear and Radiological Activity at the Ministry of Emergency Situations. An increase in the concentration of inorganic and organic xenobiotics was observed in water samples taken from the transcontinental Araz River.The territory of Azerbaijan and Armenia is characterized by high seismic activity. Therefore, the occurrence of cases of anthropogenic catastrophe, the spread of radioactive substances, nuclear materials and waste on the territory of environmental objects, disturbance of tightness of installations on electricity generation from nuclear fuel in the Metsamor NPP, emission of radioactive fuel on the environment, pollution of grounds and water reservoirs by radioactive isotopes isn't excluded in case of natural disasters.Complex studies were conducted to determine the radioactive background, exposure dose rate, the radiation intensity of all types of radioactive radiation (α, β, γ, UV and X-rays) for purification of contaminated areas of the environment, soil, water reservoirs from radioisotopes. Complex organoleptic, radiochemical, analytical-chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological studies were carried out to study the chemical composition and degree of contamination of soil, water sources, vegetation by inorganic and organic xenobiotics and radioisotopes in all regions of the republic.Mineralization of water samples /evaporation/, soil /extraction with distilled water in a ratio of 1: 4, filtration

  17. Report on site-independent environmental impacts of radioactive waste storage and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The organisation responsible for radioactive wastes in the Netherlands is COVRA: Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval. It deals especially with storage and management of these wastes. For that purpose, COVRA will build a waste managing and storage facility at a central site in the Netherlands. In this report, environmental impacts of these activities are studied, that are independent of the location. The report is readable and useful for a broad audience. In the main report, the general features are outlined starting from figures and tables on environmental effects. In a separate volume, detailed numerical data are presented. (G.J.P.)

  18. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  19. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-01-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950 000 m 3 ). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  20. Study on radioactivity in consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Consumer goods containing radionuclides are increasingly utilized, sometimes for having chemical or technological properties which nonradioactive materials cannot fulfill (e.g. uranium paints) or it may be that radioactivity is especially required (e.g. fluorescent paints, fire-alarm-boxes, electronic instruments). The present study makes a compilation of consumer goods containing radioactive substances which are available to the general public in the nine countries of the Community, carries out a medium and long term study to assess how accumulated radiation from these goods could affect the population as a whole, and proposes measures to minimize the effects of such accumulation

  1. Environmental impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, N.C.; Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive material transport in urban areas is investigated and the specific urban features which influence environmental impacts are addressed. These features include the geographic and demographic make-up, and vehicular population and transportation patterns in the area. Previous efforts have not identified a most important population exposure pathway or group. This assessment examines several pathways and a number of urban specific population groups to evaluate their relative significance. In addition, because different causative events contribute to the overall environmental impacts, this assessment addresses four of these: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors, and sabotage or malevolent acts. Not only does radioactive material transport produce radiological and economic consequences but also it can have social impacts. The objective of this study is to examine both the quantitative environmental impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas and the more subjective social effects of this process. The social impacts assessment was performed by Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, Washington and their conclusions are only summarized here

  2. Environmental radioactivity on Suape (PE) estuary: impact of the installation of an oil refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Paula Frassinetti Pereira; Antonio Filho, Joao; Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in the study of natural radioactivity levels, mainly of radionuclides; 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 210 Pb present in the environment. The environmental radioactivity control is very important to obtain information on exposure of humans and vegetables to potential sources on natural radioactive occurrences. Industrial processes involving mining and extraction and production of oil foster concentration of radionuclides, contributing to the occurrence of what is known as 'TENORM' - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. This work aims to assess the environmental radiological impact on the estuarine area of the Industrial Park of SUAPE, due the installation of an oil refinery and the consequent introduction on the environment of natural radioactive materials from other regions in that area. The radioisotopes 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th , 40 K and 210 Pb were determined in these samples per gamma spectrometry, except for 210 Pb, which was determined by the Ionic Resin Exchange method. Concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil samples vary from 5.57 to 16.78, 3.89 to 11.75, 1.43 to 14.33 and from -1 , respectively. For those same elements in the sediments sample, the concentrations vary from 21.70 to 48.49, 9.97 to 15.35, 9.55 to 18.88 and from 54.61 to 291.47 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. Concentrations of 210 Pb in the soil and sediments samples vary from 25.89 to 58.88 and from 14.38 to 191.08 Bq.kg -1 . The preliminary studies show that the concentration of radionuclides in the environment is normal for the patterns of the area. (author)

  3. A survey of the environmental radioactivity in the east sea related to the Russian ocean dumping of the radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyehoon; Kim, Changkyu; Lee, Mosung

    1994-01-01

    From October 24 - December 30, 1993 a joint survey by the Office of Fisheries, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, and several other governmental institutes which was supervised by Ministry of Science and Technology was carried out to investigate present marine environmental radioactivity of the East Sea where former USSR and Russia had dumped radioactive waste since 1957. Exposure rate was measured and the radioactivity of seawater, both surface and deep water, bottom sediment, fish, and planktonic organisms from the areas around the dumping sites and the East Sae were analyzed. Results showed that the radioactivities of Cs-137 in the sea water from dumping sites were less than 0.0038 Bq/L, which was similar to the background level of the East Sea. The radioactivity level of fish and bottom sediment from dumping sites also did not increased. A detailed Ocean Environmental Monitoring Plan, however, should be established and the monitoring must be carried out continuously to protect people from potential radioactive hazards

  4. Semiconductor studies by radioactive probe atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichert, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    There are a growing number of experimental techniques that have in common the usage of radioactive isotopes for the characterization of semiconductors. These techniques deliver atomistic information about identity, formation, lattice environment, and electronic structure, as well as dynamics of defects and defect complexes. The results obtained by different hyperfine techniques are discussed in context with the study of intrinsic and extrinsic defects, i.e. of vacancies or self-interstitials and dopant or impurity atoms, respectively. In addition, the employment of electrical and optical techniques in combination with radioactive isotopes is presented

  5. 15. Experts' meeting on monitoring environmental radioactivity. Data - models - information. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the 15. Experts' meeting on monitoring environmental radioactivity include contributions o the following topics: environmental monitoring in Germany; developments in emergency protection and environmental monitoring; implementation of model and information systems; measuring programs during events and exercises; public information during local and global events; fast and (new) analytical methods; measures of the quality management systems; European and international environmental monitoring harmonization.

  6. Evaluating the reproducibility of environmental radioactivity monitoring data through replicate sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Silver, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, about 10% of the sampling effort in the environmental monitoring program represents replicate sample collection. Replication of field samples was initiated as part of the quality assurance program for environmental monitoring to determine the reproducibility of environmental measurements. In the laboratory these replicates are processed along with routine samples. As all components of variance are included in analysis of such field samples, comparison of the analytical data from replicate analyses provides a basis for estimating the overall reproducibility of the measurements. The replication study indicates that the reproducibility of environmental radioactivity monitoring data is subject to considerably more variability than is indicated by the accompanying counting errors. The data are also compared with analyses of duplicate aliquots from a well mixed sample or with duplicate aliquots of samples with known radionuclide content. These comparisons show that most of the variability is associated with the collection and preparation of the sample rather than with the analytical procedures

  7. Measurements of environmental radioactivity and radiation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuming; Huang Chingchung

    1993-01-01

    Established in 1974, the Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) is responsible for the environmental radiation surveillance and related fields in Taiwan. Its environmental radiation monitoring programs can be categorized into two parts: surveillance of natural ionizing radiation and surveillance of man-made ionizing radiation. For natural ionizing radiation, surveillance programs are mainly to establish the radiation baseline data including radon. For man-made ionizing radiation, surveillance programs include the radio-fallout surveillance and the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities. This article summarizes the relevant studies carried out by TRMC in the recent years

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  9. Evaluation of the uncertainty of environmental measurements of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The almost universal acceptance of the concept of uncertainty has led to its introduction into the ISO 17025 standard for general requirements to testing and calibration laboratories. This means that not only scientists, but also legislators, politicians, the general population - and perhaps even the press - expect to see all future results associated with an expression of their uncertainty. Results obtained by measurement of radioactivity have routinely been associated with an expression of their uncertainty, based on the so-called counting statistics. This is calculated together with the actual result on the assumption that the number of counts observed has a Poisson distribution with equal mean and variance. Most of the nuclear scientific community has therefore assumed that it already complied with the latest ISO 17025 requirements. Counting statistics, however, express only the variability observed among repeated measurements of the same sample under the same counting conditions, which is equivalent to the term repeatability used in quantitative analysis. Many other sources of uncertainty need to be taken into account before a statement of the uncertainty of the actual result can be made. As the first link in the traceability chain calibration is always an important uncertainty component in any kind of measurement. For radioactivity measurements in particular we find that counting geometry assumes the greatest importance, because it is often not possible to measure a standard and a control sample under exactly the same conditions. In the case of large samples we have additional uncertainty components associated with sample heterogeneity and its influence on self-absorption and counting efficiency. In low-level environmental measurements we have an additional risk of sample contamination, but the most important contribution to uncertainty is usually the representativity of the sample being analysed. For uniform materials this can be expressed by the

  10. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  11. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-02 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Sea Fish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-02 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. The test sample was a reference materials provided by the IAEA-MEL (IAE Marine Environmental Laboratory, Monaco), a sea fish containing environmental levels of U-238, U-234, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-(239+240), Am-241 and Tc-99. The results of the exercise were computed for 32 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The laboratories have made an effort to calculate the combined uncertainty of the radiochemical determinations. Most of the laboratories have demonstrated its competence in performing the study analysis and also the adequate measuring capability of their detection equipment even in conditions close to detection limits. The study has shown the capacity of participant laboratories to perform radioactive determinations in environmental sea fish samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Practice and experience in traceability of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhijian

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects on radioactivity measurement traceability and summarizes the work on quality assurance of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples in the laboratory, including transfer of standards, preparation of reference materials, and calibration of efficiency for volumse surces with Ge(Li) spectrometer. Some practical activitis regarding intercomparison of radioactivity measurements and other traceabillity-related activities are also described. Some sugestions relating to performing quality assurance are made

  13. The environmental impact of radioactive releases from accidents in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.R.; Griffiths, R.F.; Kaiser, G.D.; Kinchin, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of accidental releases of radioactivity from thermal and fast reactors is presented. Following a general discussion on the hazards involved, the nature of the environmental impact of radioactive releases is examined. This includes a brief review of the natural radiation background, the effect on human health of various levels of radiation and radioactivity, permissible and reference levels, and the type of hazards from both passing clouds of airbourne radioactive material and from ground deposited material. The problem of atmospheric dispersion and methods of calculations of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are examined in order for the consequences of accidental release to be analysed. National accidents and their environmental consequences are then examined. Finally there is a review of the risks to which man is always exposed because of his environment. Common and collective risks are also considered. Conclusions are reached as to the acceptibility or otherwise of the environmental impact of reactor accidents. (U.K.)

  14. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification; Iodes radioactifs et impacts environnemental et sanitaire - etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Flury Herard, A. [CEA, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 75 - Paris (France); Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France); Bion, L. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Schoech, C.; Masset, S. [Societe EX-IN - Expertise et Ingenierie, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  15. Environmental radioactivity from natural, industrial, and military sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.

    1987-01-01

    This document is the third edition of a book generally considered a standard in the field of radioactive materials in the environment. Topics include radiation protection standards, transport mechanisms, terrestrial and aquatic pathways, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, radioactive waste management, the fallout from nuclear explosions, nuclear accidents, and risk assessment

  16. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Sweeck, L.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Wannijn, J.; Van Hees, M.; Camps, J.; Olyslaegers, G.; Miliche, C.; Lance, B.

    2013-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h −1 . The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  17. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovsky, I.; Baklanov, A.; Jacovlev, V.; Prutskov, V.; Bergman, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: 'Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia' is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: 'Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: 'Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  18. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  19. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included [fr

  20. Determining ''Best Practicable Environmental Options'' for final waste disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses some ideas on what the Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO) process should include. A BPEO study to help develop a radioactive waste management strategy should not only look at post-closure safety of a facility. In the UK there was a 1986 Study of BPEOs for management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. This study tried to answer important questions such as (1) What are the practical options, (2) Which wastes should go to shallow burial, (3) Which wastes should go to sea disposal, (4) How does storage compare with disposal and (5) What are the cost and environmental trade-offs. The presentation discusses what was done to answer the questions. The BPEO Study resulted in major improved effort to characterise waste, much greater quantitative understanding of where and when the real costs, and environmental and radiological impacts arise. All options would be useful within a national strategy. But there was clearly a need for resolution of political acceptance problems, integration of policy with other hazardous waste management, and stronger legal framework

  1. Performance criteria for solidified high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental impact statement. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This draft Environmental Impact Statement on performance criteria for solidified high-level radioactive wastes (PCSHLW) covers: considerations for PCSHLW development, the proposed rulemaking, characteristics of the PCSHLW, environmental impacts of the proposed PCSHLW, alternatives to the PCSHLW criteria, and cost/benefit/risk evaluation. Five appendices are included to support the technical data required in the Environmental Impact Statement

  2. National environmental radioactivity networks-1993; Reti nazionali si sorveglianza della radioattivita` ambientale in Italia-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M; Notaro, M.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U; Tommasi, R.

