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Sample records for environmental radioactivity measurement

  1. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  2. Environmental radioactivity measurement. Ispra 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Risposi, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1990 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are give on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, HTO and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  3. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  4. Measurement of environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1979-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1977 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishement. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  5. Measurements of environmental radioactivity, Ispra 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1988 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  6. Measurement of environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1977-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1976 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establisment. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  7. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring; Umweltradioaktivitaet. Messung und Ueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  8. Measurement of environmental radioactivity in Toki district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    When the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, expressed the hope to move into Toki district, the environmental problems accompanying the movement were discussed. The effect of the radioactivity leaking from the nuclear facility on human bodies must be far smaller than that of natural radiation, and for the purpose, the amount and fluctuation range of the natural radiation in the district must be known. The initial objectives of this cooperative research were to study on environmental radiation and to make a Geiger counter for the measurement. In 1981, a scintillation counter will be completed, and using a multi-channel pulse height analyzer, the nuclides which are the source of environmental radiation emission will be identified, and the tritium in natural water will be detected. Thus, the evaluation of environmental radiation can be carried out, and the situation before the movement of the research facility can be grasped. In this paper, the natural radioactivity in earth, atmosphere and water and cosmic ray, artificial radioactivity, and environmental radiation exposure dose are reported. Also, the manufacture of a GM counter measuring instrument and the measurements of cosmic ray background, typical earth samples and environmental radioactivity with the GM counter are reported. The related data are attached. (Kako, I.)

  9. Environmental radioactivity measurement intercomparison exercise 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, S.M.

    1991-05-01

    In a recent national intercomparison exercise, 49 laboratories involved in making environmental radioactivity measurements took part in the analysis of samples supplied by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom. There were two sets of samples; one containing pure β-emitters and one containing β/γ-emitters. Two thirds of the participants measured the β/γ-emitter sample only, the remainder measured both. The results are presented. (author)

  10. Modern systems for environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, A.; Borodeanu, C.

    1995-01-01

    The system for environmental radioactivity measurements with automatic data transmission represents a better solution for nuclear safety assurance. The 'intelligent probe' will be of real use for surveying the environmental radioactivity. The probes work independently. They measure the dose rate and store the data in their internal memory. Many such probes can be spread all over a large area. They are able to measure dose rate from the background level up to high catastrophic levels. A central computer 'asks' periodically the probes to send their stored data. This computer stores the data from many probes over a long time. It can show in 'windows' manner the dose rate from any probe (either in a numerical or graphical way), the position on a map of every probe and the corresponding results of the measurements. In can alert, if an alarm threshold is crossed or it can print on a printer the data for any single probe. (author)

  11. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  12. The French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunet, P.

    2010-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident in 1986, the government began to implement mechanisms to ensure the quality of measurements of environmental radioactivity and to assure the transparency of information on environmental radioactivity monitoring results. Within this context, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (RNM), is created in 2002 under the Public Health Code. This network is developed under the auspices of ASN in collaboration with IRSN and in partnership with government departments, major nuclear licensees, health agencies and environmental protection associations. In order to centralize information on environmental radioactivity and to provide access to measurement results, a single database that includes an the results of measurements of radioactivity in the environment on the national territory is build and a new web-site www.mesure-radioactivite.fr is launched. It provides quick and easy access to this database. The quality of measurements is performed by a laboratory system through an ASN decision. Novel initiative in Europe, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity web-site gives the user keys to understand the measurement results on the radiological state of the environment. The site will be improved over the time taking into account the feedback of the users. (author)

  13. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised 40 K, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends

  14. NPL support for environmental radioactivity measurements in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The United Kingdom was one of the first nations to initiate a civil nuclear power programme in the 1950s, with the first commercial generation of electricity being achieved in 1957. As the civil nuclear programme grew in size, an ongoing programme of environmental monitoring was instituted by central government that placed the responsibility for monitoring radioactivity in the local environment and the measurement of discharges of radioactive gases and liquids with the site operator, the Environment Agency, the Environment and Heritage Service, the Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (or their predecessors). This presentation will discuss the sources of radioactivity in the UK environment from the nuclear industry, natural and other sources, focussing on how these sources of radioactivity are monitored and what future trends may be, taking the Windscale fire of 1957, the Chernobyl accident and the Litvinenko incident of 2006 as examples of how unexpected events have been addressed in the UK. As the national metrology institute for the UK, the NPL is required to provide support to the National Measurement System infrastructure of the UK, including the measurement of radioactivity. The presentation will also describe the absolute standardisation of radioactivity at the NPL, and how this is disseminated to organisations measuring environmental radioactivity in the UK by means of directly traceable standards of radioactivity and through the provision of an ongoing series of proficiency test exercises. The outcomes of some recent proficiency tests will be discussed, with emphasis on how the general performance of laboratories participating in these proficiency tests has matured over the years since their inception in 1989. In addition, the data treatment of such proficiency tests will also be examined in order to illustrate that statutory regulatory bodies, laboratory accreditation organisations and customers are able to

  15. Use of Statistics for Data Evaluation in Environmental Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman

    2001-01-01

    Counting statistics will give a correction on environmental radioactivity measurement result. Statistics provides formulas to determine standard deviation (S B ) and minimum detectable concentration (MDC) according to the Poisson distribution. Both formulas depend on the background count rate, counting time, counting efficiency, gamma intensity, and sample size. A long time background counting results in relatively low S B and MDC that can present relatively accurate measurement results. (author)

  16. ROKO-Database of the environmental radioactivity measurements in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mitic, D.

    2005-01-01

    ROKO is the acronym of the Environmental Radioactivity in Slovenian language R adioaktivnost v OKOlju . Computer database ROKO contains data of all measurements of the radioactivity in the environment in Slovenia. Data about radioactivity in the environment have been collected in Slovenia more or less regularly since 1961 on. Most results are gathered in the form of paper reports. Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has initiated the project of transfer of all those data into the electronic form and making it available for easy research. The database is designed so, that it contains all records, relevant for any kind of analyses and for the transfer to the international data systems. By the end of the summer 2005 a major part of data from previous years have already been transferred into the database and the user interface software is under development. It will allow the users to examine individual data records, to plot time history graphs or geographical contour plots. (author)

  17. Environmental radioactivity measurements Using a compton suppression spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The natural and artificial radioactivities of some environmental samples such as soil and vegetables have been studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy with a new constructed compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The spectrometer consists of a 10% p-type HPGe detector as a main detector, an annular NE-102 A plastic scintillator as a guard detector, and a fast-slow coincidence system employing standard electronic modules for anti-compton operation. This study shows that CSS is a powerful tool for measuring the low level activities of environmental samples

  18. Evaluation of the uncertainty of environmental measurements of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The almost universal acceptance of the concept of uncertainty has led to its introduction into the ISO 17025 standard for general requirements to testing and calibration laboratories. This means that not only scientists, but also legislators, politicians, the general population - and perhaps even the press - expect to see all future results associated with an expression of their uncertainty. Results obtained by measurement of radioactivity have routinely been associated with an expression of their uncertainty, based on the so-called counting statistics. This is calculated together with the actual result on the assumption that the number of counts observed has a Poisson distribution with equal mean and variance. Most of the nuclear scientific community has therefore assumed that it already complied with the latest ISO 17025 requirements. Counting statistics, however, express only the variability observed among repeated measurements of the same sample under the same counting conditions, which is equivalent to the term repeatability used in quantitative analysis. Many other sources of uncertainty need to be taken into account before a statement of the uncertainty of the actual result can be made. As the first link in the traceability chain calibration is always an important uncertainty component in any kind of measurement. For radioactivity measurements in particular we find that counting geometry assumes the greatest importance, because it is often not possible to measure a standard and a control sample under exactly the same conditions. In the case of large samples we have additional uncertainty components associated with sample heterogeneity and its influence on self-absorption and counting efficiency. In low-level environmental measurements we have an additional risk of sample contamination, but the most important contribution to uncertainty is usually the representativity of the sample being analysed. For uniform materials this can be expressed by the

  19. New measurement techniques of environmental radioactivity. Methods of surveying marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshii

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity have been carried out in solution or suspension in sea-water, bottom sediments and specific marine organisms. The general approach to radionuclide measurement in seawater and bottom sediments has been concentration by coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange or solvent extraction. These methods employed are based primarily on shipboard collection of samples followed by land-based laboratory analyses and are too time-consuming. For rapid measurement, in situ measurement of seawater or seabed gamma-ray has developed. A gamma-ray detecting probe containing the NaI(Tl) scintillation or germanium detector is enclosed in a sealed cylinder. The measurements are made by suspending the probe in a 200-300 liter tank and passing seawater through the tank by means of ship deck pumping system, towing the probe across the seafloor, hanging down the probe to the seabed, or loading the probe on a remotely operated undersea vehicle. In situ measurement of gamma-ray in the marine environment has some application to a mineral exploration and to monitoring of sea areas which may become contaminated as the result of accidents or contamination incidents. This article reviews several gamma-ray detecting probes and describes the recent studies at JAERI on the development of a small electric-cooled Ge gamma-ray detector and a marine environmental radioactivity investigation system for in situ measurement of gamma-ray. (J.P.N.)

  20. Interpretation of low-level environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Levels of radioactivity in the environment from worldwide fallout have decreased by about a factor of 10 since the early 1970's and many environmental concentrations are now less than the routine estimated lower limit of detection. To accurately represent these data and to assist in evaluating very low levels of radioactivity, each instrumental value with its statistical counting error should be reported. In some instances the background count of the instrument exceeds the sample count resulting in a value that is less than zero (a negative concentration). Evaluation of these negative numbers along with zero and positive concentrations over a suitable sample population can yield important information about concentrations that are less than routine minimum levels of detection. Actual instrumental values (negative, zero and positive) with associated statistical counting errors have been reported by the Environmental Monitoring Group at the Savannah River Plant since 1977. Methods for evaluating these data are discussed and empirical data presented to illustrate important points

  1. Practice and experience in traceability of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhijian

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses some aspects on radioactivity measurement traceability and summarizes the work on quality assurance of radioactivity measurements of environmental samples in the laboratory, including transfer of standards, preparation of reference materials, and calibration of efficiency for volumse surces with Ge(Li) spectrometer. Some practical activitis regarding intercomparison of radioactivity measurements and other traceabillity-related activities are also described. Some sugestions relating to performing quality assurance are made

  2. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  3. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  4. Radioactivity in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornaro, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this practical work is to familiarize the student with radioactivity measures in environmental samples. For that were chosen samples a salt of natural potassium, a salt of uranium or torio and a sample of drinkable water

  5. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  6. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1988-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1987 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  7. Environmental radioactivity Ispra 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1989 by the site survey group of the Radioprotection Division at the Joint Research Centre Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly a consequence of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl

  8. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  9. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  10. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  11. Environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Outline summary of a report prepared under contract to the DOE: Research Priorities and UK Estuaries: An Overview identifying Research Requirements. Topics considered include the study of radionuclides released into the NE Irish Sea from BNFL, Sellafields, differences in the isotopic composition of stable lead in various sediments, the concentration and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from BNFL in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas, together with attempts to separate hot particles from sediments, and the composition and properties of marine surfaces in relation to uptake and loss of radionuclides, particularly in relation to the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. The problem of the presence of transuranic radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the NE Irish Sea is considered. Profiles of radioactivity are being developed at the shelf-break in order to determine the transfer of radionuclides from the sea surface to the deep sea and to coastal waters; organisms examined include phytoplankton, zooplankton and crustacea (shrimps). Organisms such as Acantharia have been examined to determine transfer of elements and radionuclides to skeletal structures eg Sr, Ba and Si. (U.K.)

  12. Measurements of environmental radioactivity and radiation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuming; Huang Chingchung

    1993-01-01

    Established in 1974, the Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) is responsible for the environmental radiation surveillance and related fields in Taiwan. Its environmental radiation monitoring programs can be categorized into two parts: surveillance of natural ionizing radiation and surveillance of man-made ionizing radiation. For natural ionizing radiation, surveillance programs are mainly to establish the radiation baseline data including radon. For man-made ionizing radiation, surveillance programs include the radio-fallout surveillance and the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities. This article summarizes the relevant studies carried out by TRMC in the recent years

  13. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  14. A software for radioactivity measurement of Ra, Th and K in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Zhengqiang; Bao Min; Chang Yongfu

    2004-01-01

    Radio nuclides of soil, rock, construction material, and almost everything around us. There is growing concern about environmental radioactivity from both scientists and public from an institutional or a common point of view. The regulation and standard on evaluating radioactivity of environmental samples have been issued recently by the authorities. We have developed special purpose Gamma spectra analysis software named ErSpec. The software can effectively process and analyze Gamma spectra measured by a NaI(T1) spectrometry, and can give a relatively precise results of radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in environmental samples. The main functions of ErSpec include, processing and analyzing Gamma spectra, displaying some useful information for users, generating report, managing user's priority, logging user's manipulation, etc. Because environmental samples usually have low radioactivity and have complex measurement conditions, relative method is employed in ErSpec, and Channel-by-Channel Least-Squared Estimation is adopted as spectra analyzing method. The arithmetic make use of information extracted from data of hundreds of channels, then give a rather good result. In ErSpec, by using external call of MatLAB Math Lib in Visual C++, accuracy and speed of calculation and robustness of software are improved distinctly. Object-Oriented Programming Method and ActiveX techniques are also employed in software designing and coding stage. (authors)

  15. Present status and problems concerning measurement of environmental radioactivity, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yasushi

    1975-01-01

    In case of seaweeds, the amount of impurities such as sand and shells is 25% at most, and in case of mussels, the maximum error due to impurities is 35%. For the measurement, the required amount of samples is more than 1 Kg. The procedures of pre-treatment are as follows, washing and removal of sand and shells, removal of water, weighing, drying, ash making, screening by a sieve, and weighing the ash. In case of the treatment of large amount of samples, it is impossible to remove impurities completely in the course of the above procedures. Efforts to remove sand and shells were tried by using fingers. The amount of impurities thus removed was 25% in green laver samples. The mixing ratio of impurities was observed for the samples of plankton, green laver, wakame (a kind of laminarian seaweed), hondawara (a kind of laminarian seaweed), mussel, short necked clam, abalone, shrimp, lobster jack mackerel, and croaker. These amounts should be considered for the analysis of activity in samples. (Kato, T.)

  16. Specific calibration problems for gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Wershofen, H [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples are always done in a close source detector geometry. This geometry causes coincidence-summing effects for measurements of multi-photon emitting nuclides. The measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples are also influenced by the absorption of photons in the materials which have to be analysed. Both effects must be taken into account by correction factors with respect to an energy-specific calibration of the detector system for a given geometry and a given composition of the calibration source. The importance of these corrections is emphasized. It is the aim of the present paper to compare different experimental and theoretical methods for the determination of these correction factors published by various authors and to report about efforts to refine them. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The results are described of monitoring radioactivity of atmospheric fallout, surface waters, soils, plant feeds, cereals, and other agricultural produce. The results were obtained over a long time period. Radioactivity was also measured of milk, milk products, vegetables and fruits, meat and hen eggs, flour and bakery products with a view to radionuclide migration in the food chain. The daily intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from food was determined from the values obtained and the consumption of the individual types of food. Strontium-90 distribution was studied in the bones and the teeth of the population in Slovakia. With the commissioning of nuclear power plants, emissions and liquid wastes were monitored and their environmental impact assessed. (E.S.)

  18. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  19. Calculation of uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements and their functions. Practical Procedure II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, C.; Anton, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity measurements are mainly affected by counting uncertainties. In this report the uncertainties associated to certain functions related to activity concentration calculations are determined. Some practical exercise are presented to calculate the uncertainties associated to: a) Chemical recovery of a radiochemical separation when employing tracers (i.e. Pu and Am purification from a sediment sample). b) Indirect determination of a mother radionuclide through one of its daughters (i. e. ''210 Pb quantification following its daughter ''210 Po building-up activity). c) Time span from last separation date of one of the components of a disintegration chain (i.e. Am last purification date from a nuclear weapons following ''241 Am and ''241 Pu measurements). Calculations concerning example b) and c) are based on Baterman equations, regulating radioactive equilibria. Although the exercises here presented are performed with certain radionuclides, they could be applied as generic procedures for other alpha-emitting radioelements

  20. Radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is an overview of radioactivity monitoring work done in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in the wake of the Chernobyl accident. It consists of air, rainwater, food and personnel monitoring. Additional services to the public are: information and development of a database and a computer code for predicting future radionuclide concentration in air, soil, water and food. (G.Q.)

  1. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL during the year following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    The accident which destroyed Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 provided the world's scientists with an opportunity, unique in recent years, to study many of the processes which follow the release of large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. BNL undertook a wide ranging programme of environmental measurements after the accident, the immediate aim being to supply HM Government with data to help assess the radiological consequences to the UK population. As it became clear that the UK dose commitment was relatively low, the thrust of the measurements began to be concentrated on airborne radioactivity and the movement of nuclides in the grass-soil system. The aim of these studies was to assess dispersion and diffusion of radioactivity in these particular compartments of the environment. The measurements have continued over the twelve month period since the Chernobyl accident. This report aims to disseminate the year's data and to offer some initial interpretations of the trends. (U.K.)

  2. Calculation of uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements and their functions. Practical Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Leonarte, C; Anton Mateos, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the procedure used to calculate the uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements, focusing on those obtained by radiochemical separation in which tracers have been added. Uncertainties linked to activity concentration calculations, isotopic rat iso, inventories, sequential leaching data, chronology dating by using C.R.S. model and duplicate analysis are described in detail. The objective of this article is to serve as a guide to people not familiarized with this kind of calculations, showing clear practical examples. The input of the formulas and all the data needed to achieve these calculations into the Lotus 1, 2, 3 WTN is outlined as well. (Author) 13 refs

  3. Calculation of uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements and their functions. Practical Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Leonarte, C.; Anton Mateos, M.P.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the procedure used to calculate the uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements. focusing on those obtained by radiochemical separation in which tracers have been added. Uncertainties linked to activity concentration calculations, isotopic ratio, inventories, sequential leaching data, chronology dating by using C.R.S model and duplicate analysis are described in detail. The objective of this article is to serve as a guide to people not familiarized with this kind of calculations, showing clear practical examples. The input of the formulas and all the data needed to achieve these calculations into the Lotus 1,2,3, WIN is outlined as well. (Author)

  4. Study of Efficiency Calibrations of HPGe Detectors for Radioactivity Measurements of Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of calibrating of efficiency of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry of bulk environmental samples (Tea, crops, water, and soil) is a significant part of the environmental radioactivity measurements. Here we will discuss the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of three HPGe detectors it as a consequence, it is essential that the efficiency is determined for each set-up employed. Besides to take full advantage at gamma-ray spectrometry, a set of efficiency at several energies which covers the wide the range in energy, the large the number of radionuclides whose concentration can be determined to measure the main natural gamma-ray emitters, the efficiency should be known at least from 46.54 keV ( 210 Pb) to 1836 keV ( 88 Y). Radioactive sources were prepared from two different standards, a first mixed standard QC Y 40 containing 210 Pb, 241 Am, 109 Cd, and Co 57 , and the second QC Y 48 containing 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 139 Ce, 113 Sn, 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 88 Y, and 60 Co is necessary in order to calculate the activity of the different radionuclides contained in a sample. In this work, we will study the efficiency calibration as a function of different parameters as:- Energy of gamma ray from 46.54 keV ( 210 Pb) to 1836 keV ( 88 Y), three different detectors A, B, and C, geometry of containers (point source, marinelli beaker, and cylindrical bottle 1 L), height of standard soil samples in bottle 250 ml, and density of standard environmental samples. These standard environmental sample must be measured before added standard solution because we will use the same environmental samples in order to consider the self absorption especially and composition in the case of volume samples.

  5. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  6. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Republic of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksic, J.; Radenkovic, M.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vujovic, M.; Vuletic

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental radioactivity monitoring programme continuous measurements of radioactivity in different samples are performed. Measurements are performed in aerosol samples, fallout, soil, surface waters, drinking water, food of animal and plant origin, milk and feeding stuffs. [sr

  7. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included [fr

  8. RNM and CRITER projects: providing access to environmental radioactivity measurements during crisis and in peacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Couvez, C.; Manificat, G. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (France)

    2014-07-01

    The multiplicity of actors and sources of information makes it difficult to centralize environmental radioactivity measurements and to provide access to experts and policy makers, but also to the general public. In the event of a radiological accident, many additional measures will also be carried out in the field by those involved in crisis management. In order to answer this problem, two projects were launched by IRSN with the aim of developing tools to centralize information on environmental radioactivity in normal situation (RNM project: National network of radioactive measurements) and during radiological crisis (CRITER project: Crisis and field). The RNM's mission is to contribute to the estimation of doses from ionizing radiation to which people are exposed and to inform the public. In order to achieve this goal, this network collects and makes available to the public the results of measurements of environmental radioactivity obtained in a normal situation by the French stakeholders. More than 18,000 measurements are transmitted each month by all producers to the RNM. After more than 4 years of operation, the database contains nearly 1,200,000 results. The opening in 2010 of the public web site (www.mesure-radioactivite.fr) was also a major step forward toward transparency and information. In case of radiological emergency, IRSN's mission is to centralize and process at the national level, in a database, all the results of measurements or analysis by all stakeholders throughout the crisis, in order to precisely determine the radiological situation of the environment, before, during and after the event. The project CRITER therefore involves the collection of all possible data from all potential sources, transmission, organization, and the publication of the measurements in crisis or post-accident situation. The emergency nature of the situation requires a transmission in near real-time data, facilitated by the development of automatic sensors. For

  9. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  11. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2007-02-01

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg -1 , 22 - 36 Bq kg -1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  12. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    This part of the bibliography series, which has changed its name with issue no. 24 (formerly: 'Contamination and decontamination of foods') lists 208 pieces of literature, mainly of the last two years. The literature is classified according to the following main fields. General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foods. (MG) [de

  13. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  14. Measurement of environmental radioactivity with photo-diode and Imaging Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Sumi, T.; Gotoh, S.; Saze, T.; Nishizawa, K.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of environmental radioactivity with photo-diode (PD) and Imaging Plate (IP) was tired. Commercially available Si PIN type PD's generally have depletion layer thickness more than a few hundred micrometer, which is enough for alpha particle measurement. PD's have various features: being usable in normal temperature, high energy resolution and low cost. Radon daughter nuclides positively charged in atmosphere were collected on the PD surface with negative electric potential and measured the pulse height spectra of alpha-particles from the daughter nuclides of Radon in thorium oxide, uranium ore, granite, and concrete. Counting of alpha-particles with IP was tired. Lead plates usually contain Pb-210 (RaD) and emit alpha-particles from Po-210. The alpha-particles from the plate were counted with PD and the plate was exposed to IP. By adjusting the gradation level on the reading out of the latent image, it was possible to count alpha-particle incident image one by one, and the number per 1 cm 2 was compared with the number of count with PD. (author)

  15. Neural nets for the plausibility check of measured values in the integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, G.

    2003-01-01

    Neural nets to the plausibility check of measured values in the ''integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, IMIS'' is a research project supported by the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. A goal of this project was the automatic recognition of implausible measured values in the data base ORACLE, which measured values from surveillance of environmental radioactivity of most diverse environmental media contained. The conversion of this project [ 1 ] was realized by institut of logic, complexity and deduction systems of the university Karlsruhe under the direction of Professor Dr. Menzel, Dr. Martin Riedmueller and Martin Lauer. (orig.)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Jakubick, V.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.

    1978-01-01

    The present volume is a continuation of the earlier bibliographie series 'Contamination and decontamination of foods'. The reduced importance of nuclear weapons tests and decontamination problems in foodstuffs and the increasing amount of literature on environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities and on radioecology made a change of title and a new classification of contents necessary. The main subjects are now: General aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The present volume contains 208 citations on these subjects, mainly from the last two years. (orig.) [de

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  19. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk. 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values

  20. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  1. Quality assurance programme for environmental radioactivity measurements at the Hong Kong observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) runs an Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) to monitor the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong. In the ERMP, about 400 environmental samples are delivered to the HKO Radiation Laboratory each year for alpha, beta and gamma measurements. The quality of the radiation measurements is assured through an internal quality assurance programme and inter-laboratory comparison exercises

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Predmerszky, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive examination of radioactive contamination in air, soil, surface waters and food products, and of natural radioactiviy in air, soil, and building materials has been carried out. The investigated factors were as follows: a) air samples: yearly and monthly beta- and gamma activities of fallout, precipitation and aerosols in the period 1955-1976 in Budapest and some other towns; b) soil samples: 90 Sr concentration of soils of different quality and cultivation originating from sixteen regions of Hungary measured in the period 1974-1976; c) surface waters: annual mean beta activity of five rivers and of the Lake Balaton in the period 1965-1976, 3 H, 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity of the Danube in the year 1976; d) food products: radioactive contamination of spinach, lettuce and oxalis, originating from three different regions in the period 1959-1976 and mean radioactivity of fodder, corn, tobacco, milk, fish and animal bones in a period of 5-10 years; e) natural radioactivity: radon- and toron concentration of air, activity of 226 Ra fallout of the soil in the vicinity of power plants, 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K activity of different building materials, radiation doses inside buildings constructed by different technics. (L.E.)

  3. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltezos, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Aravantinos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the national organization responsible for the environmental radioactivity measurements in Greece. In order to monitor the radioactivity, 12 stations were placed all over Greece. Each station is equipped with NaI detector, measuring daily the total gamma dose rates. After the Chernobyl experience many countries have installed dense automatic networks, for measuring environmental radioactivity and serving as an early warning systems. In Greece a small telemetric network of two stations was installed in Athens area as a pilot project. Each station consists of two GM detectors (for low and high dose rate respectively). Data are collected for every ten minutes sampling time. Regration time of one hour is obtained. In case of level one and level two alarm states, the sampling time intervals are ten and one minutes respectively. The measurements are obtained by the above stations using the lines of the telephone network, and stored in the central station. Financial support to upgrade the existing telemetric system was assured by the addition of 25 new telemetric stations which will cover madly the northern part bordering to other states with nuclear power plants.In order to complete the network, we plan to add more stations to measure the gamma dose rates spread all over Greece, and also monitor river water. (authors)

  4. Quality control for radionuclide determinations in the Saxon state laboratories for environmental radioactivity by intercomparison and comparative measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobus, B.

    2001-01-01

    Quality control for radionuclide analysis is necessary and essential for the quality assurance of the measuring results executing the measuring programmes of surveillance of the radioactivity in the environment and from installations. Acts, ordinances and guidelines require the participation in intercomparisons for authorized institutions detecting the demanded quality of measurements (e.g. trueness, reproducibility) for Federal Authorities. These are mainly those intercomparisons which are prepared, practised and evaluated by the federal laboratories. Comparative measurements are generally organized and executed by the state laboratory itself with a few participants for special measuring tasks. In this paper are described and discussed extend and special results of those intercomparisons and comparative measurements of the Saxon state laboratories for environmental radioactivity from 1992 until 2000. If necessary, there are following improvements for quality assurance. (orig.) [de

  5. Measuring networks for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the European Community, - a pattern of diversity as varying as the peoples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new study entitled 'Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community', (RAES, 90), shows a survey of the methods currently applied in every country. The study compiles available quality assurance programs and makes suggestions for CEC initiatives. The study refers to the current practice of monitoring in European countries as 'enormous diversity of methods' in member countries. Further suggestions for standardization of the data measuring networks are put forward by a manufacturer of monitoring equipment. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  7. Environmental radioactivity measurements in greece following the Fukushima Daichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Kolovou, M.; Clouvas, A.; Xanthos, S.

