WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental radiation safety

  1. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  2. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  3. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyadi Rachmad; Muhammad Fathoni; Topo Suprihadi, PY.; Dumais, Johannes Robert; Eri Hiswara; Alatas, Zubaidah; Dahlan, Kgs.; Muhammad Isnaini

    2003-03-01

    The Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry held on March 2003 in Jakarta. The purpose of this Seminar be able to information exchange among research workers in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Seminar discussed about Science and Technology of Radiation Safety and Environment. There are 17 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  4. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  5. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be effectively minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The IAEA, together with other international and expert organizations, is helping to promote and institute Basic Safety Standards on an international basis to ensure that radiation sources and radioactive materials are managed for both maximum safety and human benefit

  6. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riessen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience has shown that modem, fully enclosed, XRF and XRD units are generally safe. This experience may lead to complacency and ultimately a lowering of standards which may lead to accidents. Maintaining awareness of radiation safety issues is thus an important role for all radiation safety officers. With the ongoing progress in technology, a greater number of radiation workers are more likely to use a range of instruments/techniques - eg portable XRF, neutron beam analysis, and synchrotron radiation analysis. The source for each of these types of analyses is different and necessitates an understanding of the associated dangers as well as use of specific radiation badges. The trend of 'suitcase science' is resulting in scientists receiving doses from a range of instruments and facilities with no coordinated approach to obtain an integrated dose reading for an individual. This aspect of radiation safety needs urgent attention. Within Australia a divide is springing up between those who work on Commonwealth property and those who work on State property. For example a university staff member may operate irradiating equipment on a University campus and then go to a CSIRO laboratory to operate similar equipment. While at the University State regulations apply and while at CSIRO Commonwealth regulations apply. Does this individual require two badges? Is there a need to obtain two licences? The application of two sets of regulations causes unnecessary confusion and increases the workload of radiation safety officers. Radiation safety officers need to introduce risk management strategies to ensure that both existing and new procedures result in risk minimisation. A component of this strategy includes ongoing education and revising of regulations. AXAA may choose to contribute to both of these activities as a service to its members as well as raising the level of radiation safety for all radiation workers. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical

  7. National conference on radiation safety of nuclear power plants and their environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first national conference on radiation safety of nuclear power plants and their environmental impacts was held in Tale (CS), 12 to 15 October, 1987 with the participation of 201 Czechoslovak specialists representing central authorities, research institutes, institutions of higher education, power plants in operation and under construction, water management and hygiene inspection and some production sectors, specialists from Hungary, Poland and the GDR. The participants heard 110 papers. The conference agenda comprised keynote papers presented in plenary session and five specialist sessions: 1. Radiation control of discharges and their surroundings. 2. Monitoring and evaluation of the radiation situation in nuclear power plants. 3. Equipment for monitoring the nuclear power plant and its environs. 4. Mathematical modelling and assessment of the nuclear power plant radiation environmental impact. 5. Evaluation of sources and of the transport of radioactive materials inside the power plant and the minimization of the nuclear power plant's environmental impact. (Z.M.)

  8. Radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. Nuclear radiation is a powerful source of benefit to mankind, whether applied in the field of medicine, agriculture, environmental management or elsewhere. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Safety Department aiming at establishing Basic Safety Standard requirements in all Member States. (IAEA)

  9. Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection. Safety Guide (Spanish ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide international guidance, coherent with contemporary radiation protection principles and IAEA safety requirements, on the strategy of monitoring in relation to: (a) control of radionuclide discharges under practice conditions, and (b) intervention, such as in cases of nuclear or radiological emergencies or past contamination of areas with long lived radionuclides. Three categories of monitoring are discussed: monitoring at the source of the discharge (source monitoring), monitoring in the environment (environmental monitoring) and monitoring of individual exposure in emergencies (individual monitoring). The Safety Guide also provides general guidance on assessment of the doses to critical groups of the population due to the presence of radioactive materials or radiation fields in the environment both from routine operation of nuclear and other related facilities (practice) and from nuclear or radiological emergencies and past contamination of areas with long lived radionuclides (intervention). The dose assessments are based on the results of source monitoring, environmental monitoring, individual monitoring or their combinations. This Safety Guide is primarily intended for use by national regulatory bodies and other agencies involved in national systems of radiation monitoring, as well as by operators of nuclear installations and other facilities where natural or human made radionuclides are treated and monitored. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Meeting regulatory requirements for monitoring in practices and interventions; 3. Responsibilities for monitoring; 4. Generic aspects of monitoring programmes; 5. Programmes for monitoring in practices and interventions; 6. Technical conditions for monitoring procedures; 7. Considerations in dose assessment; 8. Interpretation of monitoring results; 9. Quality assurance; 10. Recording of results; 11. Education and training; Glossary.

  10. WINRE '92 - 3rd workshop on information management in nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop puts much emphasis on the exchange of experience between experts from the West and from the Central and Eastern European countries. The representatives from the various countries and organisations are going to introduce their respective data banks, products, or services. The combination of papers and practical presentations will provide all with a qualified and comprehensive insight into the tried and tested as well as the new information management technologies in the specialist areas of nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection. Furthermore, it should also contribute to the promotion of the transfer of know-how between experts throughout the whole of Europe. (orig./DG)

  11. Operational and environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The responsibility of the DOE Office of Operational and Environmental Safety is to assure that DOE-controlled activities are conducted in a manner that will minimize risks to the public and employees and will provide protection for property and the environment. The program supports the various energy technologies by identifying and resolving safety problems; developing and issuing safety policies, standards, and criteria; assuring compliance with DOE, Federal, and state safety regulations; and establishing procedures for reporting and investigating accidents in DOE operations. Guidelines for the radiation protection of personnel; radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities; an assessment of criticality accidents by fault tree analysis; and the preparation of environmental, safety, and health standards applicable to geothermal energy development are discussed

  12. Environmental, safety, and health engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodside, G.; Kocurek, D.

    1997-01-01

    A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics

  13. Radiation safety and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Kim, Gi Sub.

    1996-12-01

    The principal objective of radiological safety control is intended for achievement and maintenance of appropriately safe condition in environmental control for activities involving exposure from the use of radiation. In order to establish these objective, we should be to prevent deterministic effects and to limit the occurrence stochastic effects to level deemed to be acceptable by the application of general principles of radiation protection and systems of dose limitation based on ICRP recommendations. (author). 22 tabs., 13 figs., 11 refs

  14. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  15. Establish the Foundation of Environmental Assessment Technique in ROK via the International Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety Managed by IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Soo; Choi, Y. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, H. S.; Ahn, S. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Hwang, W. T.; Seo, K. S

    2005-08-15

    Tritiated water (HTO) released from the nuclear facilities can easily be absorbed by plants via their stomata and incorporated into organics by metabolic processes such as photosynthesis. Organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant cells is mostly inexchangeable and remains at harvest to contribute some to the ingestion radiation dose (Barry et al., 1999). In assessing the ingestion dose due to an accidental release of HTO, a dynamic model simulating its environmental behaviors is needed. Various types of dynamic HTO models have been developed in many different countries. Joint international researches have been conducted many times for model comparisons and validations (BIOMOVS II, 1996a, 1996b). In 2003, however, with the understanding of an insufficiency in the validation test, the IAEA started on a joint international research program for the validation of environmental models (EMRAS : Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) as a successor to the BIOMASS (2001). The KAERI submitted 'a scenario of an acute soybean exposure to HTO' to the Tritium Working Group (Theme 1) in the EMRAS program. It was accepted as Task 2 of the working group. This report is the result of a joint research for the KAERI scenario carried out by the EMRAS tritium working group with the KAERI playing a role of a coordinator.

  16. Establish the Foundation of Environmental Assessment Technique in ROK via the International Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety Managed by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Soo; Choi, Y. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, H. S.; Ahn, S. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Hwang, W. T.; Seo, K. S.

    2005-08-01

    Tritiated water (HTO) released from the nuclear facilities can easily be absorbed by plants via their stomata and incorporated into organics by metabolic processes such as photosynthesis. Organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant cells is mostly inexchangeable and remains at harvest to contribute some to the ingestion radiation dose (Barry et al., 1999). In assessing the ingestion dose due to an accidental release of HTO, a dynamic model simulating its environmental behaviors is needed. Various types of dynamic HTO models have been developed in many different countries. Joint international researches have been conducted many times for model comparisons and validations (BIOMOVS II, 1996a, 1996b). In 2003, however, with the understanding of an insufficiency in the validation test, the IAEA started on a joint international research program for the validation of environmental models (EMRAS : Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) as a successor to the BIOMASS (2001). The KAERI submitted 'a scenario of an acute soybean exposure to HTO' to the Tritium Working Group (Theme 1) in the EMRAS program. It was accepted as Task 2 of the working group. This report is the result of a joint research for the KAERI scenario carried out by the EMRAS tritium working group with the KAERI playing a role of a coordinator

  17. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Data available on the biological effects of radiation on man are reviewed, with emphasis on dose response to low LET and high LET radiation sources, and the effects of dose rate. Existing guides for radiation protection were formulated largely on the basis of tumor induction in the bone of radium dial painters, but the ICRP/NCRP annual dose guides of 5 rem/yr are of the same general magnitude as the doses received in several parts of the world from the natural radiation environment. Because of the greater sensitivity of rapidly dividing cells and the assumption that radiation occupations would not begin before the age of eighteen, maximum exposure levels were set as 5 (N-18) rem/yr, where N is the exposed worker's age in years. However, in the case of the natural radiation environment, exposure commences, in a sense, with the exposure of the ovum of the individual's mother; and the ovum is formed during the fetal development of the mother. In occupational exposures, the professional health physicist has always practiced the as low as practical philosophy, and exposures have generally averaged far below the guidelines. The average annual exposure of the radiation worker in modern plants and laboratories is approximately equal to the average natural radiation environment exposure rate and far lower than the natural radiation environment in many parts of the world. There are numerous complications and uncertainties in quantifying radiation effects on humans, however, the greatest is that due to having to extrapolate from high dose levels at which effects have been measured and quantified, to low levels at which most exposures occur but at which no effects have been observed

  18. A study on the radiation and environmental safety -Development of radiation protection and measurement technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, See Yung; Lee, Tae Yung; Lee, Hyung Sub; Kim, Jan Ryul; Kim, Chang Kyung; Kim, Bong Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Kee; Jung, Duk Yun; Lee, Bong Jae; Chul, Yoon Suk; Lee, Kee Chang; Yoon, Yu Chang; Jung, Rae Ik; Lee, Sang Yoon; Han, Yung Dae; Kim, Jong Soo, I; Kim, Jong Soo, II; Suh, Kyung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung [Han Yang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Reference X- and neutron radiation fields have been established and evaluated to support the national radiation protection programme under which performance evaluation test for domestic personal dosimetry will be implemented by the ministerial ordinance 1992-15, and to provide a basic technical support in radiation protection dosimetry. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with the KAERI reference radiation fields which comply well with those in the new ANSI N13.11(1993) to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of whole body direct bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been also developed and evaluated to be equally excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries. A BOMAB phantom for precise WBC calibration has also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. A principal method for estimating the cost for radiation protection which is important in performing a cost-benefit analysis for the radiation protection optimization study based on the ALARA principle has been preliminarily investigated and suggested. 49 figs, 67 tabs, 50 refs. (Author).

  19. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.B.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    In medicine, as in other fields of scientific endeavor, the development of advanced and specialized techniques has resulted in increased hazards for employees. However, by possessing both an appreciation of the proper use of factors that regulate radiation exposure around radiology equipment and a knowledge of the biologic effects of radiation, which can include possible genetic and somatic consequences, it is possible to maximize the usefulness of these valuable procedures while minimizing the risk to medical personnel involved with patient care

  20. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology -A study on the radiation and environmental safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Si Young; Seo, Kyeong Won; Yoon, Seok Cheol; Lee, Tae Yeong; Kim, Bong Hwan; Chung, Deok Yeon; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang; Kim, Jang Ryeol; Lee, Sang Yoon

    1994-07-01

    Reference radiation fields which can meet the national and international standard and criteria such as the ANSI N13.11 have been designed, produced and evaluated to maintain the national traceability and reliability of the radiation measurement and to provide precise calibration of the various radiation measuring instruments as well as standard irradiation of the personal dosimeters for the performance evaluation. Existing dose calculation algorithm has been improved to correctly evaluate the shallow dose from the β(Ti-204) + γ(Cs-137) mixed radiation exposure by applying the TLD response correction function newly derived in this study. A mathematical algorithm to calculate the internal dose from inhalation of the uranium isotopes has been developed on the basis of the ICRP-30 respiratory tract model. Detailed performance analysis of the KAERI lung counter has been carried out to participate in the intercomparison of lung dosimetry. A preliminary and basic study on the quantitative method of optimal dose reduction based on the ALARA concept has been performed to technically support and strengthen the national radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

  1. Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM). Operational safety, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. Release: December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The report overviews the monitoring activities of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection at the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM), focussing the ERAM inventory of radioactive waste and the measures and results of geomechanical and hydrogeological monitoring, operational radiation protection, the monitoring of discharges of radioactive substances, environmental monitoring, and the dose levels expected from discharges of radioactive substances. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of radiation environmental safety for China's Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingbin; Wu Qingbiao; Ma Zhongjian; Zhang Qingjiang; Li Nan; Wu Jingmin; Liu Jian; Zhang Gang

    2010-01-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is going to be located in Dalang Town, Dongguan City in the Guangdong Province.In this paper we report the results of the parameters related with environment safety based on experiential calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The main project of the accelerator is an under ground construction.On top there is a 0.5 m concrete and 5.0 m soil covering for shielding,which can reduce the dose out of the tunnel's top down to 0.2 μSv/h. For the residents on the boundary of the CSNS, the dose produced by skyshine, which is caused by the penetrated radiation leaking from the top of the accelerator, is no more than 0.68 μSv/a. When CSNS is operating normally, the maximal annual effective dose due to the emission of gas from the tunnel is 2.40 x 10 -3 mSv/a to the public adult, and 2.29 x 10 -3 mSv/a to a child, both values are two orders of magnitude less than the limiting value for control and management. CSNS may give rise to an activation of the soil and groundwater in the nearest tunnels, where the main productions are 3 H, 7 Be, 22 Na, 54 Mn, etc. But the specific activity is less than the exempt specific activity in the national standard GB13376-92. So it is safe to say that the environmental impact caused by the activation of soil and groundwater is insignificant. To sum up, for CSNS, as a powerful neutron source device, driven by a high-energy high-current proton accelerator, a lot of potential factors affecting the environment exist. However, as long as effective shieldings for protection are adopted and strict rules are drafted, the environmental impact can be kept under control within the limits of the national standard. (authors)

  3. Radiation safety research information database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan began to construct Radiation Safety Research Information Database' in 2001. The research information database is of great service to evaluate the effects of radiation on people by estimating exposure dose by determining radiation and radioactive matters in the environment. The above database (DB) consists of seven DB such as Nirs Air Borne Dust Survey DB, Nirs Environmental Tritium Survey DB, Nirs Environmental Carbon Survey DB, Environmental Radiation Levels, Abe, Metabolic Database for Assessment of Internal Dose, Graphs of Predicted Monitoring Data, and Nirs nuclear installation environment water tritium survey DB. Outline of DB and each DB are explained. (S.Y.)