    1998-12-31

    This report contains the environmental radioactivity data collected in Italy during 1993, by the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The data contained in this report have been provided by the institutions participating in the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) is law-fully responsible for publishing the report. The results of the measurements of radioactivity, are generally reported by only one significant figure. An arithmetical average of a series of figures, some of which are preceded by the sign `less than` (<), is given with this sign only when the figures bearing < affect remarkably (more then 50%) the value resulting from the average. Reproduction of the data contained in this report is authorized, provided the source is acknowledged.

  3. Environmental radioactivity levels, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1985 (TVA/NUC SVS/RH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program established a baseline of data on the distribution of natural and manmade radioactivity in the environment near the plant site. However, seasonal, yearly, and random variations in the data were observed. In order to determine the potential increases in environmental radioactivity levels caused by the plant, comparisons were made between data for indicator stations (those near the plant) and control stations (those remote from the plant) in conjunction with comparisons with preoperational data

  4. Investigation of the environmental radioactivity around the mooring port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Here are the main data for radioactivity examination performed in 1975 at Mutsu port, the mooring port of atomic energy vessel ''Mutsu''. No abnormality were observed in space γ ray dose ratio, and integrated doses measured by the thermofluorescence dosimeter at three monitoring posts in the port (G M tube) and three monitoring station in Mutsu City. A serial measurement of radioactivity concentration in sea water did not show any abnormality, either. Samples were taken from the surface soil of the ground, the bottom of the rivers, river water, drinking water, and milk and measured the total radioactivity by a gas flow counter. The measurement of the total β-radioactivity and radio nuclides analysis were carried out in sea water, the soil from the bottom of the sea and sea products. Abnormality considered to be caused by ''Mutsu'' did not observed at all. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Methodologies for evaluation of environmental capacity and impact due to radioactive releases by critical path analysis and their application to the IPEN's aquatic environment as a typical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    A brief description of the tested concepts, for determination of environmental capacity and impact by critical path analysis technique and of dose limitation/optmization for radioactive releases is made. These concepts/methodologies are being applied in the environment of IPEN. The aquatic environment of IPEN is dealt with in detal with a view to evaluate the possible critical paths, its capacity, and present and future radiological impacts. (Author) [pt

  6. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  7. Sources and fate of environmental radioactivity at the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.

    2010-01-01

    Sources and fate of environmental radioactivity at the earth surface This is to link environmental radioactivity to RP in Africa? To describe the benefits of Africa from this field in terms of RP, safety and security policies. To create a mission and a vision to fulfil the needs of ONE PEOPLE, ONE GOAL, ONE FAITH. Sources, processes and fate of environmental radioactivity Previous experience helps setting up an African agenda.(1) Factors influencing cosmogenic radionuclides(2) Factors influencing artificial radionuclides: (a) nuclear weapon-tests (b) nuclear accidents (c) Energy, mining and industrial waste (3) Factors influencing the global Rn-222 and its daughters. (4) Dynamics of cycles of natural radioactivity, e.g. Pb-210. (5) Environmental radiotracers act as DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS to assess air and water quality and impacts of the atmospheric and hydrospheric compartments on ecosystems.6) Definition of base-lines for rehabilitation and protection. Climate influences sources/behaviour/fate of environmental radioactivity. Impacts on life forms in Africa would be severe. Assessing environmental radioactivity resolves these issue

  8. Evaluation of environmental radioactivity monitoring data around the Kartini Reactor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M; Sutrisno; Sukarman-Aminjoyo; Zaenal-Abidin

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental radioactivity monitoring data around the Kartini Reactor area has been done. The aim of this investigation is for tracing the possibility of radioactivity released in the environment during the operation of Kartini reactor. The data was evaluated were monthly monitored data taken from 1986 to 1994 period. The method of analysis was done by comparing the environmental radioactivity data before and after reactor commissioning, off side the reactor up to a radius of 5.000 meters and more than 5.000 meters from Kartini reactor and also compared to the maximum permissible radioactivity according to the current regulation. This evaluation showed that there was no indication of radioactivity release to the environment during this period of reactor operation

  9. Learning and education on environmental radioactivity by residents of Rokkasho Site for the spent fuel recycling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawauchi, Kiye; Itoh, Natsuko; Ishikawa, Tomiye; Nihonyanagi, Haruko; Aratani, Michi

    2005-01-01

    The neutron criticality accident at the JCO, a private company for nuclear fuel processing facilities in Tokai has drastically changed minds and attitudes of residents toward environmental radioactivity. The accident happened on September 30, 1999. Before the accident the residents of the Rokkasho Site were not anxious about environmental radioactivity, because they thought the facilities were safe enough concerning containment policy of the radioactivity inside the facilities. Residents, however, had not been taught on a neutron. It is an unfamiliar radiation for them. So, they promptly learnt on neutrons, and some of them began the fixed point measurement of neutrons at the nearest site of the Spent Fuel Recycling Facilities of Rokkasho by the help of Prof. Kazuhisa. Komura, Kanazawa University. Members of the Reading Cicle, Rokkasho Culture Society, mainly women, learnt measurements of environmental radioactivity using simplified counters for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ray from natural radioactive elements and prepared various kinds of environmental samples. After learning of environmental radioactivity, they began educational activities on the environmental radioactivity for boys and girls in the region. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity is performed by different institutions and with their purposes. Here is reported learning of environmental radioactivity by the residents and education of environmental radioactivity toward the young. Even with the simplest counters, we think that the monitoring of environmental radioactivity by the residents themselves is the royal road to the safety of the regional society. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactive monitoring, evaluation and protection in luminous workshops of a factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hanbin; Xiang Ming; Tan Jianzu

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescent technique is often used to display instrumental indicator in the dark environment. Luminous workshops of a factory smear and depict the glassware by means of fluorescent power with adulterated radioactive matter. Because of adulterated radioactive matters such as 226 Ra, 40 K emit alpha-ray,beta-ray and gamma-ray, while they decay spontaneously, and high dose or cumulative radiation can damage human body in different degrees. Therefore, any radioactive damage to human body caused by over-safety dose should be prevented strictly during the working. To ensure health and safety of working staff in luminous workshop and the public, it is necessary to regularly have radioactive monitoring and evaluation to luminous workshop and its surrounding environment. Through the environment radioactive monitoring, the authors analyze its environmental radioactive level,and try to find out the possible problems so as to propose some protective measures for personal health. (authors)

  11. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  12. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of this...

  13. Mapping of the environmental radioactivity of the Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves Netto, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Francisco de Assis Dourado da; Freitas, Antonio Carlos de

    2000-01-01

    The study of the environmental radioactivity and its correlation with geological parameters is of great relevance, due to the fact that natural radiation is the main exposure source for the humanity. The analysis of the environmental radiation constituted by natural and antropogenics radioactive elements, and its monitoring along the time is of great importance to evaluate the impact of the human activities on the environment. These results may be useful as a parameter for the monitoring of the activities developed in the nuclear compound of Angra dos Reis, RJ. The characterization of the environmental radiation is done using an ionization chamber that measures the exposure rate one meter of distance from the ground. A GPS and local maps are being used on the mapping of the analyzed points. The obtained results are between 6 μ R h -1 and 28 μ R h -1 . The highest exposure rates can be associated to the concentrations of minerals, for example, Monazite and Zircon. Some areas are in the mouths of some rivers, located in geological fractures, that regulate the geomorphology and the formation of the drainage nets of the area. Those parameters can contribute to the dispersion and re-concentration of those minerals in several specific points of the island. (author)

  14. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL

  15. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  16. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL during the year following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    The accident which destroyed Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 provided the world's scientists with an opportunity, unique in recent years, to study many of the processes which follow the release of large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. BNL undertook a wide ranging programme of environmental measurements after the accident, the immediate aim being to supply HM Government with data to help assess the radiological consequences to the UK population. As it became clear that the UK dose commitment was relatively low, the thrust of the measurements began to be concentrated on airborne radioactivity and the movement of nuclides in the grass-soil system. The aim of these studies was to assess dispersion and diffusion of radioactivity in these particular compartments of the environment. The measurements have continued over the twelve month period since the Chernobyl accident. This report aims to disseminate the year's data and to offer some initial interpretations of the trends. (U.K.)

  17. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) is a nationwide study examining the environmental impacts of managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes generated by past and future nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites located around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste (LLMW), low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRUW), high-level waste (HLW), and hazardous waste (HW)

  18. 30 years of monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The individual sections of the report describe the development of monitoring functions and of the contamination of the atmosphere and the biosphere by radioactive substances. After environmental radioactivity due to the fallout of nuclear explosions reached a peak level in 1963, its contribution to radiation exposure today is insignificant in comparison with natural radioactivity. Moreover, monitoring by authorities of the emissions and the environmental impact of nuclear installations has been extended during the past 20 years in such a way that the existing network of measuring stations takes full account of the increased number of nuclear installations. The monitoring results show that nuclear installations do not make any considerable contribution to environmental radioactivity. (orig./PW) [de

  19. Environmental radioactivity: the importance of controlling exposure of the public: some experiences in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power is offering considerable advantages, it is considering the option to produce energy and the economy has moved in favour of the nuclear power. Therefore, the security is important within of the industry because ensures the control of public exposure and the environment and it plays a crucial role. Public exposure refers to exposure that is not of the direct work with ionizing radiation or the application of nuclear techniques in medical treatment and diagnosis. There are potential sources of discharges into the environment as the spent fuel and the waste disposal. Some of the routes of exposure are atmospheric discharge, liquid discharge, irrigation, environment, decomposition of the rain, food chains, etc. International regulations on subject of radiological safety are set by the IAEA and have a hierarchical order: fundamentals, requirements and guidelines. The International Commission of Radiological Protection and the Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations are described in the research. The action is exposed in Cuba with regard to nuclear programs that have been realized or that are executed in relation to the control of the exposure of the public in existing applications. It mentions the centralized management of radioactive rights generated, the control of other sources of exposure, and the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental. It also includes numerical data of studies realized on the extent of the sources of public exposure, the external doses received by the Cuban population product of environmental sources of radiation, the estimating of the doses received by the Cuban population by the incorporation of radionuclides present in the water and food. Likewise, the radioactive environmental funds; the phosphate mining; the protection and extraction of oil and the presence of radon inside the house are shown. The exposure to gamma radiation in thermal spas; the exposure to environmental sources of radiation

  20. Study of the 60Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudaire, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    60 Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 μm) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l -1 . The 60 Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 μm), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co 2+ ) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total 60 Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co 2+ and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non-conservative radionuclide). This sedimentary stock can

  1. Proposal of implementation of Environmental Management System at the Laboratory of Radioactive Waste In IPEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Luiz Antonio Abdalla

    2008-01-01

    An increasing use of nuclear technology in the form of its several applications (electricity generation, medical, industrial, agricultural, environment and radiosterilization) is currently being observed in Brazil. Radioactive waste of high, medium or lower activity is produced in all fuel cycle and other research activities, industrial activities of fuel production and electricity generation. Appropriate and safe technologies are available for the treatment and storage of radioactive waste and, when applied, contribute for the acceptance of nuclear energy by the Society. With the increasing importance of demands related to environmental issues, the International Organization for Standardization issued the Standard ISO 14.001 - Environmental Management System, applied to all types and size of organizations, helping them to increase their environment performance. In this research, the standard requirements were commented in detail, being particularized to the Laboratory of Radioactive Waste from IPEN, as a case study. (author)

  2. Epidemiologic studies of radioactively contaminated environments and cancer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on epidemiologic studies which address the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Investigations of the possible adverse effects of living in radioactively contaminated environments are difficult to conduct, however, because human populations tend to be fairly mobile, cumulative exposures to individuals from environmental conditions are difficult to estimate, and the risks associated with such exposures tend to be small relative to background levels of disease. Such studies can be arbitrarily classified as geographic correlation surveys, analytic studies, and cluster evaluations. Geographic correlation studies (ecological surveys) relate disease in populations to area characteristics. Although exposure to individuals is unknown, these exploratory or hypothesis-generating studies can identify areas to target for further in-depth evaluation. Analytic investigations relate individual exposure information to disease occurrence. Unusual occurrences of disease in time and place (clusters) occasionally point to a common environmental factor; cluster evaluations have been most successful in identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks

  3. Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svingor, E.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Rinyu, L.; Mogyorosi, M.; Major, Z.; Bihari, A.; Vodila, G.; Janovics, R.; Papp, L.; Major, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction. The Hertelendi Laboratory for Environmental Studies (HEKAL) belongs to the Section of Environmental and Earth Sciences. It is a multidisciplinary laboratory dedicated to environmental research, to the development of nuclear analytical methods and to systems technology. During its existence of more than 15 years it has gained some reputation as a prime laboratory of analytical techniques, working with both radio- and stable isotopes. It has considerable expertise in isotope concentration measurements, radiocarbon dating, tritium measurements, in monitoring radioactivity around nuclear facilities and in modelling the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Many of its projects are within the scope of interest of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Our research activity is mainly concerned with the so-called environmental isotopes. This term denotes isotopes, both stable and radioactive, that are present in the natural environment either as a result of natural processes or of human activities. In environmental research isotopes are generally applied either as tracers or as age indicators. An ideal tracer is defined as a substance that behaves in the system studied exactly as the material to be traced as far as the examined parameters are concerned, but has at least one property that distinguishes it from the traced material. The mass number of an isotope is such an ideal indicator. In 2007 the laboratory assumed the name of Dr. Ede Hertelendi to honour the memory of the reputed environmental physicist who founded the group and headed it for many years. The current core of the laboratory staff is made up of his pupils and coworkers. This team was like a family to him. The group owes it to his fatherly figure that it did not fall apart after his death, but advanced with intense work and tenacity during the last decade. One of his first pupils, Mihaly Veres returned to the laboratory as a private entrepreneur and investor in 2005, and in the framework of

  4. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands. Results in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, G J; Groot, M C.E. [eds.