    2008-01-01

    Since the double disaster of the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami that affected hundreds of thousands of people and seriously damaged the Fukushima Daichi power plant in Japan on 11 March 2011, traces of radioactive emissions from Fukushima have spread across the entire northern hemisphere. The radioactive isotope of iodine 131 I that was generated by the nuclear accident in Fukushima arrived in Greece on 24 March 2011. Radioactive iodine is present in the air either as gas or bound to particles (aerosols). The maximum 131 I concentrations were measured between 3 and 5 April 2011. In aerosols the maximum 131 I values measured in Southern Greece (Athens) and Northern Greece (Thessaloniki) were 585±70 and 408±61 μBq m -3 , respectively 131 I concentrations in gas were about 3.5 times higher than in aerosols. Since 29 April 2011, the 131 I concentration has been below detection limits. Traces of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were also measured in the air filters with an activity ratio of 137 Cs/ 134 Cs equal to 1 and 131 I/ 137 Cs activity ratio of about 3. Since 16 May 2011, the 137 Cs concentration in air has been determined to be about the same as before the Fukushima accident. Traces of 131 I were also measured in grass and milk. The maximum measured activity of 131 I in sheep milk was about 2 Bq l -1 which is 5000 times less than that measured in Greece immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The measured activity concentrations of artificial radionuclides in Greece due to the Fukushima release, have been very low, with no impact on human health. (authors)

  8. Validation of an advanced analytical procedure applied to the measurement of environmental radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Vuong, Le Quang; Ho, Phan Long; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Tao, Chau Van

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an advanced analytical procedure was applied to calculate radioactivity in spiked water samples in a close geometry gamma spectroscopy. It included MCNP-CP code in order to calculate the coincidence summing correction factor (CSF). The CSF results were validated by a deterministic method using ETNA code for both p-type HPGe detectors. It showed that a good agreement for both codes. Finally, the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed by a proficiency test to calculate the activities of various radionuclides. The results of the radioactivity measurement with both detectors using the advanced analytical procedure were received the ''Accepted'' statuses following the proficiency test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental radioactivity measurements in the autonomous community of Aragon; Medidas de la radiactividad ambiental en la comunidad autonoma de Aragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvete, H.; Carrion, A.; Gale, C.; Garcia, E.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Perez, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez, P.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    To know the level of environmental radioactivity in the Autonomous Community of Aragon thermoluminescent dosimeters used to measure the cumulative dose over a period of time in each of its 33 counties. The project, funded by the Government of Aragon and La Caixa to carry a map of environmental radioactivity with the collaboration of Secondary Schools and public schools for the renovation and shipment of dosimeters. The selection of the different locations was carried out taking into account the points of interest in the project reflected Marna, by ENUSA and the CSN, on natural gamma radiation. The work program began in 2009 and to date working with 43 centers distributed throughout the community tried to cover a wide surface area of Aragon. (Author)

  10. Measurement results on environmental radioactivity in West Germany after the Chinese nuclear weapons test of September 26, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, O.; Voelker, A.

    1977-09-01

    The atmospheric nuclear test carried out by the People's Republic of China on 26.9.1976 caused considerable amounts of radioactive fission products in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Measurement results obtained by the Federal institutions for monitoring environmental radioactivity made it possible to register and interpret at any time the levels and types of the fission products in the environmental sectors. There was no indication for any health hazards to the population. The maximum values of radiation exposure from 131I could be observed via the pasture-cow-milk-path. The values of the milk samples amounted up to 170 pCi/1. Infants with a daily milk consumption of 0,8 l received radiation doses to the thyroid of about 4 mrem. Apart from a compilation of the measurement results the report contains estimates of the radiation exposure via the individual exposure paths, data on the present general level of environmental radioactivity after the nuclear tests carried out in the last decades and a compilation of the long-lived fission products 90Sr and 137Cs which are deposited in the Federal Republic of Germany and incorporated by the population with food. (orig.) [de

  11. In-situ-gamma ray spectrometry for measurements of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I

    1994-12-31

    A detailed description of the method is presented. The range of application is shown. The calibration of the in-situ gamma ray spectrometer with a HPGe semiconductor detector and the evaluation of the spectra are described. A measuring time of about 15-30 min is sufficient to determine the specific natural and man-made radioactivity of the soil of some ten Bq/m{sup 2}. The results of soil contamination measurements in Germany after the Chernobyl accident are reported. A total of 22 nuclides are detected. The measured contamination for the first days after the accident was as follows: {sup 132}Te/{sup 132}I - 100 kBq/m{sup 2}, and {sup 131}I - 70 kBq/m{sup 2}. 6 figs., 4 tabs. (orig.).

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  15. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity. Ispra 1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this report there are briefly described the measurements of environmental radioactivity performed during 1973-1974 by the site survey group of the Protection Division of the Euratom Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment. Data are given on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and other radionuclides in precipitation, air, waters, herbage, milk and radioactive effluents. The environmental contamination is mainly world-wide fall out

  17. Handbook of radioactivity measurements procedures. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This report is concerned with the measurement of radioactivity in general, but specifically it deals with radioactive materials that have become available in the last three decades, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for applications in medicine, scientific research, and industry. It is also concerned with low-level radioactivity measurements for the monitoring of radioactivity in environmental media, such as air and water, in connection with the control of radioactive effluents associated with the production of nuclear power or the use of radionuclides. Included in appendices are nuclear decay data for selected radionuclides and statistics of radioactive decay. An extensive bibliography is also included

  18. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  19. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  20. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report simonizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples : Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2003 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  1. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2002 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  3. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values

  4. Environmental radioactivity measurements in north-western Greece following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.; Stamoulis, K.; Papachristodoulou, C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident in north–western Greece was assessed through an environmental monitoring programme activated by the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Ioannina. Measurements of 131 I were carried out in atmospheric particulate, ovine milk and grass samples. In daily aerosol samplings, radioiodine was first detected on March 25-26, 2011 and reached maximum levels, up to 294 μBq m -3 , between April 2 and April 4, 2011. In ovine milk samples, 131 I concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 2.7 Bq L -1 between April 2 and April 6, 2011, while an average activity of 2.7 Bq kg -1 was measured in grass samples on April 4, 2011. The 134,137 Cs isotopes were below detection limits in all samples and could only be determined in the air, by analysis of multiple daily filters. A maximum average activity concentration of 137 Cs amounting to 24 μBq m -3 was measured during the period from April 5 to April 9, 2011, with the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio being close to unity. Activity concentrations were consistent with measurements conducted in other parts of the country and were well below those reported in May 1986 after the Chernobyl accident. The committed effective dose to the whole body and to the thyroid gland from inhalation of 131 I was estimated for the adult and infant population and was found to be of no concern for the public health. (author)

  5. Final report on the proficiency test of the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Radecki, Z.; Trinkl, A.; Sansone, U.; Benesch, T.

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 12 radionuclides in 8 samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement Environmental RAdioactivity (ALMERA) organized in 2001-2002 by the Chemistry Unit, Agency's Laboratory in Seibersdorf. The results were evaluated by using appropriate statistical means to assess laboratory analytical performance and to estimate the overall performance for the determination of each radionuclide. Evaluation of the analytical data for gamma emitting radionuclides showed that 68% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. However, transuranic radionuclides obtained only 58% for the same criteria. (author)

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from 81 provinces of the country within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2010 and outdoor gamma dose rates obtained by means of car-borne measurement system are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 28.11±1.23 Bq kg - 1, 32.4±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and 430.8±12.5, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 9.78±0.79 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 50.5 nGy h - 1 and 0.062 mSv y - 1, respectively. Total indicative doses of the analyzed drinking water samples were below the limit values. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 1.01 Bq L - 1 and 0.29 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 196.6 Sv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring program in 2010 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  8. The impact of ambient dose rate measuring network and precipitation radar system for detection of environmental radioactivity released by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, M; Stoehlker, U.

    2003-01-01

    For the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, the German measuring network of BfS consists of more than 2000 stations where the ambient gamma dose rate is continuously measured. This network is a helpful tool to detect and localise enhanced environmental contamination from artificial radionuclides. The threshold for early warning is so low, that already an additional dose rate contribution of 0,07 μGy/h is detectable. However, this threshold is frequently exceeded due to precipitation events caused by washout of natural activity in air. Therefore, the precipitation radar system of the German Weather Service provides valuable information on the problem, whether the increase of the ambient dose rate is due to natural or man-made events. In case of an accidental release, the data of this radar system show small area precipitation events and potential local hot spots not detected by the measuring network. For the phase of cloud passage, the ambient dose rate measuring network provides a reliable database for the evaluation of the current situation and its further development. It is possible to compare measured data for dose rate with derived intervention levels for countermeasures like ''sheltering''. Thus, critical regions can be identified and it is possible to verify implemented countermeasures. During and after this phase of cloud passage the measured data of the monitoring network help to adapt the results of the national decision support systems PARK and RODOS. Therefore, it is necessary to derive the actual additional contribution to the ambient dose rate. Map representations of measured dose rate are rapidly available and helpful to optimise measurement strategies of mobile systems and collection strategies for samples of agricultural products. (orig.)

  9. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  10. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  13. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  14. IMIS, an integrated measuring and information system for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornstetter, P.; Sell, J.; Schumacher, H.; Helms, D.

    1989-01-01

    The IMIS project system consists of a nationwide information network of interlinked data processing systems installed at 38 regional measuring stations, 11 regional data collecting centres, 5 key stations of the Federal German measuring network, 7 supervisory stations on Federal level, of the BMU, BMVg, and one central Federal office. The systems are equipped with VAX computers using the Ultric operating system and the ORACLE data base system. (DG) [de

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1978-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1977 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1977. (author)

  16. Environmental measuring for supervision of quality of air and water, water level, noise and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branke, W.

    1976-01-01

    In an extensive control station for measuring numerous parameters relevant to the environment the CAMAC-Standard is used for the electronics, the data acquisition and data transfer. The building up of the complete system is shown together with the special function modules which have been developed and used to achieve a flexible system, which is easy to service and maintain

  17. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Samsun province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B.; Maksutoglu, F.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.; Celebi, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with the measurement of natural and artificial radionuclides in soil samples and indoor radon concentrations in the Samsun province, Turkey. In soil samples, the values of individual mean activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs radionuclides were found to be 31, 22, 341 and 16 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiological parameters, such as the absorbed dose rate in air, the annual effective dose (AED) and excess lifetime cancer risk, were calculated. Indoor radon measurements were carried out with CR-39-based radon dosemeters at 127 dwellings in the Samsun province. The mean annual 222 Rn activity was found to be 106 Bq m -3 (equivalent to an AED of 1.88 mSv). The seasonal variation of 222 Rn activity shows that maximum levels are observed in the winter, while minimum levels are observed in the summer. The mean lifetime fatality risk for the studied area was estimated at 1.45x10 -4 . The results obtained did not significantly differ from those obtained in other parts of the country. (authors)

  18. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria: Part 3. Measurements of radionuclides in airborne and deposited material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Eakins, J.D.; Fisher, E.M.R.

    1980-09-01

    Six stations sampling airborne particulate and deposited material were established in the Cumbrian coastal region. The measurements were undertaken to study current atmospheric levels and to discriminate between material from nuclear weapon tests, routine atmospheric discharges from the nuclear reprocessing works at Windscale and other sources, e.g. the sea. The results show that samples of both airborne and deposited material contain radionuclide concentrations in excess of those expected from nuclear weapon fallout. For Pu and 241 Am isotopes, the excess material comes mainly from a seaward direction. The transfer mechanism is probably resuspension, but the actinide levels are much greater than would be expected from the simple transfer of bulk seawater. For 137 Cs, the material in excess of amounts expected from nuclear weapon fallout can be attributed largely to Windscale discharges to air and seaspray containing the bulk seawater concentration of 137 Cs. Other fission products present in amounts exceeding nuclear weapon fallout were 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs and 144 Ce. Tritium was also observed in amounts slightly in excess of nuclear weapon fallout. The highest observed annual average concentration in air for Pu isotopes was 0.2% of the derived air concentration, modified for members of the public, of 2.3 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  19. Suma-alpha software description. Study of its applications to detection problems and environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Perez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Software named suma-espectros has been developed by TECNASA/CIEMAT for adding counts automatically from the alpha spectra, energy to energy, with the purpose of: evaluating real background of alpha spectrometers, studying its temporal variations, increasing the possibilities of isotopes detection -where it has been impossible to detect due elapsed time of the measurement- and implementing other applications. The programme is written in Visual-Basic and it can export data to Excel spreadsheets for later treatment. The software has established by default a channels range for adding the counts energy by energy but it can be adapted to the analysis of different isotopes and backgrounds simply changing a text file that is incorporated to the programme. The description of the programme management is described for whoever can realise its applications immediately. This software has the advantage of emitting an add-spectrum in cnf format that is used by alpha analyst (Genie 2K) for de convoluting spectra or doing calculations. (Author) 3 refs.

  20. Natural radioactivity in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnis, H.; Jenkinson, A.; Chisari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use natural radioactivity in environmental studies has proven a very powerful tool to determine the dynamics of both natural and antrophogenic processes in our environment. The use of 14 C in archeology and past climate studies has led to many scientific discoveries (i.e. shroud of Turin and Utze 'the ice-man' from Austria). The use of the 238 U-decay series is of at least equal value to studies in archeology and past climates. Some of the Isotopes studied supplement 14 C (which is limited to 40,000 years) up to 350,000 years and others can be utilized to date very young sediments, which can't be dated by 14 C. The so-called 210 Pb dating method has been used over the past 3 decades to date recent sediment. The method uses the disequilibrium in the 238 U decay chain, caused by the escape of the intermediate daughter 222 Rn (a noble gas) from the earth's crust. In the atmosphere the 222 Rn decays via short-lived daughter isotopes to 210 Pb. This 210 Pb with a very convenient half-life of 22,3 years decays to stable 206 Pb. By measuring the surface activity of a sediment core and subsequent samples at regular intervals one can establish a chronology for the sediment core. By studying the trace metals in these cores, one could deduce a contamination history for the region. Examples of studies supported by AINSE and ANSTO will be given

  1. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  2. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.) [de

  3. Direct continuous multichannel γspectrometric measurements- one of the main methods for control and study of radioactive environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.; Rumiantsev, O.V.

    1991-01-01

    In Chernobyl along with usual methods of environment radiation control there were used methods and equipment of direct continuous multichannel measurements. The necessary equipment was installed both on permanent observation stations (river Pripyat, Chernobyl, river Dnieper, Kiev) and on mobile units (helicopters, scientific river-boats, automobiles). Together with continuous control of radioactive situation and its estimation in time and space this equipment enabled to carry out the following: - determination of time-spatial structure of radioactive pollution in stationary points and on space (mapping); - selection of representative samples for subsequent radionuclide analysis; - direct data input into the computer, data storage and data base creation. The results and conclusions drawn are important not only for the situation on Chernobyl atomic station - they may and should be used for a continuous radioactive monitoring of the environment. Though the method and its realization remain to be modernized and unified. (author)

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, January - June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for the first half of 1979 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo; Park, Won Pyo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2002. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Z. K.; Oh, S. H. [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 1997. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo; Park, Won Pyo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2001. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  8. On - Site Assessment Methods For Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrinec, B.; Babic, D.; Bituh, T.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the rapid determination of radioactivity in cases of release into the environment as well as in cases of nuclear/radiological accidents is described. These measurements would enable a direct risk assessment for humans and biota, without any sampling and at a considerably larger number of locations than in previous studies. Thus obtained, the substantially expanded dataset is expected to shed more light on the properties of environmental radioactivity both in the region studied and in other similar areas. Field measurements will be performed and samples of soil and biota will be collected in order to compare field results with laboratory measurements. Once the method has been validated, previously unexplored locations will be included in the study. Our measurements at numerous locations will also provide control values for comparison in cases of any unplanned or accidental radiological event. An assessment of the possible effects of radionuclide concentrations on the human food chain and biota will be performed within the appropriate models used worldwide exactly for this purpose. In this way, the project should contribute to regional, European, and global efforts towards understanding the radiological impact on ecosystems. Field measurements will also address certain issues in the environmental metrology of radioactive substances, e.g., simultaneous determination of activity concentrations and related dose rates. This will serve as a tool for rapid risk assessment in emergency situations. (author).

  9. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  10. Quality Assurance In Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.; Smilskalne, G.

    2007-01-01

    The credibility of obtained results is ensured by the quality assurance and control. The main requisitions involved in the quality assurance of the laboratory according to the requirements of LVS EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 are: 1) the use of calibrated equipment only; 2) the regular and long-time use of reference materials in the control of equipment; 3) the estimation of uncertainty sources and determination of uncertainties within the given interval of credibility; 4) the validation and verification. The very important requirement is regular participation in the interlaboratory intercomparison exercises that makes it possible to estimate and find possible error sources and carry out the corrective actions. The measurements of the radioactivity of Cs-137, Co-60, H-3, the natural radioactive nuclides as well as other radionuclides in different environmental (soil, precipitation, different types of water, needles, et al.) samples, and in various radioactive polluted objects are carried out in the Laboratory of Radiation physics. The quality assurance system was implemented in our laboratory in 2000. Since 1999 laboratory is regular participant in the interlaboratory intercomparison exercises, organized by the RISO National Laboratory (Denmark) and IAEA (Vienna). The paper shows the laboratory's system of quality assurance and its implementation. We have the internal quality audit program that takes into account the requirements of LVS EN ISO/IEC 17025: 2005, but the main attention is paid to the intercomparison of the results of analyses of laboratories, their evaluation and interpretation. Only credible and justified results can be the basis for further use in any field, thus making it possible to make legitimate decisions. (Authors)

  11. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  12. Environmental radioactivity networks in Italy, 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.; Notaro, M.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the environmental radioactivity data collected in Italy from 1994 to 1997 by the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks of Italy. The National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) is law-fully responsible for publishing the environmental and dietary contamination data, provided by the organisations participating to the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The complete list of the participants is reported at the end of the present document. The National Environmental Radioactivity Networks of Italy are aimed at survey of the pattern of environmental and dietary contamination in order to assess the radiation doses which the Italian population may receive. The sampling networks have been designed on regional basis, to provide information on the average extent of environmental and dietary contamination. The sampling programmes are planned to obtain representative samples able to reveal the average situation both in time and space. To guarantee that the laboratories of the organisations participating to the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks, perform measurements with a certain degree of accuracy and maintain the quality of their systems, the National Environmental Protection Agency organises yearly an intercalibration programme of the analytical methods used for measuring radioactivity in food and environmental samples. The calibration programme is performed with the collaboration of the National Institute of Ionising Radiation Metrology (ENEA). Routine tests with transfer standards are used for accurate calibration, so that the results can be traceable to a common reference point [it

  13. Environmental radioactivity in the antarctic station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Osores, J.; Martinez, J.; Lopez, E.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Study about environmental radioactivity in the Peruvian antarctic station Machu Pichu they were carried out during the last three periods to the southern summer. The objective of the project it is to evaluate environmental component in order to elaborate a study it base on the levels background radioactivity and artificial in the antarctic region

  14. Radioactivity measurements and control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Constantin, F.; Petcu, M.; Rusu, Al.

    2003-01-01

    In our department, in the last years, a new line of production has been developed devoted to the radioactivity measurements (portal monitor, gamma source detector, neutron monitor). Instruments of different design (hand-held, portals or steady-state) are intended for detection and locating of radioactive sources. Monitors are intended to detect radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for illegal traffic prevention of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarm signals when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. Neutron dosimeters are designed for the determination of dose equivalent rate around neutron generators or sources. All devices can be recommended for use to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments, nuclear research or power facilities. Incorporating micro controllers and new design, our products span almost all the spectra of radioactivity detection (gamma, beta, X and neutrons). No special knowledge is needed to operate these instruments as all service functions are performed automatically (self-tests, background updating and threshold calculation). The Portal monitor is intended to be a checkpoint in contamination control or in unauthorized traffic of radioactive materials. The portal monitor can be installed both in open, unprotected to environmental conditions areas or in enclosed areas. It may be used at pedestrian cross border points, at check points of Nuclear Power Plants, enterprises of nuclear industry, weapons manufacturing and storage plants, nuclear waste disposal and storage sites, at the entrances to steel plants, the post-offices and airports, the governmental offices, banks, private companies etc. The monitor provides audio alarming signals when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. The monitor consists in a portal frame, which sustains 5 detectors. Each

  15. Development of monitoring technology for environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Young Hyun; Lee, M. H.; Choi, K. S.; Hong, K. H.; Sin, H. S.; Kim, M. K.; Pak, J. H.

    2000-05-01

    The accurate and reliable determination techniques of the radioactive isotopes in environmental samples are very important to protect public health from the potential hazards of radiation. Isolation and purification of radiostrontium from environmental aqueous sample was performed by using strontium selectively binding resin (Sr-spec) and strontium selectively permeable liquid membrane. Radioactivity of radiostrontium was measured by liquid scintillation counter coupled with dual counting window and spectrum unfolding method. With combustion apparatus a new determination of Tc-99 in the environmental samples was developed for overcoming demerits of conventional TBP extraction method. An optimized method for determining beta-emitting 2 41Pu in the presence of alpha-emitting nuclides was developed using a liquid scintillation counting system. A method for measuring Rn-222 and Ra-226 in aqueous sample using liquid scintillation counting technique has studied. On-line measurement system coupled with ion chromatography and portable liquid scintillation detector was developed. U and Th measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mehtod of flow-injection preconcentration for the analysis of U and Th in seawater was developed. A new electrodeposition method for alpha spectrometry was developed

  16. Development of monitoring technology for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Young Hyun; Lee, M. H.; Choi, K. S.; Hong, K. H.; Sin, H. S.; Kim, M. K.; Pak, J. H

    2000-05-01

    The accurate and reliable determination techniques of the radioactive isotopes in environmental samples are very important to protect public health from the potential hazards of radiation. Isolation and purification of radiostrontium from environmental aqueous sample was performed by using strontium selectively binding resin (Sr-spec) and strontium selectively permeable liquid membrane. Radioactivity of radiostrontium was measured by liquid scintillation counter coupled with dual counting window and spectrum unfolding method. With combustion apparatus a new determination of Tc-99 in the environmental samples was developed for overcoming demerits of conventional TBP extraction method. An optimized method for determining beta-emitting {sup 2}41Pu in the presence of alpha-emitting nuclides was developed using a liquid scintillation counting system. A method for measuring Rn-222 and Ra-226 in aqueous sample using liquid scintillation counting technique has studied. On-line measurement system coupled with ion chromatography and portable liquid scintillation detector was developed. U and Th measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mehtod of flow-injection preconcentration for the analysis of U and Th in seawater was developed. A new electrodeposition method for alpha spectrometry was developed.

  17. Measurement of radioactivity in rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eivindson, T.

    1985-01-01

    The report gives a description of an ion-exchange surveillance- sampler for routine measurements of radioactivity in rain, and how the measurements are performed. Using the nuclides 85 Sr, 131 I and 137 Cs as tracers, experiments have been performed to determine the distribution of radioactivity in the ion-exchange column and the effectiveness of the column as a function of elutriation rate and temperature

  18. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2000. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters. There was no significant difference in environmental radioactivities between 1999 and 2000.

  20. Eighth experts meeting on environmental radioactivity monitoring: Technical and organisational means for an optimised measurement of ambient radioactivity in the environment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The plant-specific emission monitoring and environmental monitoring near nuclear facilities are part of the items of the agreement between the EC and the IAEA, for mutual rapid information in the case of accidents. The lectures presented to the technical discussion meeting deal with the legal and technical aspects involved. Dispersion models, computer-aided dispersion models, computer-aided information systems and advanced programs as well as measuring techniques and results of the emission monitoring and environmental monitoring near nuclear facilities are the aspects of main interest discussed at the meeting. (DG) [de

  1. Determination of environmental radioactivity, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinji; Nakaoka, Akira; Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    According to the fundamental design proposed for the purpose of dose assessment of the general public around a nuclear facility corresponding to the guideline issued by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, 5 mrem/yr, the authors developed a rapid and simple determination method of radioactivity in food and related environmental samples by pretreating with a modified microwave dehydration apparatus followed by radiation counting. Equation to estimate heating condition by the apparatus was derived, and estimation by the equation was in good agreement with experimental data. It took less than 4.5 hours to dehydrate by the proposed method. This value was much smaller in comparison with the value of more than 10 hours by a conventional hot-air drying method, and radiation counting was able to be started in the same day of sampling and dehydration procedure. It was cralified that lower limits of detection for each radionuclide by the proposed method by using a Ge(Li) detector of 20 % relative efficiency was lower than half level of needed detection limits to determine and evaluate the 5 mrem/yr level. Radionuclide levels in food samples such as vegetables and crustaceans was determined by the proposed method and it was found that they were below the lower detection limit of the method except natural radionuclide 40 K and fallout originated 137 Cs. (author)

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity in soil samples and comparison of direct and indirect measurement of environmental air kerma rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnaesakki, S.; Manish Chopra; Sartandel, S.J.; Bara, S.V.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.; Sanjeev Kumar; Vishal Arora; Bajwa, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometric measurement of natural radioactivity mainly due to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples collected in Ferozepur and Faridkot district of Punjab, India. 226 Ra activity varied from 28.6 to 51.1 Bq kg -1 with the mean of 39.7 Bq kg -1 . The range and mean activity of 232 Th were 42.9 - 73.2 and 58.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. 40 K activity was in the range of 470.9 - 754.9 Bq kg -1 with the mean of 595.2 Bq kg -1 . The air kerma rate (AKR) at 1 m height from the ground was also measured using gamma survey meter in all the sampling locations, which was ranging from 92.1 to 122.8 nGy h -1 with the mean of 110.6 nGy h -1 . The radiological parameters such as Raeq and activity index of the soil samples were also evaluated, which are the tools to assess the external radiation hazard due to building materials. The mean and range of the Raeq values were 168.7 and 132.9 - 210.4 Bq kg -1 , respectively, whereas the activity index varied from 0.5 to 0.8 with the mean value of 0.62. These indices show that the indoor external dose due to natural radioactivity in the soil used for the construction will not exceed the dose criteria. The AKR was also evaluated from soil activity concentration and altitude correction of cosmic radiation contribution. The statistical tests such as Pearson correlation, spearman rank correlation, box and whisker plot, the Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney test and chi-square test, were used to compare the measured AKR with evaluated AKR, which indicates good correlation. (author)

  3. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, Annex 2c, Environmental radioactivity control, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Zaric, M.; Adamovic, M.; Stevanovic, M.

    1988-01-01

    During 1988, meteorology measurements were continued as a part of the environmental control of the Vinca Institute. This report covers the period from November 1984 - November 1985. Part of the meteorology measurements and data analysis is adapted to the needs of the Institute, i.e. RA reactor and some Laboratories. The objective of these activities is forming the data base for solving everyday and special problems related to control, protection and safety of Institute environment [sr

  4. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  5. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  6. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant

  7. Environmental radiochemistry and radioactivity. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1999-01-01

    A current bibliography with 146 references has been compiled on environmental radiochemistry and radioactivity for years 1993-1997 based on INIS Atomindex. The references are arranged alphabetically by first authors' names. (N.T.)

  8. Measurement of radioactivity in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtendonk, H.-J. von; Luengen, S.; Wilke, N.