  4. Radiation safety audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadadunna, K.P.I.K.; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Audit has been seen as one of the effective methods to ensure harmonization in radiation protection. A radiation safety audit is a formal safety performance examination of existing or future work activities by an independent team. Regular audit will assist the management in its mission to maintain the facilities environment that is inherently safe for its employees. The audits review the adequacy of facilities for the type of use, training, and competency of workers, supervision by authorized users, availability of survey instruments, security of radioactive materials, minimization of personnel exposure to radiation, safety equipment, and the required record keeping. All approved areas of use are included in these periodic audits. Any deficiency found in the audit shall be corrected as soon as possible after they are reported. Radiation safety audit is a proactive approach to improve radiation safety practices and identify and prevent any potential radiation accident. It is an excellent tool to identify potential problem to radiation users and to assure that safety measures to eliminate or reduce the problems are fully considered. Radiation safety audit will help to develop safety culture of the facility. It is intended to be the cornerstone of a safety program designed to aid the facility, staff and management in maintaining a safe environment in which activities are carried out. The initiative of this work is to evaluate the need of having a proper audit as one of the mechanism to manage the safety using ionizing radiation. This study is focused on the need of having a proper radiation safety audit to identify deviations and deficiencies of radiation protection programmes. It will be based on studies conducted on several institutes/radiation facilities in Malaysia in 2006. Steps will then be formulated towards strengthening radiation safety through proper audit. This will result in a better working situation and confidence in the radiation protection community

  5. Inland Waterway Environmental Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshnyak, Valery; Sokolov, Sergey; Nyrkov, Anatoliy; Budnik, Vlad

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of development of the main components of the environmental safety when operating vessels on inland waterways, which include strategy selection ensuring the environmental safety of vessels, the selection and justification of a complex of environmental technical means, activities to ensure operation of vessels taking into account the environmental technical means. Measures to ensure environmental safety are developed on the basis of the principles aimed at ensuring environmental safety of vessels. They include the development of strategies for the use of environmental protection equipment, which are determined by the conditions for wastewater treatment of purified sewage and oily bilge water as well as technical characteristics of the vessels, the introduction of the process of the out-of-the-vessel processing of ship pollution as a technology for their movement. This must take into account the operating conditions of vessels on different sections of waterways. An algorithm of actions aimed at ensuring ecological safety of operated vessels is proposed.

  6. Environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The types of ionizing radiations from the atomic nucleus are explained, such as the beams alpha, beta and gamma. The definitions of spectrometry and nuclear traces have been included.The study presents two researches realized in Costa Rica on the radioactive nuclear and artificial elements in the environment. The first shown is the analysis of coastal sediments where explains which are radioactive artificial isotopes and the pollution that occurs in food, coastal sediments, fertilizers, the soil, the water and the air. Within the analysis techniques are the gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and nuclear strokes. Among the conclusions of this initial investigation is shown that at Punta Leona descendants of Uranium and Thorium present lower concentrations in relation to the gulf and its variations are not important. In the following study the radon gas is analyzed in the human environment where is determined that it is the second generator that causes cancer in lungs after the tobacco. This work indicates that the doses come from natural and artificial sources of radiation for the public are a whole of 2.7 mSv/year, information provided by the UNSCEAR, 2000. The radon gas is inert and radioactive of atomic number 86, includes 23 isotopes and 3 natural isotopes. The radon is everywhere, as are houses and buildings, in Costa Rica it is located in old homes with little ventilation. It describes the equipment used for the detection of radon gas in the environment. Within the conclusions radon gas is concentrated in confined spaces which can be harmful to health. It is determined that enough ventilation in places of high concentrations of radon is important. Finally it is recommended to monitor the sites where can be detected high concentrations of radon and that they have important influx of people [es

  7. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) — A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values...... for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments, on the test and comparison of models to assess the transfer of tritium and 14C to biota and humans, on the validation of models for dose reconstruction due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident, on modelling the transfer of radionuclides...

  8. Radiation safety at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, operates proton accelerators up to an energy of 450 GeV and an electron-positron storage ring in the 50 GeV energy range for fundamental high-energy particle physics. A strong radiation protection group assures the radiation safety of these machines both during their operation and in periods of maintenance and repair. Particular radiation problems in an accelerator laboratory are presented and recent developments in radiation protection at CERN discussed. (author)

  9. Radiation safety in aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The guide presents the requirements governing radiation safety of aircrews exposed to cosmic radiation and monitoring of such exposure. It applies to enterprises engaged in aviation under a Finnish operating licence and to Finnish military aviation at altitudes exceeding 8,000 metres. The radiation exposure of aircrews at altitudes of less than 8,000 metres is so minimal that no special measures are generally required to investigate or limit exposure to radiation

  10. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) - A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments, on the test and comparison of models to assess the transfer of tritium and 14C to biota and humans, on the validation of models for dose reconstruction due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident, on modelling the transfer of radionuclides in aquatic systems, on remediation of rural and urban sites with radioactive residues, and on the impact of environmental radioactivity on non-human species. The book concludes with a summary of the outcomes of the EMRAS programme and is accompanied by a CD-ROM which provides details of the work and the results of the working groups. (author)

  11. Gamma-ray detector based on high pressure xenon for radiation and environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutny, V.E.; Rybka, A.V.; Davydov, L.N.; Pudov, A.O.; Sokolov, S.A.; Kholomeyev, G.A.; Melnikov, S.I.; Turchin, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometers based on compressed xenon gas assigned for monitoring the reactors and the radiation background at nuclear power plants, non-proliferation of radioactive materials, supervision and control over the radiation background in the environmentally disadvantaged areas, and other applications, are very promising detectors with excellent performance characteristics. This article reports on the results of the first stage of work on the creation of the portable gamma-spectrometer based on compressed xenon that is unique for Ukraine. In order to work with ultra-pure gases under pressure, the complex cryogenic installation for Xe purification and detector filling was designed and manufactured. The installation was made of specially cleaned components, equipped with a heating system for the degassing of the inner walls, and is able of maintaining high vacuum down to 2 centre dot 10"-"9 mbar. A prototype ionization chamber for the use in portable HP Xe detectors was developed and made. For the detector testing, a spectrometric channel based on high-quality electronic components was designed and manufactured. In the initial experiments, a study of the properties of the purified Xe mixed with the dopant H_2 was carried out. The assessment of the lifetime of charge carriers τ in the working gas at a pressure of 30 bar gave the value of τ > 150 μs

  12. Environmental Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  13. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Ronald.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  14. Development of technology for biological dosimetry -A study on the radiation and environmental safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Cheon, Ki Jeong; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, In Kyu; Park, Hyo Kook

    1994-07-01

    α-amylase showed a significant increase in its activity when exposed to radiation of 0.1 Gy. However it had no relationship with radiation dose. Enzyme activities in liver tissue showed similar changes to those in serum. Among others, changes in acid phosphatase activity were highly related to radiation dose. Of acute phase proteins in serum, CRP, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin positively responded to radiation while albumin did negatively. ELISA proved to be an efficient method to detect changes in serum protein level. Finally the measurements of changes in APRs using ELISA could provide an useful tools for biological dosimetry. (Author)

  15. Environmental radiation data, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1989-10-01

    The Environmental Radiation Physics Laboratory has conducted a large number of background radiation surveys in these years, aiming at the analysis of characteristics and behaviour of environmental radiation, the development of measurement techniques and instruments of environmental radiation, and the evaluation of environmental radiation dose. The environmental radiation data obtained by these surveys are useful for broad purposes as actual survey data. Therefore, it is desirable to make the recording media and the FORMAT of these data available for usual computers. In the light of this circumstance, these data were rearranged and recompiled systematically to meet the demand. This report mentions about the data obtained by the background radiation surveys in and around Tokyo performed during 1982 - 1988 using portable instruments, as well as the information necessary for the data handling. (author)

  16. After Chernobyl - Consequences for energy policy, nuclear safety, radiation and environmental protection. Report of the Expert Group for Nuclear Safety and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Chapter B contains a report on the current situation with regard to international nuclear power development, nuclear safety programmes. Swedish emergency preparedness planning, and the phasing out of nuclear power. Chapter C explains the causes of the Chernobyl accident and its course and effects in the Soviet Union. The chapter also contains a summary of earlier reactor accidents, a comparison between the Chernobyl reactor and Swedish reactors, and a discussion of the conclustions that can be drawn with respect to the Swedish reactor safety programme. Chapter D begins with an account of certain basic concepts related to radioactive substances and radiation, our radiological environment, and the effects of radiation. Then follows an account of the risks of nuclear power, and in particular the effects of the Chernobyl accident in Sweden. The Expert Group urges that careful consideration be given to the question of further reinforcement of and other measures concerning preparedness for nuclear power accidents on the basis of the material now available, including the evaluation of emergency operations after the Chernobyl accident. Twelve nuclear power blocks now in operation may be used insofar as safety criteria permit. The Expert Group presents the conditions for and consequences of some alternative, faster phase-out schedules. Chapter E begins with an account of the available substitutes for nuclear power. Different phase-out schedules are then presented. The chapter closes with an estimate of the consequences for the national economy. In Chapter F the Expert Group present a description of risks and environmental problems in relation to the alternative phase-out schedules. (authors).

  17. Radiation and environmental safety of spent nuclear fuel management options based on direct disposal or reprocessing and disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1996-05-01

    The report considers the various stages of two nuclear fuel cycle options: direct disposal and reprocessing followed by disposal of vitrified high-level waste. The comparative review is based on the results of previous international studies and concentrates on the radiation and environmental safety aspects of technical solutions based on today's technology. (23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.)

  18. Environmental radiation data, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1993-06-01

    The Environmental Physics Laboratory has conducted a large number of background radiation surveys in these years, aiming at the analysis of characteristics and behaviour of environmental radiation, the development of measurement techniques and instruments of environmental radiation, and the evaluation of environmental radiation dose. As the environmental radiation data obtained by these surveys are useful for broad purposes as actual survey data, it is desirable to arrange these data systematically and to open them to the other scientist. For that, it is necessary to make the recording media and the FORMAT of these data available for usual computers. In the light of this circumstance, these data were rearranged and recompiled systematically to meet the demand. This report mentions about the data obtained by the background radiation surveys in and around Tokyo performed during 1991 - 1993 using portable instruments, as well as the information necessary for the data handling. (author)

  19. Safety and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.; Kramer, W.

    1991-01-01

    By means of interpreting experimental results, and by means of conservative estimates, several fundamental statements can be made concerning the safety and environmental impacts of fusion plants. Relevant findings so far regarding normal operation and incidents as well as risks involved in raw material extraction and waste management are compiled. (DG) [de

  20. WINRE '94: 5. Workshop on information management in nuclear safety, radiation protection, and environmental protection. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitz, H.

    1995-01-01

    Guests from Austria, Belorussia, Britain and Bulgaria, from the Czech Republic, Estonia and Germany, from Hungary, Kazakstan and Latvia, from Poland, Romania and Russia, from the Slovak Republic, the Ukraine and from the United States of America present activities, separated into six conference sessions, dealing with: Hosts/Producers, Product/Services, Quality managament for information services, Information management in the nuclear field, Environmental data bases and related fields and Media information. (orig./HP)

  1. Radiation and environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This book is written based on 25 years authors experience especially in scientifc research of radiation and environmental radioactivity field at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia). Interestingly, from the authors experience in managing the services and consultancies for radiological environmental monitoring, it is also helpful in preparing the ideas for this book. Although this book focuses on Malaysian radiation information environmental radioactivity, but the data collected by the international bodies are also included in this book.

  2. Radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document with which all rules and regulations, etc., concerning protection from ionizing radiations of workers and the general population have to conform. Basic concepts, dimensions, units, and terms used in the area of radiation safety are defined. Radiation exposures are sorted out into three categories: A, to personnel; B, to individual members of the popul;tion; and C, to the general population. Critical organs, furthermore, comprise four groups, the first of them being applicable to the whole-body gonads and bone marrow. Category A maximum permissible dose (MPD) to first group critical organs is 5 rem/year; to second group, 15 rem/year; to thrid group, 3O rem/year; and to fourth group, 75 rem/year. These rate figures include doses from both external and internal radiation exposure. Quality factors needed in computing doses from various types of radiation are provided. Permissible planned exposure levels are specified and guidelines given for accidental exposures. A radiation accident is considered to have occurred if the relevant critical organ dose is 5 times the annual MPD for that organ. For individual members of the population (category B), annual somatic doses to first group critical organs shall not exceed 0,5 rem. Population exposure is controlled in terms of genetically significant dose, which shall not exceed 5 rem/30 years. (G.G.)