    2011-11-15

    In 2009 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. According to the Euratom Treaty of 1957, all Member States of the European Union are obliged to perform these measurements each year. Euratom has provided guidelines for performing the measurements uniformly since 2000. However, Member States are not obliged to comply with these recommended guidelines. In the Netherlands, in 2009 strontium-90 was also determined (for the first time) in a mixed food package for which the above recommendations had been fulfilled. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) reports on behalf of the Netherlands to the European Union about radioactivity in the environment. Moreover, this information provides background values and/or amounts of radioactivity that are present under normal circumstances. These background values can be used as reference values, for instance, during a disaster.

  5. Performance Test of Alpha Spectrometry for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Youn; Yoon, Jong-Ho; Han, Ki-Tek; Ahn, Gil Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Environmental samples are analyzed by various methods such as, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometry), HRGS (high resolution gamma spectrometry) and alpha /beta particle analysis. In this study, we will described the result of performance test using alpha spectrometry for analyzing environmental samples. Measurement data of the U activity using SRM based on extraction chromatography with UTEVA resin. It should be effective way to separate of uranium isotope for the measurement of alpha spectrometry. But, the result of this measurement data is higher than another recovery data. Also concentration of U data is lack of consistency. We leave out of consideration many effect of factors about influence in the experiment process. In the future work, we will try to reduce the step of experiment process and reflect the uncertainty factors

  6. Transport of radioactive sources-an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckaert, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The transport of dangerous goods is submitted to various regulations. These can be international, national or regional and they can differ from country to country. The basis for the regulations for dangerous goods can be found in the recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods, issued by the United Nations committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods (orange book). For radioactive material the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are applied. The UN recommendations provide for 9 classes of dangerous goods. With regard to class 7, specifically related to the transport of radioactive material special recommendation relating to class 70, the IAEA regulations are referred to. These IAEA regulations for their part provide for 13 schedules, varying between weakly and highly radioactive. The radioactive sources which are used for non-destructive testing or for medical purposes are mostly sealed sources, i.e. the radioactive material is contained in a metallic shell. According to the nature of the isotope and their activity, the sources are transported either in industrial packagings, type A or type B packagings. According to the mode of transport, either air, sea, rail or road, various specific rules are applied, which however, are fortunately nearly completely harmonized. Special attention is paid to radiation protection, heat removal and the testing and fabrication of packagings. As a general rule, the safety of transport is based on the safety of the packagings, i.e. their ability to maintain, even in accident conditions, their capacity of tightness, shielding against radiation and removing the heat generated by the transported material

  7. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-04 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Aqueous Solution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-04 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonised Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. Following the issue of the European Community Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC concerning the quality of water for human consumption, the last inter-comparison exercise was organised by using a water sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analysing the required radioactivity parameters (H-3, gross alpha and beta activity and residual beta). The sample (a synthetic drinking water), was prepared at the National Laboratory for Ionising Radiation's Standards (CIEMAT), and contained the following radionuclides ''241 Am, ''239+240 Pu, ''90Sr, ''137 Cs, ''3 H y ''40 K. The results of the exercise were computed for 38 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, including suspected outliers. The exercise has revealed and homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. A raised percentage os satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for gross alpha, gross beta and residual beta: 85, 97 and 87% respectively. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in drinking water samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 16 refs

  8. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  9. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and, complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low- and high-spin studies in the same nucleus). (author). 47 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Environmental radioactivity on Suape (PE) estuary: impact of the installation of an oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Paula Frassinetti Pereira; Antonio Filho, Joao; Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da, E-mail: paulafrassinettipereira@hotmail.co, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.b, E-mail: cleomaciomiguel@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in the study of natural radioactivity levels, mainly of radionuclides; {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, and {sup 210}Pb present in the environment. The environmental radioactivity control is very important to obtain information on exposure of humans and vegetables to potential sources on natural radioactive occurrences. Industrial processes involving mining and extraction and production of oil foster concentration of radionuclides, contributing to the occurrence of what is known as 'TENORM' - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. This work aims to assess the environmental radiological impact on the estuarine area of the Industrial Park of SUAPE, due the installation of an oil refinery and the consequent introduction on the environment of natural radioactive materials from other regions in that area. The radioisotopes {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th , {sup 40}K and {sup 210}Pb were determined in these samples per gamma spectrometry, except for {sup 210}Pb, which was determined by the Ionic Resin Exchange method. Concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in the soil samples vary from 5.57 to 16.78, 3.89 to 11.75, 1.43 to 14.33 and from < 1.70 to 7.77 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. For those same elements in the sediments sample, the concentrations vary from 21.70 to 48.49, 9.97 to 15.35, 9.55 to 18.88 and from 54.61 to 291.47 Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in the soil and sediments samples vary from 25.89 to 58.88 and from 14.38 to 191.08 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The preliminary studies show that the concentration of radionuclides in the environment is normal for the patterns of the area. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1993, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation dose for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other radiation sources. With two exceptions, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1993, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible radioactivity concentrations or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with a mean of 1.6 mSv and extreme values as high as around 100 mSv; 30% or 1.2 mSv, may be ascribed to natural radiation, leaving less then 0.2 mSv ascribable to man-made sources, excluding medical applications. (author) figs., tabs

  12. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  13. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&M; VLH

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands complied with the

  14. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&M; M&V

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands complied with the

  15. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands. Results in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; RIZA; RIKZ; VWA; RIKILT; LSO; IMD

    2007-01-01

    From 2005 onwards the national monitoring program "Radioactivity and radiation in the environment" is extended with measurements in milk and in mixed diet. With that the monitoring program complies for the first time with the recommendations of the European Union of 2000. These recommendations

  16. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 1994 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Canberra, at the Australian National University. Presentations were grouped around the themes of geochronology, environmental impact and analytical techniques. This volume contains 26 extended abstracts and 3 poster-presentations which have been separately indexed for inclusion in the INIS database. A list of participants is also included

  17. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Canberra, at the Australian National University. Presentations were grouped around the themes of geochronology, environmental impact and analytical techniques. This volume contains 26 extended abstracts and 3 poster-presentations which have been separately indexed for inclusion in the INIS database. A list of participants is also included.

  18. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) was created in 1981 in the framework of the 1977 Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. CRESP was essentially a scientific research programme. Its main objective was to increase the knowledge of processes controlling the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that safety assessments could be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data. From 1986, in response to a request from the Paris Commission, CRESP also considered the scientific aspects of coastal releases. CRESP made it possible to co-ordinate national research activities and generated an important international co-operation in its areas of work. The vast amount of scientific information gathered in this framework increased strongly our knowledge of the impact of radionuclides introduced to the deep sea environment. In particular, CRESP provided the basis for a comprehensive safety analysis of sea dumping operations. This study, published by the NEA in 1985, is still e reference on the subject. In November 1993, the Sixteenth Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 voted a total ban on the disposal at sea of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter. Considering this decision, the conclusions of the 1985 safety analysis, and CRESP's view that new scientific findings are unlikely to alter these conclusions, the NEA Steering Committee for nuclear Energy decided in October 1995 to terminate the programme. The present report summarises the knowledge accumulated within CRESP over its fifteen years of existence. (author)

  19. Establishment of radioactive source retirement mechanism based on the method of environmental liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The retirement of radioactive source is a difficult problem that we are facing during the radiation safety regulation in China. This paper analyses the reason of the problem regarding the retirement of radioactive source both from the utilization units and the regulatory body. It is considered that the basic reason is the enterprises don't arrange and use the retirement funds reasonably, which is an economic problem. There exists a limitation when facing the radioactive source retirement in light of licensing and regulation mechanism of the manufacture, selling, uses of radioactive sources in China, and the key to solve this economic problem is to introduce economic method, Some measures and suggestions are given to establish radioactive sources retirement mechanism by using economic methods, based on the comprehensive analysis of the concept, development and function of the environmental liability insurance. (author)

  20. Emergence of collective action and environmental networking in relation to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the national environmental movement and nuclear technology in relation to a local emergent group. The historical development of nuclear technology in this conutry has followed a path leading to continued fear and mistrust of waste management by a portion of the population. At the forefront of opposition to nuclear technology are people and groups endorsing environmental values. Because of the antinuclear attitudes of environmentalists and the value orientation of appropriate technologists in the national environmental movement, it seems appropriate for local groups to call on these national groups for assistance regarding nuclear-related issues. A case study is used to illustrate how a local action group, once integrated into a national environmental network, can become an effective, legitimate participant in social change. The formation, emergence, mobilization, and networking of a local group opposed to a specific federal radioactive waste management plan is described based on organizational literature. However, inherent contradictions in defining the local versus national benefits plus inherent problems within the environmental movement could be acting to limit the effectiveness of such networks. 49 refs

  1. Radioactive waste containment - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, G.

    1985-01-01

    One of the basic requirements of safe radioactive waste disposal is isolation of the radioactive substances to prevent leakage into the biosphere. The multi-barrier concept has been developed to meet this requirement. Within the framework of the concept, barriers can be either natural or man-made. Natural barriers, i.e. geologic formations,have been investigated for their suitability, with host rock and their different properties being determined and compared. It has been found that the qualification of a proposed repository medium cannot be defined on the basis of physical, chemical, and mineralogical criteria alone, but that these data have to be completed by a global evaluation of the entire system consisting of waste products and waste forms, host rock, and surrounding rock. The study in hand reviews the reports and also lists the studies made on engineered barriers, as e.g. immobilisation barriers, container and package barriers, of various waste forms. A review of the studies dealing with the various waste disposal techniques shows that the sub-surface waste disposal and the deep underground disposal in mines are the best developed techniques currently. A review of ultimate disposal concepts adopted abroad shows that most countries favour the mining technology approach, with the exception of Denmark where R and D work in this field is focused on deep well disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010 includes five chapters. (I) Natural radiation exposure: radiation sources, contributions from cosmic radiation, contaminated construction materials, food and drinking water, and radon, evaluation of the different components of natural radiation exposure. (II) Civilization caused radiation exposure: nuclear power plants, research centers, nuclear fuel processing plants, other nuclear facilities (interim storage facilities, repositories); summarizing evaluation for nuclear facilities; environmental radioactivity due to mining; radioactive materials in research, technology and households; industrial and mining residues; fall-out as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear weapon testing. (III) Occupational radiation exposure: civil radiation sources, natural radiation sources, special events. (IV) Medical radiation exposure; X-ray diagnostics; nuclear medicine; radiotherapy using ionizing radiation; radiotherapy using open radioactive materials; evaluation of radiotherapy. (V) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields; optical radiation; certification of solaria.

  3. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  4. Assessment of the environmental impacts produced by the transport of radioactive materials through urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is performing an environmental assessment for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to ascertain the impacts produced by the transportation of radioactive materials near and through a large, densely populated area. Radiological, nonradiological and economic environmental impacts due to the transportation of all radioactive materials are considered, excepting those related to weapons, weapon components, or shipments on military vehicles. Although New York City is being studied initially to execute the methodology as a function of a real, complex urban environment, the assessment model developed is general in its basic content and is suitable for application to any urban area. Radiological consequences are being computed for cases involving ''normal'' and accident conditions. In the ''normal'' case, nothing unusual takes place, but small radiation doses are still received by nearby people. In the accident case, dispersion of possibly released material away from the accident site is considered. In addition, impacts due to deviations from quality assurance practices, as a result of human error, are being calculated using the assessment model in a special manner. Certain aspects of sabotage and diversion are also being investigated for an urban setting. Radiological consequences are being quantified in terms of human health effects and decontamination costs

  5. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Sweeck, L; Vives I Batlle, J; Wannijn, J; Van Hees, M; Camps, J; Olyslaegers, G; Miliche, C; Lance, B

    2013-12-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999-2008 or 2000-2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental radioactivity in northern parts of Iran and Teheran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Hanjani, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    This article deals with the measurement of the amount of 226Ra by ''radium emanation method'' in water and food products of the North, North-West and North-East of Iran. A total of 126 water samples, 249 food-stuffs and 22 air samples have been examined. The concentration of 226Ra in water was about 0.01 to 1x10 4 pci/1, and in food products was about 0.01 to 20.00 pci/gr. The measured radioactivity in the air for the city of Tehran and Tehran University reactor's environment has been about 0.003 to 0.227 pci/m 3 . The results of these measurements for Iran's atmosphere are given in various tables which indicated that in some part of Iran the rate of the radioactivity is higher than the normal rate

  7. Technology of radioactive waste management avoiding environmental disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This report considers present radioactive waste management methods and practices. In addition, present research and development activity designed to minimize discharges to the environment are noted. During its deliberations the Panel was able to define certain avenues of research and development which should be explored to enable the almost complete containment of wastes. The experience and practices at establishments, where, for geographical, geological or other reasons, discharges of radioactive material to the environment are extremely small, served as the starting point for the Panel's deliberations. Details of the experience and practice, together with the results obtained at these establishments, are summarized in Part I and described in more detail in Part II of this report. 48 refs, 89 figs, 11 tabs

  8. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment.