    1999-01-01

    Even after the control of scrap deliveries, there remains a small risk that the radioactive contaminated scrap passes the detecting devices. Therefore, the chemical laboratory takes a role to measure each heat for the absence of artificial radioactive nuclides with a gamma spectrometer equipped with NaI-detector. As the measurement must be performed in sequence with the steel production process, the allowable time for the measurement is quite limited. On the other hand, there could be still some possibility that background radiation might be present as the samples may contain some natural radioactivity. The task is how to differentiate the nature of radioactivity between naturally remaining radioactivity within safe limit and artificial nuclides present in the sample at a low level even though a very small amount of radioactivity could be detected in short time in both cases. We have set the alarm limit to 0.1 Bq/g for Co-60 as indicating nuclide. This limit is set more than 4 s (s = standard deviation) from the average background radiation. Therefore, false alarms are quite improbable. Strategy: The NaI gamma spectrometer performs a gross gamma measurement but it can not differentiate the nature of the nuclides present. If the alarm limit is hurt, the sample is measured on a high resolution gamma spectrometer with Ge-detector for identification of the gamma emitting nuclides. Calibration: Even though no appropriate international standards are adapted and no commercial measuring equipment is commercially available, the desired standard should contain Co-60 in the order of 1 to 100 Bq/g. The presence of other gamma emitting nuclides is desirable. In the Workshop we will present how to surmount this difficulty. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  10. Environmental radioactivity survey data in Cheonju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Goo, Hyun Mi

    2003-12-01

    We surveyed the en environmental radiation and radioactivity in Chungcheongbuk-do in order to provide baseline data in the year of 2003. Data generated from the project will be the information base for making decisions necessary to ensure the protection of public health. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Cheongju regional monitoring station In the year 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1975. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, stream and lake water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1975 are given. The gamma-background was measured regularly at locations around Risoe, and at ten of the State experimental farms. Finnaly the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  12. Nuclear power stations: environmental surveillance of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, P.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the radiations they emit, radioactive substances can be detected, identified and measured at extremely low concentrations ? the corresponding masses are lower by a factor ranging from 1000 to 10 000 than those that can be measured by any other chemical or physical method, however precise, applied to non-radioactive substances. Radioisotopes can therefore be detected in the environment at levels much lower than those at which genuine public health problems begin to arise. Unfortunately, we cannot say the same of numerous non-radio active pollutants, which can be measured only at concentrations very close to, or even exceeding, the toxicity threshold. In the mind of the uninformed public confusion seems quite frequently to reign as between the detection threshold and the toxicity threshold. This undoubtedly explains the following situation which is, to say the least, paradoxical: people are afraid of the hypothetical effects of radioactivity at ridiculously low levels, whereas nobody is alarmed at the fact that the toxicity limits for a very large number of non-radioactive, but very real pollutants are being exceeded almost continuously. The sum of all artificial irradiations does not exceed the normal fluctuations of natural irradiation, and if the genetic effects of very low radiation doses were truly cumulative, the natural radiation to which we are all exposed and which is by far the highest would by itself have eliminated every trace of life on earth long ago. Lastly, let us not forget that merely the use of X-rays in medicine, particularly in radiodiagnosis, represents an additional average artificial irradiation of the population amounting to double the natural radiation (100 millirem per year). This is about 100 times the irradiation which would accrue from nuclear industry even according to the most pessimistic estimate. We have seen that the measures described above will make it genuinely possible to maintain environmental radioactivity in all

  13. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples : vegetables, fishes/shellfishes, fruits, starch and starch roots and drinking waters. Among the all 2001 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  14. Measurement of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Intensive research has been going on in many countries to remove the uncertainties and to develop and perfect the methods of measuring the absolute value of the activity of a radionuclide. The importance of this research would be obvious in the context of the rapidly growing use of radioisotopes all over the world. The use of radionuclides had increased not only in regard to the variety of applications but also in respect of the quantities involved. Until recently these uses had been confined to a few scientifically advanced countries but now they were spreading to more and more countries of the world. Development in this direction was bound to continue, and this increased the importance of improving the measuring methods. The Scientific Advisory Committee of IAEA had expressed the view that it was important to attempt a synthesis of the experience in this field gained in different countries. The Vienna symposium was meant to serve that purpose

  15. Statistical aspects in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.

    1979-10-01

    This report contains a summary of basic concepts and formulae important for the treatment of errors and for calculating lower limits of detection in radioactivity measurements. Special attention has been paid to practical application and examples which are of interest for scientists working in this field. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.C.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material comprises at least one radiation detector in a housing serving as a first radiation shield and in which at least one groove is formed to expose at least a portion of a receptor surface of the detector. The groove extends transverse to the direction of movement of the material over the detector. A second radiation shield may be located between at least a portion of the first shield and the detector. The material of the second shield is inherently less contaminated and emits secondary excitation radiation of lower energy than the first material. (author)

  17. Environmental natural radioactivity concentrations of Tekirdag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, Y.; Kam, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this study, the environmental natural radioactivity concentrations of Tekirdag, a city in the region of Marmara in Turkey, have been measured. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples collected from 40 points of Tekirdag was performed by using an HPGe detector and the radionuclide concentrations of the decay products of 238 U and 232 Th series, 40K and 137 Cs were determined. Gross alpha and gross beta activities of the water samples taken from municipal supplies, springs, wells and fountains were performed by using the Berthold, LB770-PC 10, a gas-flow proportional counter. Gamma exposure dose rates were measured by using an Eberline Smart Portable scintillation detector and the annual effective dose equivalents caused by exposure gamma dose rates were calculated

  18. Radon and environmental radioactivity in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandac, I.; Bettini, A.; Borjabad, S.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Perez, C.; Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez, P.; Villar, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of more than one year of measurements of Radon and environmental radioactivity in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are presented. Radon and atmospheric parameters have registered by an Alpha guard P30 equipment and the environmental radioactivity has been measured by means of UD-802A Panasonic thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) processed by an UD716 Panasonic unit. Series of results along with their possible correlations are presented. Both the Radon level and the ambient dose equivalent H (10) are much lower than the allowed ones so no radiological risk exists to persons working in the LSC. Also its excellent environmental radiological quality has been confirmed. (Author)

  19. Validation of an efficiency calibration procedure for a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector used for the measurement of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera-Gómez, Yasser, E-mail: ymore24@gamail.com [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba); Departamento de Química y Edafología, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, Pamplona 31009, Navarra (Spain); Cartas-Aguila, Héctor A.; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Nuñez-Duartes, Carlos [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2016-05-11

    To obtain reliable measurements of the environmental radionuclide activity using HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detectors, the knowledge of the absolute peak efficiency is required. This work presents a practical procedure for efficiency calibration of a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The method was performed in an energy range from 40 to 1460 keV and it can be used for both, solid and liquid environmental samples. The calibration was initially verified measuring several reference materials provided by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Finally, through the participation in two Proficiency Tests organized by IAEA for the members of the ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed. The validation also showed that measurement of {sup 226}Ra should be conducted using coaxial n-type HPGe detector in order to minimize the true coincidence summing effect. - Highlights: • An efficiency calibration for a coaxial and a well-type HPGe detector was performed. • The calibration was made using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. • The procedure was verified measuring several reference materials provided by IAEA. • Calibrations were validated through the participation in 2 ALMERA Proficiency Tests.

  20. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  1. Collection and preparation of samples for Agency's programme of intercalibration methods and procedures for measurement of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    1975-12-01

    In the period of 1971-1975 several samples of marine sediment and organisms were collected from the Bombay Harbour Bay as well as from the vicinity of the Tarapur nuclear power station in order to supply the materials for preparing intercalibration samples for radionuclides measurements. All samples collected were freeze-dried and homogenized prior to the dispatch to the Monaco Laboratory, where final homogenization and the homogeneity tests were carried out. Altogether 2 marine organisms and 3 marine sediments were supplied during this period. The materials supplied were proved to be useful to prepare intercalibration samples for radionuclide measurements in the levels for monitoring operations. Based on these materials several intercalibration exercises were successfully conducted. This work thus formed a basis for bringing the better comparability of radionuclide measurements in marine environmental samples in an international scale

  2. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  3. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U; Damla, N; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using γ-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and a fission product 137 Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg -1 for 40 K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l -1 , respectively. The concentrations of gross α and β radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross α and β activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l -1 and 1.0 Bq l -1 gross α and β radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m -3 and the average value was 56 Bq m -3 . The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  4. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Dunne, B.; Colgan, P.A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1990-06-01

    The Nuclear Energy Board measures radionuclides in air, rainwater, total fallout, drinking water supplies and milk as part of its programme to monitor radioactivity in the Irish environment. The report presents the results of measurements made during 1988 and 1989

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  6. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  7. Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM). Operational safety, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. Release: December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report overviews the monitoring activities of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection at the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM), focussing the ERAM inventory of radioactive waste and the measures and results of geomechanical and hydrogeological monitoring, operational radiation protection, the monitoring of discharges of radioactive substances, environmental monitoring, and the dose levels expected from discharges of radioactive substances. (orig.)

  8. Measuring radioactivity in the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    Techniques of measuring the total amount of radioactivity in the body of a living person as well as the principal applications of such measurements were reviewed at a Symposium on Whole Body Counting held in Vienna from 12 to 16 June 1961. The whole body counters can be divided into two broad groups: (a) counters for the radiation protection surveillance of the general public and radiation workers, capable of detecting extremely low levels of radioactivity in the human body, and (b) counters for medical research and diagnosis, designed to check the retention and excretion of radioactive substances administered to patients for metabolic and pathological studies. In both cases, the primary requirement is that the counter must be able to measure the total activity in the body. In recent years, there has been a remarkable development of the instruments and techniques for such measurements. One of the main purposes of the symposium in Vienna was to discuss how best to use these highly sophisticated instruments.

  9. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1989-10-01

    A nation-wide network of 11 monotoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarn for immediate transmission. The monotoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described, and results from measurements in 1988 are presented. 14 figs

  10. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1988-05-01

    A nation-wide network of seven monitoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels will trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and field experiences in connection with its operation are described. NILU's directions in the event of radiation alarm are specified and radiation measurements for 1987 are presented

  11. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1990-08-01

    A nation-wide network of 11 monitoring stations for continous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described. Results from measurements in 1989 are presented. 18 figs

  12. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  14. Direct continuous multichannel gamma spectrometric measurements -one of the main methods for control and study of radioactive environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.; Roumyantsev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Six reasons are given for suggesting that radioactivity in the environment should be monitored continuously using multichannel gamma spectrometry. These are the probability of an accident at a nuclear power plant (estimated at one every 4 years for the number of power stations now in operation), the possibility of damage to a reactor from natural disaster, the increased use of nuclear powered ships, missiles etc, the radioactivity released during the course of normal operation of nuclear facilities, the increased use of radioisotope sources and as a basis for modelling radionuclide migration and redistribution over time. The use of stationary monitoring points as well as on vehicles, boats and aircraft is recommended. Some problems are discussed. The experience of continuous gamma monitoring following the Chernobyl accident is discussed and results given. (U.K.)

  15. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  16. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author)

  17. Certified Reference Materials for Radioactivity Measurements in Environmental Samples of Soil and Water: IAEA-444 and IAEA-445

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Reference Materials are an important requirement for any sort of quantitative chemical and radiochemical analysis. Laboratories need them for calibration and quality control throughout their analytical work. The IAEA started to produce reference materials in the early 1960's to meet the needs of the analytical laboratories in its Member States that required reference materials for quality control of their measurements. The initial efforts were focused on the preparation of environmental reference materials containing anthropogenic radionuclides for use by those laboratories employing nuclear analytical techniques. These reference materials were characterized for their radionuclide content through interlaboratory comparison involving a core group of some 10 to 20 specialist laboratories. The success of these early exercises led the IAEA to extend its activities to encompass both terrestrial and marine reference materials containing primordial radionuclides and trace elements. Within the frame of IAEA activities in production and certification of reference materials, this report describes the certification of the IAEA-444 and IAEA-445: soil and water spiked with gamma emitting radionuclides respectively. Details are given on methodologies and data evaluation

  18. Spectrometry techniques for radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    The energy of the radiation emission following the nuclear decay is unique and the characteristic of the radio nuclide which undergoes decay. Thus measurement of the energy of the radiation offers a method of identifying the radio nuclides. The prime requirement of the energy measurement is a suitable detector which shows response proportional to the energy of the radiation rather than the presence of the radiation. The response from such detectors are suitably processed and distributed with respect to the signal strength which is proportional to incident energy. This distribution is normally referred as energy spectrum and is recorded in the multichannel analyser. The measurement of energy and intensity of radiation from the spectrum is called radiation spectrometry. Thus the radiation spectrometry allows the identification and quantification of radioactive isotopes in variety of matrices. The radiation spectrometry has now become a popular radioanalytical technique in wide area of nuclear fuel cycle programs. The popular spectrometry techniques commonly used for the radioactivity measurement and analysis are Alpha spectrometry, Gamma ray spectrometry and Beta spectrometry

  19. SPERA 98: radioactivity and the environment, environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Presentations were grouped around the themes of soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways and foodchains, sediment studies and atmospheric radon. This volume contains extended abstracts. A list of participants is also included

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1974. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, drinking water, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1974 are given. The gamma-background was measured regularly at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, in one area in Zealand, one in Jutland, and along the shores of the Great Belt. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-06-01

    The present report deals with the measurement of fall-out radioactivity in Denmark in 1976. Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, soil, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Caesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1976 are given. The γ-background was measured regularly at locations around Risoe, and ten of the State experimental farms. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. Results of plutonium determinations in soil and sediments from 1975 and in grain from 1963 and 1965 are presented in this report. (author)

  2. Effects of natural radioactivity on food radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennyu, Atsuhito

    2012-01-01

    Since the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Company, groups and individuals including local governments, food manufacturers, distribution circles, retail circles, and citizens are eager to measure the radioactivity of food, in order to confirm the safety of food from the concerns about radioactive contamination. The measurement of radioactivity of food is done by quantitatively determining gamma rays due to radioactive cesium that was incorporated into the biosphere cycle after having been released into the environment. As for the radioactivity measurement of food using gamma-ray spectrometry with a potassium iodide scintillation detector, which is very commonly used, this paper describes the handling method of obtained data, the principle of erroneous detection of radioactive cesium and iodine interrupted by natural radionuclides, and countermeasures for it. Major natural radioactivity sources are uranium series and thorium series. This paper explains gamma rays, which are characteristic in the decay process of uranium series and often affect the measurement of radioactive cesium in food and water. (O.A.)

  3. 30 years of environmental radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoc, S.; Alexandrescu, M.; Dovlete, C.; Halasz, A.; Sonoc, N.

    1993-01-01

    A short history of environmental radioactivity monitoring in Romania is presented. Started in 1962 in a few number of sites this activity is performed now by the National Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) consisting in 44 local laboratories in each county of the country and a central laboratory, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (ERL). The measured values of fallout samples in six points of the network during the period 1962-1992 and the average values of the Cs-137 deposits on Romanian territory from 1977 to 1992 are also presented. The main scientific results of the staff of the central laboratory during the years are mentioned. All these results were possible only due to a persuasive work done during the years by all the staff of the local and central laboratories. (author). 7 figs., 14 refs

  4. Proceedings of the International conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The conference contains 404 presentations on: 1) Emergency preparedness and rehabilitation with emphasis on radiation and radioactivity determination and monitoring, protection and contamination and pollution. 2) TNORM/NORM including radon with focus on radioactivity in the environmental and isotope evaluation. 3) Radioecology and speciation including arctic radioecology, focusing on accidents, radiation and radioactivity effects, nuclear waste disposal, handling, impacts, safety and risks, pollution and its sources, accumulation of isotopes and various medical aspects. 4) Risk assessment with emphasis on the environmental and ecological aspects, modeling, recommendations and international cooperation and discussion of the effects of climatic changes. 5) Radiation in society. 6) Environmental protection with focus on radionuclide studies, radiation effects and protection measures, isotope accumulation effects, nuclide distribution, migration and pollution and effects and handling of nuclear accidents. The global aspects of the topics are evident and there are discussions on non-ionizing and ionizing radiation effect, various simulation problems and public and general health aspects (tk)

  5. Measurement of liquid radioactive materials for monitoring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    This draft regulation applies to measuring equipment for liquid radioactive materials for the monitoring of the radioactive discharges from stationary nuclear power plants with LWR and HTR reactors. Demands made on the measuring procedure, methods of concentration determination, balancing, indication of limiting values, and inspections are layed down. The draft regulation deals with: 1) Monitoring liquid radioactive discharges: Water and similar systems; radionuclides and their detection limits, radioactively contaminated water (waste water); secondary cooling water; power house cooling water; primary cooling water; flooding water; 2) Layout of the measuring and sampling equipment and demands made on continuous and discontinuous measuring equipment; demands made on discontinuous α and β measuring equipment; 3) Maintenance and repair work; inspections; repair of defects; 4) Demands made on documentation; reports to authorities; 5) Supplement: List of general and reference regulations. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Dong Wan; An, Mi Jeong [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Kangnung province during the period of January 1- December 31, 2001. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Gangnung province during the period of January 1 - December 31, 2003. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Kangnung province during the period of January 1- December 31, 2002. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  9. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S; Osores, J; Jara, R [Direccion General de Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    1998-07-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40.

  10. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Osores, J.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  11. Measurement of radioactivity in contaminated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Hasegawa, M; Kihara, T

    1956-01-01

    A method called the Direct Method was developed to correct for natural /sup 40/K radiation in plant samples. The K content of the ashed sample is determined by flamephotometry. The radioactivity in a 100 mg sample is measured and the natural radioactivity from /sup 40/K determined by calculation subtracted. Tea samples tested gave evidence of contamination by radioactive fallout.

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1974 are reported. Strontium 90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1974. Three Greenlanders were measured by wholebody counting. (author)

  13. Environmental pathways of radioactivity to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    The report reviews and discusses the environmental pathways by which radioactive materials can lead to the irradiation of man, in a way that should be understood by non-specialists who have neither the time nor the knowledge to study all of the relevant literature on this subject. The role of these environmental pathways in the general structure of radiological protection is considered, and the various mechanisms which lead to the dispersion or re-concentration of radioactive materials are discussed at some length. Particular groups of radionuclides from the nuclear power industry are considered in some detail. Similarly the question of the corresponding pathways from naturally-occurring radioactive materials is covered. The doses to animals and plants resulting from the nuclear industry are examined, and it is concluded that there is no reason to expect that these doses will lead to significant harm. Finally a summary is presented, and it is noted that it has been possible to obtain a very extensive knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment only because of the extreme sensitivity of the techniques available for their detection, identification and assay. As a result a fund of knowledge has been built up about the behaviour of radioactive materials in the environment which is far more extensive than our knowledge of the behaviour of many highly toxic chemicals which are also discharged into the environment. (UK)

  14. Observation of environmental radioactivity at definite time and definite point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Fukuchi, Ryoichi; Irie, Takayuki; Hosoda, Nagako; Okano, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Koutaro

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of environmental radioactivity in Tokyo Metropolis was carried out. The objects of measurement were rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts, spatial dose and the activated sludge in sewage treatment plants. Rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose were analyzed mainly considering radioactive fallout, and activated sludge was analyzed mainly considering radioactive medical matters. For the analysis of nuclides, a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was used, and spatial dose rate was measured with a DBM type dose rate meter. In activated sludge, the nuclides used for radioactive medicines were found, but in rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose, particular abnormality was not found. The objective of this investigation is to collect over long period at definite time and definite points the data on environmental radioactivity in Tokyo, thus to grasp the level of normal values, and in abnormal case, to clarify the cause and to evaluate the exposure dose. The instruments used, the method of measuring each object and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and to assess the resulting population exposures. The report is prepared as a summary of work in progress and as a means of publishing the results of ongoing programs. Special studies reported on included the evaluation of the contamination by cesium-137 of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities; the development of methods for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples; and monitoring of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. Environmental monitoring programs conducted included external radiation exposure, tritium in water vapour, gross beta radioactivity, and monitoring of air, drinking water, precipitation and milk. A list of reports and presentations is also included.

  16. Measurement of Radioactivity in Some Croatian Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orehovec, Z.; Ilijas, B.; Bokan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: After Government of Canada expressed its suspicion that Canadian soldiers who were included in UNPROFOR mission in Croatia were exposed to increased radioactivity and possible some chemical influences, a large action of measuring and sampling was undertaken. Canadian and Croatian experts were working together and a very large number of samples was collected. Measurements of alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity on terrain, as well as later analysis of samples showed no increased radioactivity or any other signs of radioactive contamination. The conclusion is that any possible diseases of Canadian soldiers can not originate from radiation or radioactive contamination in Croatia. (author)

  17. Development and calibration automatic equipment's measuring in real time of the environmental radioactivity by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Morant, J. J.; Salvado, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the general aspects of the implementation of gamma spectrometry in water, as well as the development of two measuring devices based on this technique: aerosol monitor (RARM-F) and a monitor direct measurement (RARMD2) , both patent applications. Furthermore, they described in detail the aspects of calibration of equipment, which has been made by combining experimental measurements with Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)

  18. Sampling method of environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This manual provides sampling methods of environmental samples of airborne dust, precipitated dust, precipitated water (rain or snow), fresh water, soil, river sediment or lake sediment, discharged water from a nuclear facility, grains, tea, milk, pasture grass, limnetic organisms, daily diet, index organisms, sea water, marine sediment, marine organisms, and that for tritium and radioiodine determination for radiation monitoring from radioactive fallout or radioactivity release by nuclear facilities. This manual aims at the presentation of standard sampling procedures for environmental radioactivity monitoring regardless of monitoring objectives, and shows preservation method of environmental samples acquired at the samplingpoint for radiation counting for those except human body. Sampling techniques adopted in this manual is decided by the criteria that they are suitable for routine monitoring and any special skillfulness is not necessary. Based on the above-mentioned principle, this manual presents outline and aims of sampling, sampling position or object, sampling quantity, apparatus, equipment or vessel for sampling, sampling location, sampling procedures, pretreatment and preparation procedures of a sample for radiation counting, necessary recording items for sampling and sample transportation procedures. Special attention is described in the chapter of tritium and radioiodine because these radionuclides might be lost by the above-mentioned sample preservation method for radiation counting of less volatile radionuclides than tritium or radioiodine. (Takagi, S.)

  19. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  20. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the member states of the European Community for air, deposition, water, milk, 1975-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The present document is the sixteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. This is the second document which includes data from the enlarged community-viz. Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, plus Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, who joined the Community on 1 January 1973. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitaton and fallout, surface water and milk during 1975 and 1976

  1. Measurement of activity of radioactive gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Renhong; Lei Jiarong; Wen Dezhi; Cheng Jing; Zheng Hui

    2005-10-01

    A set of standard instrument system with their accessories for the measurement of activity of radioactive gas have been developed. The specifications and performances of the system have been tested and examined. The conventional true values of activity of radioactive gas have been measured and its uncertainty has been assessed. The technique of the dissemination of the measurement of activity of radioactive gas has been researched. The specification and performance of the whole set of apparatus meet the requirements of the relational standard, critra, regulation, it can be regard as a work standard for the measurement of activity of radioactive gas in CAEP. (authors)

  2. TLD system for the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochioiu, Ana; Sahagia, Maria; Tudor, Ion

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a high sensitivity TLD system, designed for the survey of the environmental radioactivity. It is based on the use of TL detectors type LiF:Mg, Cu, P, commercially known as GR-200A. The dosimeter designed in our Institute, contains 3 detectors, and the measurement value is calculated as the arithmetic mean. A very sensitive, TL Reader, READER ANALYSER RA'94 was chosen and an optimal thermal cycle was designed, such as to enhance the measurement performances. For each placement, a set of 3 dosemeters is used, and survey intervals from 1 to 100 days, depending on the radioactivity level and reporting requirements, are selected. The technical characteristics of the system were determined by exposing the dosimeters in reference X and gamma radiation fields, such as required by the IEC standard 61066:iun.2006 'Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring'. The main technical parameters are of highest quality and recommend it for use in the survey of the environmental radioactivity, at the level of ambient dose equivalent rate, due to normal natural radioactivity, in open areas. The paper describes the method of characterisation and measurement results, as well as their relevance. (author)

  3. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1976 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1976. (author)

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1978 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Tritium was determined in samples of drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1978. (author)

  5. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1989, Part 2 , Environmental radioactivity control - Meteorology measurements, Annex 2b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.; Zaric, M.

    1989-01-01

    Already poor state of the equipment and insufficient staff of the meteorology service in the Institute was not improved during the past year, on the contrary. In addition to the fact that the series of meteorology sensors available in the Institute are not appropriate for special measurements which are obligatory for nuclear facilities, it is clear that the methods of data acquisition and processing applied during the past year were such as emergency methods applied worldwide in case when automated measurements are not functioning. It is underlined that meteorology data acquisition and data processing are not in accordance with the legal regulations, which demand each nuclear facility owner to have an automated meteorology station [sr

  6. The Austrian system for the measurement of environmental radioactivity (ASMER) and the Austrian early radiation warning system (AERWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.

    1988-01-01

    The two systems of environment radiation measurements complement each other. ASMER does a detailed, quantitative and nuclide specific analysis of the contaminations in the environment. AERWS's aim is to alarm the authorities in case of accident. It is aimed at higher radiation levels is not nuclide specific but quick. A short description is given of the organisations concerned, the procedures used and items surveyed by the two networks. 8 refs., 19 figs. (qui)

  7. Comparison between environmental measurements and model calculations of radioactivity in fish at the Swedish nuclear power plants and Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, O.

    1995-02-01

    Doses to critical groups from the activity released from swedish reactors were modelled in 1983. In this report these calculations are compared to doses calculated (using the same assumptions as in the 1983 model) from the activity measured in the water recipient. The study shows that the model overestimates activity in biota and sediments, which was expected, since the model was constructed to be conservative. 13 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Measurement of radioactivity in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.

    1990-01-01

    Public concern about the levels of radioactivity release to the environment whether authorised discharges or resulting from nuclear accident, has increased in recent years. Consequently there is increasing pressure for reliable data on the distribution of radioactivity and the extent of its intrusion into food chains and water supplies. As a result a number of laboratories not experienced in radioactivity measurements have acquired nucleonic counting equipment. These notes explore the underlying basics and indicate sources of essential data and information which are required for a better understanding of radioactivity measurements. Particular attention is directed to the screening tests which are usually designated ''gross'' alpha and ''gross'' beta activity measurement. (author)

  9. Characteristics of prepared gamma-ray calibration sources for radioactivity measurement of environmental and radiation control samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samat, S.B.; Oi, Yoshihiro; Taki, Mitsumasa; Manabe, Iwao; Yoshida, Makoto; Minami, Kentaro

    1995-03-01

    Several types of calibration source having different density were prepared using one or combinations of those materials, namely foam cement, liquid, glass beads, polystyrene foam bead and hard plastic bead for gamma-ray spectrometry of the samples with different densities and shapes(variable height with constant base area). For each type of the source, a few sources were prepared to examine characteristics in such cases as (a) different heights but constant density, and (b) constant height and constant density. For the foam cement source, several sources with different densities and a constant height were prepared. All the sources were measured with a gamma-ray spectrometry system and the results were discussed. This report also presents the results obtained from the experiments for the evaluation of (1) the variation of detector efficiency-energy with gamma-ray energy, and (2) the variation of detector efficiency with density of the sources. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Lippert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Holm, E.

    1980-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1979 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1979. Provisional results of the 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are presented. (author)

  11. Examination of the new index creatures for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Saito, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the environmental radioactivity monitoring is to watch over the radiation hazard to the human body, fallout resting from the nuclear test and the environmental pollution around the nuclear facilities and so forth. The measurement of the environmental radioactivity is done using samples like the atmosphere, land water, land soil, bottom soil of the sea and lake, drainage, food, marine samples, index creatures, etc. The index creatures in the land are pine needle, cryptomeria leaf, mugwort and so on. However, in recent years, they are decreasing at the city. Therefore, Kin-mokusei and Pothos are examined using the microwave heating distillation system developed by Radioisotope Research Center of Osaka University, it was proved that they had possibility of the new index creature. (author)

  12. Measurement of gamma radioactivity in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtendonk, H.J. von; Flock, J.; Grientschnig, D.; Kircher, T.; Kroos, J.; Mertens, S.; Mueller, J.; Puchmayr, J.; Schlothmann, B.J.; Schmitz, H.U.; Troebs, V.; Unger, H.

    1999-01-01

    The steel industry is being confronted increasingly with radioactive scrap from dismantled nuclear facilities. The clearance and release regulations that exist around the world differ very greatly and are difficult to implement. A 'radioactivity measurement' working group has therefore been set up at VDEh to clarify how radioactive measurements can be integrated into the day-to-day production routine. Operating results obtained at Thyssen Krupp Stahl AG with a gamma-ray spectrometer indicate a possibility for the simple detection of radioactive contamination. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental radioactivity: A perspective on industrial contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    This essay aims to show how many non-nuclear industries contributed significantly to natural radioactivity. The examples given include the release of radon-220 and radon-222, as well as other radioisotopes, from the combustion of fossil fuels. Furthermore, edible mussels in the Irish Sea have been found to concentrate polonium-210 from seawater: the original source of the isotope was found to be the waste from a phosphate processing plant. These contributions should be taken into account when the environmental impacts of different industrial activities are compared. 3 tabs

  14. Environmental radioactivity: A perspective on industrial contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, M S [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1993-06-01

    This essay aims to show how many non-nuclear industries contributed significantly to natural radioactivity. The examples given include the release of radon-220 and radon-222, as well as other radioisotopes, from the combustion of fossil fuels. Furthermore, edible mussels in the Irish Sea have been found to concentrate polonium-210 from seawater: the original source of the isotope was found to be the waste from a phosphate processing plant. These contributions should be taken into account when the environmental impacts of different industrial activities are compared. 3 tabs.

  15. Natural radioactivity measurements at the proposed nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojuangco, J.G.; Salomon, A.Ph.

    1976-01-01

    Natural radioactivity measurement in the Philippines aims to establish baseline radioactivity levels in the environment of items essential to man. In this article, results of the environmental surveillance conducted in Bagac, Bataan from 1973 to 1974 are presented. Analyses were made on air parti-culates, sea and fresh water, grass, and soil samples for gross beta-gamma activities. Results obtained showed activity levels below the maximum permissible concentration recommended by the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP)

  16. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  17. 15. Experts' meeting on monitoring environmental radioactivity. Data - models - information. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the 15. Experts' meeting on monitoring environmental radioactivity include contributions o the following topics: environmental monitoring in Germany; developments in emergency protection and environmental monitoring; implementation of model and information systems; measuring programs during events and exercises; public information during local and global events; fast and (new) analytical methods; measures of the quality management systems; European and international environmental monitoring harmonization.