  3. Reference methodologies for radioactive controlled discharges an activity within the IAEA's Program Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II (EMRAS II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, T.J.; Bergman, L.; Tellería, D.M.; Proehl, G.; Amado, V.; Curti, A.; Bonchuk, I.; Boyer, P.; Mourlon, C.; Chyly, P.; Heling, R.; Sági, L.; Kliaus, V.; Krajewski, P.; Latouche, G.; Lauria, D.C.; Newsome, L.; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2009, the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II) program was launched. The goal of the program is to develop, compare and test models for the assessment of radiological impacts to the public and the environment due to radionuclides being released or already existing in the environment; to help countries build and harmonize their capabilities; and to model the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Within EMRAS II, nine working groups are active; this paper will focus on the activities of Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases. Within this working group environmental transfer and dose assessment models are tested under different scenarios by participating countries and the results compared. This process allows each participating country to identify characteristics of their models that need to be refined. The goal of this working group is to identify reference methodologies for the assessment of exposures to the public due to routine discharges of radionuclides to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Several different models are being applied to estimate the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for various scenarios. The first phase of the project involves a scenario of nuclear power reactor with a coastal location which routinely (continuously) discharges 60Co, 85Kr, 131I, and 137Cs to the atmosphere and 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr to the marine environment. In this scenario many of the parameters and characteristics of the representative group were given to the modelers and cannot be altered. Various models have been used by the different participants in this inter-comparison (PC-CREAM, CROM, IMPACT, CLRP POSEIDON, SYMBIOSE and others). This first scenario is to enable a comparison of the radionuclide transport and dose modelling. These scenarios will facilitate the development of reference methodologies for controlled discharges. (authors)

  4. Environmental radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  5. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  6. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  7. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  8. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  9. Environmental radiation sensing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenji; Tamuro, Masaru; Fujita, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, environmental radiation monitoring and radioactivity measurement of contamination of wastes, soils, food and drinking water were needed in accurate and reliable way. Based on radiation sensing technologies and radiation and light coupled analysis method, new environmental radiation measurement system for simple monitoring post without exclusive house and also portable monitoring post for temporary use were developed with low cost. Measurement accuracy was improved by real-time processing of detected pulses and corrected non-linearity of low-energy range by analysis. Environmental performance was upgraded to assure detector gain with compensated against temperature change and aging. Inspection and maintenance were also simplified using touch panel display with standardized application menu and data format. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations, promulgated pursuant to the provisions of the Radiation Safety Act, 1975-1979, require persons engaged in activities involving radiation to pass a radiation safety examination or to possess an approved qualification in radiation. The National Health and Medical Research Council is authorised to exempt persons from compliance with these requirements or, conversely, to impose such requirements on persons other than those designated. (NEA) [fr

  11. Radiation Safety for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of radiation safety is Assessments of Natural Radioactivity and its Radiological. The following topics were discussed during the conference: AFROSAFE Championing Radiation Safety in Africa, Radiation Calibration, and Development and Validation of a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Method for Cancer Detection and Characterization. Young Generation in NUCLEAR Initiative to Promote Nuclear Science and Technology, Radiation Protection Safety Culture and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Industry and the Environment were discuss. Rapid Chemometric X-Ray Fluorescence approaches for spectral Diagnostics of Cancer utilizing Tissue Trace Metals and Speciation profiles. Fundamental role of medical physics in Radiation Therapy

  12. Environmental γ radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xiaopeng

    1993-01-01

    The environmental γ radiation monitor is a kind of dose or dose rate measuring devices, which can be used for monitoring environmental γ radiation around a nuclear site when normal or even abnormal events occur. The monitor is controlled by a single-chip microcomputer so that it can acquire synchronously the data from four detectors and transfer the data to a central computer. The monitor has good temperature property due to the technique of temperature correction. The monitor has been used in the environment monitoring vehicle for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Shioiri, Masatoshi; Sakamaki, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring systems are used to measure and monitoring gamma-rays at the observation boundaries of nuclear facilities and in the surrounding areas. In recent years, however, few new nuclear facilities have been constructed and the monitoring systems shift to renewal of existing systems. In addition, in order to increase public acceptance, the facilities are being equipped with communication lines to provide data to prefectural environmental centers. In this text, we introduce the latest technology incorporated in replacement of environmental radiation monitoring systems. We also introduce a replacement method that can shorten the duration during which environmental dose rate measurement is interrupted by enabling both the replacement system and the system being replaced to perform measurements in parallel immediately before and after the replacement. (author)

  14. Radiation Safety Aspects of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, David; Cash, Leigh Jackson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guilmette, Raymond [Ray Guilmette & Associates, LLC, Perry, ME (United States); Kreyling, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Munchen, (Germany); Oberdorster, Gunter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Smith, Rachel [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards

    2017-03-27

    This Report is intended primarily for operational health physicists, radiation safety officers, and internal dosimetrists who are responsible for establishing and implementing radiation safety programs involving radioactive nanomaterials. It should also provide useful information for workers, managers and regulators who are either working directly with or have other responsibilities related to work with radioactive nanomaterials.

  15. Nuclear and radiation safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T; Strycek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne (SE) is a producer of electricity and heat, including from nuclear fuel source. The board of SE is ultimately responsible for nuclear and radiation safety matters. In this leaflet main principles of maintaining nuclear and radiation safety of the Company SE are explained

  16. Occupational radiation safety in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1985-01-01

    The first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Safety in Mining was held three years ago in Golden, Colorado, U.S.A., and it provided an excellent forum for an exchange of information on the many scientific, technical and operational aspects of radiation safety in mining. I am aware of the broad spectrum of epidemiological, engineering and related studies which have been pursued during the past three years with a view to achieving further improvements in radiation protection and I expect that the information on these studies will contribute significantly to a wider understanding of subject, and in particular, the means by which radiation safety measures in mining can be optimized

  17. Occupational safety meets radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severitt, S.; Oehm, J.; Sobetzko, T.; Kloth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

  18. Radiation safety and gynaecological brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, the Radiation Control Section of the South Australian Health Commission conducted an investigation into radiation safety practices in gynaecological brachytherapy. Part of the investigation included a study of the transportation of radioactive sources between hospitals. Several deficiences in radiation safety were found in the way these sources were being transported. New transport regulations came into force in South Australia in July 1984 and since then there have been many changes in the transportation procedure

  19. Radiation safety among cardiology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Candice; Vasaiwala, Samip; Haque, Faizul; Pratap, Kiran; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2010-07-01

    Cardiology fellows can be exposed to high radiation levels during procedures. Proper radiation training and implementation of safety procedures is of critical importance in lowering physician health risks associated with radiation exposure. Participants were cardiology fellows in the United States (n = 2,545) who were contacted by e-mail to complete an anonymous survey regarding the knowledge and practice of radiation protection during catheterization laboratory procedures. An on-line survey engine, SurveyMonkey, was used to distribute and collect the results of the 10-question survey. The response rate was 10.5%. Of the 267 respondents, 82% had undergone formal radiation safety training. Only 58% of the fellows were aware of their hospital's pregnancy radiation policy and 60% knew how to contact the hospital's radiation safety officer. Although 52% of the fellows always wore a dosimeter, 81% did not know their level of radiation exposure in the previous year and only 74% of fellows knew the safe levels of radiation exposure. The fellows who had received formal training were more likely to be aware of their pregnancy policy, to know the contact information of their radiation safety officer, to be aware of the safe levels of radiation exposure, to use dosimeters and RadPad consistently, and to know their own level of radiation exposure in the previous year. In conclusion, cardiology fellows have not been adequately educated about radiation safety. A concerted effort directed at physician safety in the workplace from the regulatory committees overseeing cardiology fellowships should be encouraged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Innovation research on the safety supervision system of nuclear and radiation safety in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qihong; Lu Jigen; Zhang Ping; Wang Wanping; Dai Xia

    2012-01-01

    As the rapid development of nuclear technology, the safety supervision of nuclear and radiation becomes very important. The safety radiation frame system should be constructed, the safety super- vision ability for nuclear and radiation should be improved. How to implement effectively above mission should be a new subject of Provincial environmental protection department. Through investigating the innovation of nuclear and radiation supervision system, innovation of mechanism, innovation of capacity, innovation of informatization and so on, the provincial nuclear and radiation safety supervision model is proposed, and the safety framework of nuclear and radiation in Jiangsu is elementally established in the paper. (authors)

  1. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  2. Environmental and Occupational Safety Division annual progress report for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents summaries of activities conducted during 1983 in the following areas: radiation monitoring; health physics instrumentation development; environmental management; atmospheric monitoring; water monitoring; background radiation measurements; soil and grass samples; deer samples; calculation of potential radiation dose to the public; industrial safety; and operational safety

  3. Radiation safety standards and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolina, E.P.; Ivanov, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection laws of Russia concerning medical application of ionizing radiation are considered. Main concepts of the documents and recommendations are presented. Attention was paid to the ALARA principle, safety standrds for paietients, personnel and population, radiation protection. Specific feature of the standardization of radiation factors is the establishment of two classes of norms: main dose limits and permissible levels. Maximum dose commitment is the main standard. Three groups of critical organs and three categories of the persons exposed to radiation are stated. Main requirements for radiation protection are shown

  4. Remote radiation environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashayev, A.M.; Mehdiyev, A.Sh.; Bayramov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The project of the automated remote monitoring for a level of an environment background radiation in settlements along boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic is developed. The main purpose of the project is: increase of a level of a radiation safety on territory of the Azerbaijan Republic; controlling of a level of an environment background radiation on boundary of the Azerbaijan Republic with the purpose of well-timed warning and acceptance of indispensable measures at probable emergencies on Atomic Power Stations in a number adjacent from Azerbaijan countries, or other ecological catastrophes; controlling of a level of an environment background radiation along eastern suburbs of Azerbaijan regions occupied of Armenia's army and detection of the facts of wrongful disposals of atomic engineering of Armenia on territory of Azerbaijan. As is known, in a number adjacent from Azerbaijan countries the nuclear industry is advanced or develops. It has resulted in origin of threat of a radiation hazard in case of ecological catastrophes: widely scale leakage of radioactive wastes, explosions, or fires on nuclear generating sets, acts of sabotage, directional against Azerbaijan. In this case, at unfavorable meteorological conditions a radioactive waste may be brought by a wind or a rain on territory of Azerbaijan. Measurement is supposed a carry with the help of 'EKOMON' fixed stations. The results of round-the-clock a gamma and a neutron background measurement from the stations will be transmitted automatically to a dispatcher station in the central computer. Established on the stations telescopic sensors also will allow to determine a direction of a radiation and coordinates of radiation source. Stations will be located along boundary, and also in Kedabek, Akstafa, Terter, Agdam and Fizuli regions, and in Autonomous Republic of Nakhichevan

  5. Environmental radiation telemetering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Center of Miyagi Prefecture introduced a telemetering system in 1982 for the purpose of monitoring human external exposure to radiation, and started preliminary examination for the radiation monitoring aound the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Co., in October, 1982, prior to its commencement of operation scheduled in June, 1984. This system roughly consists of three elements: monitoring stations (MSs) for the continuous observation of radiation, weather condition and other items; the monitoring center to collect the primary data obtained in each MS and to implement on-line data computation, data filing and display; and sub-centers for informing the data obtained by each MS to the people around it. Six MSs were installed in the region of radius of several km from the nuclear power plant. All or a part of the following items are measured in MSs: exposure on a basis of DBM (descrimination bias modulation), γ-spectra, exposure data of ionization chambers, wind direction and speed, rainfall, moisture in the ground, temperature, sunshine and radiation balance. In addition, in this report, also the system configuration, and online and off-line data processing are described. Environmental radiation does not seem to be fully grasped because it complicatedly varies due to weather conditions and other causes. The monitoring method of Miyagi Prefecture is expected to aid the clarification, though it is not yet established. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. The radiation safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  7. The first symposium of Research Center for Radiation Safety, NIRS. Perspective of future studies of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni

    2002-03-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given in the title symposium, held at the Conference Room of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) on November 29 and 30, 2001. Contained are Introductory remarks: Basic presentations concerning exposure dose in man; Environmental levels of radiation and radioactivity, environmental radon level and exposure dose, and radiation levels in the specific environment (like in the aircraft): Special lecture (biological effects given by space environment) concerning various needs for studies of radiation safety; Requirement for open investigations, from the view of utilization, research and development of atomic energy, from the clinical aspect, and from the epidemiological aspect: Special lecture (safety in utilization of atomic energy and radiation-Activities of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) concerning present state and perspective of studies of radiation safety; Safety of radiation and studies of biological effects of radiation-perspective, and radiation protection and radiation safety studies: Studies in the Research Center for Radiation Safety; Summary of studies in the center, studies of the biological effects of neutron beam, carcinogenesis by radiation and living environmental factors-complicated effects, and studies of hereditary effects: Panel discussion (future direction of studies of radiation safety for the purpose of the center's direction): and concluding remarks. (N.I.)

  8. Radiation safety standards : an environmentalist's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problem of environmental mutagenic hazards leads to the recommendation of a single dose-limit to the exposure of human beings to all man-made mutagenic agents including chemicals and radiation. However, because of lack of : (1) adequate information on chemical mutagens, (2) sufficient data on their risk estimates and (3) universally accepted dose-limites, control of chemical mutagens in the environment has not reached that advanced stage as that of radiation. In this situation, the radiation safety standards currently in use should be retained at their present levels. (M.G.B.)