  9. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment

  10. Jabiluka environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T. (Pancontinental Mining Ltd., Sydney (Australia))

    1984-02-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed.

  11. Jabiluka environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed. (author)

  12. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  13. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  14. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Monitoramento de radioatividade ambiental no municipio de Itu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of {sup 226} Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  16. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : results in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Knetsch, G.J.; Krijger, G.C.; Weseman, J.M.; Vos van Avezathe, A.; Verbunt, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    The measurements in the air and environment showed normal levels, which are within the range of previous years. The deposition of polonium-210 showed the highest level since 1993 but approximately the same level as in 2009. These levels do not pose a threat to public health. As in previous years radioactivity levels in food and milk were well below the export and consumption limits set by the European Union.

  17. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  18. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant - Part I: Assessment of radioactive pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, Serena [Interdepartment Centre for Research in Environmental Science, University of Bologna, via dell' Agricoltura 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)]. E-mail: serena.righi2@unibo.it; Lucialli, Patrizia [ARPA, Emilia-Romagna Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment, Department of Ravenna, via Alberoni 17/19, 48100 Ravenna (Italy); Bruzzi, Luigi [Interdepartment Centre for Research in Environmental Science, University of Bologna, via dell' Agricoltura 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site.

  19. Some aspects concerning the relationship environmental radioactivity-population in Romania after 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Dumitru, C.; Puscalau, M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some results, obtained in the last six years, related to different aspects of environmental radioactivity. Thus, a synthesis of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 post Chernobyl measurements on foodstuffs and human subjects is presented. Natural radioactivity (uranium, thorium, potassium-40) level determination in various geological-industrial samples (phosphates, gold and copper ores) are also summarized. There are described two facilities for radioactive contamination assessment: the Body Counter SGCU-S for whole body and thyroid, and a Phoswich Lung Counter. Energy and efficiency calibration procedures are presented. (Author)

  20. Environmental surveillance report for the INEL radioactive waste management complex. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenc, M.R.; Janke, D.H.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance activities during 1976 at the two solid waste facilities of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The monitoring program encompasses periodic and random sampling of air, water, and soil within and adjacent to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex and SL-1 Burial Ground. It was found that operation of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex and SL-1 during 1976 had little radiological impact on the environment and radioactivity levels were shown to be within appropriate guidelines for worker safety

  1. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1980 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1980. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL)-sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1978 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1979-05-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1978. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  3. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant - Part I: Assessment of radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site

  4. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  5. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The report contains information on the natural (background) radiation exposure (chapter II), the natural radiation exposure as influenced by anthropogenic effects (chapter III), the anthropogenic radiation exposure (chapter IV), and the radiation doses to the environment and the population emanating from the Chernobyl fallout (chapter V). The natural radiation exposure is specified referring to the contributions from cosmic and terrestrial background radiation and intake of natural radioactive substances. Changes of the natural environment resulting from anthropogenic effects (technology applications) inducing an increase in concentration of natural radioactive substances accordingly increase the anthropogenic radiation exposure. Indoor air radon concentration in buildings for instance is one typical example of anthropogenic increase of concentration of natural radioactivity, primarily caused by the mining industry or by various materials processing activities, which may cause an increase in the average radiation dose to the population. Measurements so far show that indoor air concentration of radon exceeds a level of 200 Bq/m 3 in less than 2% of the residential buildings; the EUropean Commission therefore recommends to use this concentration value as a maximum value for new residential buildings. Higher concentrations are primarily measured in areas with relevant geological conditions and abundance of radon, or eg. in mining areas. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Environmentally safe management of radioactive and toxic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingarev, N.E.; Mukhin, I.V.; Polyakov, A.S.; Raginsky, L.S.; Semenov, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxic industrial wastes constitute a significant part of Russian natural environment. The most reliable route to provide the long-term ecologic safety involves removal of toxicants or radioactive substances from polluted sites. With a view of processing toxic and radioactive sludges available in reservoirs, a process flowsheet is suggested that comprises the operations of sludge concentration, dehydration and granulation.Flocculation is an operation required to concentrate a solid phase. Polyacrylamide (PAA) and hydrolyzed PAA (HPAA) are standard flocculating agents used in the processing of sludges coming from storage facilities of radioactive wastes. HPAA is less efficient and it is shown that the optimized concentration of PAA is 4 mg/g solid. Flotation agents are used to extract the solid phase of sludges, it is shown that the process of extraction has to be carried out in 2 stages, the first flotation cycle with a Ph value between 7.5 and 9.5 and the second with a Ph adjustment to 3.5-6.0.The cake resulting from the sludge filtration has poor technological properties, it is advisable to produce a granular material. Hydro-granulation using hydrophobic flocculating agents may be implemented immediately after sludge concentration. The other granulation technique involves the sol-gel process used to incorporate sludge into a ceramic (aluminium oxide) matrix

  7. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1994, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other installations using radionuclides and also miscellaneous radiation sources. With only one exception, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual emission limits in 1994, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with extreme values as high as 100 mSr; 30% may be ascribed to natural radiation, roughly 25% to medical applications of ionising radiation, leaving less than 5% ascribable to man-made sources. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 6. The chronology of discharges of caesium-137, plutonium and americium-241 from BNFL Sellafield, as recorded in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D; Cambray, R S

    1985-04-01

    A study has been made of the radionuclide content of lake sediments from Cumbria in order to determine the history of discharges of /sup 137/Cs and actinides from the Sellafield works of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sediment cores have been taken from Ullswater and Grasmere, which are remote from Sellafield, in order to establish the behaviour of nuclear weapon fallout nuclides. Cores have also been taken from Barfield Tarn, which is 19 km SE of Sellafield but close to the sea, and from Ponsonby and Harnsey Moss Tarns, close to Sellafield. All sediments were analysed for /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu. Additional measurements of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 241/Am were made on samples from the closer tarns. The sediment cores were dated by the /sup 210/Pb method and, where appropriate, by the /sup 137/Cs technique also. The amounts of /sup 137/Cs and sup(239+240)Pu in sediments from Barfield Tarn could be accounted for by fallout from nuclear weapons, although the levels of /sup 241/Am were marginally greater. However in Harnsey Moss Tarn the levels of actinides indicated that they were derived mainly from material originally discharged to sea from Sellafield. Sediment from Ponsonby Tarn contained material derived mainly from discharges to atmosphere.

  9. Proposed format and content of environmental reports for deep geologic terminal repositories for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, D.J.; Jones, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    As the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has not yet issued a format guide for the preparation of an environmental impact statement for radioactive waste repositories, Rockwell Hanford operations has developed an annotated outline which will serve as the basis for the environmental evaluation activities until replaced by an appropriate NRC regulatory guide. According to the outline, the applicant should summarize the major environmental effects that are expected to occur during the construction, operation, and terminal isolation phases of the radioactive material repository. Compare these environmental effects with the possible effect of continued use of interim storage facilities. Unless unforeseen environmental effects become apparent, the summary should be a positive statement indicating that the short-term environmental effects are outweighed by the long-term benefits of the repository

  10. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  11. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  12. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, September 1, 1976--December 1, 1976. [Monitoring of environment for radioactivity and chemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents current data from the HASL environmental programs, The Swedish Defense Research Establishment, The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Argonne National Laboratory and The New Zealand National Radiation Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on ground level air radioactivity in Sweden from nuclear explosions, plutonium in air near the Rocky Flats Plant, nitrous oxide concentrations in the stratosphere, lake sediment sampling, plutonium and americium in marine and fresh water biological systems, radium in cat litter, and quality control analyses. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide and stable lead concentrations in surface air; strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, and tapwater; cesium-137 in Chicago foods in October 1976 and environmental radioactivity measurements in New Zealand in 1975. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  13. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  14. Measuring networks for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the European Community, - a pattern of diversity as varying as the peoples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new study entitled 'Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community', (RAES, 90), shows a survey of the methods currently applied in every country. The study compiles available quality assurance programs and makes suggestions for CEC initiatives. The study refers to the current practice of monitoring in European countries as 'enormous diversity of methods' in member countries. Further suggestions for standardization of the data measuring networks are put forward by a manufacturer of monitoring equipment. (orig./DG) [de

  15. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Raw, G.

    1987-10-01

    The physical characteristics and actinide adsorption behaviour of colloids and fine particulates in Cumbrian coastal sediments and seawater have been determined to assess the role of particles in the sea to land transfer of actinides in seaspray. Procedures have been developed for the separation of particulates into different size and mineral fractions using deflocculation and sedimentation under gravity and centrifugally. These fractions have been characterised using a range of physicochemical techniques. Specific activities of actinides (Pu, Am) adsorbed on these fractions have been correlated with size and mineral composition. Tentative evidence of the role of the fine particulates in sea to land transfer is discussed. (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity survey in site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Gaso, M.I.; Tejera, A.; Tamez, E.

    1989-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of Rn in soil, background gamma levels and meteorological measurements was conducted at the site of a nuclear research center. The data cover a time period of several years. The radon in soil gas fluctuations is influenced by seasonal meteorological changes and by local geophysical parameters and they range between 1000 Bq/m 3 and 18000 Bq/m 3 . The observed gamma levels show geographic stability; some seasonal fluctuations were observed. Data analysis indicates that no significant changes occured at the site over the measuring period and radiation levels and meteorological changes are moderate inducing no ecological impact on the surroundings. (author) 8 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.

    1987-04-01

    The physical characteristics and actinide adsorption behaviour of colloids and fine particulates in Cumbrian coastal sediments and seawater have been determined to assess the role of particles in the sea to land transfer of actinides in seaspray. Procedures have been developed for the separation of particulates into different size and mineral fractions using deflocculation and sedimentation under gravity and centrifugally. These fractions have been characterised using a range of physicochemical techniques. Specific activities of actinides (Pu, Am) adsorbed on these fractions have been correlated with size and mineral composition. Tentative evidence of the role of the fine particulates in sea to land transfer is discussed. (author)

  18. Public comments on the draft generic environmental impact statement for management of commercially generated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiter, M.R.; Unruh, C.M.; McCallum, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has the responsibility for developing the technology required for managing commercial radioactive wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. As part of this responsibility, DOE has prepared a draft environmental impact statement on the management of commercially generated radioactive waste. The draft was issued for public comment in April of 1979; five public hearings were held. The draft GEIS is intended to provide environmental input for the selection of an appropriate program strategy for the permanent isolation of commercially generated high-level and transuranic wastes. The scope of such a strategy includes research and development into alternative treatment processes and emplacement media, site investigations into candidate media, and the examination of advanced waste management technologies. The draft statement describes the commercial radioactive wastes that would have to be managed for very long periods of time from an assumed nuclear generation scenario of 10,000 GWe-yr of power over a 65-year period ending in 2040

  19. National environmental radiation monitoring program: towards formulating policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukiman Sarmani

    2002-01-01

    Though Malaysia has no nuclear power station, but the management of its low level radioactive waste generated from industrial activities involves most of the same issues that must be considered in countries with nuclear power. These include public consultation at all stages, an open approach, high level scientific and engineering input and political decision by the Government. A carefully planned approach, which involves the public and gives time to build trust and confidence, is necessary for success. It is also pertinent to establish accurate and reliable data on environmental radiation to accurately assess possible risk. This is where a national monitoring program on environmental radiation is very important. While accurate data will help formulate sound policy on radioactive waste management, it should also be readily available to the public to gain support and acceptance. This paper presents arguments on the importance of a national monitoring program for environmental radiation as an input for formulating a policy on radioactive waste management in Malaysia. (Author)

  20. Intrinsic vs. spurious long-range memory in high-frequency records of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, R.V.; Potirakis, S.M.; Barbosa, S.M.; Matos, J.A.O.; Pereira, A.J.S.C.; Neves, L.J.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the environmental radioactivity fluctuations has recently attracted considerable interest. Among a multiplicity of practically relevant applications, identifying and disentangling the environmental factors controlling the variable concentrations of the radioactive noble gas radon is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we present a critical re-assessment of a multiplicity of complementary methods that have been previously applied for evaluating the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling in environmental radon variations with a particular focus on the specific properties of the underlying time series. As an illustrative case study, we subsequently re-analyze two high-frequency records of indoor radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several weeks of continuous measurements at a high temporal resolution of five minutes. Our results reveal that at the study site, radon concentrations exhibit complex multi-scale dynamics with qualitatively different properties at different time-scales: (i) essentially white noise in the high-frequency part (up to time-scales of about one hour), (ii) spurious indications of a non-stationary, apparently long-range correlated process (at time scales between some hours and one day) arising from marked periodic components, and (iii) low-frequency variability indicating a true long-range dependent process. In the presence of such multi-scale variability, common estimators of long-range memory in time series are prone to fail if applied to the raw data without previous separation of time-scales with qualitatively different dynamics. (authors)

  1. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-05 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Vegetable Ash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.; Valino Garcia, F.