  18. Environmental effects associated with the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Pope, R.B.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper has been to describe some of the background information concerning nuclear materials transportation systems, accident statistics, accident severities, and test information - all of which when combined yield an environmental statement of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials. The results of the ultimate risk analysis are expressed in terms of numbers of fatalities and, in that sense at least, tend to be an absolute measure of risk. When these risks are compared with other accepted societal risks, the relative risks associated with radioactive material transportation can be established. This information can be used to make decisions at the governmental level and to inform an interested public about these risks. It can be concluded that the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material are low relative to the other risks that society has already accepted

  19. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in the Faroes in 1976 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1976. (author)

  20. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1981-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1980 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes in 1980. (author)

  1. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in the Faroes in 1975 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, whale, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1975. (author)

  2. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1980-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1979 are presented. STrontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1979. (author)

  3. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1978-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1977 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1977. (author)

  4. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of European Community for air-deposition-water 1973-1974, milk 1972-1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The present document is the fifteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity and using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity in Member States. The results are compiled and extracted from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. It is the first document in which data from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which joined the European Community on 1 January 1973 are included in addition to data from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The results presented in this report cover the years 1973 and 1974 for air deposition and surface water and the years 1972, 1973 and 1974 for milk

  5. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  6. Decoding Environmental Processes Using Radioactive Isotopes for the Post-Radioactive Contamination Recovery Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, Misa; Nishimura, Taku; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Renschler, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The continual monitoring of environmental radioactive levels in Fukushima, Japan following the nuclear plant accident in March 2011 provides our society with valuable information in two ways. First, the collected data can be used as an indicator to assess the progress of decontamination efforts. Secondly, the collected data also can be used to understand the behavior of radioactive isotopes in the environment which leads to further understanding of the landform processes. These two aspects are inseparable for us to understand the effects of radioactive contamination in a dynamic environmental system. During the summer of 2016, 27 soil core samples were collected on a farmer's land (rice paddies and forest) in Fukushima, about 20 km northwest of the nuclear plant. Each core was divided into 2.0 - 3.0 cm slices for the Cs-134, Cs-137, and I-131 level measurement. The collected data is being analyzed from multiple perspectives: temporal, spatial, and geophysical. In the forest area, even on the same hillslope, multiple soil types and horizon depths were observed which indicates the challenges in assessing the subsurface radioactive isotope movements. It appears that although highly humic soils show higher or about the same level of radioactivity in the surface layers, as the depth increased, the radioactivity decreased more in those samples compared with more sandy soils. With regard to the direction a slope faces and the sampling altitudes, the correlation between those attributes and radioactivity levels is inconclusive at this moment. The altitude might have affected the fallout level on a single hillslope-basis. However, to determine the correlation, further sampling and the detailed analysis of vegetation and topography might be necessary. Where the surface soil was scraped and new soil was brought in, former rice paddy surface layers did show three-magnitude levels lower of radioactivity in the top layer when compared with forest soils. At the foot of forest

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Holm, E.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1981 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1981. Further results of the 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are prsented. Brown algae collected in East Greenland in 1969 were analysed for Pu and Am. (author)

  8. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in the Faroes in 1974 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking wster. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1974. Whole body measurements were made on six individuals from the Faroes. (author)

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  12. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A.

    2003-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk

    2002-12-01

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of 137 Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants

  14. Environmental pathways of radioactivity to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to discuss environmental pathways and their significance in a way which will be understood by non-specialists. The role of these pathways in the general structure of radiological protection is explained and the more important pathways to man from releases into the air and the aquatic environment are discussed generally. The various mechanisms which lead to the dispersion or reconstruction of radioactive materials are discussed and their importance stressed. The more important pathways for particular groups of radionuclides from the nuclear power industry are dealt with in detail and information resulting from many theoretical and practical studies of the situations at particular locations summarized. There is detailed discussion about the doses to local population groups and about worldwide doses as a result of the release of certain long-lived radioactive species. The corresponding pathways and resulting doses from natural radiation are detailed to illustrate that the doses from the nuclear power industry are small in comparison, and brief consideration is given to animal and plant doses from the industry. (U.K.)

  15. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Lippert, J.; Hallstadius, L.; Holm, E.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1981 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1981. In Appendix the results from samplings of sea water and biota along the Icelandic and the Norwegian coasts are given. (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1978 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread, and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of lamb, sea birds, potatoes, sea plants, vegetables, eggs, and human bone. Tritium was determined in samples of drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1978. (author)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in the Faroes in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Holm, E.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1983-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the Faroes in 1982 are presented. Strontium-90 (and 137 Cs in most cases) was determined in regularly collected samples of precipitation, grass, milk, fish, sea water, bread and drinking water. In addition, analyses were made of spot samples of potatoes, sea plants, eggs, and human bone. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in the Faroes in 1982. In Appendix the results from a sampling of sea water and biota along the English and the Scottish coasts are given. (author)

  18. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Sequeira, S.; Smith, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish

  19. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; Smith, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, January-June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. In this report the results for the first half of 1978 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. Radioactivity measurements are now given in in the SI unit, the becquerel (Bq). One becquerel is equivalent to about 27 picocuries. The graphical format used in previous reports has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (auth)

  1. The measurement of radioactivity in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1988-01-01

    The fallout of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident gave rise to the need for large numbers of field and market surveys for radioactivity in foodstuffs in Germany. Due to the implementation of new government-mandated limits and a change in consumer attitudes, this need still persists today. In this article, the various methods available for measuring radioactivity in foodstuffs are reviewed and categorized by the type of information obtained and the degree of sample pretreatment required. A new category of instrument -- a consumer version of a simple NaI(Tl) gross gamma counter -- is introduced

  2. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  3. Environmental monitoring and deep ocean disposal of packaged radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Preston, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aims and objectives of environmental monitoring as laid down, for example by the ICRP and the IAEA include the assessment of actual or potential radiation exposure of man and the requirements of scientific investigations. The fulfillment of these aims is discussed in the context of the disposal of packaged radioactive waste in the deep Atlantic Ocean within the terms of the London Dumping Convention and within a regional agreement, the consultation/surveillance mechanism of the Nuclear Energy Agency. The paper discusses UK attitudes to such environmental monitoring, concentrates on the first of these ICRP objectives and shows how this is unlikely to be achieved by direct measurement in view of the small quantities of radioactive material involved relative to the scale of the receiving environment, and the timescale on which return to man can be conceived. Whilst meaningful environmental measurement is very unlikely to facilitate direct estimation of public radiation exposure by monitoring, it is still held that the basic objective of environmental monitoring can be met. A means by which this may be achieved is by oceanographic models. These procedures are discussed, illustrating the application of this philosophy in practice. (H.K.)

  4. Learning and education on environmental radioactivity by residents of Rokkasho Site for the spent fuel recycling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawauchi, Kiye; Itoh, Natsuko; Ishikawa, Tomiye; Nihonyanagi, Haruko; Aratani, Michi

    2005-01-01

    The neutron criticality accident at the JCO, a private company for nuclear fuel processing facilities in Tokai has drastically changed minds and attitudes of residents toward environmental radioactivity. The accident happened on September 30, 1999. Before the accident the residents of the Rokkasho Site were not anxious about environmental radioactivity, because they thought the facilities were safe enough concerning containment policy of the radioactivity inside the facilities. Residents, however, had not been taught on a neutron. It is an unfamiliar radiation for them. So, they promptly learnt on neutrons, and some of them began the fixed point measurement of neutrons at the nearest site of the Spent Fuel Recycling Facilities of Rokkasho by the help of Prof. Kazuhisa. Komura, Kanazawa University. Members of the Reading Cicle, Rokkasho Culture Society, mainly women, learnt measurements of environmental radioactivity using simplified counters for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ray from natural radioactive elements and prepared various kinds of environmental samples. After learning of environmental radioactivity, they began educational activities on the environmental radioactivity for boys and girls in the region. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity is performed by different institutions and with their purposes. Here is reported learning of environmental radioactivity by the residents and education of environmental radioactivity toward the young. Even with the simplest counters, we think that the monitoring of environmental radioactivity by the residents themselves is the royal road to the safety of the regional society. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, Jorge; Perez, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the data evaluation of measurements of gamma radiation in environmental samples in soils of Guatemala using high-purity Ge detectors, also measurements of background radiation using thermoluminiscent dosimeters based on LiF 700 (from Harshaw) were carried out in the points of higher population density. From data evaluation was found that precipitation of Cesium-137 from nuclear testing is present in soils of Guatemala, the results of background measured with TLD are normal

  6. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  7. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2002 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 19 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2003 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137} Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 22 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 10 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2000 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussed) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngsoe area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA value, except {sup 40}K nuclide. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclide in tap water are less(or is slightly higher in one sample) than the MDA value.

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  12. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu

    2001-12-01

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of 7 Be and 137 Cs on airborne dust, and 7 Be, 40 K and 137 Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The 7 Be, 40 K, 137 Cs and 226 Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of 7 Be, 40 K, and 137 Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except 40 K nuclide. All the concentrations of 137 Cs and 226 Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  14. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  15. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik.; Noh, Hyung Ah [Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2000. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J. S.; Kim, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 1998. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah

    2001-12-01

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period

  19. Dynamics of radioactive lead isotopes in the global environmental atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental information of radioactive lead isotopes, which used as the atmospheric tracer in the global environmental atmosphere, is reviewed. Emanation and exhalation of Rn and Tn, parent nuclide, is stated. Some reports on measurement and application of short-lived lead isotopes are reported. Transfer of radioactive lead isotopes in the atmosphere, vertical profiles of radon, thoron, and short-lived lead isotopes for different turbulent mixing conditions, deposition to aerosol, basic processes of Rn decay product behavior in air defining 'unattached' and 'aerosol-attached' activities, seasonal variation of atmospheric 210 Pb concentration at Beijing and Chengdu, seasonal variation of atmospheric 212 Pb concentration at several observation sites in Japan Islands, and variation in the atmospheric concentration of 212 Pb along with SO 2 are shown. (S.Y.)

  20. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  1. Measurements of natural radioactivity in historical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierzek, J.; Kunicki-Goldfinger, J.J.; Kasprzak, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Natural radioactive components of historical glasses and two methods of the respective measurement of the radioactivity are discussed. The evaluation of radioactivity of glass objects using a Geiger-Mueller counter and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry is presented. A survey of the Warsaw National Museum glass collection with a Geiger-Mueller counter allowed distinguishing the vessels made of potassium and sodium glass by their level of natural radioactivity. Gamma spectrometry, on the other hand, enables estimating a specific radionuclide content. Special attention is given to uranium glasses. One 19th century Bohemian vessel, coloured with a uranium compound, was carefully examined using gamma spectrometry. K 2 O and U content were estimated to be 16.2 and 0.33%, respectively. (orig.)

  2. Airborne anthropogenic radioactivity measurements from an international radionuclide monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, J.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Anthropogenic radioactivity is being measured in near-real time by an international monitoring system designed to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Airborne radioactivity measurements are conducted in-situ by stations that are linked to a central data processing and analysis facility. Aerosols are separated by high-volume air sampling with high-efficiency particulate filters. Radio-xenon is separated from other gases through cryogenic methods. Gamma-spectrometry is performed by high purity germanium detectors and the raw spectral data is immediately transmitted to the central facility via Internet, satellite, or modem. These highly sensitive sensors, combined with the automated data processing at the central facility, result in a system capable of measuring environmental radioactivity on the microbecquerel scale where the data is available to scientists within minutes of the field measurement. During the past year, anthropogenic radioactivity has been measured at approximately half of the stations in the current network. Sources of these measured radionuclides include nuclear power plant emissions, Chernobyl resuspension, and isotope production facilities. The ability to thoroughly characterize site-specific radionuclides, which contribute to the radioactivity of the ambient environment, will be necessary to reduce the number of false positive events. This is especially true of anthropogenic radionuclides that could lead to ambiguous analysis. (author)

  3. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around Jeongeup ARTI in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Kwon, Ho Je; Kang, Tai Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    In Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme has been enforced since 2007. This study has been done to guarantee the local residence radiation safety by detecting in early stage a possible radiological effect due to the operation of the ARTI facilities. For the radioactivity measurement, fourteen selected samples were gathered not only monthly, quarterly, half-yearly but also in the harvesting season. Measurement and analysis were done on the samples collected in and around the ARTI. The gamma exposure rates measured in and around ARTI was in the range of 0.05{approx}0.3 {mu}Sv/h. The range of gross-beta-radioactivity analyzed for the water samples except waste water was from <3.451 to 288 mBq/L. The range of 3H concentration detected in the rain sample collected in the ARTI site was 0.951{approx}2.34 Bq/L. 90Sr was not detected from all the samples of soil and honey, pine needles. The above results confirmed that there has been no influence due to operation of the ARTI facilities.. The analysis result reveals that there is no radiological influence due to operation of the ARTI facilities. Also, it is judged that the samples analyzed for the first time in 2009 have to be continuously evaluated afterward

  4. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities In its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and me variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU during 2001, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality during 2001 and were similar to the results obtained in the past 5 years. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities In its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and me variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross β - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU during 2001, and also the levels of the γ - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the γ - and gross β - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality during 2001 and were similar to the results obtained in the past 5 years. The γ - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities in its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and the variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU in 2000, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality in 2000 and were similar to the results obtained in the past years. Also levels of the {gamma} - activities of Cs-137 in those samples were below the MDA values. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few food samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities in its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and the variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU during 2003, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Gwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality during 2003 and were similar to the results obtained in the past 5 years. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  9. Determination of environmental radioactivity for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoaka, A.; Fukushima, M.; Takagi, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method was devised to determine detection limits for radioactivity in environmental samples. The method is based on the 5 mrem/yr whole-body dose objective established by the Japan Atomic Enerty Commission and is valid for assessing the internal dose from radionuclides in the environment around a nuclear facility. Eleven samples and 15 radionuclides were considered. Internal dose was assumed to be one-half of the total dose (5 mrem/yr) and was assessed using the critical pathway method. Needed detection limits (NDLs) were established to confirm the dose of 5 mrem/yr when there was more than one radionuclide per sample. The NDLs for γ-emitters were 10 -5 pCi/l. for air; 10 -3 pCi/l. for seawater; 10 -1 pCi/l. for drinking water; 10 0 pCi/kg for vegetables and fish; 10 0 pCi/l. for milk; and 10 1 pCi/kg for molluscs, crustaceans, seaweeds, soil and submarine sediments. The NDLs for β-emitters were 1-1/100 of those for γ-emitters. (author)

  10. Measurements on radioactive dusts over Calcutta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S; Patro, A P; Basu, B; Bhattacharyya, R L; Hosain, F

    1955-01-01

    A brief report of the measurements of the radioactivity of rain water samples collected in Calcutta from April 29 to the middle of July 1954, is presented. Measurements of energy and half lives indicated that the dusts originated from nuclear explosions.

  11. Quantitative autoradiography - a method of radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years the autoradiography has been developed to a quantitative method of radioactivity measurement. Operating techniques of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated using special standard objects. Influences of irradiation quality, of backscattering in sample and detector materials, and of sensitivity and fading of the detectors are considered. Furthermore, questions of quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are dealt with, and measuring errors are discussed. Finally, some practical uses of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated by means of the estimation of activity distribution in radioactive foil samples. (author)

  12. Environmental monitoring and deep ocean disposal of packaged radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Preston, A.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of the dumping of packaged radioactive waste in the deep ocean is discussed in detail. The principles and objectives laid down by the IAEA and the ICRP are reviewed. Monitoring and its relationships to radiation exposure, research, control measures and public information are described. Finally, the actual practice in the UK of environmental monitoring is detailed for the measurable case of liquid wastes in coastal waters and also for package waste in deep oceans which has to be calculated. It is concluded that better mathematical models are needed to predict the dose to man and that more research into oceanographic and biological transfer processes should be carried out. (UK)

  13. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  14. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland has been performing systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and in food for forty years. This report contains the results of measurements made in the course of 1995 and the consequential radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, soil, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other operations using radionuclides, as well as miscellaneous radiation sources. All the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1995, and environmental measurements revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv, with some 40% of this due to radon in the home (but with extreme values as high as 100 mSv), another 30% coming from natural radiation, a quarter from medical applications and less than 5% from artificial radiation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Radioactivity monitoring network: Measurements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Four papers are presented: radionuclide concentration measurement in aerosols, surface water and the wastes of the Vienna Central Clarification Plant respectively, and on tritium in Austrian lakes and rivers. (qui)

  16. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.; Smith, V.; Howett, D.; Hayden, E.; Fegan, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of the terrestrial monitoring programme implemented by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland during the period 1994 to 1996. This monitoring programme includes the routine sampling and testing for radioactivity of samples of air, rainwater, drinking water and milk. Atmospheric concentrations of krypton-85 continued to rise over the period. No abnormal readings were observed for gamma dose rate, radioactivity in airborne particulates or radioactivity in rainwater. Significant variation in the concentrations of natural radioactivity was observed between drinking water supplies.The levels of anthropogenic radioactivity recorded during this reporting period in air, rainwater, drinking water and milk continue to be insignificant from a radiological safety point of view

  17. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  18. Calculation of uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements and their functions. Practical Procedure; Calculo de la incertidumbre asociada al recuento en medidas de radiactividad ambiental y funciones basadas en ella. Procedimiento practico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco Leonarte, C; Anton Mateos, M. P.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the procedure used to calculate the uncertainties associated to environmental radioactivity measurements, focusing on those obtained by radiochemical separation in which tracers have been added. Uncertainties linked to activity concentration calculations, isotopic rat iso, inventories, sequential leaching data, chronology dating by using C.R.S. model and duplicate analysis are described in detail. The objective of this article is to serve as a guide to people not familiarized with this kind of calculations, showing clear practical examples. The input of the formulas and all the data needed to achieve these calculations into the Lotus 1, 2, 3 WTN is outlined as well. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Radioactive Beam Measurements to Probe Stellar Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Unique beams of unstable nuclei from the Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are being used to measure the thermonuclear reactions that occur in novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. The astrophysical impact of these measurements is determined by synergistic nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Results of recent measurements and explosion simulations are brie y described, along with future plans and software research tools for the community.

  20. Radioactivity measurements on live Bewick's Swans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Wollam, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements made on 46 live swans at Slimbridge using portable high resolution hyperpure germanium gamma ray spectrometry equipment are described. Laboratory measurements are also reported on two swans which died of natural causes or of flying accidents. The implications of the measured radioactivity levels are discussed in relation to the suggestion that they might have been affected by the Chernobyl accident on their migration. (UK)

  1. System for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, V.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising: a set of containers adapted for receiving aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers which are subsequently precipitated in said containers on particles of diatomite in the presence of a coprecipitator, then filtered, dissolved, and mixed with a scintillator; radioactivity measuring means including a detection chamber to which is fed the mixture produced in said set of containers; an electric drive for moving said set of containers in a stepwise manner; means for proportional feeding of said coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to said containers which contain the biological sample for forming an acid precipitation of biopolymers; means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers; precipitated biopolymer filtering means for successively filtering the precipitate, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers mixed with said scintillator for feeding of the mixture to said detection chamber; a system of pipelines interconnecting said above-recited means; and said means for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers including, a measuring cell arranged in a detection chamber and communicating with said means for filtering precipitated biopolymers through one pipeline of said system of pipelines; a program unit electrically connected to said electric drive, said means for acid precipatation of biopolymers, said means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers, said filtering means, and said radioactivity measuring device; said program unit adapted to periodically switch on and off the above-recited means and check the sequence of the radioactivity measuring operations; and a control unit for controlling the initiation of the system and for selecting programs

  2. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by 222 Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It's major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented

  3. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  4. Data Processing and Programming Applied to an Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Palacios, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is the original research work presented for the attainment of the author master degree and its main objective has been the resolution -by means of friendly programming- of some of the observed problems in the environmental radioactivity laboratory belonging to the Department of Radiological Surveillance and Environmental Radioactivity from CIEMAT. The software has been developed in Visual Basic for applications in Excel files and it solves by macro orders three of the detected problems: a) calculation of characteristic limits for the measurements of the beta total and beta rest activity concentrations according to standards MARLAP, ISO and UNE and the comparison of the three results b) Pb-210 and Po-210 decontamination factor determination in the ultra-low level Am-241 analysis in air samples by alpha spectrometry and c) comparison of two analytical techniques for measuring Pb-210 in air ( direct-by gamma spectrometry- and indirect -by radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry). The organization processes of the different excel files implied in the subroutines, calculations and required formulae are explained graphically for its comprehension. The advantage of using this kind of programmes is based on their versatility and the ease for obtaining data that lately are required by tables that can be modified as time goes by and the laboratory gets more data with the special applications for describing a method (Pb-210 decontamination factors for americium analysis in air) or comparing temporal series of Pb-210 data analysed by different methods (Pb-210 in air). (Author)

  5. Portable laboratories for radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damljanovic, D.; Smelcerovic, M.; Koturovic, A.; Drndarevic, V.; Sobajic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The portable radiometric laboratories LARA-10, LARA-GS, LARA-86 and ALARA-10 designed, developed and produced at the Boris Kidric Institute are described. Earlier models (LARA-1, LARA-1D, LARA-2 and LARA-5) are presented in brief. The basic characteristics of the devices and methods of measurements are given. All the instruments are battery operated and almost all can also use 220V/50Hz supply. They are a very suitable facility for radiological monitoring of soil, water, food, clothes etc., when working in field conditions (author)

  6. Apparatus for measuring a concentration of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, H.; Ogushi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for measuring concentration of radioactivity in a fluid circulating in a cooling system or a disposal system, etc., of a nuclear power plant (e.g. coolant), the apparatus having a plurality of sampling tubes with different diameters depending on the intensities of radioactivity, and the sampling tubes having valves for switching from one fluid to another fluid. The sampling tubes are connected to the system to a discharge pipe, and are disposed in the proximity of a radiation detector adapted to issue a signal representative of radiation. The issued signal is supplied to a multichannel pulse height analyzer and a data processing system providing an indication of the concentrations of radioactivities for respective radionuclides

  7. General radioactive contamination of the biosphere measurements in the Netherlands 1974. Annual report Coordination Commission radioactivity measurements and Coordination Commission for the measurements of radioactivity and xenobiotic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    For several years, measurements have been performed in the Netherlands to determine radioactive contamination of the biosphere. These measurements are carried out by various institutes responsible to three ministries: the Ministery of 'Health and Environmental Protection', of 'Agriculture and Fisheries' and of 'Transport and Water', (Dutch: 'Verkeer en Waterstaat', under the supervision of the Coordination Commission Radioactive Measurements (CCRA)). Besides radionuclides, many other elements and compounds are considered harmful for man, animal and the environment. A systematic control of the extent of the contamination of the biosphere, in the same way as is in operation for radionuclides, has been proposed for a number of the most harmful contaminants of the biosphere. The measurements are divided into measurements for the National Measuring Programme and additional Measurements. The former include the analyses essential for an efficacious control of the radioactivity of the biosphere. Measurements are performed in air, soil, surface water, milk and in deposition on the surface of the earth. Besides the determination of the usual radionuclides, as performed up to 1970, deposited radioactivity and surface water are also tested for some other specific radionuclides which may be set free at nuclear installations. Finally, samples of milk and grass from the surroundings of nuclear reactors and water from drinking-waterreservoirs have been analysed. Results are given of determination of tritium in drinking water of four big cities, and of radionuclides in some fishery products from the Dutch coastal waters in view of the potential of some marine organisms to concentrate fission products and especially activated corrosion products from nuclear installations. Adiitionally are given the results of measurements by the licensees of the Dutch nuclear installations of samples from the surroundings of their plants.

  8. Implementation of the Environmental Management System in Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, M.; Kralj, M.; Rojc, J.

    2008-01-01

    Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) is a public institution assigned to provide effective, safe and responsible management of all kinds of radioactive waste in Slovenia from the moment they arise to their final disposal. Therefore it holds an important role in environmental protection. Its main assignment is to provide conditions for permanent disposal of radioactive waste. It is also authorised to perform public service of radioactive waste management from small producers that includes: collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises, transportation to the storage facility, treatment, conditioning storage of RW from small producers; acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation (e.g. transport accidents); acceptance of radioactive waste in case of unknown producer; operation and management of Central Interim Storage of Radioactive Waste. The quality of ARAO performance in carrying out its mission is assured by implementing the environmental management system according to the standard ISO 14001:2004. Its effectiveness was confirmed by certification in October 2007. The ISO 14001:2004 certificate represents a permanent commitment of ARAO to implement and improve the environmental management system and to include environmental aspects in all its activities, especially in performing the public service. We developed own evaluation criteria for determination of relevant environmental impacts and aspects. ARAO has defined its environmental policy and objectives, it evaluates its environmental impacts yearly, and defines its environmental programmes that not only fulfil legal requirements but tend even to reduce the impacts below legally set levels. A very important environmental programme in the last few years was the reconstruction of the storage facility. Public information and communication programmes are considered to be important also from the environmental management point of view, because public shows great interest in

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H. S.; Lee, J. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    At Pusan Regional Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan, vegetables, fishes, shellfish, drinking water (total 23ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KlNS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  10. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  11. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  12. National environmental radioactivity networks-1993; Reti nazionali si sorveglianza della radioattivita` ambientale in Italia-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M; Notaro, M.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U; Tommasi, R.

    1998-12-31

    This report contains the environmental radioactivity data collected in Italy during 1993, by the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The data contained in this report have been provided by the institutions participating in the National Environmental Radioactivity Networks. The National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPA) is law-fully responsible for publishing the report. The results of the measurements of radioactivity, are generally reported by only one significant figure. An arithmetical average of a series of figures, some of which are preceded by the sign `less than` (<), is given with this sign only when the figures bearing < affect remarkably (more then 50%) the value resulting from the average. Reproduction of the data contained in this report is authorized, provided the source is acknowledged.

  13. On the data processing related to environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Isamu

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring and measurement of environmental radioactivity have been undertaken by many organizations in Japan. The Japan Chemical Analysis Center has been entrusted by the government to gather and edit these measured results. The computer processing of these data started in 1978, and it is expected that by the end of fiscal year 1984, all fallout data since 1957 and all radioactivity monitoring data since 1969 can be registered. The computer programs for processing the data such as the output of tables and figures have also been developed, and the edition of reports has been made. The replacement of the computer and the development of a new processing system capable of handing Kanji (Japanese-Chinese characters) are now scheduled. This document outlines the data system such as the quality, quantity and origin of the measured data and the frequency of report publication. Some results of the analysis of fallout nuclides, space gamma dose rate and the total β-activity in rain are presented. The effects of the nuclear explosion tests in China are very obvious in these figures. A chronological table of the explosion tests in China is also presented. The different effects of time lag at the different places of measurement are also seen. The effects of the presence of nuclear power plants were also investigated at some sites of the plants, but no discernible effect was observed. (Aoki, K.)

  14. Radioactivity measurement for emergency or post-accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, D.

    2010-01-01

    Specific objectives have to be achieved by radioactivity measurements during emergency or post-accident situations, which are different from those in normal situation. At the beginning of a nuclear emergency, few radioactivity data will be available, mainly from automatic monitoring systems implemented on the site or in its surrounding. Progressively, measurement programmes will be performed, in priority to get information on dose rate, atmospheric radionuclides and surface activities. In order to avoid excessive exposure of the measure teams, these programmes should be optimized. During early post-accident phase, different types of measurements will be done, following two main objectives: 1) to improve the assessment of the environmental contamination and people exposure; 2) for control purpose, to check the contamination of urban places, foodstuff and other products, compared to specific reference levels. The samples measurement in laboratories would be a challenge: usually, the laboratories involved in routine monitoring have to deal with very low level of radioactivity and a poor diversity of artificial radionuclides; after a reactor accident, the environmental samples to be measured would be more active and with a mixture of radionuclides (mainly with short or middle half-life) difficult to be characterized. So theses laboratories have to be trained and organised before any severe accident. (author)

  15. A survey of the environmental radioactivity in the east sea related to the Russian ocean dumping of the radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyehoon; Kim, Changkyu; Lee, Mosung

    1994-01-01

    From October 24 - December 30, 1993 a joint survey by the Office of Fisheries, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, and several other governmental institutes which was supervised by Ministry of Science and Technology was carried out to investigate present marine environmental radioactivity of the East Sea where former USSR and Russia had dumped radioactive waste since 1957. Exposure rate was measured and the radioactivity of seawater, both surface and deep water, bottom sediment, fish, and planktonic organisms from the areas around the dumping sites and the East Sae were analyzed. Results showed that the radioactivities of Cs-137 in the sea water from dumping sites were less than 0.0038 Bq/L, which was similar to the background level of the East Sea. The radioactivity level of fish and bottom sediment from dumping sites also did not increased. A detailed Ocean Environmental Monitoring Plan, however, should be established and the monitoring must be carried out continuously to protect people from potential radioactive hazards

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Slovakia/Czechoslovakia in 1961 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.; Carach, J.; Petrasova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of environmental monitoring of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Slovakia between 1961 to 1975. Samples of radioactive fallout, milk and water were taken monthly, samples of forage, cereals and vegetables were taken in the ripening stage, and samples of foodstuffs were taken in shops. The following amounts of samples were used for the analyses: 100 g of soil, 100 g of dry forage, 100 g of dry cereals, 3 kg of fresh fruit and vegetables, 2 l of water, 1 l of milk, 2 kg of fresh meat, and flour and flour products amounting to 2 kg. The samples were dried, burned and mineralized for 24 hours with HCl. After removal of interfering elements, ie., Fe, 140 Ba, 140 La, rare earths, phosphates and 90 Y, the 90 Sr activity was determined by the yttrium method. The yttrium chemical yield was 90%. 137 Cs beta activity was determined after precipitation from a solution in the form of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and after removal of oxalates, alkali elements and rare earth elements. Chemical yield was 60 to 70%. An anticoincidence low-level beta counter by Philips was used in activity measurement. The detection efficiency was 22% for 90 Sr- 90 Y and 17% for 137 Cs. The relative mean square error of the measurement was lower than 15% for 90 Y and 10% for 137 Cs. The measurement results are classified in five parts, viz., radioactivity in fallout, in soils, in water, in plants, and in food. (J.P.)