  9. Radiation safety - an IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the IAEA relating to radiation safety cover: The preparation of International Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - it is expected that the new Basic Safety Standards will be adopted by the sponsoring organizations in 1994. The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident: the thyroid cancer controversy - the hypothesis that must be tested is whether the reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer due to exposure to radioactive iodine released in the Chernobyl accident, and there are several questions that must be answered before a firm conclusion can be reached. Emergency Response Services (ERS): In March 1993, at the request of Viet Nam, which invoked the Energency Assistance Convention, a medical team organized by the IAEA went to Hanoi and assisted in arranging for an overexposed person to be transferred from Viet Nam to Paris for specialized medical treatment. In April 1993, the ERS was used to inform Member States of the consequences of an explosion at the Tomsk 7 fuel reprocessing plant in Siberia, Russia, which caused a radiation leak. Reassessing the long range transport of radioactive material through the environment: Data from the Chernobyl accident have been used for model validation in the Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study (ATMES). A follow-up programme, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) with experimental studies of long range atmospheric movements over Europe has been established in order to increase knowledge and prediction capability. As part of the programme, a non-toxic atmospheric tracer will be released under suitable conditions in 1994. The Radiation Protection Advisory Teams Service (RAPAT): In many of the developing countries visited, the lack of an adequate infrastructure for radiation protection is the main obstacle to improved radiation protection. Strengthening radiation and nuclear safety infrastructures in successor states of the USSR: The

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The samples, pretreatment method, and measurement methods of 'Environmental radioactivity level by prefecture' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education (MEXT) is explained. It consists of 1), 'Environmental radioactivity level by prefecture' in normal period, 2) 'Strengthening of Monitoring of Environmental Radioactivity Level by Prefecture' of MEXT at emergency 3) strengthening of monitoring by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, 4) radiation monitoring around the nuclear facility, 5) strengthening of monitoring by MEXT, and 6) quality of monitoring. The survey item and samples etc., of 'Environmental radioactivity level by prefecture', monitoring post, NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter, sampling and pretreatment methods for radionuclide analysis in normal period, an example of germanium semiconductor detector, gamma ray spectrum of spaghetti from Italy by germanium semiconductor detector, flow chart of radionuclide analysis of fallout in normal period and emergency by germanium semiconductor detector, example of analytical method of radioactive strontium ( ion exchange method), outline of plutonium analytical method for emergency, sampling and pretreatment methods of radionuclides for strengthening, monitoring result around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant from June 23 to 24, 2011, change of air dose rate of monitoring post in Mito city from March 14 to 26, 2011, concentration of I-131 and Cs-137 in fallout in Hitachinaka city from March 19 to April 30, 2011, and change of concentration of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in tap water of Iitate village from March 20 to April 30, 2011, are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  11. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  12. Safety assessment and environmental impact assessment: Application to regulation of nuclear and radiation safety, with special consideration to Lepse related operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, V.G. [Gosatomnadzor (Russian Federation); Smith, G.M.; Stone, D.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    This report discusses the links between safety assessment and environmental impact assessment as applied to operations for unloading of spent nuclear fuel from the Lepse storage vessel. Regulatory responsibilities and regulatory requirements in these areas are under discussion and development in the Russian Federation and in other countries. The authors provide a briefing, based on inputs from Russian and western organisations, of their understanding of the situation at the time the work was done. They also make a variety of suggestions according to their perspectives. These suggestions should be relevant to the Lepse situation and to some other nuclear activities, bur do not represent the position of any particular organisation. Accordingly, this report is published by the SSI with the intention to promote discussion and interaction among relevant authorities.

  13. Safety assessment and environmental impact assessment: Application to regulation of nuclear and radiation safety, with special consideration to Lepse related operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, V.G.; Smith, G.M.; Stone, D.M.

    2000-11-01

    This report discusses the links between safety assessment and environmental impact assessment as applied to operations for unloading of spent nuclear fuel from the Lepse storage vessel. Regulatory responsibilities and regulatory requirements in these areas are under discussion and development in the Russian Federation and in other countries. The authors provide a briefing, based on inputs from Russian and western organisations, of their understanding of the situation at the time the work was done. They also make a variety of suggestions according to their perspectives. These suggestions should be relevant to the Lepse situation and to some other nuclear activities, bur do not represent the position of any particular organisation. Accordingly, this report is published by the SSI with the intention to promote discussion and interaction among relevant authorities

  14. Radiation Safety of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The wide spread of Electromagnetic Waves (EMW) through the power lines, multimedia, communications, devices, appliances, etc., are well known. The probable health hazards associated with EMW and the radiation safety criteria are to be reviewed. However, the principles of the regulatory safety are based on radiation protection procedure, intervention to combat the relevant risk and to mitigate consequences. The oscillating electric magnetic fields (EMF) of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induce electrical hazards. The extremely high power EMR can cause fire hazards and explosions of pyrotechnic (Rad Haz). Biological hazards of EMF result as dielectric heat, severe burn, as well as the hazards of eyes. Shielding is among the technical protective measures against EMR hazards. Others are limitation of time of exposure and separation distance apart of the EMR source. Understanding and safe handling of the EMR sources are required to feel safety.

  15. Radiation shielding and safety design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ouk; Gil, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. I.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, C. W.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, B. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    A benchmarking for the test facility, evaluations of the prompt radiation fields, evaluation of the induced activities in the facility, and estimation of the radiological impact on the environment were performed in this study. and the radiation safety analysis report for nuclear licensing was written based on this study. In the benchmark calculation, the neutron spectra was measured in the 20 Mev test facility and the measurements were compared with the computational results to verify the calculation system. In the evaluation of the prompt radiation fields, the shielding design for 100 MeV target rooms, evaluations of the leakage doses from the accidents and skyshine analysis were performed. The evaluation of the induced activities were performed for the coolant, inside air, structural materials, soil and ground-water. At last, the radiation safety analysis report was written based on results from these studies

  16. Internet applications in radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Geisse, C.; Wuest, E.

    1998-01-01

    As a means of effective communication the Internet is presently becoming more and more important in German speaking countries, too. Its possibilities to exchange and to obtain information efficiently and rapidly are excellent. Internet and email access are available now in most institutions for professional use. Internet services of importance to radiation safety professionals are described. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, M. J.; Jang, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to development of an urban atmospheric dispersion model and data assimilation technique for improving the reliability, to develop the technology for assessing the radiation impact to biota and the surface water transport model, to develop the analytical techniques for the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites and to assess of the national environmental radiation impact and establish the optimum management bases of natural radiation. The obtained results might be used; for assessing the radiological effects due to and radiological incident in an urban area, for assessing radiation doses on biota for the environmental protection from ionizing radiation with the application of new concept of the ICP new recommendation, for analyzing the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites, and for providing the natural radionuclide database of Korea to international organizations such as UNSCEAR. It can be used for emphasizing relative nuclear safety

  18. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  19. UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH ampersand S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH ampersand S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs

  20. ERMS - Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vax, Eran; Sarusi, Benny; Sheinfeld, Mati; Levinson, Shmuel; Brandys, Irad; Sattinger, Danny; Wengrowicz, Udi; Tshuva, Avi; Tirosh, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A new Environmental Radiation Monitoring System (ERMS) has been developed in the NRCN as an extensive tool to be applied in case of nuclear malfunction or Nuclear Disposal Device (NDD) incident, as well as for routine radiation monitoring of the reactor's vicinity. The system collects real-time environmental data such as: gamma radiation, wind speed, wind direction, and temperature for monitoring purposes. The ERMS consists of a main Control Center and an array of monitoring stations. Fixed, environmental, gamma radiation monitoring stations are installed at the reactor's surroundings while portable stations can be posted rapidly along the wind direction, enhancing the spatial sampling of the radiation measurements and providing better hazard assessment at an emergency event. The presented ERMS, based on industrial standards for hardware and network protocols, is a reliable standalone system which upgrades the readiness to face a nuclear emergency event by supplying real-time, integrated meteorological and radiation data. (author)

  1. Geographical distribution of environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shiro

    1975-01-01

    The dose rate of environmental radiation is higher in the western part of Japan as compared with the eastern part. The relation between the nature of the soil and the natural radiation was studied. For example, in Shikoku, the natural radiation dose is higher in the northern strata than in the other parts. Dose values were classified according to rocks, and granite showed high value while valcanic ash showed relatively low value. (Yamamoto, Y.)

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  3. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  5. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect

  6. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  7. Centralized environmental radiation monitoring system in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1993-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has continued the radiation background survey and environmental radiation monitoring to ensure the safety of the residents around the Institute. For the monitoring of β and γ radiations and α and β radioactivities in air, the centralized automatic environmental radiation monitoring system (EMS) applying a computer with monitoring stations (MS) was established. The system has been renewed twice in 1973 and 1988. In 1962, a new concept emergency environmental γ-ray monitoring system (MP) was begun to construct and completed in 1965 independent of EMS. The first renewal of the EMS was carried out by focusing on the rapid and synthetic judgement and estimation of the environmental impacts caused by radiation and radioactive materials due to the operation of nuclear facilities by centralizing the data measured at MS, MP, a meteorological station, stack monitors and drainage monitoring stations under the control of computer. Present system renewed in 1988 was designed to prevent the interruption of monitoring due to computer troubles, communication troubles and power failures especially an instant voltage drop caused by thunder by reflecting the experiences through the operation and maintenance of the former system. Dual telemeters whose power is constantly supplied via batteries (capable of 10 min. monitoring after power failure) are equipped in the monitoring center to cope with telemeter troubles, which has operated successfully without any suspension being attributable to the power failures and telemeter troubles. (J.P.N.)

  8. Environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The report includes the following chapters: Development of earth and cosmic radiation - natural radioactivity. Atomic weapon tests and medicine - artificial radioactivity. A disaster and its consequences. From the air to humans; lessons learned from Chernobyl - division of work during measurements. From potatoes to baby food - the routine measuring program. Preparedness for the case of emergency - the intensive program. Three question for Martin Riepenhausen.

  9. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  10. Analysis of changes in environmental radiation, and three types of environmental radiation detector performance comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H; Seo, J.H; Park, S.M; Yu, B.N; Park, J.H; Joo, K.S

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure ion chamber (GE Reuter-Stokes, HPIC), accuracy is high but the high price and do not have the ability nuclide analysis is a disadvantage. NaI(Tl) and PMT scintillation detector of radioactive materials can be divided. Environmental radiation measurements using a semiconductor with SiPM detector PMT to replace the value of the results were compared. SiPM detector using radiation environment were measured in the field to verify the accuracy and energy resolution. SiPMs performance as environmental radiation measurement equipment and radioactive material distinction as a personal dosimeter based technology, using the above results were prepared. The interest on the environmental radiation due to the Fukushima power plant crisis in Japan has been growing concern about the radiation environment of the relatively close proximity Korea is a very heightened state. Could be confirmed in the radiation environment of nuclear power plants around the analysis and performance of the next generation of environmental radiation meter. Fukushima power plants accident after 2 years, the equipment installed by this analysis meets the performance as a radiation detector could be confirmed as follows. CANA Inc. developed by radionuclides classification of using man-made and natural radionuclides and man-made radionuclides separated, ensure the value of the results were analyzed. Could be and alternative to the conventional detector energy resolution ( 137 CS<15%) and linearity (<15%) to satisfy the performance requirements of the measurement result of environmental radiation detector is considered. SiPM radiation environment changes and HPIC and NaI(TI) scintillation detector installed in Korea of the Fukushima power plant after the accident, radiation environment using a small alternative was to verify the accuracy of the measuring equipment. A big difference in performance as invisible by comparison with the large detector Assay miniaturization rough as a personal

  11. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, R.F.; Richards, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the safety and environmental record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1992. An introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices

  12. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, R.F.; Richards, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the safety and environmental record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1992. an introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices

  13. Radiation safety systems at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes design principles that were used to establish the radiation safety systems at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The author described existing safety systems and the history of partial system failures. 1 fig

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this voluminous report describe the different ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority) actions: nuclear activities (ionising radiation and health and environmental risks), principles and stakeholders in nuclear safety regulation, radiation protection and protection of the environment, regulation, regulation of nuclear activities and exposure to ionizing radiation, radiological emergencies, public information and transparency, international relations. It also gives an overview of nuclear safety and radiation protection activities in the different French regions. The second part addresses activities regulated by the ASN: medical uses of ionizing radiation, non-medical uses of ionizing radiation, transport of radioactive materials, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle installations, nuclear research facilities and various nuclear installations, safe decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, radioactive waste and contaminated sites and soils

  15. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology; standardization of input parameters for the calculation of annual dose from routine releases from commercial reactor effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, I. H.; Cho, D.; Youn, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, H. K. [Soonchunhyang University, Ahsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This research is to develop a standard methodology for determining the input parameters that impose a substantial impact on radiation doses of residential individuals in the vicinity of four nuclear power plants in Korea. We have selected critical nuclei, pathways and organs related to the human exposure via simulated estimation with K-DOSE 60 based on the updated ICRP-60 and sensitivity analyses. From the results, we found that 1) the critical nuclides were found to be {sup 3}H, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 60}Co for Kori plants and {sup 14}C, {sup 41}Ar for Wolsong plants. The most critical pathway was 'vegetable intake' for adults and 'milk intake' for infants. However, there was no preference in the effective organs, and 2) sensitivity analyses showed that the chemical composition in a nuclide much more influenced upon the radiation dose than any other input parameters such as food intake, radiation discharge, and transfer/concentration coefficients by more than 102 factor. The effect of transfer/concentration coefficients on the radiation dose was negligible. All input parameters showed highly estimated correlation with the radiation dose, approximated to 1.0, except for food intake in Wolsong power plant (partial correlation coefficient (PCC)=0.877). Consequently, we suggest that a prediction model or scenarios for food intake reflecting the current living trend and a formal publications including details of chemical components in the critical nuclei from each plant are needed. Also, standardized domestic values of the parameters used in the calculation must replace the values of the existed or default-set imported factors via properly designed experiments and/or modelling such as transport of liquid discharge in waters nearby the plants, exposure tests on corps and plants so on. 4 figs., 576 tabs. (Author)

  16. Radiation protection and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zi; Dong Liucan; Zhang Yongxing

    1994-01-01

    A collection of short papers is presented which review aspects of research in radiation and environmental protection carried out by the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy in 1991. The topics covered are: the analysis of Po 210 in the gaseous effluent of coal-fired boilers; the determination of natural radionuclide levels in various industrial waste slags and management countermeasures; assessment of the collective radiation dose from natural sources for the Chinese population travelling by water; the preliminary environmental impact report for the multipurpose heavy water research reactor constructed by China for the Islamic Republic of Algeria. (UK)

  17. Promoting safety culture in radiation industry through radiation audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the Malaysian experience in implementing and promoting effective radiation safety program. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. This program is known as radiation safety audit and is able to reveal where and when action is needed to make improvements to the systems of controls. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as the sole requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. As a result safety culture, which has been a vital element on safety in many industries can be improved and promote changes, leading to good safety performance and excellence. (author)

  18. The safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the present infrastructure for the safety of radiation sources in China, where applications of radiation sources have become more and more widespread in the past years. In particular, it refers to the main functions of the National Nuclear Safety Administration of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), which is acting as the regulatory body for nuclear and radiation safety at nuclear installations, the Ministry of Public Health which issues licences for the use of radiation sources, and the Ministry of Public Security, which deals with the security of radiation sources. The report also refers to the main requirements of the existing regulatory system for radiation safety, i.e. the basic dose limits for radiation workers and the public, the licensing system for nuclear installations and for radioisotope-based and other irradiation devices, and the environmental impact assessment system. Information on the nationwide survey of radiation sources carried out by SEPA in 1991 is provided, and on some accidents that occurred in China due to loss of control of radiation sources and errors in the operation of irradiation facilities. (author)