    2006-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-05 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the IUPAC I nternational harmonised protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories . The exercise has been designed to evaluate the capability of national laboratories to determine environmental levels of radionuclides in vegetable ash samples. The sample has been prepared by the Environmental Radiation Laboratory, from the University of Barcelona, and it contains the following radionuclides: Sr-90, Pu-238, Am-241, Th-230, Pb-210, U-238, Ra-226, K-40, Ra-228, TI-208, Cs- 137 and Co-60. Reference values have been established TROUGH the kind collaboration of three international laboratories of recognized experience: IAEA MEL and IRSN-Orsay. The results of the exercise were computed for 35 participating laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objetiva study of the laboratories' performance. Some difficulties encountered to dissolve the test sample caused a lower response of analyses involving radiochemical separation, thus some laboratories couldn't apply their routine methods and no conclusions on PU-238, Am-241 and Th-230 performances have been obtained. The exercise has revealed an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in vegetable ash samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  3. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  4. Study on radioactive release of gaseous and liquid effluents during normal operation of AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Quan; Zhou Jing; Liu Yu

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of pressurized water reactors plant during normal operation are an important content of environmental impact assessment and play a significant role in the design of nuclear power plant. According to the design characters of AP1OOO radioactive waste management system and the study on the calculation method and the release pathways, the calculation model of the gaseous and liquid radioactive releases during normal operation for AP1OOO are established. Base on the established calculation model and the design parameters of AP1000, the expected value of gaseous and liquid radioactive releases of AP1OOO is calculated. The results of calculation are compared with the limits in GB 6249-2011 and explain the adder that is included tu account for anticipated operational occurrences, providing a reference for environmental impact assessment of pressurized water reactor. (authors)

  5. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure by radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-03-01

    On the basis of measurements of the radioactive emissions of a 300 MW coal-fired power plant and of a 600 MW lignite-fired power plant the expected activity increase in air and soil in the environment of both plants is estimated and compared with the normal, natural activity level. Due to these emissions it results for the point of maximum immission a committed effective dose equivalent per GW x a of about 0.2 mrem = 0.002 mSv for the coal-fired plant and of about 0.04 mrem = 0.0004 mSv for the lignite-fired plant. This dose is caused to nearly equal parts by inhalation, ingestion and external γ-radiation. The normalized effective dose equivalent in the environment of the modern coal-fired power plant is in the same order of magnitude like that of a modern pressurized water reactor. The total, collective effective dose equivalent commitment by the annual radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants in the F.R.Germany is estimated to 2000-6000 Man x rem = 20-60 Man x Sv. This corresponds to a mean per caput-dose in the population of the F.R.Germany of about 0.03-0.1 mrem = 0.0003-0.001 mSv; this is about 0.02-0.06% of the mean normal natural radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) [de

  6. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The report is intended as information for the German Bundestag and Bundesrat as well as for the general population interested in issues of radiological protection. The information presented in the report shows that in 1996, the radiation dose to the population was low and amounted to an average of 4 millisievert (mSv), with 60% contributed by natural radiation sources, and 40% by artificial sources. The major natural source was the radioactive gas radon in buildings. Anthropogenic radiation exposure almost exclusively resulted from application of radioactive substances and ionizing radiation in the medical field, for diagnostic purposes. There still is a potential for reducing radiation doses due to these applications. In the reporting year, there were 340 000 persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Only 15% of these received a dose different from zero, the average dose was 1.8 mSv. The data show that the anthropogenic radiation exposure emanating from the uses of atomic energy or applications of ionizing radiation in technology is very low. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Issues on the management and environmental impact of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    There can only be one real issue in considering the disposal of radioactive wastes, and that is safety. However, we are dealing with human activities and nothing can be considered absolutely safe. Issues then develop with considerable speed and complexity around the degree of safety as perceived by the individual or the community and around what some see as the moral dilemma posed by the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The community, whether it be a geographic/political entity or an interest group, usually has its own interest at heart, so that disposal of rad-waste tends to become a local and emotional question. Perceptions of this nature, and the issues that are raised, are discussed subjectively in the hope that a rational approach can be advanced on as many fronts as possible. It is imperative that radioactive wastes be disposed of in such a manner that the biological environment we leave will not be adversely affected by the wastes we leave. (auth)

  8. Geological study of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kitano, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the stability and the barrier efficiency of the deep underground radioactive waste repositories become a subject of great concern. The purpose of this paper is to gather informations on the geology, engineering geology and hydrogeology in deep galleries in Japan. Conclusion can be summarised as follows: (1) The geological structure of deep underground is complicated. (2) Stress in deep underground is greatly affected by crustal movement. (3) Rock-burst phenomena occur in the deep underground excavations. (4) In spite of deep underground, water occasionally gush out from the fractured zone of rock mass. These conclusion will be useful for feasibility study of underground waste disposal and repositories in Japan. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2007-02-01

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg -1 , 22 - 36 Bq kg -1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  10. Environmental risks of radioactive discharges from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Dessel, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, J Vives I; Sweeck, L; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2016-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of releases from a low-level radioactive waste (Category A waste) repository in Dessel, Belgium on the local fauna and flora was assessed under a reference scenario for gradual leaching. The potential impact situations for terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora considered in this study were soil contamination due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater from a well at 70 m from the repository, contamination of the local wetlands receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer and contamination of the local river receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer. In addition, an exploratory study was carried out for biota residing in the groundwater. All impact assessments were performed using the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA) tool. For all scenarios considered, absorbed dose rates to biota were found to be well below the ERICA 10 μGy h -1 screening value. The highest dose rates were observed for the scenario where soil was irrigated with groundwater from the vicinity of the repository. For biota residing in the groundwater well, a few dose rates were slightly above the screening level but significantly below the dose rates at which the smallest effects are observed for those relevant species or groups of species. Given the conservative nature of the assessment, it can be concluded that manmade radionuclides deposited into the environment by the near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel do not have a significant radiological impact to wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-attenuation of gamma rays during radioactivity concentration analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.; Dharmasiri, J.; Akber, R.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy using HPGe detector systems is a readily used technique for routine analysis of radioactivity in environmental samples. The systems are generally calibrated using standards of known radioactivity and composition. Radioactivity in environmental samples is generally distributed in the bulk of the material. When a sample of finite thickness is analysed through gamma spectroscopy, a proportion of the gamma rays emitted from the sample is either stopped or scattered from the sample material itself. These processes of self-absorption and self-attenuation depend upon the physical and elemental composition of the sample and the energy of the gamma radiation. Since environmental samples vary in composition, instrument calibration using a fixed matrix composition may not be valid for a diversity of samples. We selected and analysed five sample matrices to investigate the influence of self-absorption and self-attenuation in environmental samples. Our selection consisted of bentonite and kaolin representing clay, quartz representing silica, ash representing prepared biota, and analytical grade MnO 2 representing a co-precipitant used for extractive radioactivity from aqueous samples. Our findings show that within 5% of uncertainty the silica based standards can be used to cover the environmental samples of varying clay (silica content). The detection efficiency for ash and MnO 2 could be different particularly in the 30 - 100 keV energy range. The differences in sample behaviour can be explained on the basis of atomic number, mass number and density

  12. Environmental Radioactivity Data of Olkiluoto in 1984-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2003-04-01

    In this report, data of the environmental radiation surveillance programme of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is published in a collected format for further reference. The data reported consists of analysis results of selected environmental media and indicator organisms representing human food web, and it covers a period of 1984-2001. In addition to sampling and analysis results, also a concise description of data acquisition methods - when still traceable - and handling is provided as well as locations of sampling sites. (orig.)

  13. Environmental impact assessment on the radioactive of a REE separation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nana; Zhu Yucheng; Cai Minqi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of field actual environment and analysis of radioactive sources, and industrial process techniques, environmental impact of the radioactive from a REE separation project has been analyzed, assessed and forecasted. The investigation and monitoring of actual radioactive in the environment indicated that value of assessment factors remained within the range of natural background level as a whole. The maximum annual individual effective dose for occupational worker and the public were forecasted and were found to be 1.622 mSv/a and 0.029 mSv/a respectively. Both of the values are lower than annual dose limit respectively. The radioactive impact of this project on the environment will comply with the standard limit of law and requirements after the reservation measures are carried out to REE. (authors)

  14. Characterization of environmental radioactivity in the influence zone of IFIN-HH Bucharest, Magurele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlea, C.; Garlea, I.; Kelerman, C.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of 40 years of nuclear related activities on the Bucharest Magurele site, the environment surrounding the area of the institute was significantly influenced. The main facilities acting as sources of radioactive pollution are inter alia the VVR-S research reactor, the U-120 cyclotron, the radioisotope production centre, the radioactive waste treatment plant, and spent fuel storage facility. In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Site characterization techniques used in environmental restoration activities', under research contract No.8735, methods for the characterization of radioactive contamination in the institute influence zone have been developed. The attention focused on the routes involved in radioactive waste and spent fuel management. Based on the environmental monitoring programme developed for the nuclear units on the site, the monitoring network was improved in area Reactor - Spent Fuel Storage - RWTP - railway station for shipping the drums to the national repository Baita-Bihor, an area with elevated radiological risks. Additionally, the work has been extended to the temporary radioactive waste storage at the former Magurele military fort, which is now partially decommissioned. The paper presents techniques, methods and instrumentation used for the radiological characterization of the site Magurele and its influence area, during the period of 1995 - 1999, as well as the respective quality assurance (QA) procedures. The results of this radiological survey presented here will be used to define the environmental restoration programme of the zone. In addition the system for the information of the public developed in this project is discussed. (author)

  15. Environmental radioactivity levels, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Annual report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The report presents data gathered during radiological monitoring program conducted in the environs of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Dose estimates were made from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of media including air, milk, food products, drinking water, and fish. Inhalation and ingestion doses estimated for persons at the indicator locations were essentially identical to those determined for persons at control locations. Greater than 95% of those doses were contributed by the naturally occurring K-40 and by Sr-90 and Cs-137 which are long-lived radioisotopes found in fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Increased levels of I-131 were reported in air, milk, and rainwater following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. In addition, Ru-103, Cs-137, and Cs-134 were identified in air particulates, and traces of Ru-103 were found in rainwater

  16. Honey As A Bioindicator Of Environmental Radioactive Contamination In Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Petrinec, B.; Marovic, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in foodstuffs in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment. The programme has been designed and endorsed by the Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Security and fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty. For describing the overall possible impact the contaminants have on the entire region, the most efficient sampler would be one that covers the largest area possible. In this sense, honey has been shown to be an excellent biological indicator for detecting radionuclides but also other pollutants such as heavy metals. In Croatia, radiocaesium nuclides like 137Cs and 134Cs in honey were first investigated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For both radionuclides, the activity concentrations in honey, which peaked in May 1986, decreased exponentially and the estimated ecological residence time, corrected for radioactive decay, was found to be 1.23 y for 137Cs and 1.07 y for 134Cs. In the early 1990s, activity concentrations in honey for both radionuclides were under the detection limit, but again rose after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Effective radiation doses due to radiocaesium, received by the Croatian population by honey consumption, even in the year of the Chernobyl accident were estimated to be very small, the per caput dose being less than 1 micro Sv. Based on radioecological investigations of honey, we argue that the mobility of honey bees and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program if honey and other bee-farming products are included in the routine radioecological monitoring programme for the Croatian environment. (author).

  17. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  18. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-2008 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Phosphogypsum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. L.; Barrera, M.; Valino, F.