  17. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Adam Khatir [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Po, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 40} K and fallout radionuclide {sup 137} Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and {alpha} spectrometry. The external exposure due to {gamma} radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 {+-} 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 {mu}Sv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs determined were 31.6 {+-} 27, 20.1 {+-} 16.4, 19.1 {+-} 8.1, 280.3 {+-} 137.6 and 4.1 {+-} 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that {sup 238} U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m{sup 2} with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m{sup 2} respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10

  18. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Adam Khatir

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 40 K and fallout radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and α spectrometry. The external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 ± 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.6 ± 27, 20.1 ± 16.4, 19.1 ± 8.1, 280.3 ± 137.6 and 4.1 ± 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that 238 U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m 2 with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m 2 respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10 -9 Gy/h and 2.59 x 10 -9 Gy/h at 1 m above ground level for Uro and Kurun rock phosphate fertilizers

  19. Environmental radioactive monitoring, evaluation and protection in luminous workshops of a factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hanbin; Xiang Ming; Tan Jianzu

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescent technique is often used to display instrumental indicator in the dark environment. Luminous workshops of a factory smear and depict the glassware by means of fluorescent power with adulterated radioactive matter. Because of adulterated radioactive matters such as 226 Ra, 40 K emit alpha-ray,beta-ray and gamma-ray, while they decay spontaneously, and high dose or cumulative radiation can damage human body in different degrees. Therefore, any radioactive damage to human body caused by over-safety dose should be prevented strictly during the working. To ensure health and safety of working staff in luminous workshop and the public, it is necessary to regularly have radioactive monitoring and evaluation to luminous workshop and its surrounding environment. Through the environment radioactive monitoring, the authors analyze its environmental radioactive level,and try to find out the possible problems so as to propose some protective measures for personal health. (authors)

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988. Radiological monitoring annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.).

  1. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  2. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose M.; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Lopez, Edith; Jara, Raul; Anaya, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs- 134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  3. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  4. Environmental radioactivity studies and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkina, I.L.; Sarkisov, A.A.; Linge, I.I.; Kazakov, S.V.; Panchenko, S.V.; Savelieva, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Russia has developed regulations applying to the territories affected by radioactive contamination. Some regulatory approaches appear to be quite ineffective and contradictory. This paper shows by means of examples the problems and issues associated with some existing situations. A better way for the future is indicated

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-07-01

    Measuremtns of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1975 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1975. (author)

  6. Error calculations statistics in radioactive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Basic approach and procedures frequently used in the practice of radioactive measurements.Statistical principles applied are part of Good radiopharmaceutical Practices and quality assurance.Concept of error, classification as systematic and random errors.Statistic fundamentals,probability theories, populations distributions, Bernoulli, Poisson,Gauss, t-test distribution,Ξ2 test, error propagation based on analysis of variance.Bibliography.z table,t-test table, Poisson index ,Ξ2 test

  7. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1979-05-01

    This latest volume of the bibliography series - which from no. 28, 1979, on goes under the title of 'Bibliography in Environmental Radioactivity in Foods' now that the ZEAD-bibl. series have been terminated - lists 197 bibliographic references, mainly from the last two years, with the emphasis on general environmental surveillance and surveillance of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda. Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda. Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.es; Legarda, F. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda. Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-10-01

    The uncertainty associated with the assessment of the radioactive content of any sample depends on the net counting rate registered during the measuring process and on the different weighting factors needed to transform this counting rate into activity, activity per unit mass or activity concentration. This work analyses the standard uncertainties in these weighting factors as well as their contribution to the uncertainty in the activity reported for three typical determinations for environmental radioactivity measurements in the laboratory. It also studies the corresponding characteristic limits and their dependence on the standard uncertainty related to those weighting factors, offering an analysis of the effectiveness of the simplified characteristic limits as evaluated by various measuring software and laboratories.

  9. Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2008-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with the assessment of the radioactive content of any sample depends on the net counting rate registered during the measuring process and on the different weighting factors needed to transform this counting rate into activity, activity per unit mass or activity concentration. This work analyses the standard uncertainties in these weighting factors as well as their contribution to the uncertainty in the activity reported for three typical determinations for environmental radioactivity measurements in the laboratory. It also studies the corresponding characteristic limits and their dependence on the standard uncertainty related to those weighting factors, offering an analysis of the effectiveness of the simplified characteristic limits as evaluated by various measuring software and laboratories

  10. Radioactive kryptonates in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''radioactive Kryptonates'' is used for substances into which atoms or ions of the radioactive nuclide 85 Kr are incorporated. The basis of the use of radioactive Kryptonates in analytical chemistry is that during a chemical reaction the crystalline lattice of the kryptonated carrier is destroyed, the carrier consumed, and the radioactive krypton released (radio-release method). Analysis can be made with a calibration curve or by comparison with a standard. Radio-release methods with the aid of radioactive Kryptonates as analytical reagents are very useful for the analysis of environmental samples, e.g. for the determination of air pollutants (ozone, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, mercury); and water pollutants (oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide). (author)

  11. Radioactivity measurements by liquid scintillation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The activity measurement techniques by liquid scintillation spectroscopy consist to mix the radioactive solution to measure with a scintillating liquid and to transform the ionizing radiations, resulting from decays, into light, detectable and quantifiable. The main advantages of these techniques are the easiness of preparation of the radioactive sources, the geometric efficiency of detection of 4π and the possibility of detection of low-level energy radiations. There are one of the only methods giving the possibility to measure the activity of pure β radionuclides; indeed, the nuclear disintegration is not accompanied of gamma radiations detectable by other techniques. There are one of the only methods too of measurement of radionuclides which disintegrate by electron capture and especially those leading to the emission of low-level energy ionizing radiations. Liquid scintillation spectroscopy can be used as an absolute method of activity measurement that is to say without the use of a calibration standard. The modern liquid scintillation counting devices can be very sensitive; the measurement of micro-activities being possible. Some of the applications of these activity measurement techniques are the carbon 14 dating and the geological tracing. Their main disadvantage is the global energetic yield which is low and variable in terms of the composition of the scintillation source necessitating to calculate the detection yield for each condition of measurement. (O.M.)

  12. Yearly plan of safety research on environmental radioactivity for 1996 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Yearly Plan of Safety Research on Environmental Radioactivity' proposed from the special meeting for safety research of environmental radioactivity on December 14, 1995 was investigated by Nuclear Safety Commission. And the safety research of environmental radioactivity in Japan was decided to be pursued according to the plan. The contents of this plan consisted of the purpose and the contents of research as well as the research period and the facilities to be done for each theme. The following themes were included; 1) study on environment·radiation dose and study on radiation exposure reduction. 2) study on biological effects of radiation. 3) study on internal exposure by specified nuclides. 4) study on medical measures for acute radiation exposure. 5) study on assessment of nuclear safety. 6) investigation on radioactivities released from various nuclear facilities in Japan to demonstrate their safety. (M.N.)

  13. 30 years of monitoring environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The individual sections of the report describe the development of monitoring functions and of the contamination of the atmosphere and the biosphere by radioactive substances. After environmental radioactivity due to the fallout of nuclear explosions reached a peak level in 1963, its contribution to radiation exposure today is insignificant in comparison with natural radioactivity. Moreover, monitoring by authorities of the emissions and the environmental impact of nuclear installations has been extended during the past 20 years in such a way that the existing network of measuring stations takes full account of the increased number of nuclear installations. The monitoring results show that nuclear installations do not make any considerable contribution to environmental radioactivity. (orig./PW) [de

  14. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland: 1981 to 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A bulletin, prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The monitoring results for discharges to both the atmosphere and the sea over the period 1981 to 1985 are presented for BNFL's Chapelcross and Sellafield Works, UKAEA Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, SSEB Hunterston Power Station and MOD Naval Installations. It is concluded that public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, drinking water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, soil, sediments, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air, precipitation, sea water, lake water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1980 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh water and sea water. Plutonium and Americium were measured in sea water sediments, sea plants and mussels. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at the of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1978-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe Health Physics Department. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1977 are given. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γspectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Results of plutonium determinations in soil and sediments from 1977 are presented in this report. Tritium was determined in groundwater and precipitation. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1979-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, sea water, grass, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in soil, sea water, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, fish, and meat. It was also measured by wholebody-counting of a control group at Risoe Health Physics Department. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1978 are given. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barseback and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Results of plutonium determinations in soil and sediments from 1978 are presented in this report. Tritium was determined in groundwater and precipitation. Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1982-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, lake and stream water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, soil, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air precipitation, sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1981 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh water and sea water. Plutonium and Americium were measured in sea water, sediments, sea plants and mussels. The ν-background was measured regularly by TLD,ionization chamber and site ν-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nilsson, K.

    1980-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, lake and stream water, drinking water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1979 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, ground water and sea water. Plutonium and americium were measured in sediments and sea plants. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gyllingnaes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). Finally the report includes routine surveys of environmental samples from the Risoe area. (author)

  20. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of 226 Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loes, Rosa Helena Zago

    1997-01-01

    When the capsule of cesium was open ten years ago, in Goiania/GO, provoked a radiologic accident of great consequences for the population. After that, the government, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear Energy, Brazilian CNEN, the non-governmental organizations and the population began a big mobilization to solve this problem. The result was the construction of the Final Deposit for Radioactive Wastes. (author)

  2. National network of radioactivity measurement in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document constitutes the report of management for the year 2006 of the national network of measurement of radioactivity in environment, instituted by the article R.1333-11 of the Public Health code. According to the 5. of the decree of 27. june 2005, the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) has for mission to write every year a report of management of the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment. This report has for principal objectives: to do an evaluation on organisation and functioning of the piloting committee; to realize a synthesis on the different tasks lead by the working groups; as well as on the human and financial resources devoted to this project; to debrief on the development project of the national network information system. This report must allow to the network actors, as to the professional people and the public, to understand the functioning of the national network and the process implemented for the development of centralization, management and public diffusion tools, of the radioactivity data in environment. The year 2006 was marked by the opening of an Internet gate of the national network. (N.C.)

  3. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  4. Recent advances in nuclear techniques for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity monitoring was first started in the late 1950s following the global fallout from testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Nuclear analytical techniques are generally classified into two categories: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive techniques are carried out through several analytical methods such as α-spectrometry, liquid Scintillation counting system, solid state nuclear track detector, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), chromatography techniques, electro-analytical techniques etc. However, nondestructive methods include gamma spectrometry, X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, neutron activation analysis (NAA) etc. The development of radiochemical methods and measurement techniques using alpha and gamma spectrometry have been described in brief

  5. Marine environmental radioactivity survey of Holy Loch 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Cowling, G.; Manson, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents results of a marine environmental radioactivity monitoring survey of intertidal and underwater areas around the former United States Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out jointly by DRPS and U.S. Navy staff in March 1992 following the departure of U.S. Navy submarine support facilities. Results are reported for in-situ measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of over 460 samples covering over 150 separate locations. Included is a report by the U.S. Navy summarising their results for the survey. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples from the intertidal zone and in all underwater sediment samples, but concentrations were low. The calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the public due to cobalt-60 is 1 μSv. (Author)

  6. The measurement theory of radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jinhui; Wang Renbo; Zhang Xiongjie; Tan Hai; Zhu Zhipu; Man Zaigang

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity in Building Materials is the main source of natural radiation dose that the individual is received, which has caused serious concern of all Social Sector. The paper completely introduce the measurement theory of the Radioactivity in Building Materials along with the measurement principle of natural radioactivity, design of shielding facility, choosing measurement time, sample prepared and spectrum analyzed. (authors)

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Chen Qing Jiang; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.; Lauridsen, B.; Nielsen, S.P.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.

    1988-11-01

    Strontium-90, radiocesium and other radionuclides were determined in samples from all over the country of air, precipitation, stream water, lake water, ground water, drinking water, sea water, soil, sediments, dried milk, fresh milk, meat, fish, chese, eggs, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, grass, moss, lichen, sea plants, total diet, and humans. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1986 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, ground water, other fresh waters and sea water. The gamma-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site gamma-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137Cs and corrosion products (58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn). The Chernobyl accident caused a substantial expansion of the environmental monitoring activities in Denmark. The programme was expanded to an extent similar to that in the sixties. (author) 178 tabs., 70 ills., 34 refs

  8. Environmental pollution: influence on the operation of a sensor of radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Martin Delgado, J.; Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Perez Lopez, M.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. c.

    2013-01-01

    The content of radioactive aerosols in the air is an important component to estimate the ambient radiation dose. In the laboratories of environmental radioactivity, measurements of radionuclides in air they are performed using sensors. The flow picked up by the equipment can be changed if the degree of air pollution changes for some reason. It handles this study and the population doses are estimated due to inhalation of ambient air. (Author)

  9. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.; Abdel Hady, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

  10. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  11. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  12. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R ampersand D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R ampersand D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action

  13. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  14. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu Anamaria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some recent results of the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in the assurance of quality in radioactivity measurements for nuclear medicine. Three aspects are treated: (i) Participation of the RML in the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP), E 2.10.05; (ii) Improvement of the secondary standard, based on a CENTRONIC IG12/20A ionization chamber; (iii) Implementation of the quality management, according to the SR EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. (authors)

  15. Determination of technetium-99 in environmental and radioactive waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencova, M.; Peter Tkac, P.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium is known for its high mobility in a soil-water system in non-reducing aerobic condition and also high bio-availability for plants, because the most stable form of technetium in natural surface environment is pertechnetate which is highly soluble. The chemical form of technetium changes with environmental conditions. Concentration of technetium in the environment is very low, therefore many separation steps are needed for technetium determination. It has been developed a method for the routine determination of technetium-99 from environmental matrices and radioactive wastes using technetium-99m as an internal yield monitor. Technetium-99 is extracted from the soil samples with nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and technetium in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of technetium was achieved by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride in chloroform from sulphuric acid or pure water. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of technetium-99m by scintillation counting system and the technetium-99 activity is measured using proportional counter after decay of the technetium-99m activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 50-60 % (authors)

  16. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points

  17. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points. (LK)

  18. Investigation of the environmental radioactivity around the mooring port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    Here are the main data for radioactivity examination performed in 1975 at Mutsu port, the mooring port of atomic energy vessel ''Mutsu''. No abnormality were observed in space γ ray dose ratio, and integrated doses measured by the thermofluorescence dosimeter at three monitoring posts in the port (G M tube) and three monitoring station in Mutsu City. A serial measurement of radioactivity concentration in sea water did not show any abnormality, either. Samples were taken from the surface soil of the ground, the bottom of the rivers, river water, drinking water, and milk and measured the total radioactivity by a gas flow counter. The measurement of the total β-radioactivity and radio nuclides analysis were carried out in sea water, the soil from the bottom of the sea and sea products. Abnormality considered to be caused by ''Mutsu'' did not observed at all. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Establishment of radioactive source retirement mechanism based on the method of environmental liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The retirement of radioactive source is a difficult problem that we are facing during the radiation safety regulation in China. This paper analyses the reason of the problem regarding the retirement of radioactive source both from the utilization units and the regulatory body. It is considered that the basic reason is the enterprises don't arrange and use the retirement funds reasonably, which is an economic problem. There exists a limitation when facing the radioactive source retirement in light of licensing and regulation mechanism of the manufacture, selling, uses of radioactive sources in China, and the key to solve this economic problem is to introduce economic method, Some measures and suggestions are given to establish radioactive sources retirement mechanism by using economic methods, based on the comprehensive analysis of the concept, development and function of the environmental liability insurance. (author)

  20. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  1. Some aspects concerning the relationship environmental radioactivity-population in Romania after 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Dumitru, C.; Puscalau, M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some results, obtained in the last six years, related to different aspects of environmental radioactivity. Thus, a synthesis of I-131, Cs-134, and Cs-137 post Chernobyl measurements on foodstuffs and human subjects is presented. Natural radioactivity (uranium, thorium, potassium-40) level determination in various geological-industrial samples (phosphates, gold and copper ores) are also summarized. There are described two facilities for radioactive contamination assessment: the Body Counter SGCU-S for whole body and thyroid, and a Phoswich Lung Counter. Energy and efficiency calibration procedures are presented. (Author)

  2. Validation of radioactivity measurements under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, Abraham S.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements are made under the Safe Drinking Water Act to obtain information on the potential radiological hazard of water and to institute regulatory action when water quality does not meet requirements. Measurements must be both precise and accurate if these goals are to be met. Regulations issued under the act require that analyses be performed by approved (certified) laboratories, which must carry out quality assurance programs. This paper briefly describes the certification requirements and discusses the components of an effective quality assurance program. The Environmental Protection Agency has established procedures for the certification of laboratories making radioactivity measurements of drinking water. These procedures recommend minimum laboratory qualifications for personnel, facilities, equipment, and procedures; proficiency testing by analysis of samples provided by the Agency; and operation of a quality assurance program. A major function of a quality assurance program is to provide the Laboratory Director an ongoing flow of information on laboratory analytical performance. A properly designed and conducted program provides this information in a timely manner, indicates areas where discrepancies exist, and often suggests ways of correcting the discrepancies. Pertinent aspects of radioactivity measurements for drinking water are discussed, including how analyses of blanks, blind duplicates, and reference samples contribute needed information, and evaluations by control charts and statistical analyses. Examples of the usefulness of quality control in correcting both procedural and background problems are given. (author)

  3. The system for measurements of radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.

    1990-01-01

    The service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination comprises a network of 152 measuring stations. They are carrying out continuous measurements of gamma radiation dose rates and radioactivity measurements of 24 hours samples of air (aerosols) and total fallout. On the territory of each province there are selected points for sampling of environmental materials and food. Frequency of sampling depends on material being collected. 1 tab., 2 figs. (A.S.)

  4. An overview on measurements of natural radioactivity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are always exposed during their lives to ionizing radiation arising outside and within the earth. The exposure to these radiation occurs from natural sources such as radioactive elements in rocks and soil, internal exposure form radioactive elements through water, food and air and cosmic rays entering from outer space to earth's atmosphere. About 87% of the radiation dose received by human beings is due to natural radiation, it is essential to assess the radiation doses in order to control possible health effects from such natural sources. In this regard, a number of articles have been appeared for Malaysia in international research journals, which have been reviewed and complied in this article. Most of these articles are about the measurement of activity concentrations of primordial (238U, 232Th, 226Ra and 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs radionuclide's and gamma dose rate in environmental samples using HPGe and NaI (Tl survey meter.

  5. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  6. Environmentally development sustainable Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Pinzon, Hector Jaime

    1996-01-01

    One of the topics of more present time in the national and international environment has to do with the environment and all circumstances that surround it. The public accountants are involved direct or indirectly with the environmental handling, this profession has a great incidence in many aspects of this topic. The environmental development has to do with several such aspects as inequality and poverty, the incalculable human resource, the same environment, the social, political and cultural aspects and some indicators that have to do with the same development. All the proposals that they have to do with the environmental development they don't stop to be simply index normalized, it is to include non-monetary elements of the well being toward the leading of the development politicians. Such events as environmental costs, environmental control, industrial processes, human resources and others of great importance possess continuous and permanent relationship with the public accounting. For this reason it has been to analyze environmental aspects, with the purpose of investigating what documentation and advances exist in other countries, to be able to show some light to the interested, and this way to develop some hypotheses that can be in turn elements of integration technician-accountant jointly. The measurements of the entrance and the total product of nation, they give an extremely imperfect indication of their well -being. Besides the holes so well well-known of their covering, as the domestic work not remunerated, it is necessary to know at least another group of information to be able to emit a conclusive trial about the tendencies of the human well-being

  7. Some issues on environmental impact report of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaming

    2001-01-01

    The author puts forward some issues which should be paid attention to when compiling a environmental impact report of radioactive material transport. The main issues discussed are as follows: (1) Optimization analysis for transport routes. (2) Source terms under accident conditions in transport. (3) Precautions against accidents and emergency preparedness. (4) Quality assurance of transport, etc

  8. Building and application of environmental radioactivity data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumicak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The main characteristics and the way of functioning of the complex system of acquisition, storage and processing of data on environmental radioactivity of a data bank type are described. Its advantages and disadvantages and possible ways of its utilization in different fields are shown. (author)

  9. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1981-10-01

    This is the most recent bibliographic volume; it lists 226 citations, most of them of the last two years. The citations are grouped according to the main subjects of general aspects, environmental radioactivity, radioecology, and radionuclides in foodstuffs. The publication contains a conference index, an author index, a report number index, a subject index, a corporation index, and a journal index. (MG) [de

  10. Ash contents of foodstuff samples in environmental radioactivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayano, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Statistical data of the ash content in various environmental samples obtained from an environmental radioactivity survey project commissioned by the Japanese government of Science and Technology Agency (at present Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Sciences and Technology) during the past 10 years are expressed for establishing a standard of ash content in environmental samples based on radioactivity analysis. The ash content for some kinds of environmental samples such as dietary food, milk, Japanese radish, spinach, fish, green tea and potato was reviewed in the light of statistical and stochastic viewpoints. For all of the samples reviewed in this paper, the coefficient of variation varied from 4.7% for milk to 36.3% for cabbage. Dietary food and milk samples were reviewed more than 1900 and 1400 samples, respectively. Especially, ash content of dietary food depended mainly on the dietary culture reflected on the period. However it showed an almost invariant distribution within 18.7% of coefficient of variation during the past 10 years. Pretreatment of environmental samples especially ashing processes are important from the viewpoint on environmental radioactivity analysis, which is one of the especial fields in analytical chemistry. Statistical reviewed data obtained in this paper may be useful for sample preparation. (author)

  11. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  12. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60 Co≤4.6%, 134 Cs≤4.7%, 137 Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3 H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  13. Radioactivity measurements for some ophthalmic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, W.M.; Ali, E.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; Hussein, A

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the present work is to implant the latest ICRP/IAEA recommendations related to exemption and clearness to the Ophthalmic Glass. As consumer product, glass lenses may contain trace quantities of uranium, thorium and potassium. Glass lenses under investigation were monitored for the detection of gamma rays and beta particles using radiation measuring devices. Using high purity germanium detector radioactivity concentration was estimated in Bq/kg. Activity concentration of 226 Ra, Th-232 and K-40 were determined using the energy gamma lines of 2l4 Pb (352 keV), 212 Pb (238 keV) and 1460 keV gamma line for 40 K respectively .Experimental results showed that radioactivity concentration for radium -226 varies from 0.19 to 4.98 Bq/kg of radium-226, from to 0.18 to 2.83 Bq/kg for thorium -232 and from 0.8 to 1.13 Bq/kg for potassium. Implementing new ICRP recommendation of exemption and clearness indicated that several Ophthalmic Glass should not be in use

  14. Environmental and human exposure as a result of radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear accidents can lead to the discharge of radioactive particulates, gases, and liquid effluents into the environment. Effluents are characterized by their composition, duration and by other characteristics which can influence the dispersion of radioactivity in the environment. Populations can be exposed directly or through the contamination of the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Therefore, it is necessary to take into consideration both the environmental contamination pathways and the human contamination pathways through the environment. This document summarizes these different pathways: contamination by atmospheric discharge (surface contamination, surface waters, terrestrial fauna and flora); contamination by liquid discharge; spreading of contaminated areas; human contamination pathways (external irradiation, internal contamination, skin contamination). (J.S.)

  15. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  16. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Nilsson, I

    1960-12-15

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 {mu}{mu}c per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere.

  17. Measurement of Radioactivity in the Human Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, I.Oe.; Nilsson, I.

    1960-12-01

    A body counter with a steel room and a 4-inch-diameter by 4-inch thick Nal scintillation counter has been in operation since February 1958. It is used to control the internal contamination in people working with radioactive materials. Measurements have also been made on the natural activity in the human body. The average cesium-137/potassium ratio in a group of Swedish males was in May 1959 73 μμc per gram of body potassium and in June 1960 55 μμc per gram of body potassium. The cessation of the nuclear bomb tests has caused a decrease in the cesium level in people. This gives some information of how cesium is entering the biosphere

  18. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropikova, S.; Pastuchova, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  19. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the fourth edition of the original book which was written as a reference source for the scientist, engineer, or administrator with a professional interest in the subject, but it may also be a value to the reader who wishes to understand the technical facts behind the public debate. The subject of environmental radioactivity has aspects of vast dimensions. The text of the book concerns primarily with the behavior of radioactive substances when they enter the environment. The important and elaborate technology by which passage of radioactive materials to the environment may be prevented and the equally important field of health physics that is concerned with protecting the atomic energy worker were thus placed beyond the bounds of this work.

  20. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Lee, Hae Young; Yang, Chan Sun

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region

  1. Environmental radioactivity survey in site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Gaso, M.I.; Tejera, A.; Tamez, E.

    1989-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of Rn in soil, background gamma levels and meteorological measurements was conducted at the site of a nuclear research center. The data cover a time period of several years. The radon in soil gas fluctuations is influenced by seasonal meteorological changes and by local geophysical parameters and they range between 1000 Bq/m 3 and 18000 Bq/m 3 . The observed gamma levels show geographic stability; some seasonal fluctuations were observed. Data analysis indicates that no significant changes occured at the site over the measuring period and radiation levels and meteorological changes are moderate inducing no ecological impact on the surroundings. (author) 8 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. In-situ measurement of environment radioactivity by mobile nuclear field laboratory (MNFL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalani, Deepak; Mathur, A.P.; Rawat, D.K.; Barala, S.S.; Singhal, K.P.; Singh, G.P.; Samant, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    In-situ measurement of environment radioactivity is useful tool for determine the unusual increase of radioactivity at any place due to any nuclear eventuality take place. A mobile nuclear field laboratory has been designed and developed for in-situ measurement of environment radioactivity at any desired location. This vehicle is equipped with different monitoring and analysis instruments. These equipment can be operated while vehicle is moving. The measured data can be stored in computer. This vehicle has the space for storage of various environmental matrices of affected area and these can analysis in laboratory. (author)

  3. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&M; VLH

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands complied with the

  4. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; M&M; M&V

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands complied with the

  5. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland, 1983 to 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin, which has been prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The results presented cover the period 1983 to 1987. The first section of the bulletin draws together the results of the monitoring and presents the principal conclusions; the second section summarises the procedures underlying the monitoring; and the remaining sections present detailed monitoring results. The principal conclusions of this bulletin are that: public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits including the ICRP's recommended principal limit of 1 millisievert per year; the levels of radiation exposure have been consistent with the recommendation of the NRPB that procedures leading to exposure of the public should be controlled so that the life-time effective dose equivalent does not exceed 70 millisieverts; any doses received have been small and correspond to negligible levels of risk to individuals; and the effects of waste disposals have been limited in accordance with the national standards of radiological safety, which are designed to protect the population from the harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  6. Bolus injections of measured amounts of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, C.A.; Hogendoorn, P.; Vandierendonck, R.; Driedger, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Many time-based radionuclide techniques, such as glomerular filtration rate measurement (GFR), require prompt intravenous delivery of and accurately measured tracer bolus with minimal residual tracer retention at the injection site. The quality assurance aspects of two antecubital vein, quantitative injection techniques were investigated. A flush bolus technique using a tuberculin syringe piggybacked onto a 10-ml saline flush was compared to a single blood pressure cuff injection technique. Scintillation camera data for each technique were compared for bolus duration in the abdominal aorta and for residual activity at the injection site at 5 min. Bolus times were measured as the FWHM of the gamma variate fit to the abdominal aortic regional time-activity curves. Relatively little focal activity was seen in the antecubital injection site following the flush bolus: marked residual activity was seen following the blood pressure cuff injections. The injection site/arm background ratios averaged 1.3 for the flush bolus and 30.1 for the cuff technique. Although both methods allowed accurate in vitro determination of administered radioactivity, only the tuberculin syringe flush bolus technique was acceptable for time-based quantitation because of its superior in vivo characteristics

  7. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M. [eds.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues.