  19. Centralized environmental radiation monitoring system in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, H.; Kobalyashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    JAERI has continued the environmental radiation background survey and monitoring to ensure the safety of the peoples around the institute since one year before the first criticality of JRR-1 (Japan Research Reactor No.1) in August 1957. Air absorbed doses from β and γ radiation, α and β radioactivity in air and the radioactivities in environmental samples were the monitoring items. For the monitoring of β and γ radiation and α and β radioactivity in air, monitoring station and the centralized automatic environmental radiation monitoring system applying a computer were established as a new challenging monitoring system for nuclear facility, which was the first one not only in Japan but also in the would in 1960 and since then the system has been renewed two times (in 1973 and 1988) by introducing the latest technology in the fields of radiation detection and computer control at each stage. Present system renewed in 1988 was designed to prevent the interruption of monitoring due to computer troubles, communication troubles and power failures especially an instant voltage drop arisen from thunder by reflecting the experiences through the operation and maintenance of the former system. Dual telemeters whose power is constantly supplied via batteries (capable of 10 min monitoring after power failure) are equipped in the monitoring center to cope with telemeter troubles, which has operated successfully without any suspension being attributable to the power failures and telemeter troubles

  20. Radiation safety for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities is a growth area in the UK at the present time. NUKEM Nuclear Limited is a leading-edge nuclear decommissioning and waste management contractor (with its own in-house health physics and safety department), working for a variety of clients throughout the UK nuclear industry. NUKEM Nuclear is part of the prestigious, international NUKEM group, a world-class organization specializing in nuclear engineering and utilities technologies. NUKEM Nuclear is involved in a number of large, complex decommissioning projects, both in its own right and as part of consortia. This paper explores the challenges presented by such projects and the interfaces of contractor, client and subcontractors from the point of view of a radiation protection adviser. (author)

  1. Challenges in strengthening radiation safety and security programme in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the Malaysian experience in implementing steps in strengthening radiation safety and security through certification of radiation safety personnel, which is dedicated to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety and security systems. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important in implementing the radiation safety policy efficiently. Through this effort, we are able to create a basis for adequate protection of workers, the public and the environment and encourage licensees to manage radiation safety and security based on performance, and not on compliance culture, with the final objective of professing a safety culture through self regulation. This will certainly benefit an organisation with ultimate goals are to continuously strive for a healthy, accident free and environmentally sound workplace and community, while providing the technical support needed to meet the national mission. This will strengthen the radiation safety and security programme and could be used to assist in manpower development once Malaysia makes the decision to embark on a nuclear power programme. (author)

  2. Towards a radiation safety culture at Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Jairo F.; Munera, Hector A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the 20th century, nuclear and radiation techniques for research, teaching, and medical and engineering practice slowly appeared at the National University of Colombia, mainly at the Bogota, Medellin and Manizales branches. Each individual laboratory or researcher obtained the license for the use of the radioactive source, or radiation emitting apparatus. However, the University as a whole does not have as yet a Radiation Safety Manual, nor an inventory of laboratories using radiation. From the viewpoint of radiation safety and culture, this situation is undesirable, and may easily lead to inappropriate waste management practices, including the possibility of orphan sources (one such source has been already found). As part of the program of environmental management of dangerous wastes promoted by the National Division of Laboratories of our University, an office of radiation safety was created in the year 2006. This paper describes the situation that was found, the activities that have been carried out, some of the difficulties that we have met, and the plans that we have to help shape a safety culture at our institution. Currently we are pursuing an inventory of laboratories using radioactive sources and radiation emitting apparatuses, starting with the branches in Bogota and Manizales which are perceived as the most urgent to deal with. Fortunately, the branch in Medellin has been for about a decade under the care of a former radiation safety officer of our national Institute of Nuclear Affairs, who presently teaches there. During 2006 and 2007, 13 laboratories using radioactive sources were visited in the Bogota branch. Safety procedures and waste handling protocols were checked, safety manuals prepared and/or revised, and recommendations for safety culture provided. During 2008 we will visit Manizales, and will continue visiting a number of X-ray machines used in the Bogota branch for engineering, veterinary, and diagnostic, and surgery medical

  3. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with the section 26 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) the safety requirements to be taken into account in planning laboratories and other premises, which affect safety in the use of radioactive materials, are confirmed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The guide specifies the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive materials are used or stored as unsealed sources. There are also some general instructions concerning work procedures in a radionuclide laboratory

  4. Radiation safety in welding and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.E.; Malaxos, M.; Hartley, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are a number of ways of achieving radiation safety in the workplace. The first is by engineering radiation safety into the equipment, providing shielded rooms and safety interlocks. The second is by following safe working procedures. The National Health and Medical Research Council's Code of practice for the control and safe handling of sealed radioactive sources used in industrial radiography (1968) sets out the standards which must be met by equipment to be used in industrial radiography

  5. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  6. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews research and development of radiation technology application for environmental conservation. Our group in cooperation with Ebara Mfg. co., Ltd. first found and studied removals of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gases by electron beam irradiation. Most of sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides are converted to ammonium sulfate and nitrate by radiation with the addition of ammonia. Feasibility studies of this technology by pilot scale experiments have been carried out in Japan, USA and Germany for flue gases from iron-ore sintering furnace and coal fire power station. About 90 % of CO 2 and NO X are removed with 15 kGy. Organic pollutants in wastewater, drinking water and ground water have been found to be reduced by radiation technology. Synergetic effect of radiation and ozone to remove pollutants was also found. Disinfection of water effluent from sewage water treatment plant by radiation instead of using chlorine to avoid formation of chlorinated organic compounds has been studied by our group. Efficient composting of sewage sludge using radiation disinfection followed by fermentation has been developed and produced compost can be used as fertilizer. In conclusion, radiation technology can provide new efficient treatment method for wastes. (author)

  7. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews research and development of radiation technology application for environmental conservation. Our group in cooperation with Ebara Mfg. co., Ltd. first found and studied removals of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gases by electron beam irradiation. Most of sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides are converted to ammonium sulfate and nitrate by radiation with the addition of ammonia. Feasibility studies of this technology by pilot scale experiments have been carried out in Japan, USA and Germany for flue gases from iron-ore sintering furnace and coal fire power station. About 90 % of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} are removed with 15 kGy. Organic pollutants in wastewater, drinking water and ground water have been found to be reduced by radiation technology. Synergetic effect of radiation and ozone to remove pollutants was also found. Disinfection of water effluent from sewage water treatment plant by radiation instead of using chlorine to avoid formation of chlorinated organic compounds has been studied by our group. Efficient composting of sewage sludge using radiation disinfection followed by fermentation has been developed and produced compost can be used as fertilizer. In conclusion, radiation technology can provide new efficient treatment method for wastes. (author).

  8. Recent trends in particle accelerator radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, W.F.; Butler, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    The use of particle accelerators in applied and research activities continues to expand, bringing new machines with higher energy and current capabilities which create radiation safety problems not commonly encountered before. An overview is given of these increased ionizing radiation hazards, along with a discussion of some of the new techniques required in evaluating and controlling them. A computer search of the literature provided a relatively comprehensive list of publications describing accelerator radiation safety problems and related subjects

  9. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  10. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  11. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  12. Evaluation of environmental radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The environmental radiation exposure due to radioactive rare gases is most important both at the time of reactor accidents and also in the long-term normal operation of reactor plants. The exposure dose is usually calculated by means of computers. The procedure of the calculation on environmental exposure dose is divided in several consecutive steps. The calculational formulae frequently used and those proposed recently are given with the explanation on released radionuclides, release to the atmosphere, concentration in the atmosphere, β-ray exposure, γ-ray exposure, and calculation of long-term exposure dose. (Mori, K.)

  13. Radiation and waste safety: Strengthening national capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, P.; Webb, G.; Mrabit, K.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has been collecting information on national infrastructures for assuring safety in applications of nuclear and radiation technologies. For more than a decade, from 1984-95, information relevant to radiation safety particularly was obtained through more than 60 expert missions undertaken by Radiation Protection Advisory Teams (RAPATs) and follow-up technical visits and expert missions. The RAPAT programme documented major weaknesses and the reports provided useful background for preparation of national requests for IAEA technical assistance. Building on this experience and subsequent policy reviews, the IAEA took steps to more systematically evaluate the needs for technical assistance in areas of nuclear and radiation safety. The outcome was the development of an integrated system designed to more closely assess national priorities and needs for upgrading their infrastructures for radiation and waste safety

  14. Improving patient safety in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, William R.; Herman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, and emphasized in 2000 with the release of an Institute of Medicine report, healthcare providers and institutions have dedicated time and resources to reducing errors that impact the safety and well-being of patients. But in January 2010 the first of a series of articles appeared in the New York Times that described errors in radiation oncology that grievously impacted patients. In response, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiation Oncology sponsored a working meeting entitled ''Safety in Radiation Therapy: A Call to Action''. The meeting attracted 400 attendees, including medical physicists, radiation oncologists, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, hospital administrators, regulators, and representatives of equipment manufacturers. The meeting was cohosted by 14 organizations in the United States and Canada. The meeting yielded 20 recommendations that provide a pathway to reducing errors and improving patient safety in radiation therapy facilities everywhere.

  15. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  16. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  17. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Construction Safety and Health Emergency Preparedness for Business Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance (ORDS) Office Environment Storm and Flood Cleanup Tuberculosis Follow NIOSH Facebook Flickr Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A- ...

  18. Education of radiation safety specialists at Faculty of Medicine of Vilnius University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbelis, A.; Surkiene, G.

    2004-01-01

    Vilnius University is the first institution of higher education in Lithuania that began to teach students on radiation safety. The special course of radiation hygiene was delivered to students in 1962-1992. In 1992 it was introduced residency of radiation hygiene and graduated students qualified for title of radiation hygiene specialist. The residency lasted one year and included six cycles: fundamentals of nuclear physics, statistics and noninfectious epidemiology, radiobiology, radiological research methods, controls of radiation safety and hygienic analysis of radiation safety. From 1994 Vilnius University has been educating and training professionals of public health. The specialists of radiation safety aren't been training as isolated branch. All courses is divided into two parts. The first one is included into bachelor, the second part - into master study. The bachelor study consists of 2 credits (16 hours for lectures and 32 hours for practical studies). The future bachelors study introduction of radiation safety, elements of nuclear physics, dose limit values, fundamentals of radiological protection, natural radiation. The master study consists of 2 credits (8 hours for lectures and 48 hours for practical studies). The future masters study specific problems of radiation safety in medicine and industry, the safety problems of nuclear power - stations, the problems of radioactive wastes, radiation biology, radiation risk. Radiation safety study model in Faculty of medicine of Vilnius University differs from study model in most European countries as it makes great play of radiation safety while usual model includes radiation safety as insignificant part of environmental health. (author)

  19. Effective education in radiation safety for nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, K.; Kaori, T.

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish an efficient training program of radiation safety for nurses, studies have been carried out on the basis of questionnaires. Collaboration of nurses, who are usually standing closest to the patient, is necessary in order to offer safe radiological diagnostics/treatment. The authors distributed the questionnaire to 134 nurses in five polyclinic hospitals in Japan. Important questions were: fear of radiation exposure, knowledge on the radiation treatment, understanding the impact on pregnancy, and so on. Most of the nurses feel themselves uneasy against exposure to radiation. They do not have enough knowledge of radiological treatment. They do not know exactly what is the impact of the radiation on pregnant women. Such tendency is more pronounced, when nurses spend less time working in the radiological department. Nurses play important roles in radiological diagnostics/treatment. Therefore, a well-developed education system for radiation safety is essential. The training for the radiation safety in medicine should be done in the context of general safety in medicine. Education programs in undergraduate school and at the working place should be coordinated efficiently in order to ensure that both nurses and patients are informed about the meaning of radiation safety. (authors)

  20. Establishment of radiation protection and safety programme in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, E.

    2014-04-01

    Radiation is useful because of its ability to penetrate tissue, allowing imaging of internal structures. However radiation may produce harmful biological effects. Observations of exposed human populations and animal experimentation indicate that exposure to low levels of radiation over a period of time may lead to stochastic radiation effects. Exposures to high levels of radiation above threshold also leads to deterministic effects. Establishment of radiation protection and safety programme and implement it without fail may help prevent deterministic effect and limit chances of stochastic effects. This is achieved by assigning responsibilities to the proposed organizational structure, management commitment to safety culture by providing continuous education and training to employees, regular reviewing and auditing of radiation safety policies. Occupational, public and environmental radiation exposure is further achieved by implementation of set local rules and operational procedures, proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. Medical radiation exposure is achieved by justified procedures, optimization of doses, guidance levels, quality assurance and quality control programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and records keeping of radiation doses, calibration certificates of equipment used, equipment service and test certificates. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals must deliver the minimum possible radiation dose to the patient while therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals must deliver the maximum dose to the target organ or tissue, while minimizing the dose to non-target tissues such as the bone marrow. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. The proper facility design and shielding of a nuclear medicine facility shall further provide for the radiation protection to the worker, the patient, public and the environment. Precautions should be given to radioactive patients as there

  1. Interface between radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Hoegberg, L.

    1991-01-01

    Interface issues concern the character and management of overlaps between radiation protection and nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. Typical examples include the selection of inspection and maintenance volumes in order to balance occupational radiation doses versus the safety status of the plant, and the intentional release to the environment in the course of an accident in order to secure better plant control. The paper discusses whether it is desirable and possible to employ a consistent management of interface issues with trade-offs between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Illustrative examples are quoted from a major Nordic research programme on risk analysis and safety rationale. These concern for instance in-service inspections, modifications of plant systems and constructions after the plant has been taken into operation, and studies on the limitations of probabilistic safety assessment. They indicate that in general there are no simple rules for such trade-offs

  2. Ways of solving the problems of radiation safety and environmental protection in handling radioactive waste at atomic power stations in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, D.I.; Belitskij, A.S.; Turkin, A.D.; Kozlov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements of the State Sanitary Supervision on radiation safety of the personnel and population and on protection of the environment in handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations in the USSR are regulated by the Standards of Radiation Safety, the Main Sanitary Rules for Handling Radioactive Materials and by the Sanitary Rules for Designing Nuclear Power Stations. The regulations contained in these documents are obligatory for all the establishments at the stages of design, building and operation of nuclear power stations. The main requirement for handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations in the USSR is to dispose of them near the place of their production. In nuclear power station siting and designing the special territory is provided for liquid and solid radioactive wastes storage taking into account the whole period of nuclear power station operation. These storage sites are located within the controlled area. They are built as required, usually for five years. The report contains hygienic and hydrological requirements to the radiation waste burial sites and data on the accepted system of controlling leak-proof qualities of the disposal cavities and radioactivity of the ground water in this region. The results of long-term studies on radionuclide leaching from the bituminic blocks are given and it is shown that the bituminizing method used for solidification of intermediate activity wastes is very promising. In the USSR much attention is given to the problem of sanitary protection of the cooling ponds at nuclear power stations. No limits to the national-economic use of these ponds outside the nuclear power station site are established. Therefore in determining the requirements to the discharge of effluents into the cooling ponds of nuclear power stations the possibility of radionuclide transfer to the population through the aquaeous and terrestrial biological chains is taken into account. The possibility of human diet contamination

  3. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  4. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  5. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in … shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  6. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  7. AFROSAFE Championing Radiation Safety in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyabanda, R.