    2010-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-2008 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC. Aphosphogypsum material was used as a test sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analyzing NORM (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials). The analysis required were: U-238, Th-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, Pb-210, Po-210, Th-232 and U-235, and also gross alpha and gross beta activities. Reference values have been established according to the method of consensus of expert laboratories, with four international laboratories of credited experience: IAEA Seibersdorf, IAEA MEL, IRSN-Orsay and Sta.Teresa ENEA. The results of the exercise were computed for 34 answering laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score. Robust statistics of the participants results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The exercise has shown an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the assigned Reference Values. Participant laboratories have demonstrated their ability to determine natural radionuclides in phosphogypsum samples (NORM material) with a satisfactory quality level. The scheme has also allowed examining the capability of laboratories to determine the activities of natural radionuclides at the equilibrium. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. The environmental radioactivity data analysis at the inr platform in the post-chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudor, G.; Valeca, M.; Iordache, R.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the atmosphere and were transported long distances, covering virtually the whole Europe, including Romania. This paper presents the analysis of the environment radioactivity data around the INR site, in the post-Chernobyl period in different types of samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of Chernobyl originated radionuclides concentration in Mioveni-Pitesti area. The selected indicator was Cs-137, which was monitored on a regular basis. From the post-Chernobyl annual reports, were collected the average values for Cs-137 activity in environmental samples. The concentration was determined for eleven sampling locations (soil and vegetation samples) distributed on 10 km distance around INR site, and the determination was made using gamma spectrometry. The data reveals significant variations of the Cs-137 activity. These variations may be generated by various disturbances that detach material from the soil and air, therefore allowing the substance to travel long distances from its origin. (authors)

  20. Environmental radioactivity. Global transport, distribution and its long-term variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, which occurred as a result of huge earthquake and resulting tsunami, had a severe impact on world communities as did Japanese, because of cause of serious radioactivity contamination in the environment. Long-term effects of radioactivity contamination from F1NPP are concerned. To assess the long-term environmental effects of the F1NPP accident, it is important to review the history of global radioactivity contamination, which started from Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions in Aug. 1945. Radionuclides released in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear explosions, nuclear reactor accident and others are migrated between atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere according to natural processes. We describe long-term environmental behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from the atmospheric nuclear explosions and others, which is useful to predict the behaviors and fate of the F1NPP-derived radionuclides. (author)

  1. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1--June 1, 1976. [Fallout, natural radioactivity, and lead in environmental samples from USA, India, and Taiwan during 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    This report presents current data from the HASL environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, the Health Physics Section of the Institute of Nuclear Science in Taiwan and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on the history of long-range fallout, cesium-137 in Bombay milk, natural and fallout radioactivity in Indian diet, reporting results of radioactivity measurements at near zero levels of sample activity and background, plutonium in soil northeast of the Nevada Test Site, radon levels at the Lloyd, NY regional station, strontium-90 in New York and San Francisco diets through 1975, plutonium-239, 240 in 1974 diet, up-dating stratospheric radionuclide inventories to July 1975 and a revised table of radionuclides. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide levels in stratospheric air; lead and radionuclides in surface air; strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, tap water, and human bone; cesium-137 in Chicago foods in April 1976; and environmental radioactivity surveys for nuclear power plants in North Taiwan. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  2. Environmental radioactivity and mitigation of radiological impact at legacy uranium sites in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium legacy sites in the country contain large amounts of milling tailings, mining waste, old infrastructures and acid mine drainage with high radioactivity concentrations. Radioactivity surveillance of these sites has been maintained for many years and institutional control kept beyond cessation of Portuguese uranium mining in 2001. A research programme (2003-2006) requested by the government to assess environmental contamination and public health risks in these regions advised implementing environmental remediation measures. A national programme was approved for remediation of abandoned mine sites, including radioactive and non-radioactive mines, that started in 2005 and since has completed significant remediation works in several old uranium mines. One amongst these sites, the Urgeiriça mine and milling site, was re-engineered, tailings were covered, the mine was closed, the area of mine and milling facilities cleaned, and an automated contaminated water treatment plant installed. Environmental radioactivity surveys carried out in this region showed reduced ambient radiation doses, lower radon concentrations in surface air, return to background radioactivity in surface air aerosols, and decrease of radionuclide concentrations in the river receiving water discharges from the mine site, resulting in a reduced radiation exposure to members of the public. Other legacy uranium mines without milling tailings, were mainly remediated for landscape engineering and the adopted solutions included, for example, preservation of non-contaminated ponds for public leisure. Although not completed yet in many sites, the remediation works implemented contributed already to a significant abatement of radiation exposure allowing for safer implementation of activities, such as agriculture and cattle grazing, in the surroundings of legacy sites. Environmental remediation and abatement of radiation exposure contributed to revitalize socio-economic activities of the region and

  3. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  4. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropikova, S.; Pastuchova, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  5. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  6. A software for radioactivity measurement of Ra, Th and K in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Zhengqiang; Bao Min; Chang Yongfu

    2004-01-01

    Radio nuclides of soil, rock, construction material, and almost everything around us. There is growing concern about environmental radioactivity from both scientists and public from an institutional or a common point of view. The regulation and standard on evaluating radioactivity of environmental samples have been issued recently by the authorities. We have developed special purpose Gamma spectra analysis software named ErSpec. The software can effectively process and analyze Gamma spectra measured by a NaI(T1) spectrometry, and can give a relatively precise results of radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in environmental samples. The main functions of ErSpec include, processing and analyzing Gamma spectra, displaying some useful information for users, generating report, managing user's priority, logging user's manipulation, etc. Because environmental samples usually have low radioactivity and have complex measurement conditions, relative method is employed in ErSpec, and Channel-by-Channel Least-Squared Estimation is adopted as spectra analyzing method. The arithmetic make use of information extracted from data of hundreds of channels, then give a rather good result. In ErSpec, by using external call of MatLAB Math Lib in Visual C++, accuracy and speed of calculation and robustness of software are improved distinctly. Object-Oriented Programming Method and ActiveX techniques are also employed in software designing and coding stage. (authors)

  7. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  8. Environmental radioactivity and chemical composition of different types of bee honeys produced at in-house area, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity and chemical composition of bee honey varies with the surrounding environment (major floral and soil contamination), which reflects the nutritional value of honey. 23SU, 232Th, 40K, >37Cs, major elements Na, K, Mg and Cl and trace elements Mn, Fe, Zn, F, I, Cu, Co, Ni and Sr as well as toxic elements Cd and Pb -were all determined in different types of bee honey, which include non-floral honey with artificial feeding (syrup-feed honey) and mono-floral honeys (clover honey or sesame honey or orange honey). These elements were also determined in the bee feeds, which include flowers (clover, sesame and orange) and syrup. The results revealed that of all types of honeys and syrup-feed honey exhibited higher natural radioactivity and higher concentrations ofNa, K, Mg, Cl, oMn, Fe, Co, Cd and Pb than in the other honeys. Orange honey contained the lowest natural radioactivity and element concentrations. Clover honey had the lowest toxic element Cd and Pb concentrations (0.02 and 4.2/xg/g, respectively) while sesame honey contained the highest levels of Cd and F (0.7 and 12.9 /ig/g, respectively). Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between honey and the feed (R= 0.745 to 0.921). Environmental radioactivity and element concentrations in the honey under study were in the safety baseline levels for human consumption

  9. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1980-07-01

    The present newest edition of the bibliographic series contains 209 quotations which mainly arise from the past two years. The main topics are the following chapters: General environmental surveillance (40), supervision of nuclear plants (36) and ecosystems in the country and in food chains. (52). (MG) [de

  10. Studies on radioactivity distribution and radioactive mineral identification in uranium ores from Espinharas (PB), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.N.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    Studies about the identification of radioactive minerals in uranium bearing rocks from Espinharas (PB), Brazil are presented. Autoradiography with α-sensitive nuclear emulsions was utilized for determining radioctivity distributions and for localizing radioactive minerals, in combination with microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, PIXE and eletron microprobe analysis for its identification. Mineralized gneisse and feldspatic rock, the two principal samples studied, show distinct differences in radioactive distribution patterns, however the main carriers for U and Th seem to be the same. Microanalysis shows that elements are associated with Si, Ca, Fe and Al an some trace elements like Y, Zr, Ti, etc. U and Th are distributed uniformly in feldspatic rock and inhomogeneously in mineralized gneisse, indicating that the zonary structure of the radioactive cristals, frequently observed in gneisse, could be due to variable U:Th ratios. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction datas and microscopic studies indicates that the principal carrier for radioactivity in the rocks of Espinharas is a silicate mineral of U and Th, probably situaded in the series of transition: Coffinite -> uraninite, thorogummite -> thorianite. Some additional experiments about leachability of uranium with diluted sulfuric acid are reported, which confirm the different nature of radioactivity distribution in feldspatic and gneissic rocks. (author) [pt

  11. Present status of marine environmental radioactivity survey in the sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, H.

    1994-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency has been conducting some Marine Environmental Radioactivity Surveys around Japan in cooperation with the relevant organizations (Maritime Safety Agency, Japan Meteorological Agency, Fishery Agency, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and Marine Ecology Research Institute). Several artificial radionuclides have been detected but the main origin is supposed to be fall-out. The level trend of marine environmental radioactivity has no anomalies excepting the effect of Chernobyl Accident. The data summarized here are as follows. 1. Marine Environmental Survey of Fisheries near the Nuclear Power Stations, 2. Past Data of Marine Environmental Radioactivity around Japan (Apr. 1982 - Mar. 1991), 3. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (spring, 1993), 4. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (autumn, 1993). In addition, JAPAN-KOREA-RUSSIA JOINT EXPEDITION in the Sea of Japan will start in the middle of March. We are expecting to get valuable data through the EXPEDITION. (J.P.N.)

  12. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  13. Engineering study radioactive liquid waste treatment plant refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suazo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study will investigate the opportunities, restrictions and cost impact to refurbish the existing Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (RLWTP) while utilizing the same basic criteria that was used in the development of the new Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The objective of this study is to perform a more in-depth analysis of refurbishing the existing than has been done in the past so as to provide a basis for comparison between refurbishing the existing or constructing a new. The existing plant is located at Technical Area 50 (TA-50) within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The initial structure was built in 1963. Over the ensuing years, the building has been modified and several additions have been constructed. In 1966, laboratories, ion exchange and pretreatment functions were added. The decontamination and decommissioning activities and ventilation equipment were added in 1984. The following assumptions are the basic parameters considered in the development of a design concept to refurbish the RLWTP: (1) Allow continued operation of the during retrofit construction. (2) Design the necessary expansion within the site constraints. (3) Satisfy National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) permit conditions and other environmental regulations. (4) Comply with present DOE Orders and building code requirements. The refurbishment concept is a phased demolition and construction process

  14. Environmental airborn radioactivity survey around Burg El Arab Area, Western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.; Ammar, A.A.; Meleik, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental airborne radioactivity survey of approximately 250 square kilometres of Burg El Arab area was conducted by the Airborne Geophysical survey Division of the Geology and Raw Materials Department. The environmental levels of gamma radiation are measured so as to determine quickly the amount and extent of any possible future increase in radioactivity levels of the area by the proposed nuclear facility through normal operations or any accident that may occur. The aerial radiometric measurements were obtained by a continuously recording airborne scintillometer type RVS-1. installed in an Antonoff-2 aircraft, flying at an average speed of 170 Km/h, at a nominal ground clearance of 50 m. The survey was carried out along 84 parallel flight lines directed N-S, and spaced 250 m apart. The area is shown on the geological map as composed of four lithological units. The analysis of the data has proved that these units correspond to six distinct levels of characteristic radioactivity, as two of the lithological units could each be separated into two radioactivity levels on the basis of the radioactivity pattern. The six radiometric levels are, from north to south, beach limy sediments (15 to 101. and 97 to 191 cps), detrital limestone (201 to 354 cpt), saline lakes and salt deposits (262 to 444 cps), and alluvial deposits (307 to 308 and 412 to 742 cps)

  15. Analysis in environmental radioactivity around Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, again of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied form KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin NPPs and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  16. Studies on osmotic concentration of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of direct osmosis for concentrating radioactive effluents is examined on the laboratory scale. Studies were carried out using asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes of a range of porosities under varying salinity gradients. A suitable bench scale osmotic concentrator employing tubular membrane systems has been fabricated and tested. An attempt to understand the mechanism of water permeation under osmotic and hydrostatic gradients has been made based on the irreversible thermodynamic approach. The solute separation of sodium chloride and radionuclides under osmosis is in the range of 85 to 95% for various osmotic sink solutions. The osmotic water flux is observed to be lower than the hydraulic water flux under reverse osmosis conditions. While the solute separation increases with an increase in annealing temperature, water flux decreases for both osmosis and reverse osmosis systems for various feed salinities. The effect of concentration polarization is analysed, and the effect of feed and osmotic sink velocity on the performance of the osmotic concentrator has also been studied. (orig.)

  17. Surface and Interface Studies with Radioactive Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Weber, A

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on the atomic scale of magnetic surfaces and magnetic multilayers were performed by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. The unique combination of the Booster ISOLDE facility equipped with a UHV beamline and the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) is ideally suited for such microscopic studies. Main advantages are the choice of problem-oriented radioactive probes and the purity of mass-separated beams. The following results were obtained: $\\,$i) Magnetic hyperfine fields (B$_{hf}$) of Se on Fe, Co, Ni surfaces were determined. The results prompted a theoretical study on the B$_{hf}$ values of the 4sp-elements in adatom position on Ni and Fe, confirming our results and predicting unexpected behaviour for the other elements. $\\,$ii) Exemplarily we have determined B$_{hf}$ values of $^{111}$Cd at many different adsorption sites on Ni surfaces. We found a strong dependence on the coordination number of the probes. With decreasing coordination nu...