  8. Environmental Measurements Laboratory, annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1995 and serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Manager and staff of the Chicago Operations Office, and our colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven research program areas: (1) Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity; (2) Radiation Transport and Dosimetry; (3) Environmental Radon, Thoron, and Related Aerosols; (4) Atmospheric and Surface Pollutant Studies Related to Global Climate Change; (5) Atmospheric Chemistry; and (6) Metrology, Consultation, and Emergency Response Environmental Management The mission of EML is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues, and related national security issues

  9. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.; Krey, P.W.; Beck, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1994 and it serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the manager and staff of the Chicago Field Office, and the authors colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven general program areas: environmental radiation and radioactivity; radiation transport and dosimetry; environmental radon, thoron, and related aerosols; atmospheric and surface pollutant studies related to global climate change; atmospheric chemistry; metrology, consultation, and emergency response; environmental management. EML's mission is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants, and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues and related national security issues

  10. Environmental Measurements Laboratory 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.; Krey, P.W.; Beck, H.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for the calendar year 1994 and it serves as an annual report to the Director of the Office of Energy Research (ER), the Associate Director and staff of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the manager and staff of the Chicago Field Office, and the authors colleagues. Emphasized are the progress and accomplishments of the year, rather than future plans or expectations. The technical summaries are grouped according to the following seven general program areas: environmental radiation and radioactivity; radiation transport and dosimetry; environmental radon, thoron, and related aerosols; atmospheric and surface pollutant studies related to global climate change; atmospheric chemistry; metrology, consultation, and emergency response; environmental management. EML`s mission is to address important scientific questions concerning human health and environmental impacts. Through its multidisciplinary staff, EML conducts experimental and theoretical research on radioactive and other energy-related pollutants, and provides DOE and other federal agencies with the in-house capability to respond effectively and efficiently with regard to quality assurance activities, environmental issues and related national security issues.

  11. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands. Results in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, G J; Groot, M C.E. [eds.

    2011-11-15

    In 2009 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. According to the Euratom Treaty of 1957, all Member States of the European Union are obliged to perform these measurements each year. Euratom has provided guidelines for performing the measurements uniformly since 2000. However, Member States are not obliged to comply with these recommended guidelines. In the Netherlands, in 2009 strontium-90 was also determined (for the first time) in a mixed food package for which the above recommendations had been fulfilled. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) reports on behalf of the Netherlands to the European Union about radioactivity in the environment. Moreover, this information provides background values and/or amounts of radioactivity that are present under normal circumstances. These background values can be used as reference values, for instance, during a disaster.

  12. Environmental impact assessment on the radioactive of a REE separation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nana; Zhu Yucheng; Cai Minqi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of field actual environment and analysis of radioactive sources, and industrial process techniques, environmental impact of the radioactive from a REE separation project has been analyzed, assessed and forecasted. The investigation and monitoring of actual radioactive in the environment indicated that value of assessment factors remained within the range of natural background level as a whole. The maximum annual individual effective dose for occupational worker and the public were forecasted and were found to be 1.622 mSv/a and 0.029 mSv/a respectively. Both of the values are lower than annual dose limit respectively. The radioactive impact of this project on the environment will comply with the standard limit of law and requirements after the reservation measures are carried out to REE. (authors)

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1985-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air, precipitation, sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1984 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, ground water and sea water. Polonium-210 was measured in some marine samples. Radium-226 was determined in ground water. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). (author)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1984-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, stream and lake water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air, precipitation, sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radios- trontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1983 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, ground water and sea water. Plutonium and Americium were measured in marine samples. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine envi- ronments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). (author)

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, ground water, drinking water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, marine sediments, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air, precipitation, sea water, sediments, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1982 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh water and sea water. Plutonium and Americium were measured in marine samples. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Barsebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). (author)

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Dahlgaard, H; Hansen, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1987-03-01

    Strontium-90 was determined in samples from all over the country of precipitation, stream water, lake water, ground water, drinking water, sea water, dried milk, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, and human bone. Furthermore, 90 Sr was determined in local samples of air, rain water, grass, sea plants, fish and meat. Cesium-137 was determined in air, precipitation, sea water, sediment, milk, grain products, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, sea plants, fish, and meat. Estimates of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1985 are given. Tritium was determined in precipitation, stream water, lake water, drinking water, ground water and sea water. Technetium-99 and 210 Po was measured in some marine samples. Radium-226 was determined in ground water. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD, ionization chamber and on site γ-spectroscopy at locations around Risoe, at ten of the State experimental farms, along the coasts of the Great Belt and around Gylling Naes. The marine environments at Baersebaeck and Ringhals were monitored for 137 Cs and corrosion products ( 58 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn). (author)

  17. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.

    1987-06-01

    Five stations collecting samples of atmospheric deposition were set up in north Cumbria along a line running inland from the coast for about 17 km. Sampling was continuous from September 1980 to September 1981. Monthly samples were analysed for 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu, 241 Am, 7 Be and stable Na, Cl and Al. The objective of the work was to measure the deposition of radionuclides as a function of distance from the sea. By estimating the contributions to the deposition of nuclear weapon test material and of the atmospheric discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels plc works at Sellafield, the effects of the transfer to air and land of radionuclides in the sea could be established. The marine radionuclides were due to the discharges to sea from the Sellafield works. The measurements showed that the deposition was largely due to the sea-to-land transfer process. The highest depositions observed were at 20 m from high water mark, the annual values (rounded, in Bq m -2 ) being 106 Ru, 500; 137 Cs, 650; plutonium, 70; 241 Am, 30. The highest concentrations in rainwater for the radionuclides studied were less than 3 per cent of the fresh water limits (drinking only) GDL values. The highest estimated accumulations in soil due to atmospheric deposition were less than 1 per cent of the limits. (author)

  18. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  19. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark 1990 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Chen Qing Jiang; Dahlgaard, H.; Hansen, H.; Lauridsen, B.; Nielsen, S.P.; Strandberg, M.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Holm, E.

    1992-12-01

    Strontium-90, radiocesium, and other radionuclides were determined in samples from all over the country of air, precipitation, stream water, lake water, sea water, soil, sediments, dried milk, fresh milk, meat, fish, cheese, eggs, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, grass, moss, lichen, sea plants, total diet, and humans. Estimates are given of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1990 and 1991. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh waters, and sea water. The γ-background was measured regularly by TLD's and a NaI detector. Tc-99 determinations were carried out on various marine samples, first of all sea water. (au) (164 tabs., 76 ills., 23 refs.)

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark 1990 and 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarkrog, A; Boetter-Jensen, L; Jiang, Chen Qing; Dahlgaard, H; Hansen, H; Lauridsen, B; Nielsen, S P; Strandberg, M; Soegaard-Hansen, J [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Holm, E [University of Lund (Sweden)

    1992-12-01

    Strontium-90, radiocesium, and other radionuclides were determined in samples from all over the country of air, precipitation, stream water, lake water, sea water, soil, sediments, dried milk, fresh milk, meat, fish, cheese, eggs, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, grass, moss, lichen, sea plants, total diet, and humans. Estimates are given of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1990 and 1991. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh waters, and sea water. The [gamma]-background was measured regularly by TLD's and a NaI detector. Tc-99 determinations were carried out on various marine samples, first of all sea water. (au) (164 tabs., 76 ills., 23 refs.).

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark 1990 and 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarkrog, A; Boetter-Jensen, L; Jiang, Chen Qing; Dahlgaard, H; Hansen, H; Lauridsen, B; Nielsen, S P; Strandberg, M; Soegaard-Hansen, J [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Holm, E [University of Lund (Sweden)

    1992-12-01

    Strontium-90, radiocesium, and other radionuclides were determined in samples from all over the country of air, precipitation, stream water, lake water, sea water, soil, sediments, dried milk, fresh milk, meat, fish, cheese, eggs, grain, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, grass, moss, lichen, sea plants, total diet, and humans. Estimates are given of the mean contents of radiostrontium and radiocesium in the human diet in Denmark during 1990 and 1991. Tritium was determined in precipitation, fresh waters, and sea water. The {gamma}-background was measured regularly by TLD`s and a NaI detector. Tc-99 determinations were carried out on various marine samples, first of all sea water. (au) (164 tabs., 76 ills., 23 refs.).

  3. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume

  4. Environmental radioactivity levels, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, conducted in 1983. Dose estimates were calculated from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of air, milk, water, and fish. It was concluded there were no significant increases in the exposure to members of the general public attributable to the operation of SQN. 11 figures, 34 tables

  5. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  6. Quality control in environmental radioactivity measurements: experience of the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation, acting as International Reference Center Of the World Health Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, M L; Gahinet, M E; Moroni, J P; De Zertucha, J; Pellerin, P [Service Central de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - Le Vesinet (France)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make known the experiences in the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) in two fields: (i)in relation to the survey of, and research on, environmental radiation in France for 15 years, and (ii) as the International Reference Center (IRC), a responsibility which has been assigned to it by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for more than 7 years. The SCPRI has no permanent activity in pure metrology but the control which it exerts on a national scale (more than 30,000 environmental samples analyzed each year) and the periodic intercomparisons which it organizes with a large number of foreign Public Health Laboratories have led to the development of a strict quality control program for the techniques of preparation and verification of standard sources and reference samples which are essential in the use of counters, the application and development of spectrometric and radiochemical analytical methods and in the distribution of samples for intercomparison purposes. A description is given of practical experience of quality control in the preparation of standards and in international inter-comparisons organized under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization.

  7. Methods of measuring radioactivity in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Mats

    In this thesis a variety of sampling methods have been utilised to assess the amount of deposited activity, mainly of 137Cs, from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapons tests. Starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 sampling of air and rain was used to determine the composition and amount of radioactive debris from this accident, brought to southern Sweden by the weather systems. The resulting deposition and its removal from urban areas was than studied through measurements on sewage sludge and water. The main part of the thesis considers methods of determining the amount of radiocaesium in the ground through soil sampling. In connection with soil sampling a method of optimising the sampling procedure has been developed and tested in the areas of Sweden which have a comparatively high amount of 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident. This method was then used in a survey of the activity in soil in Lund and Skane, divided between nuclear weapons fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl accident. By comparing the results from this survey with deposition calculated from precipitation measurements it was found possible to predict the deposition pattern over Skane for both nuclear weapons fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, the vertical distribution of 137Cs has been modelled and the temporal variation of the depth distribution has been described.

  8. Marine radioactivity measurements with liquid scintillation spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liong Wee Kwong, L.; Povinec, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry (LSS) has now become the most widespread method for quantitative analytical measurement of low levels of β-emitting radionuclides like 3 H and 14 C. The high efficiency resulting from the latest development in LSS makes this technique not only appropriate but also enables direct measurement in environmental samples without excessive preparation. The introduction of several new cocktails based on solvents with a high flashpoint containing surfactants and having a high degree of aqueous sample compatibility has also contributed to the simplification of procedures

  9. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  11. Data acquisition system and analysis programme for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, S.; Kannan, V.; Hegde, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In every Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) many nuclear radiation detecting instruments such as low level Gas Flow Beta Counting Systems, Gross Alpha Counting Systems, Gamma Counting Systems (Single Channel Analyser) are in use to detect the environmental radiation level. These instruments give output in terms of number (total pulse event counts), which is further manually converted into activity concentration per unit weight of the environmental samples. There is considerable difficulty and delay in obtaining the data, since calculations are done manually and also it is very difficult to maintain database of these results for future reference. In order to overcome all this difficulties a Data Acquisition System and Analysing Software Programme has been designed and developed. This paper describes the design and development of the Data Acquisition System using PCL-830 Counter Timer add on card, for networking the environmental radioactivity monitoring equipment's, which is under routine operation at ESL Kalpakkam

  12. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  13. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies

  14. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands. Results in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knetsch GJ; RIZA; RIKZ; VWA; RIKILT; LSO; IMD

    2007-01-01

    From 2005 onwards the national monitoring program "Radioactivity and radiation in the environment" is extended with measurements in milk and in mixed diet. With that the monitoring program complies for the first time with the recommendations of the European Union of 2000. These recommendations

  16. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  17. Environmental airborn radioactivity survey around Burg El Arab Area, Western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.; Ammar, A.A.; Meleik, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental airborne radioactivity survey of approximately 250 square kilometres of Burg El Arab area was conducted by the Airborne Geophysical survey Division of the Geology and Raw Materials Department. The environmental levels of gamma radiation are measured so as to determine quickly the amount and extent of any possible future increase in radioactivity levels of the area by the proposed nuclear facility through normal operations or any accident that may occur. The aerial radiometric measurements were obtained by a continuously recording airborne scintillometer type RVS-1. installed in an Antonoff-2 aircraft, flying at an average speed of 170 Km/h, at a nominal ground clearance of 50 m. The survey was carried out along 84 parallel flight lines directed N-S, and spaced 250 m apart. The area is shown on the geological map as composed of four lithological units. The analysis of the data has proved that these units correspond to six distinct levels of characteristic radioactivity, as two of the lithological units could each be separated into two radioactivity levels on the basis of the radioactivity pattern. The six radiometric levels are, from north to south, beach limy sediments (15 to 101. and 97 to 191 cps), detrital limestone (201 to 354 cpt), saline lakes and salt deposits (262 to 444 cps), and alluvial deposits (307 to 308 and 412 to 742 cps)

  18. Radioactivity concentration measuring device for radiation waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can precisely and accurately measure a radioactive concentration of radioactive wastes irrespective of the radioactivity concentration distribution. Namely, a Ge detector having a collimator and a plurality of radiation detectors are placed at the outside of the radioactive waste containing vessel in such a way that it can rotate and move vertically relative to the vessel. The plurality of radiation detectors detect radiation coefficient signals at an assumed segment unit of a predetermined length in vertical direction and for every predetermined angle unit in the rotational direction. A weight measuring device determines the weight of the vessel. A computer calculates an average density of radioactivity for the region filled with radioactivity based on the determined net weight and radiation coefficient signals assuming that the volume of the radioactivity is constant. In addition, the computer calculates the amount of radioactivity in the assumed segment by conducting γ -ray absorption compensation calculation for the material in the vessel. Each of the amount of radioactivity is integrated to determine the amount of radioactivity in the vessel. (I.S.)

  19. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, E.; Ball, R.; Simpson, C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 2001. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 2001 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  20. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  1. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jester, W.A.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the current rationale behind the environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials are as follows: Committee 4 of the International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined three broad objectives for environmental monitoring: 1) assessment of the actual or potential exposure of humans to radioactive materials or radiation present in their environment or the estimation of the probable upper limits of such exposure; 2) scientific investigation, sometimes related to the assessment of exposures, sometimes to other objectives; 3) improved public relations. Various regulations have been written requiring environmental monitoring to ensure that the public is not being exposed to excessive amounts of radiation from natural sources or from human activities. An example of the monitoring of natural sources of radiation is a requirement of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations whereby U.S. water supply companies must have drinking water monitored at least once every four years for radionuclides, primarily the naturally occurring radium-226

  2. Salt Repository Project site study plan for background environmental radioactivity: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Background Environmental Radioactivity describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management, and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 43 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Evaluation of environmental impact of radioactive waste from reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Pages, P.

    1989-10-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental impact of radioactive wastes from reactors operation. We estimate a case of a plant of 20 GWe power operating for 30 years which is equivalent to 600 tons of uranium per year. According to the properties, the waste is stored on surface (Aube site). Starting from the year of storage, we have defined the maximum dose equivalent for an individual from the reference group. The calculation depends on water of outlet water in which some initially stored radionuclides have migrated. Under the most pessimistic estimation, maximum annual dose was of the order of magnitude 0.5 μ Sv (0.05 mrem) for the storage 400 years after opening the site, and after 4000 years. Compared to the values obtained for the radioactive waste storage, the value of this impact is five times higher than the respective surface storage, but two time less than values for underground storage [fr

  4. Environmental radioactivity and mitigation of radiological impact at legacy uranium sites in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium legacy sites in the country contain large amounts of milling tailings, mining waste, old infrastructures and acid mine drainage with high radioactivity concentrations. Radioactivity surveillance of these sites has been maintained for many years and institutional control kept beyond cessation of Portuguese uranium mining in 2001. A research programme (2003-2006) requested by the government to assess environmental contamination and public health risks in these regions advised implementing environmental remediation measures. A national programme was approved for remediation of abandoned mine sites, including radioactive and non-radioactive mines, that started in 2005 and since has completed significant remediation works in several old uranium mines. One amongst these sites, the Urgeiriça mine and milling site, was re-engineered, tailings were covered, the mine was closed, the area of mine and milling facilities cleaned, and an automated contaminated water treatment plant installed. Environmental radioactivity surveys carried out in this region showed reduced ambient radiation doses, lower radon concentrations in surface air, return to background radioactivity in surface air aerosols, and decrease of radionuclide concentrations in the river receiving water discharges from the mine site, resulting in a reduced radiation exposure to members of the public. Other legacy uranium mines without milling tailings, were mainly remediated for landscape engineering and the adopted solutions included, for example, preservation of non-contaminated ponds for public leisure. Although not completed yet in many sites, the remediation works implemented contributed already to a significant abatement of radiation exposure allowing for safer implementation of activities, such as agriculture and cattle grazing, in the surroundings of legacy sites. Environmental remediation and abatement of radiation exposure contributed to revitalize socio-economic activities of the region and

  5. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  6. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1993, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation dose for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other radiation sources. With two exceptions, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1993, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible radioactivity concentrations or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with a mean of 1.6 mSv and extreme values as high as around 100 mSv; 30% or 1.2 mSv, may be ascribed to natural radiation, leaving less then 0.2 mSv ascribable to man-made sources, excluding medical applications. (author) figs., tabs

  7. Environmental radioactivity in northern parts of Iran and Teheran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Hanjani, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    This article deals with the measurement of the amount of 226Ra by ''radium emanation method'' in water and food products of the North, North-West and North-East of Iran. A total of 126 water samples, 249 food-stuffs and 22 air samples have been examined. The concentration of 226Ra in water was about 0.01 to 1x10 4 pci/1, and in food products was about 0.01 to 20.00 pci/gr. The measured radioactivity in the air for the city of Tehran and Tehran University reactor's environment has been about 0.003 to 0.227 pci/m 3 . The results of these measurements for Iran's atmosphere are given in various tables which indicated that in some part of Iran the rate of the radioactivity is higher than the normal rate

  8. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use...

  9. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brits, R.J.N.; Van der Westhuizen, G.S.H.; Annandale, J.

    1983-06-01

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1982. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartebeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131 I, 90 Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborne activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Due to absence of fresh fallout material the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity due to releases from the Pelindaba site could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels. Unplanned releases of UF 6 occur sometimes. Accordingly, some of the environmental samples were also analysed for uranium. The results obtained so far do not indicate an increase in uranium levels in the environment

  10. Radioactive waste management and its implications for environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; Myttenaere, C.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental mobility and biological availability of radioelements in the biosphere is one of the four barriers which assure the segregation of radioactivity when the radioactive wastes are disposed into geologic formations. In carrying out studies on long-term risk assessment associated with waste disposal of this type, the terrestrial and aquatic models are developed to represent the above mentioned barrier so that risk linked with this barrier is realistically evaluated. These models help in identifying areas of research in environmental field for proper assessment of risk and in optimizing the relationship between requirements of risk assessment and ecological investigations. The three basic areas identified for research are realistic transfer coefficients between various ecological compartments, transfer mechanisms, and long-term evolution of various environmental compartments. Both laboratory and in situ studies are carried out and their results are used in developing models. Various research projects in progress under the Radiological Protection Programme of the Commission of European Community (CEC) are mentioned. As expertise from various fields is required for this research and is not possibly available at a single place, CEC has given research contracts for certain projects to national laboratories so that expertise available with them is utilised and CEC also is engaged directly in research activities which are carried out at its Joint Research Centre. Advisory Committee for Programme Management of the CEC provides the link between various actions and the necessary flow of information between the CEC and the national research teams within the European Community. (M.G.B.)

  11. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  12. Environmental radioactivity at the heat power complex enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, D.A.; Putintseva, V.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity at the heat power complex enterprises (coal mines, oil and gas deposits, coal thermal power plants and heat-electric generation plant) is considered. IT is shown that elevated level of radiation effect on the personnel lungs (2-3 times higher than that of safety standard) is observed at 80 coal mines. High levels of gamma radiation from natural radionuclides (300 μR/h and above) are marked at the separate objects of oil and gas mining industry. It is revealed that the contamination of ash wastes resulted from certain coals combustion reaches 520 Bq/kg at separate thermal power plants

  13. Environmental impact statement on management of commercially generated radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic environmental impact statement on the management of generated high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. The contents of the statement are summarized. The alternatives considered include: geologic disposal; chemical resynthesis; very deep hole disposal; rock melting concept; island disposal; subseabed disposal; icesheet disposal; reverse well disposal; transmutation treatment; and space disposal concepts. The types and quantities of wastes considered are from 3 different fuel cycles for the LWR reactor: once through; uranium-only recycle; and uranium and platinum recycle

  14. Bibliography in environmental radioactivity in foods. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kalus, W.; Mueller, H.; Schelenz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The newest issue in the line of this bibliography contains 249 quotations which are based on the original documents, primarily of the last two years. The bibliography is divided into the following chapters: general aspects (38 quotations), environmental radioactivity (70 quotations), radio ecology (114 quotations) and radio nuclide in food (27 quotations). The main emphasis is as the number of quotations shows, on the area of radio ecology and that contains: eco-systems in country and nourishment connections, eco-systems in water and nourishment connections and bibliographical effects. (MG) [de

  15. Changing methodology for measuring airborne radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-05-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requires that measurements of airborne radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities be performed following outdated methods contained in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities. Improved methods are being introduced via two paths. First, the ANSI standard is being revised, and second, EPA's equivalency granting process is being used to implement new technology on a case-by-case or broad basis. The ANSI standard is being revised by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The revised standard includes updated methods based on current technology and a performance-based approach to design. The performance-based standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. Progress in revising the standard is discussed. The US Department of Energy recently received approval from the USEPA for an alternate approach to complying with air-sampling regulations. The alternate approach is similar to the revised ANSI standard. New design tools include new types of sample extraction probes and a model for estimating line-losses for particles and radioiodine. Wind tunnel tests are being performed on various sample extraction probes for use at small stacks. The data show that single-point sampling probes are superior to ANSI-Nl3.1-1969 style multiple-point sample extraction probes

  16. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Ahmet; Yorulmaz, Nuri; Kam, Erol; Karahan, Gursel; Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the level of background radiation for Sanliurfa province of southeastern Turkey. Measurements of outdoor gamma radiation (of terrestrial and cosmic origin) in air were performed at 112 locations using a plastic scintillator and the average absorbed dose was found as 60.9 nGy/h (corresponding to an effective dose of 74.7μSv/y). The radionuclide activity concentrations in 45 soil samples collected from the study area were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 20.8, 24.95 and 298.6 for the natural radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, and 9.08 Bq/kg for the fission product 137 Cs. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an effective dose of 46.9μSv/y. The radioactivity levels of 53 drinking water samples were measured as 0.038 Bq/l for gross-alpha activity and 0.1324 Bq/l for gross-beta activity using gross-alpha and gross-beta counting methods (equivalent to an effective dose of 7.76μSv/y). When compared with the data available for other Turkish cities, the outdoor gamma doses and soil radioactivity concentrations obtained in this study indicate a background radiation level that falls within natural limits. On the other hand, the measured gross-alpha and -beta activities in drinking water are relatively higher

  17. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Huy Uyen; Bui Van Loat; Dang Phuong Nam; Cao Anh Duc; Pham Quang Dien; Nguyen Hao Quang

    1990-01-01

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs 137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10 -5 Bq/g; Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10 -5 Bq/g. Cs 137 is radioactive so Cs 137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K 40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  18. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around Jeongeup ARTI in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Kwon, Ho Je; Kang, Tai Jin

    2008-03-01

    Because Jeongeup ARTI was designed so that there was not a leakage possibility based on the use of radioactive material and has been operated after acquired an usage permission according to the relevant laws associated with making the use of radiation. It is judged that there may not be the radioactive influence on the surroundings of Jeongeup ARTI. However, an investigation on radioactivity distribution before radiation-use-facilities are installed was not performed, and there is also a possibility that those can be installed additionally. Therefore, it is judged that a preliminary investigation is required to prevents local dwellers from feeling anxious about radiation-use-facilities. The objective of this investigation is to guarantee the health and safety of local residences by detecting a possible radiological effect a prior due to an operation of Jeongeup ARTI, providing the basic data that can estimate environmental effect by radiation, and also to establish a stable research mood by acquiring confidence on analysis results from local dwellers through an scientific and a continuous inspection

  19. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around Jeongeup ARTI in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Kwon, Ho Je; Kang, Tai Jin (and others)

    2008-03-15

    Because Jeongeup ARTI was designed so that there was not a leakage possibility based on the use of radioactive material and has been operated after acquired an usage permission according to the relevant laws associated with making the use of radiation. It is judged that there may not be the radioactive influence on the surroundings of Jeongeup ARTI. However, an investigation on radioactivity distribution before radiation-use-facilities are installed was not performed, and there is also a possibility that those can be installed additionally. Therefore, it is judged that a preliminary investigation is required to prevents local dwellers from feeling anxious about radiation-use-facilities. The objective of this investigation is to guarantee the health and safety of local residences by detecting a possible radiological effect a prior due to an operation of Jeongeup ARTI, providing the basic data that can estimate environmental effect by radiation, and also to establish a stable research mood by acquiring confidence on analysis results from local dwellers through an scientific and a continuous inspection.

  20. Environmental Radioactivity Studies Within The Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute During The Time Period 1980 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Duc Nhan; Pham Duy Hien; Ngo Quang Huy; Nguyen Hao Quang; Nguyen Trong Trang; Tran Ngoc Toan; Vuong Thu Bac; Nguyen Quang Long; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Trong Ngo; Truong Y

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the monitoring activities for natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment such as in surface soil, in surface and groundwater, in the atmosphere and food of Viet Nam that have been conducted by the staff of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI) since the first day of its foundation. Among natural radionuclide, uranium/radium, thorium, potassium-40 in surface soils and 222 Rn in the atmosphere are of particular interest for estimating the annual effective dose resulted from gamma radiation and inhalation to the public. The total annual effective dose (outdoor and indoor dose) from gamma radiation of natural radioactivity (U, Th, 40 K) in surface soil to the public of all the 63 provinces over Viet Nam was estimated as high as 0.54 mSv that is in 10% higher than those reported in the UN SCEAR-2000. The annual effective dose due to inhalation with the air containing 222 Rn to the habitant in the Ha Noi city was found to be as high as 1.13 mSv that is in the range of the dose reported for the Asian region. The anthropogenic radionuclides under the monitoring are 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu originated from nuclear weapon tests during the 1950-1960. Concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide in surface soil gives an idea about the fall-out inventory of the radio-isotopes from the nuclear explosion in the past. This information would be necessary for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Nuclear Power Construction Project in Viet Nam. The results of environmental radioactivity monitoring activities of the VAEI has been composed in twelve scientific papers published in numerous International Scientific Journals like J. Environ. Radioact. and Radiat. Prot. Dosim. Two books entitled: Radioactivity in the Environment and Radioactivity Measurement Applied in the Environmental Researches has been drafted and submitted to the Science and Technique Publisher for printing out soon. (author)

  1. Results of radioactivity measurements on foodstuffs in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdes, O [National Agency for Atomic Energy, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocariu, T [Institute for Food Research, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    There are presented the results of gamma-spectrometric measurements performed between 1986-1995 on: milk and dairy products; meat and meat products; fish; wheat flour; fresh fruits and vegetables. The foodstuffs are sampled from some representative areas like: Bucharest, Bechet (affected by Kozloduj NPP, Bulgaria), Cernavoda, middle of Transylvania, Neamt. The radioactivity measurements are performed by high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry. There are identified and analysed mainly {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K and, sometimes, other radionuclides. There are pointed out: the constancy of natural radionuclides amounts; the drastic increasing in radioactive concentration in May 1986; the seasonal variation of radioactivity in some food items; the time - exponential diminution of radioactivity in 1991-1995; and the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs following a nuclear accident. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs.

  2. Results of radioactivity measurements on foodstuffs in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Cojocariu, T.