    2015-01-01

    AFRASAFE is a campaign that was formed by Pan African congress of Radiology and imaging (PACOR) and other radiation health workers in Africa in Feb 2015. Its main objective is to unite with a common goal to identify and address issues arising from radiation protection in medicine in Africa. Through this campaign, we state that we shall promote adherence to policies, strategies and activities for the promotion of radiation safety and for maximization of benefits from radiological medical procedures. The campaign strengthens the overall radiation protection of patients, health workers and public. It promotes safe and appropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine and enhances global information to help improve the benefit/risk dialogue with patients and the public. It enhances the safety and quality of radiological procedures in medicine, and encourages safety in diagnostic and therapeutic equipment and facilities. The issue of research in radiation protection and safety needs to be promoted. This presentation will outline the six strategic objectives and the implementation tools for radiation safety in medicine in Kenya, the challenges and way forward to achieve our goal. (Author)

  8. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NOsub(x) can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NOsub(x) in flue gas from coal burning power stations. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.) [de

  10. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ingyu; Kim, Enhan; Keum, Dongkwon

    2012-04-01

    To develop the comprehensive environmental radiation management technology, - An urban atmospheric dispersion model and decision-aiding model have been developed. - The technologies for assessing the radiation impact to non-human biota and the environmental medium contamination have developed. - The analytical techniques of the indicator radionuclides related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste repository have been developed. - The national environmental radiation impact has been assessed, and the optimum management system of natural radiation has been established

  11. Dictionnary for radiation safety terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The dictionnary of radiation protection terms has been compiled by CMEA member-country specialists under the auspisious of Scientific-Technical Council for Radiation Protection of the Permanent Commision for Peaceful Atomic Energy Applications as a means for better mutual understanding in collaborative activities. The dictionnary incorporates, along with Russian terms, the corresponding ones in the official languages of CMEA member-countries who participated in its compiling: Bulgarian, Hungarian, German, Spanish, Polish, Roumanian, Czech as well as English. The dictionnary consists of three sections: 1) Ionizing radiation; 2) Ionizing radiation interaction with materials. Ionizing radiation dosimetry; 3) Radiation protection. The first section contains 16 terms, the second - 25, the third - 110. The terms within the section are arranged in sense sequences

  12. Challenges in promoting radiation safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Safety has quickly become an industry performance measure, and the emphasis on its reliability has always been part of a strategic commitment. This paper presents an approach taken by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) and authority to develop and implement safety culture for industries that uses radioactive material and radiation sources. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. Proper safety audit will help to identify the non-compliance of safety culture as well as the deviation of management, individual and policy level commitment; review of radiation protection program and activities should be preceded. (author)

  13. Radiation Protection, Nuclear Safety and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, Ndeye Arame Boye; Ndao, Ababacar Sadikhe; Tall, Moustapha Sadibou

    2014-01-01

    Senegal has put in place a regulatory framework which allows to frame legally the use of radioactive sources. A regulatory authority has been established to ensure its application. It is in the process of carrying out its regulatory functions. It cooperates with appropriate national or international institutions operating in fields related to radiation protection, safety and nuclear safety.

  14. Winning public confidence in radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelcher, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluations using cost/benefit analysis and the ALARA principle should take account of psychological as well as material considerations. Safety is a basic human need which has to be met. It is also subjective and therefore has to be understood by the individual. The professional health physicist has a duty to see that radiation safety is understood by the general public. (author)

  15. Radiation Safety (General) Regulations 1983 (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The provisions of the Regulations cover, inter alia, the general precautions and requirements relating to radiation safety of the public and radiation workers and registration of irradiating apparatus or premises on which such apparatus is operated. In addition, the Regulations set forth requirements for the operation of such apparatus and for the premises involved. (NEA) [fr

  16. Environmental, health, and safety by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soklow, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated created a self-directed work team, the Safety and Environmental Awareness (SEA) Team that initiated a company wide effort to raise employee awareness to promote integrating responsible environmental, health, and safety practices into product design, manufacturing, and services. Environmental, health, and safety issues influence how all businesses operate around the world. Companies choose to operate in an environmentally responsible manner because it not only benefits employees and the communities where they live, it also benefits the business when superior performance results in a competitive advantage. Solar surveyed gas turbines users to identify their top environmental and safety concerns and issues. The authors asked about various environmental and safety aspects of their equipment. Results from the survey has helped engineering and design focus efforts so that future products and product improvements assist customers in meeting their regulatory obligations and social responsibilities. Air pollution has historically been one of the most important environmental issues facing customers, because pollutant emissions greatly influence equipment choices and operation flexibility. There are other environmental, health and safety issues: sustainable fire suppression choices, start systems, hazardous materials use and ability to recycle materials, package accessibility, noise and product take back issues

  17. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  18. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  19. Safety Culture on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollet, E.

    1996-01-01

    It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

  20. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallapher, J D; Wright, M G

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the occupational health and safety and the environmental protection record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1993. An introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes, and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices. (author). 14 figs.

  1. Annual health, safety and environmental performance report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallapher, J.D.; Wright, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the occupational health and safety and the environmental protection record of the operations of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) during 1993. An introduction highlights the results and describes the facilities and organizational systems. Subsequent sections indicate the performance of the company with respect to personnel radiation exposures, occupational injuries, the handling of wastes, and the release of materials into the environment. Programs in health, safety and environmental protection are presented, along with site remediation and emergency preparedness practices. (author). 14 figs

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  3. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. γ-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry. (author)

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  5. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. γ-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring around the research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Hyun Duk; Kim, Sam Rang; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jeong Moo; Lee, Myeon Joo; Lee, Myeong Ho; Hong, Kwang Hee; Lim, Moon Ho; Lee, Won Yoon; Park, Do Won; Choi, Sang Do

    1993-04-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental sample was not found abnormal data. γ-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry. (Author)

  8. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  9. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  10. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  11. Safety and environmental aspects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, H.; Jensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with those problems concerning safety and environmental aspects of the future fusion reactors (e.g. fuel cycle, magnetic failure, after heat disturbances, radioactive waste and magnetic field)

  12. Space radiation and astronaut safety

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This brief explores the biological effects of long-term radiation on astronauts in deep space. As missions progress beyond Earth's orbit and away from the protection of its magnetic shielding, astronauts risk constant exposure to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. The text concisely addresses the full spectrum of biomedical consequences from exposure to space radiation and goes on to present possible ways to mitigate such dangers and protect astronauts within the limitations of existing technologies.

  13. Radiation safety aspects at Indus accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Indus Accelerator Complex at Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology houses two synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 that are being operated round-the-clock to cater to the needs of the research community. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring and Indus-2 is presently being operated with electrons stored at 2 GeV. Bremsstrahlung radiation and photo-neutrons form the major radiation environment in Indus Accelerator Complex. They are produced due to loss of electron-beam occurring at different stages of operation of various accelerators located in the complex. The synchrotron radiation (SR) also contributes as a potential hazard. In order to ensure safety of synchrotron radiation users and operation and maintenance staff working in the complex from this radiation, an elaborate radiation safety system is in place. The system comprises a Personnel Protection System (PPS) and a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). The PPS includes zoning, radiation shielding, door interlocks, a search and scram system and machine operation trip-interlocks. The RMS consists of area radiation monitors and beam loss monitors, whose data is available online in the Indus control room. Historical data of radiation levels is also available for data analysis. Synchrotron radiation beamlines at Indus-2 are handled in a special manner owing to the possibility of exposure to synchrotron radiation. Shielding hutches with SR monitors are installed at each beamline of Indus-2. Health Physics Unit also carries out regular radiological surveillance for photons and neutrons during various modes of operation and data is logged shift wise. The operation staff is appropriately trained and qualified as per the recommendations of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Safety training is also imparted to the beamline users. Safe operation procedures and operation checklists are being followed strictly. A radiation instrument calibration facility is also being set-up at RRCAT. The radiation

  14. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M. B.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Amoako, J. K.; Hasford, F.; Akrobortu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board was established in 1993 by PNDC Law 308 as the National Competent Authority for the regulation of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. The mandate and responsibilities of RPB are prescribed in the legislative instrument, LI 1559 issued in 1993. The operational functions of the Board are carried out by the Radiation Protection Institute, which was established to provide technical support for the enforcement of the legislative instrument. The regulatory activities include among others: – Issuance permits for the import/export of any radiation producing device and radioactive materials into/out of the country. It therefore certifies the radioactivity levels in food and the environmental samples. – Authorization and Inspection of practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. – Undertakes safety assessment services and enforcement actions on practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in line with regulations. – Provides guidance and technical support in fulfilling regulatory requirement to users of radiation producing devices and radioactive materials nationwide by monitoring of monthly radiation absorbed doses for personnel working at radiation facilities. – Provides support to the management of practices in respect of nuclear and radioactive waste programme. – Calibrates radiation emitting equipment and nuclear instrumentation to ensure the safety of patients, workers and the general public. – Establish guidelines for the mounting (non-ionizing) communication masts. – Environmental monitoring (non-ionizing) programmes for communication masts. With the establishment of the national competent authority, facilities using radioactive sources and radiation emitting devices have been brought under regulatory control. Effective regulatory control of radiation emitting devices are achieved through established legal framework, independent Regulatory Authority supported by

  15. Safety and environmental health handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1989-01-01

    This Safety Handbook (445-1-H.) supplements the Geological Survey Safety Management Program objectives set forth in Survey Manual 445.1. Specifically, it provides a compact source of basic information to assist management and employees in preventing motor vehicle accidents, personal injuries, occupational diseases, fire, and other property damage or loss. All work situations incidental to the Geological Survey cannot be discussed in a handbook, and such complete coverage is not intended in this document. However, a wide range of subjects are covered in which a "common sense" approach to safety has been expressed. These subjects have been organized such that Chapters 1-5 address administrative issues, Chapters 6-12 address activities usually conducted within a facility, and Chapters 13-20 address field activities. No information contained in the Handbook is intended to alter any provision of any Federal law or executive order, Department of the Interior or Survey directive, or collective bargaining agreement. Questions or suggestions regarding the content of the Safety Handbook may be directed to the Survey Safety Manager, Administrative Division, Office of Facilities and Management Services, National Center, Reston, Virginia, Mail Stop 246. The previous edition of the Safety Handbook is superseded.

  16. Integration of radiation and physical safety in large radiator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, P.P.M.; Benedito, A.M.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Growing international concern about radioactive sources after the Sept. 11, 2001 event has led to a strengthening of physical safety. There is evidence that the illicit use of radioactive sources is a real possibility and may result in harmful radiological consequences for the population and the environment. In Brazil there are about 2000 medical, industrial and research facilities with radioactive sources, of which 400 are Category 1 and 2 classified by the - International Atomic Energy Agency - AIEA, where large irradiators occupy a prominent position due to the very high cobalt-60 activities. The radiological safety is well established in these facilities, due to the intense work of the authorities in the Country. In the paper the main aspects on radiological and physical safety applied in the large radiators are presented, in order to integrate both concepts for the benefit of the safety as a whole. The research showed that the items related to radiation safety are well defined, for example, the tests on the access control devices to the irradiation room. On the other hand, items related to physical security, such as effective control of access to the company, use of safety cameras throughout the company, are not yet fully incorporated. Integration of radiation and physical safety is fundamental for total safety. The elaboration of a Brazilian regulation on the subject is of extreme importance

  17. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  18. Radiation safety of soil moisture neutron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron probe measures sub-surface moisture in soil and other materials by means of high energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. Exposure to radiation, including neutrons, especially at high doses, can cause detrimental health effects. In order to achieve operational radiation safety, there must be compliance with protection and safety standards. The design and manufacture of commercially available neutron moisture gauges are such that risks to the health of the user have been greatly reduced. The major concern is radiation escape from the soil during measurement, especially under dry conditions and when the radius of influence is large. With appropriate work practices as well as good design and manufacture of gauges, recorded occupational doses have been well below recommended annual limits. It can be concluded that the use of neutron gauges poses not only acceptable health and safety risks but, in fact, the risks are negligible. Neutron gauges should not be classified as posing high potential health hazards. (author)

  19. Yearly plan of safety research on environmental radioactivity for 1996 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Yearly Plan of Safety Research on Environmental Radioactivity' proposed from the special meeting for safety research of environmental radioactivity on December 14, 1995 was investigated by Nuclear Safety Commission. And the safety research of environmental radioactivity in Japan was decided to be pursued according to the plan. The contents of this plan consisted of the purpose and the contents of research as well as the research period and the facilities to be done for each theme. The following themes were included; 1) study on environment·radiation dose and study on radiation exposure reduction. 2) study on biological effects of radiation. 3) study on internal exposure by specified nuclides. 4) study on medical measures for acute radiation exposure. 5) study on assessment of nuclear safety. 6) investigation on radioactivities released from various nuclear facilities in Japan to demonstrate their safety. (M.N.)