  18. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  19. Romanian experience in a assessment of the risk and environmental consequences due to radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The transport of radioactive materials (RAM) is a very important problem taking into consideration its potential risks over the environment and the radiological consequences of this activity. Romania as a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency has implemented national regulations for a safe transport of RAM in complying with the Agency's recommendations as well as other international specialized organizations. The paper will present the main sources of radioactive materials in Romania, and their transportation routes with a particular focus on the radioactive wastes (very low level and mixed low-level radioactive materials), radioactive isotopes and sources, and natural uranium ore. Starting from the fact that the safety in the transport of radioactive materials is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped, rather than operational and/or administrative actions required for the package, the paper presents, very briefly, the qualification tests for the main packages used for transport and storage of RAM in Romania. There are presented also specific problems related to the identification and evaluation of the environmental risks and impacts as well as the potential radiological consequences associated with the transport of radioactive materials, for all those three possible situations: routine transport (without incidents), normal transport (with minor incidents) and during potential accidents. As a conclusion, it is stated that the evaluated annual collective dose for the population due to RAM transport is less than those received by natural radiation sources. At the same time it is concluded that Romanian made packages are safe and prevent loss of its radioactive contents into environment. (author)

  20. Development of Data Base on Radioactive Discharges and Environmental Activity Levels in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in the environment in Slovenia has been currently performed on a regular basis as a monitoring of global radioactive contamination and as operational monitoring in the surroundings of facilities with radioactive discharges. Environmental radioactivity monitoring due to atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in Slovenia started in 1961, while monitoring of radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities in Slovenia started in early 1980s with the extent programmes: in the Krsko nuclear power plant in 1981, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Zirovski vrh (1985) and in the research reactor at Brinje near Ljubljana (1986). Both categories of the results are documented in written reports and sent to the competent authorities, mostly on annual basis. According to the requirements of the European Commission (Commission Recommendation of 8. June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty concerning the monitoring of the levels of the radioactivity in the environment for the purpose of assessing the exposure of the population as a whole (2000/473/Euratom) and Commission Recommendation of 6. December 1999 on the application of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty (1999/829/Euratom)) and on initiative of the IAEA (IAEA Document International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Project International Data base on Discharges of Radioactive Material to the Environment, 2000) the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) started in 2002 with development of the computerised data base on environmental data and radioactive discharges data for the most facilities, specially for the nuclear fuel cycle. At present the environmental database contains the data on global contamination of air, surface waters, tap water sources and food chain (1 37C s, 9 0S r) and also on levels of major natural radionuclides (7 B e, 2 10P b, 2 26R a, 4 0K ). Data base on radioactive discharges for the recent years comprises the activities of fission and activation

  1. Studies of nuclei using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1989-07-01

    The 12 month period from May 1988 to July 1989 represents the first full year of our 18 month pilot program in nuclear structure research. In this period, research was initiated to develop a capability for radioactive secondary beams at Argonne National Laboratory using the Atlas and the new Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA), which is currently under construction. Two major new detector facilities are currently in the final stages of design and testing. The Large-Area, Scintillator Telescope (LAST) detector is fully operational and will be shipped to Argonne National Laboratory in August for fit-tests and in-beam calibrations. The first segments of a new sixteen-segment neutron multiplicity detector have been built and tested. The remaining segments are currently being constructed. Research was continued in the areas of (1) Coulomb excitation studies of rare earth and actinide nuclei; (2) In-beam, gamma-ray spectroscopy of nuclei in the mass 100 region, and (3) Advanced detector design. Several journal articles and abstracts were published or submitted for publication in the reporting period, and others are currently in preparation. Three graduate students participated in the program, one from the University of Florida and two from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

  2. Environmental justice: Implications for siting of Federal Radioactive Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Poles, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental justice is a term that has developed as a result of our need to address whether some of the environmental decisions we have made -- and others we will make -- are fair. The idea of environmental justice has been actively pursued by the Clinton Administration, and this consideration has resulted in Executive Order 12898, which was signed by President Clinton on February 11, 1994. The Executive Order calls for adverse impacts of Federal actions on minority or low-income populations to be identified before decisions implementing those actions are made. Numerous studies show that noxious facilities, such as incinerators and landfills, have been constructed in minority or low-income communities. And since the Department has not yet decided on sites for high-level waste storage or disposal facilities, it will have to take the new Executive Order into consideration as another piece in the complicated quilt of requirements that cover facility siting. An interesting twist to this is the fact that twenty Native American Indian Tribes expressed interest in voluntarily hosting a high-level radioactive waste management facility for temporary storage. They made these expressions on their own initiative, and several Tribes continue to pursue the idea of negotiations with either the Federal Government or private entities to locate a temporary storage site on Tribal land. The Executive Order goes beyond simply studying the effect of siting a facility and addresses in spirit a criticism that the Federal Government has been guilty of open-quotes environmental racismclose quotes in its siting policies -- that it has intentionally picked minority or low-income communities for waste management facilities. What Department of Energy staff and others may have considered foregone conclusions in terms of interim storage facility siting and transportation options will have to be reevaluated for compatibility with provisions of the new Executive Order

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed

  4. The environmental and ethical basis of the geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1995-01-01

    This partial translation into Finnish of the recently issued Collective Opinion of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is published here to provide general information to the members of the Finnish Nuclear Society. Full translation will be published later by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The collective opinion addresses the strategy for the final disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes seen from an environmental and ethical perspective, including considerations of equity and fairness within and between generations

  5. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  6. Assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination levels by depleted uranium after NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.; Markovic, S; Plecas, I.

    2001-01-01

    During NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia various ammunition have been used, some of them for the first time. Among others, 30 mm bullets with depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been used. Radioactivity contamination surveys have started during the war due to indications that DU is used in cruise missiles. Besides that, there were a lot of radioactivity analysis of food, drinking water etc. Some of the obtained results are presented in this paper. Depleted uranium ammunition can permanently contaminate environment and so produce effects on population. Relation of the international radiation and environmental protection standards and contamination levels are discussed as well. (author)

  7. Managing environmental radioactivity monitoring data: a geographic information system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywood, I.; Cornelius, S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the current British approach to environmental radiation monitoring is presented here, followed by a discussion of the major issues which would have to be considered in formulating a geographical information system (GIS) for the management of radiation monitoring data. Finally, examples illustrating the use of spatial data handling and automated cartographic techniques are provided from work undertaken by the authors. These examples are discussed in the context of developing a National Radiological Spatial Information System (NRSIS) demonstrator utilising GIS technology. (Author)

  8. Environmental impact of radioactive releases: Addressing global issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the decade after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972, the IAEA organized a series of international meetings with themes concerned with radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. In the atmosphere of concern for the environment which followed the UN Conference, the IAEA-sponsored meetings provided a focal point for international discussion and served to summarize the state of knowledge on radionuclide behaviour in different environmental media. A considerable amount of research was, at that time, being directed in IAEA Member States towards achieving an understanding of the behavior of radionuclides, and especially of long-lived radionuclides, in the terrestrial and aquatic environments

  9. Environmental pollution: influence on the operation of a sensor of radioactive aerosols; Contaminacion ambiental: influencia en el funcionamiento de un captador de aerosoles radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Martin Delgado, J.; Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Perez Lopez, M.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. c.

    2013-07-01

    The content of radioactive aerosols in the air is an important component to estimate the ambient radiation dose. In the laboratories of environmental radioactivity, measurements of radionuclides in air they are performed using sensors. The flow picked up by the equipment can be changed if the degree of air pollution changes for some reason. It handles this study and the population doses are estimated due to inhalation of ambient air. (Author)

  10. RFID technology for environmental remediation and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y.; Shuler, James

    2011-01-01

    An advanced Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system capable of tracking and monitoring a wide range of materials and components - from fissionable stocks to radioactive wastes - has been developed. The system offers a number of advantages, including enhanced safety, security and safeguards, reduced personnel exposure to radiation, and improved inventory control and cost-effectiveness. Using sensors, RFID tags can monitor the state of health of the tracked items and trigger alarms instantly when the normal ranges are violated. Nonvolatile memories in the tags can store sensor data, event records, as well as a contents manifest. Gamma irradiation tests showed that the tag components possess significant radiation resistance. Long-life batteries and smart management circuitries permit the tags to operate for up to 10 years without battery replacement. The tags have a near universal form factor, i.e., they can fit different package types. The read range is up to >100 m with no line-of-sight required. With careful implementation, even a large-size processing or storage facility with a complex configuration can be monitored with a handful of readers in a network. In transportation, by incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite/cellular communication technology, and secure Internet, situation awareness is assured continuously. The RFID system, when integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, can promptly provide content- and event-specific information to first responders and emergency management teams in case of incidents. In stand-alone applications, the monitoring and tracking data are contained within the local computer. With a secure Internet, information can be shared within the complex or even globally in real time. As with the deployment of any new technology, overcoming the cultural resistance is part of the developmental process. With a strong institutional support and multiple successful live demonstrations, the cultural

  11. Environmental radioactivity investigations in the Georgian subtropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagava, S.; Kakashvili, P.; Avtandilashvili, M.; Kharashvili, G.; Robakidze, Z.; Rusetski, V.; Togonidze, G.; Baratashvili, D.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental changes in the contamination of the Georgian subtropical region have been investigated by analysing anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in samples of soil and tea leaves for possible chromosome mutations. As the tea industry in Georgia is an important economic activity, such investigations are of great importance. The changes in the morphology of tea leaves, their colour, blossoming, growth inhibition or stimulation, prolongation of the germination period and levels of tanin-katechin complexes have been investigated. The results of radionuclide measurements in soil and tea leaves ( 40 K, 210 Pb and 137 Cs) are presented. Elevated concentrations of 137 Cs were observed in soil samples due to fallout from Chernobyl, however, no direct relationship between the concentration of 137 Cs in soil and tea leaves has been observed. Cyto-genetic analyses of tea primary roots will be presented and compared for different time periods. Further, ichtyofauna samples taken from the Georgian subtropical areas were analysed for anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) and natural ( 40 K) radionuclides. The observed concentrations of 137 Cs were low, close to the detection limit of the order of 0.4 Bq/kg dry weight. Some of the investigations were carried out in the framework of the IAEA Technical Co-operation project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region'

  12. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-100 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-00 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. the exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. the test sample was a soil containing environmental levels of K-40, Ra-226, Ac-228, Sr-90, Cs-137, Cs-134, Pu (239-240) y Am-241. the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona prepared the material and reported adequate statistical studies of homogeneity. The results of the exercise were computed for 30 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the u-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The exercise has drawn that several laboratories have difficulties in the evaluation of combined uncertainty, mainly in analysis involving radiochemical steps. The study has shown an homogeneous inter-laboratory behaviour, and the improvement achieved through subsequent exercises in the quality of the data they are producing. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; Rosa, Rosanna De; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  14. Radioactive fuel cask railcar humping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    The response of two radioactive shipping casks due to railroad humping shocks was calculated using a spring-mass model. The two railcars for these casks had different coupling mechanisms and different tiedown arrangements. Humping tests had been performed on one of the railcars (ATMX-600) and the resulting shock spectra was used to adjust the spring-mass model to get matching results. One car (designed for cask shipment) was equipped with Freightmaster E-15 end of car coupler and had about 1 / 8 in. free travel of the cask skid relative to the car. The other car (ATMX-600), equipped with Miner RF-333 draft gear, was designed for nuclear weapon shipment and adapted to nuclear waste shipment by fastening the casks to the floor. Both car frames were built by the same manufacturer and are very similar. The response of the casks was put in shock spectra format and a parametric study was performed with various cask weights. Additional studies were done on the effects of fastening the loose cask, and using the Freightmaster end of car coupler on the ATMX car. Half-sine response spectra were overlaid to include the natural frequency of the cask tiedown. The resulting shock amplitude was plotted against the cask weight for each car. The results show a constant acceleration level for all the weights on the car with hydraulic end-of-car coupler which results from constant force at that impact velocity. The cask acceleration can be reduced by fastening it to the car, rather than allowing it to move freely through some small space. This study also shows that the cask response can be optimized on railcars without hydraulic draft gear by adjusting the tiedown stiffness to keep the tiedown frequency different than car frequencies

  15. Variation of radioactivity in the environmental media and dose evaluation in Suzhou city after normal operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Rongchu; Liu Li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radioactive monitoring in environmental media of Suzhou City when Qinshan Nuclear Power Station was in normal operational condition (from 1992-2001). Methods: The radiochemical method was used for monitoring the radioactivity level in air, soil and food. Results: The total radioactivity, concentrations of 134 I and 134,137 Cs in environmental media was far lower than the limit values specified by the national standard GB. Conclusion: The radioactivity level in Suzhou City is at the natural background level. The individual annual average effective dose for adults in that period caused by ingestion 134,137 Cs in food is 4.41 x 10 -4 mSv/a

  16. Experimental studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.L.; Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of information presented are essentially taken from the papers reported at several international seminars and those appeared in the Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Production and usage of radioactive ion beams (RIB) in research have received the attention of scientists all over the world during the past six years. The first radioactive ion beams ( 19 Ne) were produced at Bevalac for the purpose of medical research using a primary beam of energy 800 MeV/a.m.u. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Punta Higuero environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yeaman, M.N.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Punta Higuero site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish communities. Plant associations are included. (U.S.)

  18. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.