    1996-01-01

    There are presented the results of gamma-spectrometric measurements performed between 1986-1995 on: milk and dairy products; meat and meat products; fish; wheat flour; fresh fruits and vegetables. The foodstuffs are sampled from some representative areas like: Bucharest, Bechet (affected by Kozloduj NPP, Bulgaria), Cernavoda, middle of Transylvania, Neamt. The radioactivity measurements are performed by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. There are identified and analysed mainly 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K and, sometimes, other radionuclides. There are pointed out: the constancy of natural radionuclides amounts; the drastic increasing in radioactive concentration in May 1986; the seasonal variation of radioactivity in some food items; the time - exponential diminution of radioactivity in 1991-1995; and the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs following a nuclear accident. (author)

  3. The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the study of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Takaku, Yuichi.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses how far inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied in the field of environmental radioactivity. An outline of the apparatus for ICP-MS is given. Interferences associated with ICP-MS are explained in terms of spectrum interference, blocking phenomenon for sampling cone and other elements, and matrix effects. Detection efficiency of ICP-MS is discussed in view of sample induction efficiency, ionization efficiency, sampling efficiency or ion permeability efficiency, and double-focus ICP-MS. Finally, some problems of ICP-MS in measuring long-lived radionuclides are presented, which may be associated with extremely small ratio of radionuclides, measurement accuracy of radionuclide ratio, and extremely small almounts of radionuclides. A great contribution of ICP-MS to the study of environmental radioactivity is stressed. (N.K.) 112 refs

  4. Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : results in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Knetsch, G.J.; Krijger, G.C.; Weseman, J.M.; Vos van Avezathe, A.; Verbunt, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    The measurements in the air and environment showed normal levels, which are within the range of previous years. The deposition of polonium-210 showed the highest level since 1993 but approximately the same level as in 2009. These levels do not pose a threat to public health. As in previous years radioactivity levels in food and milk were well below the export and consumption limits set by the European Union.

  5. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at IPEN in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program - PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of IPEN's Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in ali the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other IPEN's facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of Sao Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinco The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h -1 . The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3 H, 137 CS, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn, which are commonly released into IPEN's sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out

  6. Environmental radioactivity at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brits, R.J.N; Prinsloo, L.; De Jesus, A.S.M.

    1981-07-01

    The revised environmental survey program, introduced during 1970 with the emphasis on monitoring of the critical paths of exposure of the general public, was continued in 1980. Results of determinations of both gross radioactivity and individual nuclides in samples of fish and water (which are critical materials for liquid-effluent releases) from the Hartbeespoort Dam and from the Crocodile River, are given and discussed. Results of 131 I, 0 Sr and gamma-spectrometric analyses of milk, the critical material for releases to the atmosphere, are presented. Results are given of regular investigations of the composition of airborne releases to the atmosphere and liquid-effluent releases to the Crocodile River, performed in order to detect other possible critical nuclides. Levels of deposited and airborn activity from nuclear-bomb tests are reported. Due to the absence of fresh fallout, the levels for most fission products have fallen below the limit of detection. No environmental radioactivity resulting from NNRC releases could be detected above the natural background or accumulated fallout levels [af

  7. Investigation of environmental radioactivity around the mooring port of the atomic power ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Yoshiro

    1977-01-01

    The environmental radio activity around the mooring port of the atomic power ship ''Mutsu'' has been investigated as the continuation of work in the last year. On the continuous measurements at the three monitoring posts in the port premises and at the three monitoring stations in Mutsu City, and on the measurements by monitoring cars and ships, no abnormality has been observed on the spatial radioactive dose-rate also in this year. No abnormality has also been detected on the radioactivity in sea water measured by the sea-water monitor. On the measurements of β-radioactivity of surface soil, river-bed soil, river water, drinking water and milk, there was no difference from that in the last year. The total β-radioactivity measurement by the low background 2 π gas flow counter and the nuclide analysis by the γ-spectrometer with a Ge (Li) semiconductor detector showed no abnormality. Although 137 Cs was detected in almost all samples, this isotope seemed to be the fallout from nuclear explosion experiments, and the activity was almost same as the values in various districts in Japan. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Artificial radioactivity in the environmental samples as IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactivity levels of 110m Ag, 241 Am, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 125 Sb in some biological and environmental materials have been determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the frame of 15 intercomparison runs organized by IAEA during 1986-1995. The investigated materials were polluted by various nuclear activities, as follows: 1. Nuclear experiments: IAEA-367, sediment collected in 1982 at the Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean). This atoll was used by the USA during 1948-1958 to test nuclear devices; IAEA-368, sediment collected in June 1989 from the Pacific Ocean at the Mururoa Atoll. Since 1966 this atoll has been used by France to test different nuclear devices. 2. Nuclear installations: IAEA-134, cockle flesh of Cardium edule collected in March 1991 from the Irish Sea (Morecambe Bay), England, about 45 km S-E of Sellafield radioactive discharge; IAEA-135, sediment collected in July 1991 in Lune Estuary-England. This area is influenced by the radioactive discharges of the nuclear installations of Sellafield; IAEA-326, soil collected in 1990 in the region of Kursk Atomic Power Plant (Russia). 3. Nuclear accidents (Chernobyl): IAEA-306, sediment collected in the Baltic Sea during October-November 1986; IAEA-307, seaplant Posidonia oceanica, collected in October 1986 in Mediterranean Sea along the shore, in the vicinity of the Principality of Monaco; IAEA-308, mixed seaweeds collected in October 1986 in Mediterranean Sea along the shore, in the vicinity of the Principality of Monaco; IAEA-156, clover collected during the summer harvest 1986 in Austria; IAEA-321, milk powder collected in autumn 1987 from a processing plant in Europe; IAEA-352, tuna fish flesh collected in April 1988 in the Western Mediterranean Sea; IAEA-373, grass collected from Kiev region during the summer harvest 1990; IAEA-375, soil collected in July 1990 from Brjansk region, Russia; IAEA-300, sediment collected in July 1992 in Bothnian Sea (Baltic Sea). 4

  9. Functions of PTB in monitoring of environmental radioactivity; Die Aufgaben der PTB bei der Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wershofen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Umweltradioaktivitaet; Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). FB Radioaktivitaet

    2006-12-15

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IMIS measuring system for monitoring of environmental radioactivity and of emissions from nuclear power stations was founded in Germany, with the intention of preventing nuclear accidents or disasters and for early measuring and evaluation of their radiological effects. It works on behalf of the BMU (Federal Minister of the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety), on the basis of the 1986 StrVG (Act for preventive radiation protection). IMIS is an extensive national measuring system for monitoring or radioactivity throughout Germany and in all relevant environmental media. (orig.)

  10. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The report contains information on the natural (background) radiation exposure (chapter II), the natural radiation exposure as influenced by anthropogenic effects (chapter III), the anthropogenic radiation exposure (chapter IV), and the radiation doses to the environment and the population emanating from the Chernobyl fallout (chapter V). The natural radiation exposure is specified referring to the contributions from cosmic and terrestrial background radiation and intake of natural radioactive substances. Changes of the natural environment resulting from anthropogenic effects (technology applications) inducing an increase in concentration of natural radioactive substances accordingly increase the anthropogenic radiation exposure. Indoor air radon concentration in buildings for instance is one typical example of anthropogenic increase of concentration of natural radioactivity, primarily caused by the mining industry or by various materials processing activities, which may cause an increase in the average radiation dose to the population. Measurements so far show that indoor air concentration of radon exceeds a level of 200 Bq/m 3 in less than 2% of the residential buildings; the EUropean Commission therefore recommends to use this concentration value as a maximum value for new residential buildings. Higher concentrations are primarily measured in areas with relevant geological conditions and abundance of radon, or eg. in mining areas. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1994, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other installations using radionuclides and also miscellaneous radiation sources. With only one exception, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual emission limits in 1994, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with extreme values as high as 100 mSr; 30% may be ascribed to natural radiation, roughly 25% to medical applications of ionising radiation, leaving less than 5% ascribable to man-made sources. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  13. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document, which describes the content of an environmental assessment report, will assist national authorities to meet their obligations under the London Dumping Convention (LDC, 1972) by initiating those steps which are to be undertaken to ensure that ''the procedure to be followed and the nature of such reports shall be agreed by the parties in consultation'' (Article VI. 4). In the context of sea disposal of radioactive wastes, environmental assessments are taken to mean those evaluations which are undertaken to assist in the decision-making processes used by national authorities to determine: 1) How the option of sea disposal compares environmentally, technically, socially and economically with other disposal options (this constitutes the comparison with land-based alternatives); and 2) Whether the impact of a proposed sea disposal option is acceptable (this requires a detailed evaluation of the proposed operation including site selection, quantities and types of waste to be dumped, operational requirements and calculation of radiological and other risks). The term ''environmental assessment'' in these respects is deemed to include both the evaluation of the impact of sea dumping and the document that describes this evaluation

  14. Measurements of natural radioactivity inside Dandara temple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.K.; Saied, M.H.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The natural radioactivities inside Dandara temple are studied by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. The variation of these activities with location is investigated. Average values of the identified radionuclides inside the halls, sanctuary and crypt of the temple are examined. It is estimated that the mean value lies in the range 37.9-90.1 for 212 Pb, 70.0-36.0 for 214 Bi, 52.6-76.2 for 228 Ac, 1.6-5.9 for 208 Tl, while for 40 K it is 169.3-286.6. (author)

  15. Measurements of natural radioactivity inside Dandara temple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, N.K.; Saied, M.H.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    The natural radioactivities inside Dandara temple are studied by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. The variation of these activities with location is investigated. Average values of the identified radionuclides inside the halls, sanctuary and crypt of the temple are examined. It is estimated that the mean value lies in the range 37.9-90.1 for {sup 212}Pb, 70.0-36.0 for {sup 214}Bi, 52.6-76.2 for {sup 228} Ac, 1.6-5.9 for {sup 208} Tl, while for {sup 40}K it is 169.3-286.6. (author).

  16. Evaluating the reproducibility of environmental radioactivity monitoring data through replicate sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Silver, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, about 10% of the sampling effort in the environmental monitoring program represents replicate sample collection. Replication of field samples was initiated as part of the quality assurance program for environmental monitoring to determine the reproducibility of environmental measurements. In the laboratory these replicates are processed along with routine samples. As all components of variance are included in analysis of such field samples, comparison of the analytical data from replicate analyses provides a basis for estimating the overall reproducibility of the measurements. The replication study indicates that the reproducibility of environmental radioactivity monitoring data is subject to considerably more variability than is indicated by the accompanying counting errors. The data are also compared with analyses of duplicate aliquots from a well mixed sample or with duplicate aliquots of samples with known radionuclide content. These comparisons show that most of the variability is associated with the collection and preparation of the sample rather than with the analytical procedures

  17. Marine environmental monitoring related to sea disposal of radioactive waste in the NE Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, A.O.; Elias, M.D.T.; Ferrador, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    Reference is made to the sea disposal of packaged radioactive waste in the NE Atlantic and to the role of the OCDE Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) since 1967, in the dumping operations. The objectives of marine environmental monitoring in relation to sea disposal of radioactive wastes are described as well as the coordinated research and environmental surveillance programme (CRESP) developed within NEA frame. The Portuguese on-going programme in this field is presented and the results concerning measurements of 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs in samples of water, sediments and fish collected at Madeira and Continental Portuguese coasts, are discussed. It was observed that these radionuclides concentrations are lower for deep-sea fishes than for the shallow-water ones. The obtained results are compared with those found in the literature. From the observation of the large spectrum of results available, it can be concluded that no generalized contamination of the marine environment due to the sea dumping of radioactive wastes if observed at present. On the other hand, there is an interest in pursuing analyses of deep-sea fish with the aim of early detection of any possible modifications in the actual levels of radioactivity in the marine environment. (author) [pt

  18. Regulations and decisions in environmental impact assessment of residues radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of natural radionuclides in the environment did not have high priority over many years compared to that of man-made radioactivity. There is, however, an increasing interest in such measurements since enhanced exposure to natural radioactivity is receiving the same legal weight as any other radiation exposure. In this context the surveillance of technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials, called TENORM becomes important. In Brazil, the industries of processing and chemical compounds production were developed based on mining, milling, transformation and manufacture of ores from sedimentary origin, ignea or metamorphic, which must determine the radioactive composition of the generated solid wastes and residues. Many solids residues stored in the environment has been of environmental concern facing the industries and environmentalists in Brazil as it presents a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to individuals occupationally exposed. Radiation protection regulations have not been applied yet to these industries, as the Brazilian regulatory agency (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN) has only recently published a regulatory guide concerning mining and milling of naturally occurring radioactive materials, which may generate enhanced concentrations of radionuclides. With respect to external and internal exposure to natural radionuclides from the solid residues storage, the nuclides of 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U decay chains are relevant, due to the exposure of workers as well as of members of the public. Radionuclides released from a source can be present as ions, molecules, complexes, mononuclear or polynuclear species, colloids, pseudocolloids, particles or fragments varying in size (nominal molecular mass), structure, morphology, density, valence and charge properties. One of the main points in environmental impact assessment is to identify whether the chemical availability is under influence of these speciation

  19. Measurement of total body radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naversten, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of whole-body radioactivity in man using uncollimated NaI(Tl) detectors have been studied. Geometrical effects and photon attenuation effects due to the different shapes of humans as well as due to varying in-vivo radioactivity distributions have been evaluated particularly for scanning-bed geometries and the chair geometry. Theoretically it is shown that the attenuation effects are generally dominating, for full-energy-peak pulse-range methods. For the application in radiation protection a cheap and simple chair-geometry unit has been constructed and used at various places distantly from the home-laboratory, for studies of body activity of Cs-137 in northern Sweden. High body activities were found particularly in reindeer-breeding Lapps. The elimination rate of Cs-137 in man was studied in the stationary whole-body counter in Lund as well as with the field-system. For the study of the performances at low and high photon energies clinical applications of methods for gastro-intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (Co-57; 122 keV) and total body potassium determination (K-40; 1.46 MeV, K-42; 1.52 MeV) have been evaluated. Theoretical and experimental results as well as experiences of applications in radiation protection and medicine show that the scanning-bed geometry effectively evens out redistributional effects. For optimum results, however, scatter-energy pulse-ranges rather than full-energy-peak ranges should be used. (Auth.)

  20. Environmental pollution measurements and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, M.

    1994-01-01

    This book gives the interested layman an insight into fundamental processes of ecology and closes the gap between theory and practice. The practical part shows how measuring instruments for environmental applications work, how errors of measurement can be avoided, and how to make use of the measured results. (orig./EF) [de

  1. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  2. Radioactive waste disposal areas and associated environmental surveillance data at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1979-12-01

    Environmental surveillance data have been collected around radioactive waste disposal areas for the past thirty years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The wealth of data collected around the ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds is presented in this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the solid waste burial grounds in detail along with the environmental monitoring data. The various monitoring systems are reviewed, and the liquid discharge trends are discussed. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak Creek watershed. Facts observed during the lifetime of the disposal sites include: (1) a large amount of 106 Ru released during 1959 to 1964 due to the fact that Conasauga shale did not retain this element as well as it retained other radionuclides. (2) Large quantities of tritiated water have been released to the Clinch River in recent years, but, from a practical standpoint, little can be done to inhibit or control these releases. (3) A general downward trend in the number of curies released has been observed for all other radionuclides. A number of corrective measures that have been initiated at ORNL to reduce the radioactive liquid discharges are outlined in the paper

  3. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a highway construction project in Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the field environmental investigation and monitoring result, the radioactive environmental impact for a highway construction project in Guangdong province has been analyzed and assessed and forecacted. (authors)

  4. Routine surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the influence area of the institute during 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, Domnica; Breban Ioana

    1997-01-01

    The radioactivity measurements were performed according to the Monitoring Plan for nuclear units in NIPNE-HH, which provides the type, locations and sampling frequency of the environmental factors which were analyzed. Samples of water, sediment, soil, and vegetation were analyzed for both gross beta and gamma activity, as follows: - 1010 samples of potential radioactive water (surface, drinking and underground water); - 35 sediment and 98 soil samples; - 48 samples of spontaneous vegetation and 16 samples of milk, salad, potatoes, cabbage and maize. Radiochemical analysis of Sr-90 in surface, sewage water and milk was performed. Gamma spectrometric measurements were also carried out in water and sediment samples. We analyzed for gross beta and gamma activity 238 samples of radioactive liquid effluents from the two nuclear units of the Institute, Radioisotope Production Centre and Station for Radioactive Waste Treatment. No significant difference between the gross activity of soil and vegetation samples collected from the area of influence and those from the reference site (Bucharest) were observed. The variation of the gross beta activity in the surface water, sampled upstream and downstream to the site where the wastes effluents are discharged is presented. The activity of the downstream river water has always been situated below the maximum admissible level (MAL = 1.80 Bq/l), hence we can conclude that the nuclear activity developed on Magurele Platform did not lead to the river contamination. (authors)

  5. An interim report of the Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Countermeasures: measures for radioactive waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Countermeasures has studied on the measures for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and ultra-low-level radioactive wastes and the measures for treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes. The results of studies so far are presented as an interim report. In disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, the land disposal is being required increasingly. The measures according to the levels of radioactivity are necessary. For the ultra-low-level radioactive wastes, their occurrence in large quantities is expected along with reactor decommissioning. In disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes, the present status is a transition toward the practical stages. Transuranium wastes should increase in their arising in the future. (Mori, K.)

  6. ICP-MS measurement of natural radioactivity at LNGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, S.; Copia, L.; Dafinei, I.; di Vacri, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    Rare events search experiments, like those dedicated to the direct evidence of dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, are among the most exciting challenges of modern physics. The sensitivity of such experiments is driven by the background, which depends substantially on the radiopurity of the materials used for the experimental apparatus. Cutting edge measurement techniques are needed for a fast, sensitive and efficient screening of these materials and the certification of their production. Trace element measurements of high sensitivity and quick execution are mandatory also in other fields like tracing the geographical origin of food, temporal and geographical assignment of cultural heritage or monitoring environmental radioactivity. This work is an overview of the inorganic mass spectrometry facility available at Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) for radiopure material screening and is especially focused on its ICP-MS instrumentation. Analytical methods developed to achieve lowest detection limits in different types of matrix, like metals, polymers, crystals and composite materials, are also indicated. Detection limits of 10-18gg-1 for 226Ra, 10-14gg-1 for U and Th and 10-12gg-1 for K are attained through dedicated operation conditions of the instrumentation. Details are given on the results obtained for different experiments ongoing or under construction at LNGS.

  7. The dispersion of alpha and beta radioactivity to the environmental from spent fuel testing in RMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuwono, I.; Pudjadi, E.

    1996-01-01

    The destructive testing of 2 spent fuels in RMI and radioactivity air release monitoring to the environmental have been done. The monitoring equipment used alpha-beta particulate monitor, Berthold LB 150 D type. The calculations using the Gaussian plume model and distributions factor showed there were no radiological effect of alpha and beta radioactivity dispersion and contribution to the environmental. The maximum average construction of alpha and beta radioactivity are 0.002% and 0.05%. (author)

  8. Measurement of artificial radioactivity in the atmosphere at Ottawa, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentiuk, F

    1958-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the artificial radioactivity in the atmosphere originating from atomic and thermonuclear explosions. For the past year daily measurements of radioactivity have been made at Ottawa. The sampling times corresponded to air volumes of 425 cubic metric and 2000 cubic meters, respectively. Filters were kept for a period of 3 days before measurements were made in order to permit natural activity resulting from daughter products of radon and thoron to decay to a negligible value. Measurements of the gross beta activity from the filters were made directly with end-window Geiger tubes. Filters showing considerable initial radioactivity were measured at intervals of a few days in order to obtain the rate of decay of the activity. It was hoped that the data obtained would make it possible to fix the date of the explosion responsible for the filter activity but the fixing of dates was very uncertain.

  9. The Coordinating Laboratories for monitoring of environmental radioactivity. History, activities, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Bayer, A.

    2000-10-01

    The article reviews the development of the monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the former Federal Republic of Germany and from 1990 onwards in re-unified Germany. This monitoring originated in the need to investigate the radioactive fallout from the testing of atomic bombs in the atmosphere in the 1950's and 1960's. Monitoring was intensified and became increasingly regulated by law as a response to the large scale use of atomic power and in accordance with the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The necessity of evaluating the radiological effects in old mining regions in some of the new Laender was recognised in 1990. Since then legislation and official monitoring have been extended to include this source of radiation exposure. Also described is the way in which those institutions now termed Coordinating Laboratories were involved in all of the developments mentioned above. They tested and developed sampling, analysis and measurement techniques, carried out research projects on the various contamination pathways, reported regularly on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure, organised and evaluated interlaboratory comparisons, assisted in the setting up of the Federal Integrated Measurement and Information System (IMIS), and advised the appropriate Federal and Laender Ministries. Some of the Coordinating Laboratories also manage Federal Monitoring Networks. The Precautionary Radiation Protection Act stipulates these tasks and names the institutions appointed as Coordinating Laboratories. (orig.) [de

  10. Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.; Hussein, M.A.; Hussein, Mohamed I.

    2004-01-01

    Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ( 220 Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures

  11. Decrease of Environmental Radioactivity After Terminated Restoration of the Uranium Mine Site at Zirovski Vrh (Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Rojc, J.

    2011-01-01

    The uranium mining and milling complex at Zirovski vrh, located 45 km NW from Ljubljana, was in operation in the period 1985 - 1990 and produced about 452 tonnes of yellow cake. In parallel, over 0.6 million tonnes of technological tailings and 2.6 million tonnes of mine waste rock were generated and deposited on separate disposal sites in close vicinity of the mining site, with the total area of 10 hectares. The disposal sites were completely restored, mostly in the last decade. The processing plant, located in the Brebovscica valley, was decommissioned in the nineties. All provisional facilities were removed from the central site at Todraz and transferred to the mine waste deposit. The restoration works were finished in 2010, twenty years after the cessation of uranium production. Radioactive discharges and radioactivity in the environment were monitored during operation of the uranium mine, continued during restoration phases and will be monitored a certain period afterwards. The aim of this paper is to present the radioactive discharges and enhanced levels of radioactivity in the nearby environment, monitored during the operation period of the U-mine and after terminated restoration works. The most significant decreases of radioactivity after the restoration of the site were identified. The results of environmental radioactivity monitoring showed that radioactivity steadily decreased according to the different phases of the mine decommission. After restoration, radioactivity levels on the site and in close vicinity are approaching to the background levels, except for radon in air and for waters. Consequently, radiation exposure to the reference groups of the population decreased from 0.3 - 0.4 mSv per year during operation to about 0.1 mSv per year after finalized restoration works. This figure is much lower than the authorised limit of 0.3 mSv per year, set by the Slovenian competent authority. Still enhanced levels of radioactivity were found in surface

  12. Dosimetric system for measurement of radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litynski, Z.; Pienkos, J.P.; Witkowski, J.; Zadrozny, S.

    1985-01-01

    A dosimetric system for personnel dosimetry and monitoring measuring a contamination without time delay and dead time is described. The system ensures many-point measurement and minimalization of background radiation influence. 1 fig. (A.S.)

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  14. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; McKirdy, B.; Askarieh, M.; Bond, A.; Russell, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  15. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-02 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Sea Fish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-02 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. The test sample was a reference materials provided by the IAEA-MEL (IAE Marine Environmental Laboratory, Monaco), a sea fish containing environmental levels of U-238, U-234, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-(239+240), Am-241 and Tc-99. The results of the exercise were computed for 32 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The laboratories have made an effort to calculate the combined uncertainty of the radiochemical determinations. Most of the laboratories have demonstrated its competence in performing the study analysis and also the adequate measuring capability of their detection equipment even in conditions close to detection limits. The study has shown the capacity of participant laboratories to perform radioactive determinations in environmental sea fish samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  17. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  18. Baseline Radioactivity Measurements In The Vicinity Of A Gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Region, Ghana) to obtain baseline radioactivity data prior to the installation of Cs-137 nuclear density gauges for quality control measure-ment of the density of slurry in the pipelines at the plant. A survey meter, gamma spectrometry and ...

  19. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure by radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-03-01

    On the basis of measurements of the radioactive emissions of a 300 MW coal-fired power plant and of a 600 MW lignite-fired power plant the expected activity increase in air and soil in the environment of both plants is estimated and compared with the normal, natural activity level. Due to these emissions it results for the point of maximum immission a committed effective dose equivalent per GW x a of about 0.2 mrem = 0.002 mSv for the coal-fired plant and of about 0.04 mrem = 0.0004 mSv for the lignite-fired plant. This dose is caused to nearly equal parts by inhalation, ingestion and external γ-radiation. The normalized effective dose equivalent in the environment of the modern coal-fired power plant is in the same order of magnitude like that of a modern pressurized water reactor. The total, collective effective dose equivalent commitment by the annual radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants in the F.R.Germany is estimated to 2000-6000 Man x rem = 20-60 Man x Sv. This corresponds to a mean per caput-dose in the population of the F.R.Germany of about 0.03-0.1 mrem = 0.0003-0.001 mSv; this is about 0.02-0.06% of the mean normal natural radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) [de

  20. Device for radioactivity measurement of liquid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaziere, J.

    1983-01-01

    The device for low activity gamma measurements comprises an automatic changer for sample transfer from a conveyor to a measuring chamber. The conveyor includes a horizontal table were are regularly distributed sample holders. A lift allows a vertical motion of a plate for the exposition in front of a detector [fr

  1. Measurement methodology of natural radioactivity in the thermal establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Robe, M.C.

    2004-11-01

    The thermal baths have been identified as an activity susceptible to expose to ionizing radiations the workers through the natural sources of radon and radon 220. The new regulation obliges these facilities to realize radioactivity measurements. The principal ways of exposure are radon and its daughters inhalation,, exposure to gamma radiation, ingestion of radioelements in thermal waters. I.R.S.N. proposes two methods of measurements of the natural radioactivity in application to the regulation relative to the protection of persons and workers. Some principles to reduce exposure to radon are reminded. (N.C.)

  2. Development of alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Naito, Susumu; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Fukumoto, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Alpha radioactivity Measurement using ionized Air Transportation technology (AMAT) is developed to measure alpha contaminated wastes with large and complex surfaces. An outline of this project was described in this text. A major problem of AMAT technology is that the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and observed ion current is unclear because of the complicated behavior of ionized air molecules. An ion current prediction model covering from ionization of air molecules to ion detection was developed based on atmospheric electrodynamics. This model was described in this text, too. (author)

  3. Establishment and application of standard devices for radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgui; Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen

    1991-03-01

    In order to establish the radioactivity measurement standards a 4πβ-γ coincidence apparatus and a 4πγ ionization chamber have been installed in the laboratory. The 4πβ-γ coincidence apparatus is for absolute measurement, and its uncertainty is ±(0.3∼5)%. The 4πγ ionization chamber is for working standard, and its uncertainty is ±(1∼5)%. The combination of these devices can meet the quality requirements controlled by National Verification System in the transfer of radioactivity values

  4. Radioactivity measurements using storage phosphor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.T.; Hwang, J.; Hutchinson, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to apply a recently developed charged particle radiation imaging concept in bio-medical research for fast, cost-effective characterization of radionuclides in contaminated sites and environmental samples. This concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor (SPP) technology as radiation detectors. They exhibit high sensitivity for all types of radiation and the response is linear over a wide dynamic range (>10 5 ), essential for quantitative analysis. These new sensors have an active area of up to 35 cm x 43 cm in size and a spatial resolution as fine as 50 μm. They offer considerable promise as large area detectors for fast characterization of radionuclides with an added ability to locate and identify hot spots

  5. Measurements of radioactive dust in high altitude air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Mika; Kohara, Eri; Muronoi, Naohiro; Masuda, Yousuke; Midou, Tomotaka; Ishida, Yukiko; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Saga, Minoru; Endo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivity in samples of airborne dust was measured. The samples had been collected at high altitude by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The data were obtained for the gross beta activity, gamma nuclide determination and radiochemical analysis. It was shown that there was no appreciable difference between the activity levels obtained in this time and in the year before. Seasonal variations were not very pronounced. It was found that the radioactivity at high altitude had been stable at a low level. Radioactive gases (gaseous radioiodine and xenon gas) were not detected. This report does not include the result on radionuclide measurements that Technical Research and Development Institute executed for examining the nuclear emergency situation at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants after Tohoku Region Pacific Ocean Earthquake on March 11, 2011. (author)

  6. Croatian-Hungarian cooperation on the Danube river radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.; Vancsura, P.