  20. SEAFP and SEAL: safety and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulden, W.; Raeder, J.; Cook, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power (SEAFP) programme undertaken in the period 1992-1995 formed part of the ongoing effort in the European Fusion Programme to consider the safety and environmental aspects of fusion power. The assessment started with the development of a tokamak fusion power plant model of 3000 MW of fusion power. The analyses of safety included detailed consideration of effluents from normal operation, occupational doses, accidents (concentrating on the worst possible), and waste management. SEAFP was also the starting point for the Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power -- Long Term Programme (SEAL) initiated within the European Fusion Programme in 1995. SEAL aims at broadening the scope and elaborating selected aspects in more detail. SEAFP and SEAL confirmed the favourable safety and environmental characteristics of fusion power. They also confirmed the need to support these characteristics by dedicated materials development and safety-related design decisions. Recently, a new study on fusion safety (SEAFP-2) has been launched, defined for the time period 1997-1998, using SEAFP and SEAL findings as starting points

  1. The IAEA safety standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It provides a historical overview of their development and also summarizes the standards' current preparation and review process. The final paragraphs offer an outlook on future developments. (author)

  2. Radiation safety and care of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with radiation safety measures which can be pursued to minimize radiation load to the patient and staff. The basic principle is that all unnecessary administration should be avoided and a number of simple techniques be used to reduce radiation dose. For example, the kidney excretes many radionuclides. Drinking plenty of fluid and frequent bladder emptying can minimize absorbed dose to the bladder. Thyroid blocking agents must be used if radioactive iodine is being administered to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. When it is necessary to administer radioactive substances to a female of childbearing age, the radiation exposure should be minimum and information whether the patient is pregnant or not must be obtained. Alternatives techniques, which do not involve ionizing radiation, should also be considered. (author)

  3. Radiation safety for site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guidance is an update of the 1975 Code of Practice for Site Radiography and is for the use of employers and their radiographers who carry out site work. The subject is discussed under the following headings: Administrative organization, Personnel requirements, Equipment (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment, security, pipeline crawler equipment and safety equipment) Work methods and monitoring, Carriage of sources, Contingency plans, Legal considerations. (U.K.)

  4. Monitoring System For Improving Radiation Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Paran, J.; Tal, N.; Ankry, N.; Ashkenazi, B.; Tirosh, D.; Marziano, R.; Chisin, R.

    1999-01-01

    Medi SMARTS (Medical Survey Mapping Automatic Radiation Tracing System), a gamma radiation monitoring system, was installed in a nuclear medicine department. In this paper the evaluation of the system's ability to improve radiation safety management is presented. The system is based on a state of the art software that continuously collects on line radiation measurements for display, analysis and logging. Radiation is measured by GM tubes; the signal is transferred to a data processing unit and then via an RS-485 communication line to a computer. The system automatically identifies the detector type and its calibration factor, thus providing compatibility, maintainability and versatility when changing detectors. Radiation levels are displayed on the nuclear medicine department map at six locations. The system has been operating continuously for more than one year, documenting abnormal events caused by routine operation or failure incidents. In cases where abnormal working conditions were encountered, an alarm message was sent automatically to the supervisor via his tele-pager. An interesting issue observed during the system evaluation, was the inability to distinguish between high radiation levels caused by proper routine operation and those caused by safety failure incidents. The solution included examination of two parameters, radiation levels as well as their duration period. A careful analysis of the historical data, applying the appropriated combined parameters determined for each location, verified that such a system can identify abnormal events, provide alarms to warn in case of incidents and improve standard operating procedures

  5. Radiation (Safety Control) Ordinance 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Ordinance provides for the control, regulation, possession, use and transport of radioactive substance and irradiating apparatus. The Director of Health is responsible for administration of the Ordinance, which contains detailed provisions concerning the terms and conditions of licences, duties of licensees, medical examinations, maximum radiation doses, precautions to be taken to avoid exceeding such doses. The Ordinance also lays down a system of record-keeping and registration as well as packaging specifications for the transport of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  6. Radiation safety and inventory of sealed radiation sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Mannan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sealed radiation sources (SRS) of various types and activities are widely used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching in Pakistan. The proper maintenance of records of SRS is mandatory for users/licensees. Since 1956, more than 2000 radiation sources of different isotopes having activities of Bq to TBq have been imported. Of these, several hundred sources have been disposed of and some have been exported/returned to the suppliers. To ensure the safety and security of the sources and to control and regulate the safe use of radiation sources in various disciplines, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), the implementing arm of the regulatory authority in the country, has introduced a system for notifying, registering and licensing the use of all types of SRS. In order to update the inventory of SRS used throughout the country, the DNSRP has developed a database. (author)

  7. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  8. Environmental and safety problems of waste management in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwibach, J.; Jacobi, W.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental and safety problems which waste management in nuclear technology poses are discussed under the aspects of the disposal of radioactive waste by nuclear facilities and the safety of radioactive waste disposal. The release and global distribution of long-lived radionuclides such as tritium, Kr-85, C-14, I-129, and Pu-239 as well as the radiation exposure of the world population resulting thereof are investigated, the authors starting from a specific production rate of the nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Definitions of the terms 'dose commitment' and 'collective dose commitment' are given. Furthermore, local radiation exposure in reprocessing plants is investigated and compared with regional and global radiation exposure. A recommendation is made to take measures which would reduce the nuclides tritium, Kr-85, and C-14 in order to achieve considerably smaller collective doses. (HR/LN) [de

  9. Functions of the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Functions of the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR are described considering the following aspects: Nuclear plant safety, nuclear safeguards, physical protection, safety in working areas, environmental protection including radioactive waste management, protection of man by medical supervision and dosimetry, further training, international co-operation and information. (author)

  10. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  11. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  12. Programmes and Systems for Source and Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments is a legitimate practice in the nuclear and other industries, hospitals and research. Where appropriate, monitoring of the discharges and of relevant environmental media is an essential regulatory requirement in order to ensure appropriate radiation protection of the public. Such monitoring provides information on the actual amounts of radioactive material discharged and the radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and is needed to demonstrate compliance with authorized limits, to assess the radiation exposure of members of the public and to provide data to aid in the optimization of radiation protection. Uncontrolled releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere and aquatic environments may occur as a result of a nuclear or radiological accident. Again, monitoring at the source of the release and of the environment is necessary. In this case, monitoring is used both to assess the radiation exposure of members of the public and to determine the actions necessary for public protection, including longer term countermeasures. Source and environmental monitoring associated with the release of radionuclides to the environment is the subject of a number of IAEA Safety Standards, particularly IAEA Safety Standard RS-G-1.8 (Environmental and Source Monitoring for Purposes of Radiation Protection). This publication is intended to complement this Safety Guide and, by so doing, replaces Safety Series No. 41 (Objectives and Design of Environmental Monitoring Programmes for Radioactive Contaminants) and Safety Series No. 46 (Monitoring of Airborne and Liquid Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Facilities to the Environment). Like Safety Standard RS-G-1.8, this Safety Report deals with monitoring at the source and in the environment associated with authorized releases of radionuclides to the environment. It also deals with the general issues of emergency monitoring during and in the aftermath of an

  13. Environmental and Occupational Safety Division annual progress report for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Over 950 radiation workers were monitored at ORNL for both internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in 1984, and no employee exceeded 50% of the applicable DOE dose limit. No internal exposure exceeded 10% of the maximum permissible organ burden, as determined by in-vivo gamma spectrometry. Dose readings from 5000 TLDs and 136,000 pocket meters were determined, and more than 5800 calibrations were performed on these devices. Approximately 82,000 radioassays were performed; among these were 1500 urinalyses and 3000 radiochemical analyses. Over 3000 calibrations were performed for approximately 2000 portable and fixed survey instruments. Response teams were identified in support of the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP). Documentation, procedures, and equipment for the RAP vehicle were upgraded. A long-range environmental plan was issued early in the year and again in June 1984 to document the scope and justification for each project. The DEM is developing an environmental information system for managing DOE-ORO and ORNL environmental data. Five hundred eighty-four waste disposal requests containing 5769 items were handled by the Hazardous Materials Control Group during 1984. The Office of Operational Safety made significant progress in the completion of Safety Analysis Reports for existing facilities. The Radiation and Safety Surveys Department is becoming increasingly involved in work resulting in facility improvement, repair, or upgrade as well as decontamination and decommissioning of older facilities

  14. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  15. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  16. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2006-01-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  17. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M. [Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  18. Radiation protection in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of radiation protection with environmental protection, the sources that may give rise to the environmental radiation contamination, and the system of radiation protection and the fundamental principles and requirements for radiation environmental management are introduced. Some special radiation protection problems faced with in the radiation environmental management are discussed. (author)

  19. Generic radiation safety design for SSRL synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C. [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]. E-mail: james@slac.stanford.edu; Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To allow for a conservative, simple, uniform, consistent, efficient radiation safety design for all SSRL beamlines, a generic approach has been developed, considering both synchrotron radiation (SR) and gas bremsstrahlung (GB) hazards. To develop the methodology and rules needed for generic beamline design, analytic models, the STAC8 code, and the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to pre-calculate sets of curves and tables that can be looked up for each beamline safety design. Conservative beam parameters and standard targets and geometries were used in the calculations. This paper presents the SPEAR3 beamline parameters that were considered in the design, the safety design considerations, and the main pre-calculated results that are needed for generic shielding design. In the end, the rules and practices for generic SSRL beamline design are summarized.

  20. India's power program and its concern over environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.E.; Mittra, J.

    2001-01-01

    India's need of electrical power is enormous and per capita consumption of power is to be increased at least by ten times to reach the level of world average. Thermal Power generation faces two fold problems. First, there is scarcity of good quality fuel and second, increasing environmental pollution. India's self reliant, three stage, 'closed-fuel-cycle' nuclear power program is promising better solution to the above problems. To ensure Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources, Indian Nuclear Power program emphasizes upon design and engineering safety by incorporating necessary safety features in the design, operational safety through structured training program and typically through software packages to handle rare unsafe events and regulation by complying safety directives. A health survey among the radiation workers indicates that there is no extra threat to the public from nuclear power program. Based on latest technology, as available in case of nuclear power option, it is quite possible to meet high energy requirement with least impact on the environment.. (authors)

  1. India's power programs and its concern over environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.E.; Mittra, J.; Sarma, M.S.R.

    2000-01-01

    India's need for electrical power is enormous and per capita consumption of power is to be increased at least by 10 times to reach the level of the world average. Thermal power generation faces two-fold problems. First, there is scarcity of good quality fuel and second, increasing environmental pollution. India 's self reliant, . three stage, 'closed-fuel-cycle' nuclear power program is promising a better solution to the above problems. To ensure Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources, the Indian Nuclear Power program emphasizes upon design and engineering safety by incorporating' necessary safety features in the design, operational safety through a structured training program and typically through software packages to handle rare unsafe events and regulation by complying safety directives. A health survey among the radiation workers indicates that there is no extra threat to the public from the nuclear power program. Based on the latest technology, as available in case of the nuclear power option, it is quite possible to meet high energy requirements with least impact on the environment. (authors)

  2. Radiation Protection and Safety infrastructure in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, F.; Dollani, K.; Paci, R.

    2005-01-01

    On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation

  3. Progress report: 1996 Radiation Safety Systems Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.; Mehta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The activities of Radiation Safety Systems Division include (i) development of specialised monitoring systems and radiation safety information network, (ii) radiation hazards control at the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the radioisotope programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and for the accelerators programme at BARC and Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore. The systems on which development and upgradation work was carried out during the year included aerial gamma spectrometer, automated environment monitor using railway network, radioisotope package monitor and air monitors for tritium and alpha active aerosols. Other R and D efforts at the division included assessment of risk for radiation exposures and evaluation of ICRP 60 recommendations in the Indian context, shielding evaluation and dosimetry for the new upcoming accelerator facilities and solid state nuclear track detector techniques for neutron measurements. The expertise of the divisional members was provided for 36 safety committees of BARC and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Twenty three publications were brought out during the year 1996. (author)

  4. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  5. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-03-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uranium and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The {gamma}-radionuclides such as natural radionuclides 40K or 7Be were detected in pine needle and food. The nuclear radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs or 131I were temporarily detected in the samples of air particulate and rain in April and of fall out in 2nd quarter from the effect of Fukusima accident.

  6. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-05-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uraniu and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The radioactivities of most {gamma}-radionuclides in air particulate, surface water and ground water were less than MDA except {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be which are natural radionuclides. However, not only {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be but also {sup 137}Cs were detected at the background level in surface soil, discharge sediment and fallout or pine needle.

  7. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Pursuant to the provisions of its Statute relevant to the adoption and application of safety standards for protection against radiation, the Agency convened a panel of experts which formulated the Basic Safety Standards set forth in this publication. The panel met under the chairmanship of Professor L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and representatives of the United Nations and of several of its specialized agencies participated in its work. The Basic Safety Standards thus represent the result of a most careful assessment of the variety of complex scientific and administrative problems involved. Nevertheless, of course, they will need to be revised from time to time in the light of advances in scientific knowledge, of comments received from Member States and of the work of other competent international organizations. The Agency's Board of Governors in June 1962 approved the Standards as a first edition, subject to later revision as mentioned above, and authorized Director General Sigvard Eklund to apply the Standards in Agency and Agency-assisted operations and to invite Governments of Member States to take them as a basis in formulating national regulations or recommendations on protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. It is mainly for this last purpose that the Basic Safety Standards are now being published in the Safety Series; but it is hoped that this publication will also interest a much wider circle of readers.

  8. The safety and environmental impact of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive matters were discovered in 1989. Exploitation and using of nuclear energy and nuclear technologies bring mankind huge benefits, but the disposal of radioactive wastes is becoming one of the safety and environmental problems. The author describes six issues related to nuclear wastes. They are as follows: (1) The origin and characteristics of the nuclear wastes; (2) The principles of management of nuclear wastes established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as the Chinese '40 words principles' and the major tasks of Chinese nuclear waste management; (3) The treatment and disposal technologies of nuclear wastes and the emphasis on new technologies, waste minimization and exemption and clean release; (4) The safety management of spent radiation sources including technical and administrative measures; (5) The safety management of spent nuclear fuel and the emphasis on high level radioactive wastes to be safety disposed of; (6) The environmental impact of nuclear waste. The author takes the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and the Daya bay Nuclear Power Plant I, China, as two examples to prove that nuclear wastes can be safely controlled and managed to ensure environmental safety. The Chinese north-west disposal land of nuclear wastes under operation recently is also discussed. It is believed that the suggested disposal land can ensure the isolation of radioactive wastes and the surrounding environment according to the present standards. The north-west disposal land and the Beilong disposal land, Guangdong province, China, are built according to the international standard and advanced technologies

  9. Research on crisis communication of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yali; Zhang Ying

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient public cognition of nuclear and radiation safety and absence of effective method to handle crisis lead to common crisis events of nuclear and radiation safety, which brings about unfavorable impact on the sound development of nuclear energy exploring and application of nuclear technology. This paper, based on crisis communication theory, analyzed the effect of current situation on nuclear and radiation safety crisis, discussed how to handle crisis, and tried to explore the effective strategies for nuclear and radiation safety crisis handling. (authors)

  10. Implementation of radiation safety program in a medical institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanca, Elena D.