    1991-12-01

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  19. Development and implementation of a construction environmental protection program at a solid radioactive waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Bishop, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada); Hickman, C.N. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Refurbishment of ageing nuclear stations has great economic and environmental benefits, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The Government of New Brunswick (NB) decided in 2005 to refurbish the Point Lepreau Generating Station with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the general contractor. The project includes construction of additional radioactive waste management facilities. AECL developed, for the construction project, an environmental protection program to comply with commitments made during the environmental assessment process, and regulatory requirements. The program covers detailed environmental plans, training courses, and engagement of consultants to provide training and conduct monitoring of the construction activities. Construction related environmental effects have been successfully mitigated and the monitoring results indicate compliance with all environmental requirements. (author)

  20. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hareyama, H.; Takeishi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited has carried out environmental monitoring in order to check that the dose of radiation to which the public is exposed around the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is much lower than the annual dose limit. The monitoring is mainly carried out according to 'the program decided by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) of Japan' and 'the program decided by the Aomori Prefectural Government.' In this report, we present information on the monitoring according to the NSC program, that is the point of view of selection of the monitoring items for dose assessment, the point of view of the dose assessment from the monitoring results, etc. Also, we report on estimation of the effects from the facilities on the monitoring results obtained and dose assessment of the public during Active testing of RRP. (author)

  1. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  2. The applications of vehicle borne and ground gamma ray spectrometry in environmental radioactivity survey and monitoring: examples from the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.Y.; Petrache, C.A.; Garcia, N.Q.; Tabora, E.U.; Juson, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the nuclear development all over the world, there is an increasing global awareness on matters related to radioactivity and radioactive accidents. As such, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) acquired through a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency the vehicle borne (car borne) and portable (ground) gamma ray, spectrometers. The objectives of this project were to establish environmental baseline information on the natural radioactivity of the entire country and to generate radioelement maps for geological mapping and mineral resource assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the different surveys including the methodologies and techniques conducted in the country using both spectrometers in effectively mapping natural and man-made sources of radiation. A pilot survey was successfully carried out over the small island of Marinduque (989 km 2 ) using the combined car borne and ground gamma ray spectrometric survey techniques. This was in preparation of the planned nationwide survey using this approach. Highlight of this study was the production of the first natural radioactivity maps within the country. Interestingly, these maps closely reflect the local geology of Marinduque Island. Car borne gamma ray spectrometric surveys were likewise undertaken at the former US naval base in Subic and US airforce base in Clark. This was due to mounting public concern over the presence of possible radioactive contamination or materials left behind by the US military forces in these bases. Results using the gamma-ray spectrum ratio technique indicated the absence of man-made sources of radiation in areas monitored within the two bases. A sizeable part of Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines, has also been covered by the car borne survey. Results discovered an area with high measurements of thorium. The radiation source is coming from an establishment that uses thorium nitrate in

  3. Preliminary information on studies of radioactive rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, A A; Beltran, V; Brody, T A; Lezama, H; Moreno, A; Tejera, M A; Vazquer, B

    1956-01-01

    Data on radioactive rain, which were obtained by the gummed leaf method and by collection in a free surface of water are presented. The experimental methods are described. Some conclusions are obtained on the relative efficiency of the two methods and their relations to atmospheric precipitation.

  4. On the variation of environmental radioactivity in Dae-Jeon area (Jan. 1977-Dec. 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.P.; Oh, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This study concerns with gamma-ray exposure in natural background radiation and radioactivities in the air-borne dust, the fall-out, and the rain-out which had been measured in Dae-Jeon area during the period of five years from Jan. 1, 1977 to Dec. 31, 1981. The special survey results from the 22th, 23th, and 24th nuclear explosion tests carred out by Red China are included in this paper. The results of these measurements are as follows: 1. The average value of natural background radiation in the laboratory 20.69μR/hr, and it is found that the natural background was not affected by the nuclear explosion tests. 2. The average value of radioactivity in the air-borne dust is 0.11pμci/cc, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 0.47pμci/cc. 3. The average value of radioactivity of the fall-out is 0.09mci/km 2 -10d, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 0.84mci/km 2 -10d. 4. The average value of radioactivity in the rain-out is 0.45 x 10 -8 μci/cc, and the maximum value of radioactivity during the period is 1.97 x 10 -8 μci/cc. (Author)

  5. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sea disposal operations of packaged low-level radioactive waste are carried out under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, also referred to as the London Dumping Convention. The environmental impact of this disposal method is continuously kept under review, in particular within the IAEA which has provided the ''Definition of High-Level Radioactive Waste or Other High-Level Radioactive Matter Unsuitable for Dumping at Sea'' for the purpose of the Convention and within the OECD-NEA in the framework of its Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The NEA Co-Ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) is focussed on the actual North-East Atlantic dump site. Its objective is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Future site suitability reviews, as periodically requested under the terms of the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism, will therefore be based on a more accurate and comprehensive scientific basis

  6. Marine environmental monitoring related to sea disposal of radioactive waste in the NE Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, A.O.; Elias, M.D.T.; Ferrador, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    Reference is made to the sea disposal of packaged radioactive waste in the NE Atlantic and to the role of the OCDE Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) since 1967, in the dumping operations. The objectives of marine environmental monitoring in relation to sea disposal of radioactive wastes are described as well as the coordinated research and environmental surveillance programme (CRESP) developed within NEA frame. The Portuguese on-going programme in this field is presented and the results concerning measurements of 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs in samples of water, sediments and fish collected at Madeira and Continental Portuguese coasts, are discussed. It was observed that these radionuclides concentrations are lower for deep-sea fishes than for the shallow-water ones. The obtained results are compared with those found in the literature. From the observation of the large spectrum of results available, it can be concluded that no generalized contamination of the marine environment due to the sea dumping of radioactive wastes if observed at present. On the other hand, there is an interest in pursuing analyses of deep-sea fish with the aim of early detection of any possible modifications in the actual levels of radioactivity in the marine environment. (author) [pt

  7. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1979 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1979. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. To facilitate an appreciation of the standard of safety achieved, the discharges are, where appropriate, shown as a percentage of those authorised. In the case of atmospheric discharges no quantitative limits are yet specified in the authorisations, but the results and estimates of discharges from stacks are compared with Derived Working Limits (DWL's) (i.e. a limit derived from the dose limits recommended by The International Commission on Radiological Protection in such a way that compliance with it implies virtual certainty of compliance with the relevant dose limits). Environmental monitoring results are also compared with appropriate DWL's. The principles underlying the control of the discharge of radioactive waste to the environment are summarised in an Appendix to the report. (author)

  8. The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples by preferential ion exchange separation from calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroto; Nonaka, Nobuhiro; Honda, Tetsutaro; Kimura, Toshimasa; Higuchi, Hideo

    1979-01-01

    The determination of radioactive strontium in environmental samples involves a difficulty in the separation and purification of strontium from large amounts of calcium. The principal technique employed in this study is based on a cation exchange separation after preferential chelation of calcium over strontium by EDTA. The alkaline earth fraction separated from samples is dissolved in 1.2 M HCl and an equivalent amount of EDTA is added. The solution is passed through a Dowex 50W-X8 ion exchange column at a flow rate of 20 ml/min after the pH has been adjusted to 5.1. A fraction of calcium retained on the resin is eluted out with 1.8 l of 2 w/v% EDTA solution at pH 5.1. Then the strontium is eluted with 450 ml of 2 M HCl. The strontium carbonate is precipitated, and the chemical yield is determined. After standing for 14 days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of 90 Sr - 90 Y, the activity of 89 Sr + 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured. Then the activity of 90 Sr + 90 Y is measured by milking the 90 Y. The proposed procedure has been applied to sea water, soil and various ash samples of vegetables, seaweeds and daily foods. The results obtained are in good agreement with those by a classical fuming nitric acid precipitation method. The detection limits are 0.1 pCi/l for 10 l of sea water, 10 pCi/kg for 100 g of soil and 1 pCi/kg-fresh for 20 g ash samples, respectively. (author)

  9. Specific calibration problems for gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Wershofen, H [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples are always done in a close source detector geometry. This geometry causes coincidence-summing effects for measurements of multi-photon emitting nuclides. The measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples are also influenced by the absorption of photons in the materials which have to be analysed. Both effects must be taken into account by correction factors with respect to an energy-specific calibration of the detector system for a given geometry and a given composition of the calibration source. The importance of these corrections is emphasized. It is the aim of the present paper to compare different experimental and theoretical methods for the determination of these correction factors published by various authors and to report about efforts to refine them. (orig.)

  10. Sources to environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear activities in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.G.; Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Cheliabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent

  11. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report presents results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out by DRPS during 1988. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). (author)

  12. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  13. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site's original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site's new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed

  14. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor; Deposito de rejeitos radioativos como agente de preservacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author) 22 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.; e-mail: paulo at cnen.gov.br

  15. Environmental surveillance for the INEL Radioactive-Waste-Management complex. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, D.H.; Zahn, T.P.

    1982-09-01

    The 1981 environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory contains data and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of the atmospheric, hydrologic, and geologic environments of the RWMC. Additional discussions include results of routine monitoring of two surplus facilities, the Stationary Low-Power Reactor No. 1 Surplus Area and the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment. Each area has produced localized effects on the environment, but containment is well within the INEL site boundary

  16. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in surface water from an ecological point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebel, K.

    1981-01-01

    For each bigger river section, ecological transition factors for the individual relevant media are to be determined. Because of the great biologic variability long-term investigations are necessary. For most of the nuclides, the deviations are more than two orders of magnitude; therefore, many values are necessary for guaranteeing the statistics. Here, the 'general environmental radioactivity monitoring' is offered. There are results (Bavaria) from 25 years which represent extensive material for the purposes of radio-ecology. (DG) [de

  17. Environmental monitoring and radiation protection programs of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, M.; Kostova, M.; Sheherov, L.; Bekiarov, P.; Iovtchev, M.

    2000-01-01

    The system for monitoring and control as an important part of the safety management of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository contains two independent programs: environmental monitoring of the site (controlled area), the restricted access area and the surveillance area (supervised area) of the repository and radiation protection program including personal dosimetric control and indoor dosimetric control of workplaces in the buildings of the repository. The main activities related to the programs implementation are presented

  18. Environmental and ethical aspects of long-lived radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    All countries engaged in nuclear production give special attention to the safe disposal of radioactive waste, particularly concerning long-term protection of humans and the environment. Many other countries using radioactive materials for medical, industrial or research purposes only are also concerned by this issue. Practically speaking, all countries are generally interested in keeping abreast of the development of radioactive waste management policies and of underlying technical and non-technical studies. These issues and their influence on the decision-making process were examined at a special workshop of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee. This volume presents the full proceedings of that workshop, including papers and transcribed discussions, which sought to provide a broad basis for an in-depth reflection on long-term disposal issues. (authors). 79 refs., 1 tab

  19. Study of the on line radioactive multicharged ion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecesne, N.

    1997-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne) which will start at GANIL at the end of 1998. The aim of the thesis was to study the on line radioactive multicharged ion beam production stages, i.e. the production and diffusion of the radioactive nuclei in a thick target, their possible transfer up to an ECR ion source and their ionisation. Production cross sections of radioactive neutron rich nuclei, formed by fragmentation of a heavy ion beam in a thick target, were measured. An external target-ECR source system, dedicated to the radioactive noble gases production, and two internal target-ECR source systems, dedicated to the radioactive condensable element production, were built and tested on the SIRa tests bench (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs). Different detection configurations were elaborated in order to identify the radioactive nuclei and estimate their production yields. Finally, a new method for measuring the overall efficiency of the separator was developed and allowed to study the diffusion properties of radioactive noble gases in various targets. (author)

  20. Decrease of Environmental Radioactivity After Terminated Restoration of the Uranium Mine Site at Zirovski Vrh (Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Rojc, J.

    2011-01-01

    The uranium mining and milling complex at Zirovski vrh, located 45 km NW from Ljubljana, was in operation in the period 1985 - 1990 and produced about 452 tonnes of yellow cake. In parallel, over 0.6 million tonnes of technological tailings and 2.6 million tonnes of mine waste rock were generated and deposited on separate disposal sites in close vicinity of the mining site, with the total area of 10 hectares. The disposal sites were completely restored, mostly in the last decade. The processing plant, located in the Brebovscica valley, was decommissioned in the nineties. All provisional facilities were removed from the central site at Todraz and transferred to the mine waste deposit. The restoration works were finished in 2010, twenty years after the cessation of uranium production. Radioactive discharges and radioactivity in the environment were monitored during operation of the uranium mine, continued during restoration phases and will be monitored a certain period afterwards. The aim of this paper is to present the radioactive discharges and enhanced levels of radioactivity in the nearby environment, monitored during the operation period of the U-mine and after terminated restoration works. The most significant decreases of radioactivity after the restoration of the site were identified. The results of environmental radioactivity monitoring showed that radioactivity steadily decreased according to the different phases of the mine decommission. After restoration, radioactivity levels on the site and in close vicinity are approaching to the background levels, except for radon in air and for waters. Consequently, radiation exposure to the reference groups of the population decreased from 0.3 - 0.4 mSv per year during operation to about 0.1 mSv per year after finalized restoration works. This figure is much lower than the authorised limit of 0.3 mSv per year, set by the Slovenian competent authority. Still enhanced levels of radioactivity were found in surface