    2003-01-01

    Danube river radioactivity measurements on the border profile Mohac-Batina have been performed since the beginning of 1978 with varying frequency of sampling. Thus, in the period before nuclear power plant Paks started to work joint croatian-hungarian sampling at the border profile was taking place four times a year; the obtained results of measured radioactivity levels were used to assess radioactivity background data. From the start of nuclear power plant Paks running until Chernobyl reactor accident (April 1986) sampling was performed six times a year. After the Chernobyl accident, samples have been taken every month. Since decreased Chernobyl reactor accident influence was estimated until present samples have been taken six times a year. On the Danube river border profile the concentration activity of gamma radionuclides has been determined in water samples (filtered water and suspended matter), and in fish, sediment and Danube river algae samples. (authors)

  7. Krypton-85 and other airborne radioactivity measurements throughout Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Murray, M.; Wong, J.; Sequeira, S.; Long, S.C.; Rafferty, B.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with articles 35 and 36 of the EURATOM Treaty, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) undertakes a comprehensive programme of radioactivity monitoring in the Irish terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The RPII monitors airborne radioactivity concentrations at ten stations throughout Ireland, of which, nine are equipped with low volume particulate samplers and one, in Dublin, with a high volume particulate sampler. The low volume particulate samples are assessed for total beta activity and high volume samples for gamma emitting radionuclides such as caesium-137 and beryllium-7. In addition, air sampled at the RPII laboratory in Dublin, is monitored for krypton-85, a radioactive noble gas, released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Since the inception of the krypton measurements in 1993 a trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations has been observed. The results of the krypton-85 monitoring, as well as the airborne radioactivity concentration measurements, will be presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Zerquera, Juan; Mora, Juan C; Robles, Beatriz

    2017-11-15

    Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative predictions obtained with

  9. Measuring the absorbed radioactivity during a flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the new system SIEVERT developed by the General Direction of the Civil Aviation (DGAC) to measure the radiations doses absorbed from cosmic radiation. The system is available on the Internet site: www.sievert-system.org. (A.L.B.)

  10. Use of environmental radioactive isotopes in geothermal prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez M, A.; Huerta, M.; Flores R, J. H.; Pena, P.

    2010-10-01

    Oil resources decrease and environmental impact of burning fossil fuels support the use of alternative energies around the world. By far nuclear energy is the alternative which can supply huge amount of clean energy. Mexico has two nuclear units and has also explored and exploited the use of other complementary renewal energies, as wind and geothermal. Mexico is the third geothermal-energy producer in the world with an installed capacity of 960 MW and is planning the installation of 146 MW for the period 2010-2011, according to information of the Mexican Federal Electricity Board. This paper presents a study case, whose goal is to look for areas where the heat source can be located in geothermal energy fields under prospecting. The method consist in detecting a natural radioactive tracer, which is transported to the earth surface by geo-gases, generated close to the heat source, revealing areas of high permeability properties and open active fractures. Those areas are cross correlated to other resistivity, gravimetric and magnetic geophysical parameters in the geothermal filed to better define the heat source in the field. (Author)

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  12. Radioactivity measurements of the HMI after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, U.; Dulski, P.; Friedland, E.M.; Gawlik, D.; Kirschfeld, K.E.; Schubert, P.; Steinmetz, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    The report explains the methods applied and the data measured by the HMI campaign. The material is presented so as to be of interest also to readers who in general are not concerned with aspects of radiation protection. The data measured refer to the local dose rate and to radioactivity in the environment (air, rain, surface waters, soil, food, mother's milk. Also, results of measurements of samples from Eastern Europe are given. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Gamma, radon, natural radioactivity measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1997-01-01

    Different natural radiation measurements, performed since 1983, are analysed and discussed regarding the average effective population dose. A decade of absorbed gamma dose measurements in air (1983-93), were carried out using compensated TLD detectors, during long periods of integration time and with a network of 11 stations, along the country, from Arica to the Antarctic territory. An indoor Rn -222 and gamma survey dwellings, in high background zones, underground mines and drinking water was started in 1988 using different kind of detectors, including electret radon chambers. The methods, dose assessments and results are presented and discussed in the frame of worldwide average effective population doses. None of the average effective doses found over the evaluated areas, exceed the comparison levels. (author)

  14. Use of radioactive sources in measuring characteristics of snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry W. Anderson; Philip M. McDonald; Lloyd W. Gay

    1963-01-01

    Use of radioactive probes inserted in mountain snowpacks may make possible more accurate appraisal and prediction of snowmelt water. Commercially available gamma and neutron probes were tested for their ability to measure snow density, ice lenses, and the thermal quality of individual layers in the snowpack.

  15. IAEA-MEL's AQCS programme for marine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Gastaud, J.; Pham, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    The main objectives of the IAEA-MEL's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) for marine radioactivity measurements are discussed and future plans for the organization of intercomparison exercises and the production of certified reference materials are presented. The new developments should also include implementation of quality assurance programmes in Member States' laboratories, training in quality management and accreditation programmes. (author)

  16. First measurements of the radioactivity in atmospheric precipitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santomauro, L; Cigna, A

    1953-01-01

    Measurements conducted between February 1951 and November 1952 showed that nuclear-weapon tests at Las Vegas, Eniwetok, and Montebello were followed, 1, 2, and 3 weeks later, respectively, by an increase in the radioactive content of rain and snow falling in Italy.

  17. Performance Test of Alpha Spectrometry for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Youn; Yoon, Jong-Ho; Han, Ki-Tek; Ahn, Gil Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Environmental samples are analyzed by various methods such as, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometry), HRGS (high resolution gamma spectrometry) and alpha /beta particle analysis. In this study, we will described the result of performance test using alpha spectrometry for analyzing environmental samples. Measurement data of the U activity using SRM based on extraction chromatography with UTEVA resin. It should be effective way to separate of uranium isotope for the measurement of alpha spectrometry. But, the result of this measurement data is higher than another recovery data. Also concentration of U data is lack of consistency. We leave out of consideration many effect of factors about influence in the experiment process. In the future work, we will try to reduce the step of experiment process and reflect the uncertainty factors

  18. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  19. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a 6 He nuclear radioactive beam (β emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction 6 + 209 Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  20. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  1. Uranium isotopic ratio measurements ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) by laser ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for environmental radioactivity monitoring - {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio analysis by LA-ICP-MS-HR for environmental radioactivity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, K.; Mokili, M.B.; Rousseau, G.; Deniau, I.; Landesman, C. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environments from a broad range of contaminants spread by nuclear activities (nuclear plants, weapon tests or mining) require continuous monitoring of long-lives radionuclides that were released into the environment. The precise determination of uranium isotope ratios in both natural and potential contaminated samples is of primary concern for the nuclear safeguards and the control of environmental contamination. As an example, analysis of environmental samples around nuclear plants are carried out to detect the traces in the environment originating from nuclear technology activities. This study deals with the direct analysis of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratios in real environmental solid samples performed with laser ablation (LA)-HR-ICP-MS. A similar technique has already been reported for the analysis of biological samples or uranium oxide particles [1,2] but to our knowledge, this was never applied on real environmental samples. The high sensitivity, rapid acquisition time and low detection limits are the main advantages of high resolution ICP-MS for accurate and precise isotope ratio measurements of uranium at trace and ultra-trace levels. In addition, the use of laser ablation allows the analysis of solid samples with minimal preparation. A a consequence, this technique is very attractive for conducting rapid direct {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio analysis on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring such as corals, soils, sands, sediments, terrestrial and marine bio-indicators. For the present study, LA-ICP-MS-HR analyses are performed using a New Wave UP213 nano-second Nd:YAG laser coupled to a Thermo Element-XR high resolution mass spectrometer. Powdered samples are compacted with an hydraulic press (5 tons) in order to obtain disk-shaped pellet (10-13 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness). The NIST612 reference glass is used for LA-ICP-MS-HR tuning and as

  2. Perfusion measurements with radioactively labelled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schosser, R.

    1980-01-01

    The technique and the evaluation of the microsphere-method are comprehensively represented in theory and practice. Some changes and new concepts are discussed, besides the known foundations and techniques, that assure an essential methodic improvement resp. practical simplifications. Two new formulas are derived within the frame of the theoretical principles, by which the absolute flux of shorts can be calculated, i.e. on the one hand in the case of known and on the other hand in the case of unknown applied amount of indicator. The determination of the optimal indicator dose is defined and formulated mathematically with respect to the experimental conditions to be expected. The matrix method was designed for the analysis of complex gamma spectra. Hereby there is no selective error accumulation in the case of low energy radio nuclids contrary to the so far exclusively used stripping technique. The number of possible error quantities was reduced by one resp. two variables. The error of particular radio nuclid components is quantitatively computed as standard deviation by means of the theory of approximated systems of linear equations. The external measurement of distance was developed. This technique is less susceptible for errors as the aliquota i.e. whole body measurement technique. Additionally less measurement time is needed. A flexible computer program for a desk top computer was developped for the evaluation. The data from the gamma spectrometer are recorded on tipe and automatically read in by the computer. The manual input are limited to the weights of the organs and some control parameter. The output is made by a clearly arranged table by means of a lineprinter. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  4. Radioactive Aerosol Size Distribution Measured in Nuclear Workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Oved, S.; German, U.

    2002-01-01

    Inhalation is the main route for internal exposure of workers to radioactive aerosols in the nuclear industry.Aerosol's size distribution and in particular its activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD)is important for determining the fractional deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract and the resulting doses. Respiratory tract models have been published by the International Commission on radiological Protection (ICRP).The former model has recommended a default AMAD of 1 micron for the calculation of dose coefficients for workers in the nuclear industry [1].The recent model recommends a 5 microns default diameter for occupational exposure which is considered to be more representative of workplace aerosols [2]. Several researches on radioactive aerosol's size distribution in nuclear workplaces has supported this recommendation [3,4].This paper presents the results of radioactive aerosols size distribution measurements taken at several workplaces of the uranium production process

  5. Alpha radioactivity measurement technology with ionized air type measurement. Applicability evaluation to verification of the clearance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yutaka; Matsumura, Toshihiro; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this test is to evaluate the applicability of the clearance level measuring system by Ionized Air Type Measurement after decontaminated by sulfuric acid sample. In Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. The equipment and radioactive waste which were contaminated with uranium are generated so much in future dismantling stage. In our plan, some of equipments and radioactive waste are contaminated to a clearance level, and cut down on decommission and disposal expense. This plan needs the alpha-rays measurement technology of the very low level. We think that ionized Air transfer measurement technology is promising as of clearance verification technology. The ionized Air transfer measurement technology applied to the Ionized Air Type Measurement can measure plan radioactivity of a very low level. Moreover, as compared with a direct survey, there is the merit which can be measured in a short time. However ionized Air transfer measurement technology is new technology. Therefore, there is almost no measurement track record. Furthermore, the date about the influence of a background, a detection limit, measurement performance, and reliability is insufficient. So, this measurement test estimated applicability as clearance level verification of an Ionized Air Type Measurement. (author)

  6. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1995; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlendosen in der Schweiz 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, H; Gobet, M

    1997-12-31

    Switzerland has been performing systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and in food for forty years. This report contains the results of measurements made in the course of 1995 and the consequential radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, soil, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other operations using radionuclides, as well as miscellaneous radiation sources. All the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1995, and environmental measurements revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population`s mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv, with some 40% of this due to radon in the home (but with extreme values as high as 100 mSv), another 30% coming from natural radiation, a quarter from medical applications and less than 5% from artificial radiation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1995; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlendosen in der Schweiz 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1996-12-31

    Switzerland has been performing systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and in food for forty years. This report contains the results of measurements made in the course of 1995 and the consequential radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, soil, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other operations using radionuclides, as well as miscellaneous radiation sources. All the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1995, and environmental measurements revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population`s mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv, with some 40% of this due to radon in the home (but with extreme values as high as 100 mSv), another 30% coming from natural radiation, a quarter from medical applications and less than 5% from artificial radiation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. The environmental impact of radioactive releases from accidents in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.R.; Griffiths, R.F.; Kaiser, G.D.; Kinchin, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of accidental releases of radioactivity from thermal and fast reactors is presented. Following a general discussion on the hazards involved, the nature of the environmental impact of radioactive releases is examined. This includes a brief review of the natural radiation background, the effect on human health of various levels of radiation and radioactivity, permissible and reference levels, and the type of hazards from both passing clouds of airbourne radioactive material and from ground deposited material. The problem of atmospheric dispersion and methods of calculations of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are examined in order for the consequences of accidental release to be analysed. National accidents and their environmental consequences are then examined. Finally there is a review of the risks to which man is always exposed because of his environment. Common and collective risks are also considered. Conclusions are reached as to the acceptibility or otherwise of the environmental impact of reactor accidents. (U.K.)

  9. Measurement and analysis of radioactive substances; Mesure et analyse de substances radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Here are gathered the abstracts presented to the 3. summer university of the year 2001 whose main themes were the destructive (5 conferences) and nondestructive (8 conferences) analyses applied to nuclear industry. The points of view of different organisms (as DSIN: Directorate for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, IPSN: Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety, OPRI: Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations, TUI: Institute for Transuranium Elements, COGEMA, EDF: Electric Utilities, ANDRA: French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France) concerning the needs involved in nuclear facilities control, the methods of radionuclide speciation in use internationally, the measurements and analyses of radioactive substances are given too as well as some general concepts concerning 1)the laser-matter interaction 2)the ions production 3)the quality applied to the measurements and analyses 4)the standard in activity metrology. (O.M.)

  10. Environmental radioactivity from natural, industrial, and military sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.

    1987-01-01

    This document is the third edition of a book generally considered a standard in the field of radioactive materials in the environment. Topics include radiation protection standards, transport mechanisms, terrestrial and aquatic pathways, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, radioactive waste management, the fallout from nuclear explosions, nuclear accidents, and risk assessment

  11. Measurement of the radioactivity of the channel DTD before Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Marinkov, L.

    1987-01-01

    The activity concentration of long loved fission and corrosion products and natural radionuclides has been measured in a selected part of the Danube-Tisa-Danube channel system which is not receiving liquid effluents from nuclear power plants. The comparison with the activities measured in the river danube did not show statistically significant differences. The results obtained describe the reference level of radioactivity for the evaluation of the contamination of the system caused by the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  12. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Badano, A.; Dellepere, A.; Artucio, G.; Bertolotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps

  13. Mapping of the environmental radioactivity of the Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves Netto, Paulo Roberto; Silva, Francisco de Assis Dourado da; Freitas, Antonio Carlos de

    2000-01-01

    The study of the environmental radioactivity and its correlation with geological parameters is of great relevance, due to the fact that natural radiation is the main exposure source for the humanity. The analysis of the environmental radiation constituted by natural and antropogenics radioactive elements, and its monitoring along the time is of great importance to evaluate the impact of the human activities on the environment. These results may be useful as a parameter for the monitoring of the activities developed in the nuclear compound of Angra dos Reis, RJ. The characterization of the environmental radiation is done using an ionization chamber that measures the exposure rate one meter of distance from the ground. A GPS and local maps are being used on the mapping of the analyzed points. The obtained results are between 6 μ R h -1 and 28 μ R h -1 . The highest exposure rates can be associated to the concentrations of minerals, for example, Monazite and Zircon. Some areas are in the mouths of some rivers, located in geological fractures, that regulate the geomorphology and the formation of the drainage nets of the area. Those parameters can contribute to the dispersion and re-concentration of those minerals in several specific points of the island. (author)

  14. Studies on environmental radioactivity in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, M.; Blomqvist, L.; Rahola, T.; Rantavaara, A.

    1991-03-01

    The detailed results of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in 1987 are given in 10 supplementary reports to this 1987 annual report which summarizes only the data needed for radiation dose estimates. In 1987, two radionuclides, 137 Cs and 134 Cs originating in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident, were important in determining external and internal radiation doses. The population-weighted mean external dose rate in October 1987 was 0.037 x 10 - 6 Svh - 1. The decline in the dose rate was slower than predicted in 1986. The mean effective dose equivalent was 0.10 mSv in 1987, one third lower than in 1986. The predicted dose commitment from external radiation was estimated at 1.7 mSv. The internal radiation doses were calculated in two different ways, via estimation of dietary intake and using whole-body counting results. The intake estimate was obtained from the nationwide survey of radiocesium concentrations in foodstuffs and consumption statistics. The mean annual intake of 137 Cs was 14 000 and that of 134 Cs 5600 Bq in 1987. About half of the intake came from agricultural products, one third from fish and the rest from wild berries, mushrooms and game. The resulting committed effective dose equivalent, 0.3 mSv, provides an upper estimate for the mean internal dose in 1987. The population group whole-body counted was selected from the whole population in 1986 using stratified sampling. As in 1986, the 137 Cs and 134 Cs body burdens reflected the deposition activity in the region in which people lived. The mean committed effective dose equivalent for the whole population based on whole-body counting was 0.13 mSv. About 0.08 mSv of this dose was delivered in 1987. The contribution of 134 Cs was less than 40 per cent

  15. Remote measurements of radioactivity distribution with BROKK robotic system - 16147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Potapov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Robotic system for the remote measurement of radioactivity in the reactor areas was developed. The BROKK robotic system replaces hand-held radiation measuring tools. The system consists of a collimated gamma detector, a standard gamma detector, color CCD video camera and searchlights, all mounted on a robotic platform (BROKK). The signals from the detectors are coupled with the video signals and are transferred to an operator's console via a radio channel or a cable. Operator works at a safe position. The video image of the object with imposed exposure dose rate from the detectors generates an image on the monitor screen, and the images are recorded for subsequent analysis. Preliminary work has started for the decommissioning of a research reactor at the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute'. Results of the remote radioactivity measurements with new system during radiation inspection waste storage of this reactor are presented and discussed. (authors)

  16. Performance criteria for solidified high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental impact statement. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This draft Environmental Impact Statement on performance criteria for solidified high-level radioactive wastes (PCSHLW) covers: considerations for PCSHLW development, the proposed rulemaking, characteristics of the PCSHLW, environmental impacts of the proposed PCSHLW, alternatives to the PCSHLW criteria, and cost/benefit/risk evaluation. Five appendices are included to support the technical data required in the Environmental Impact Statement

  17. Natural radioactive environmental pollution and meteorological characteristics of Faisalabad environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.K.; Sharif, R.; Hussain, K.

    1999-01-01

    This study is about Faisalabad, the third largest and industrial city of Pakistan, where the maximum temperature in summer reaches up to 50 deg. C and in winter it may fall below the freezing point. In this study on attempt has been made to find co-relation between local weather conditions and natural radioactive concentrations. The natural radioactivity was found to have no co-relation with meteorological parameters. Thus the natural activity is independent of meteorological characteristics, which confirms the random nature of radioactivity. (author)

  18. Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Miyuki; Shoji, Miki; Honda, Takashi; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides ( 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131 I/ 132 I and 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 μSv, child-140 μSv, baby-130 μSv, [total body] adult-0.2 μSv, child, baby-0.4 μSv, external exposure; 7 μSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 μSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 μSv. (author)

  19. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  20. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  1. Environmental radioactivity levels, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1985 (TVA/NUC SVS/RH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program established a baseline of data on the distribution of natural and manmade radioactivity in the environment near the plant site. However, seasonal, yearly, and random variations in the data were observed. In order to determine the potential increases in environmental radioactivity levels caused by the plant, comparisons were made between data for indicator stations (those near the plant) and control stations (those remote from the plant) in conjunction with comparisons with preoperational data

  2. The radioactive environmental monitoring and its qualitative assessment at science city of Mianyang in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Xing Shixiong; Liao Xiaohua; Chang Zheng; Yang Fan

    2003-01-01

    The results of environmental monitoring shows that the radioactive level within main mediums (river water, air, soil and fallout etc.) have no significant differences from the background level before the start of operation of Science City of Mianyang. Through measurement and evaluation to emission of nuclear facilities, the data of sources terms are obtained. The distribution of doses in coordinate of reference are calculated by the principle of does fold to multi-chimney exhaust and air-diffuse model at the area. Quality assessments of radiological environment shows that maximum individual effective does is 4/10 5 of does limit, detriment is 2/10 7 of detriment constraint within 80 km. It is shown that environmental impact is little and receivable to the public. (authors)

  3. Disposal and environmental assessment of solid waste and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2000-01-01

    Along with the development of economic construction, the industrial and agricultural production, military and scientific activities of human being, large amounts of solid and radioactive wastes have been produced, causing serious pollution of ecologic environments and living space of human being itself. To assess and administer the solid and radioactive wastes in geologic-ecologic environments are duty-bound responsibilities of modern geologists and the focus of recent geo-ecologic work

  4. Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed

  5. Design of automatic control and measurement software for radioactive aerosol continuity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yong; Li Aiwu

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive aerosol continuity measurement is very important for the development of nuclear industry, and it is the major method to measure and find out the leakage of radioactive material. Radioactive aerosol continuity monitor is the advanced method for the radioactive aerosol continuity measurement. With the development of nuclear industry and nuclear power station, it is necessary to design and automatic continuity measurement device. Because of this reason, the authors developed the first unit of radioactive aerosol continuity monitor and adopted the ministry appraisal. The design idea and method of automatic control and measurement for radioactive aerosol continuity monitor are discussed

  6. Sources and fate of environmental radioactivity at the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.

    2010-01-01

    Sources and fate of environmental radioactivity at the earth surface This is to link environmental radioactivity to RP in Africa? To describe the benefits of Africa from this field in terms of RP, safety and security policies. To create a mission and a vision to fulfil the needs of ONE PEOPLE, ONE GOAL, ONE FAITH. Sources, processes and fate of environmental radioactivity Previous experience helps setting up an African agenda.(1) Factors influencing cosmogenic radionuclides(2) Factors influencing artificial radionuclides: (a) nuclear weapon-tests (b) nuclear accidents (c) Energy, mining and industrial waste (3) Factors influencing the global Rn-222 and its daughters. (4) Dynamics of cycles of natural radioactivity, e.g. Pb-210. (5) Environmental radiotracers act as DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS to assess air and water quality and impacts of the atmospheric and hydrospheric compartments on ecosystems.6) Definition of base-lines for rehabilitation and protection. Climate influences sources/behaviour/fate of environmental radioactivity. Impacts on life forms in Africa would be severe. Assessing environmental radioactivity resolves these issue

  7. Evaluation of environmental radioactivity monitoring data around the Kartini Reactor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M; Sutrisno; Sukarman-Aminjoyo; Zaenal-Abidin

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of environmental radioactivity monitoring data around the Kartini Reactor area has been done. The aim of this investigation is for tracing the possibility of radioactivity released in the environment during the operation of Kartini reactor. The data was evaluated were monthly monitored data taken from 1986 to 1994 period. The method of analysis was done by comparing the environmental radioactivity data before and after reactor commissioning, off side the reactor up to a radius of 5.000 meters and more than 5.000 meters from Kartini reactor and also compared to the maximum permissible radioactivity according to the current regulation. This evaluation showed that there was no indication of radioactivity release to the environment during this period of reactor operation

  8. Radioactivity measurement in imported food and food related items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Santos, F.L.; Rosa, A.M. de la; Tangonan, M.C.; Bulos, A.D.; Nuguid, Z.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), formerly Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) undertook the radioactivity monitoring of imported food and food-related products after the Chernobyl Plant accident in April 1986. Food samples were analyzed for 137 Cs and 134 Cs by gamma spectral method of analysis. This report deals with the measurement process and gives the result of the activity covering the period June 1986 to December 1987. (Auth.). 9 tabs., 7 figs., 4 refs

  9. Surveillance and control of containment by means of radioactive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, H.; Seveon, J.J.; Rousseau, L.; Delalande, J.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, the radioactive measurements participating in the surveillance and control of the reactor containment as well as the possible procedures or operating rules related to, especially the ultimate procedures which could be implemented in case of a beyond of design accident, are presented. However, an overall view of the plant radiation monitoring system installed on the French plants is first given. If necessary, difference between 900 MW and 1300 MW units are emphasized

  10. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of this...

  11. National network of environment radioactivity measurements. Press kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document first presents the objectives, challenges, context, operation and actors of the French national network of environment radioactivity measurements. It discusses the reasons for these measurements, the way they are performed, who perform them and how they are transmitted to the national network. It describes the quality policy for these measurements, and how this network is at the service of authorities, experts and population. It outlines the originality of the French approach within the European Union, and how this network takes the population expectations and their evolution into account

  12. Radiation protection measures for the handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-03-01

    The radiation protective medical measures are described which are required after contamination by radioactive materials or their incorporation. In the case of skin contamination, penetration by diffusion is explained and the maximum permissible value with regard to the various types of radiation is given. A detailed description of the decontamination measures including the necessary equipment follows. Indications for the treatment of injuries are given. In addition, incorporation due to inhalation, ingestion with intake through the skin are described, direct and indirect incorporation detection are explained, and the therapeutical possibilities and measures are gone into. (ORU/LH) [de

  13. Our experience of blood flow measurements using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danet, Bernard.

    1974-01-01

    A critical study of blood flow measuring methods is proposed. After a review of the various diffusible and non-diffusible radioactive tracers and the corresponding detector systems, the principles which allow to measure blood flow from the data so obtained, are studied. There is a different principle of flow measurement for each type of tracer. The theory of flow measurement using non-diffusible tracers (human serum albumin labelled with 131 I or sup(99m)Tc, 113 In-labelled siderophiline) and its application to cardiac flow measurement are described first. Then the theory of flow measurement using diffusible tracers ( 133 Xe, 85 Kr) and its application to measurement of blood flow through tissues (muscles and kidney particularly) are described. A personal experience of this various flow measurements is reported. The results obtained, the difficulties encountered and the improvments proposed are developed [fr

  14. Environmental monitoring for low-level radioactive waste-disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Westbrook, K.; Young, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission prepared a Branch Technical Position (BTP) paper on environmental monitoring of a low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility. The BTP provides guidance on what is required in Section 61.53 of 10 CFR Part 61 for those submitting a license application. Guidance is also provided on choosing constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance. The environmental monitoring program generally consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase should be designed to fulfill specific objectives defined in the BTP. During the preoperational phase, program objectives are to provide site characterization information, demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, and obtain background or baseline information. Emphasis during the operational phase is on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to demonstrate compliance with regulations, with dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or with applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational phase emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with site closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective for release. Data are used to support evaluation of long-term impacts to the general public and for public information

  15. Measurements of radioactive and xenobiotic substances in the biosphere in the Netherlands 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this annual report the results and conclusions are given of measurements of radioactive and xenobiotic substances in the biosphere of the Netherlands. The measurements are coordinated by the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX)

  16. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Mishra, U.C.

    1999-09-01

    It was recognised quite early in India's nuclear power programme that the safe management of radioactive waste is vital for its success. An entirely self-sustained fuel cycle based on indigenous resources necessitated evaluation of hazard potential vis-a-vis radioactive wastes generated at different stages of the cycle, starting from mining and milling; fuel fabrication and through the stages of reactor operation and finally spent fuel reprocessing. Emphasis was laid on studies related to impact of radioactivity in the environment and on developing technologies to effectively isolate and contain them. The radiological safety assessment for a radioactive waste management practice is a regulatory mandate and it requires quantitative estimate of the maximum burden to the present and future generation. Safety assessment models are employed to derive this estimate that could be compared with regulatory criteria to ensure the safety of the public. Decades of experience have proved that the present practices are safe, yet there is a constant endeavour to use new technologies to further restrict the releases so that ultimate goal of radioactive waste management should go beyond merely satisfying prevailing regulations. The comprehensive system of waste management, from water generation to its disposal developed in India, is briefly presented in this report. (author)

  17. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B 3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. {sup 14}C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of {sup 14}C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, {sup 14}C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using {sup 210}Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak {sup 137}Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 14 C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of 14 C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, 14 C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using 210 Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak 137 Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, September 1, 1976--December 1, 1976. [Monitoring of environment for radioactivity and chemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents current data from the HASL environmental programs, The Swedish Defense Research Establishment, The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Argonne National Laboratory and The New Zealand National Radiation Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on ground level air radioactivity in Sweden from nuclear explosions, plutonium in air near the Rocky Flats Plant, nitrous oxide concentrations in the stratosphere, lake sediment sampling, plutonium and americium in marine and fresh water biological systems, radium in cat litter, and quality control analyses. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide and stable lead concentrations in surface air; strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, and tapwater; cesium-137 in Chicago foods in October 1976 and environmental radioactivity measurements in New Zealand in 1975. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  20. Transport of radioactive sources-an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckaert, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The transport of dangerous goods is submitted to various regulations. These can be international, national or regional and they can differ from country to country. The basis for the regulations for dangerous goods can be found in the recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods, issued by the United Nations committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods (orange book). For radioactive material the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are applied. The UN recommendations provide for 9 classes of dangerous goods. With regard to class 7, specifically related to the transport of radioactive material special recommendation relating to class 70, the IAEA regulations are referred to. These IAEA regulations for their part provide for 13 schedules, varying between weakly and highly radioactive. The radioactive sources which are used for non-destructive testing or for medical purposes are mostly sealed sources, i.e. the radioactive material is contained in a metallic shell. According to the nature of the isotope and their activity, the sources are transported either in industrial packagings, type A or type B packagings. According to the mode of transport, either air, sea, rail or road, various specific rules are applied, which however, are fortunately nearly completely harmonized. Special attention is paid to radiation protection, heat removal and the testing and fabrication of packagings. As a general rule, the safety of transport is based on the safety of the packagings, i.e. their ability to maintain, even in accident conditions, their capacity of tightness, shielding against radiation and removing the heat generated by the transported material