    1999-01-01

    A medical institution that utilizes radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of malignancies develops and implements a radiation safety program to keep occupational exposures of radiation workers and exposures of non-radiation workers and the public to the achievable and a more achievable minimum, to optimize the use of radiation, and to prevent misadministration. The hospital radiation safety program is established by a core medical radiation committee composed of trained radiation safety officers and head of authorized users of radioactive materials and radiation machines from the different departments. The radiation safety program sets up procedural guidelines of the safe use of radioactive material and of radiation equipment. It offers regular training to radiation workers and radiation safety awareness courses to hospital staff. The program has a comprehensive radiation safety information system or radsis that circularizes the radiation safety program in the hospital. The radsis keeps the drafted and updated records of safety guides and policies, radioactive material and equipment inventory, personnel dosimetry reports, administrative, regulatory and licensing activity document, laboratory procedures, emergency procedures, quality assurance and quality control program process, physics and dosimetry procedures and reports, personnel and hospital staff training program. The medical radiation protection committee is tasked to oversee the actual implementation of the radiation safety guidelines in the different radiation facilities in the hospital, to review personnel exposures, incident reports and ALARA actions, operating procedures, facility inspections and audit reports, to evaluate the existing radiation safety procedures, to make necessary changes to these procedures, and make modifications of course content of the training program. The effective implementation of the radiation safety program provides increased confidence that the physician and

  11. Civilizational and ethical aspects of environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Danilo Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available These considerations of civilizational and ethical aspects of environmental safety start by a reference to the conceptual determination of this safety, and its foundation on a conception of the Planet Earth as a political and geological space, originating in the development of life forms. In this sense, the author understands the structures of the Earth's ecosystem, its unity, and the disruption of this unity with consequences for its survival and the survival of the human civilization itself. In the context of this approach, the author points to the need to preserve the environmental safety from the standpoint of equality and justice, stressing that justice is a legal category, especially when it is associated with the laws of nature, laws which are also associated with man as a natural being.

  12. The Radiation Safety Culture: Image Gently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to Implementing Safety include Silos of Knowledge, Time, training and Resources. Creating a Safety Culture in Healthcare include Decreased authority gradients, Checklists and audits (QA), Use of structured language (SBAR), Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation Team briefings and debriefings (immediate learning, team building tools), Lifelong learning (PQI). Use of Collective Learning Opportunities - QA and PQI that include Web sites: IG, WFPI, IAEA, ISR and Data Registries: ACR . The Key Principles of Radiation Protection: When do we learn them? For Occupational Workers:Time, Distance and Shielding while those of For Patients: Justification, Optimization and Dose Limits (dose reference levels)

  13. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  14. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2001. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence

  15. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2003. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co- operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  16. Radiation protection and safety culture for cyclotron workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review radiation protection and safety culture measures to be applied to cyclotron workers. The radiation protection (measures are based on Basic Safety standards for the protection) of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation, while the safety culture are based on IAEA publications

  17. The radiation safety self-assessment program of Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, G.; Chase, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has developed a self-assessment program to ensure that high quality in its radiation safety program is maintained. The self-assessment program has three major components: routine ongoing assessment, accident/incident investigation, and detailed assessments of particular radiation safety subsystems or of the total radiation safety program. The operation of each of these components is described

  18. Radiation safety handbook for ionizing and nonionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, C.B.

    1976-10-01

    The Handbook is directed primarily to users of radiation sources throughout the Food and Drug Administration. Specific precautions regarding the possession and use of radiation sources in meeting the Agency's objectives are an inherent responsibility of all employees. In addition, the increased emphasis on occupational safety and health and the responsibilities placed on the Department by Public Law and Executive Order make it mandatory that all organizational levels and activities conform to the intent of this Handbook. The policies and procedures described in this document apply to all Agency operators and activities and are intended to protect employees and the general public

  19. Radiation safety and formation of public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurbanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Team-administrative system of long years has been a reason of environmental pollution and health consequences and still does. This includes soil pollution with pesticides, ecological condition of micro and macro flora of the Caspian Sea, soil pollution with oil, deforestation and etc. Scientists and environmental NGOs have given some information to public and public opinion has already been formed on this issue. But public opinion is not necessarily formed on radiation - the most important and invisible problem. The reason of this is that radiation danger has been hidden as a closed theme from the public. After the soviet collapse this problem is also being revealed. Number of NGOs have held the seminar on this issue and given some information to public. The researches cover the following problems:To hold the public monitoring in the fields polluted with oil and separate it from the other fields by determining the fields polluted with radiation. To take measures in order to prevent public entrance to these fields; To inform about the usage of radiation based equipment in the industrial fields and to hold the regular monitoring; To advertise the differential signs of radiation sources in the city landfill and other polluted zones; To broaden the advocacy on ultraviolet rays and their influence to human health; To disseminate the brochures and advertisement papers on high technical radiation and their influence to human health; To analyze the radio environmental condition around the Gabala Radar Station; To advocate the possible radiation danger in using the x-ray and other medical equipment; Analyze the possible radon danger in shipping materials; To create the idea on possible transition of radioactive gases and elements from neighbor countries; Creation of idea on possible danger around the high voltage. The formation of public opinion on mentioned problem will depend on combining the scientists' and NGOs activities

  20. Nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batjargala, Erdev

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to assess legal environment of Mongolia for development of nuclear and radiation safety and security. The Nuclear Energy Agency, regulatory agency of the Government of Mongolia, was founded in the beginning of 2009. Since then, it has formulated the State Policy for Utilization of Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy and the Nuclear Energy Law, regulatory law of the field. The State Great Khural of Mongolia has enacted these acts. By adopting the State Policy and Nuclear Energy Law, which together imported the international standards for nuclear and radiation safety and security, it is possible to conclude that legal environment has formed in Mongolia to explore and process radioactive minerals and utilize nuclear energy and introduce technologies friendly to human health and environment. (author)

  1. Solar Passive Modification Increase Radiation Safety Standards Inside Accelerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, A. F.; Keshk, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation processing by accelerated electrons is considering one of the most important and useful industrial irradiation treatments. It is depending on two principle attachment elements which are architecture of irradiation building and the accelerator characteristic that was arranged inside irradiation building. Negative environmental measurements were recorded inside the main building and were exceeded the international standards (humidity, air speed, high thermal effects and ozone concentration). The study showed that it is essential to improve the natural environmental standards inside the main irradiation building in order to improve the work environment and to reduce ozone concentration from 220 ppb to international standard. The main goals and advantages were achieved by using environmental architecture (desert architecture) indoor the irradiation building. The work depends on passive solar system which is economic, same architectural elements, comfort / health, and radiation safety, and without mechanical means. The experimental work was accomplished under these modifications. The registered results of various environmental concentrations have proved their normal standards.

  2. Safety of natural radiation exposure. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses

  3. Integration of radiation protection in safety management: sharing best practices between radiation protection and other safety areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockerols, Pierre; Fessler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) located in Geel is one of the seven institutes of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC, DG JRC). The institute was founded in 1960 as a nuclear research centre, but has gradually shifted its activities to also include 'non-nuclear' domains, mainly in the areas of food safety and environmental surveillance. As the activities on the IRMM site are currently quite diversified, they necessitate the operation of nuclear controlled areas, accelerators, as well as bio safety restricted areas and chemical laboratories. Therefore, the care for occupational health and safety and for environmental protection has to take into consideration various types of hazards and threats. Recently an integrated management system according to ISO-9001, ISO-14001 and OHSAS-18001 was implemented. The integrated system combines 'vertically' quality, occupational health and safety and environmental issues and covers 'horizontally' the nuclear, biological and chemical fields. The paper outlines how the radiation protection can be included in an overall health, safety and environmental management system. It will give various practical examples where synergies can be applied: 1-) the overall policy; 2-) The assessment and ranking of all risks and the identification, in a combined way, of the appropriate prevention measures; 3-) The planning and review of related actions; 4-) The monitoring, auditing and registration of anomalies and incidents and the definition of corrective actions; 5-) The training of personnel based on lessons learned from past experiences; 6-) The organisation of an internal emergency plan dealing with nuclear and non-nuclear hazards. Based on these examples, the benefits of having an integrated approach are commented. In addition, the paper will illustrate how the recent ICRP fundamental recommendations and more particularly some of the principles of radiation protection such as

  4. Radiation safety and protection on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Bogorad, V.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Slepchenko, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The main issues of the radiation safety and protection provision on the nuclear power plants are considered in this monograph. The description of the basic sources of the radiation danger on NPPs, the principles, the methods and the means of the safety and radiation monitoring provision are shown. The special attention is paid to the issues of the ionizing radiation regulation

  5. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  6. Radiation Safety Awareness Among Medical Staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Świętoń, Dominik; Muc, Adam; Mockałło, Gabor; Dzierżanowski, Jarosław; Szurowska, Edyta

    2015-01-01

    The common access to imaging methods based on ionizing radiation requires also radiation protection. The knowledge of ionizing radiation exposure risks among the medical staff is essential for planning diagnostic procedures and therapy. Evaluation of the knowledge of radiation safety during diagnostic procedures among the medical staff. The study consisted of a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed-ended questions concerning the knowledge of the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as well as questions related to responder’s profession and work experience. The study group included a total of 150 individuals from four professional groups: nurses, doctors, medical technicians, support staff. The study was carried out in the three largest hospitals in Gdańsk between July and October 2013. The highest rates of correct answers to questions related to the issue of radiation protection were provided by the staff of radiology facilities and emergency departments with 1–5 years of professional experience. The most vulnerable group in terms of the knowledge of these issues consisted of individuals working at surgical wards with 11–15 years of professional experience. Education in the field of radiological protection should be a subject of periodic training of medical personnel regardless of position and length of service

  7. New safety valve addresses environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Austin, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Conoco Pipeline is using a unique relief valve to reduce costs while improving environmental protection at its facilities. Conoco Pipeline Co. Inc. began testing new relief valves in 1987 to present over-pressuring its pipelines while enhancing the safety, environmental integrity and profitability of its pipelines. Conoco worked jointly with Rupture Pin Technology Inc., Oklahoma City, to seek a solution to a series of safety, environmental, and operational risks in the transportation of crude oil and refined products through pipelines. Several of the identified problems were traced to a single equipment source: the reliability of rupture discs used at pipeline stations to relieve pressure by diverting flow to tanks during over-pressure conditions. Conoco's corporate safety and environmental policies requires solving problems that deal with exposure to hydrocarbon vapors, chemical spills or the atmospheric release of fugitive emissions, such as during rupture disc maintenance. The company had used rupture pin valves as vent relief devices in conjunction with development by Rick Austin of inert gas methods to protect the inner casing wall and outer carrier pipeline wall in pipeline road crossings. The design relies on rupture pin valves set at 5 psi to isolate vent openings from the atmosphere prior to purging the annular space between the pipeline and casing with inert gas to prevent corrosion. Speciality Pipeline Inspection and Engineering Inc., Houston, is licensed to distribute the equipment for the new cased-crossing procedure

  8. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  9. Health, safety and environmental research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinner, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    This report outlines the Health, Safety and Environmental Research Program being undertaken by the CFFTP. The Program objectives, relationship to other CFFTP programs, implementation plans and expected outputs are stated. Opportunities to build upon the knowledge and experience gained in safely managing tritium in the CANDU program, by addressing generic questions pertinent to tritium safety for fusion facilities, are identified. These opportunities exist across a broad spectrum of issues covering the anticipated behaviour of tritium in fusion facilities, the surrounding environment and in man

  10. Environmental Change in Post-closure Safety Assessment of Solid Radioactive Waste Repositories. Report of Working Group 3 Reference Models for Waste Disposal of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for assessing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Reference Models for Waste Disposal Working Group

  11. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Safety and environmental aspects of deuterium--tritium fusion power plants: work shop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    In September of 1977 a workshop was held on the safety and environmental aspects of fusion power plants to consider potential safety and environmental problems of fusion power plants and to reveal solutions or methods of solving those problems. The objective was to promote incorporation of safety and environmental protection into reactor design, thereby reducing the expense and delay of backfitting safety systems after reactor designs are complete. A dialogue was established between fusion reactor designers and safety and environmental researchers. Four topics, each with several subdivisions, were selected for discussion: radiation exposure, accidents, environmental effects, and plant safety. For each topic, discussion focused on the significance of the problem, and adequacy of current technology to solve the problem, design solutions available and research needed to solve the problem

  13. Investigation on regulatory requirements for radiation safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok; Cho, Dae Hyung

    2013-01-01

    NRC recognizes that efficient management of radiation safety plan is an important factor to achieve radiation safety service. In case of Korea, the contents to perform the actual radiation safety management are legally contained in radiation safety management reports based on the Nuclear Safety Act. It is to prioritize the importance of safety regulations in each sector in accordance with the current situation of radiation and radioactive isotopes-used industry and to provide a basis for deriving safety requirements and safety regulations system maintenance by the priority of radiation safety management regulations. It would be helpful to achieve regulations to conform to reality based on international standards if consistent safety requirements is developed for domestic users, national standards and international standards on the basis of the results of questions answered by radiation safety managers, who lead on-site radiation safety management, about the priority of important factors in radioactive sources use, sales, production, moving user companies, to check whether derived configuration requirements for radiation safety management are suitable for domestic status

  14. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  15. Radiation Application in the Environmental. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaliah Sharif; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ming, T.T.; Nor Hasimah Mohamed; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman

    2017-01-01

    Radiation has always been a natural part of environment. It is valuable working resources for civil, chemical and environmental engineers and scientist involved with pollution control, water treatment and industrial waste treatment. Electron beam technology for environmental conservation can be achieved if we took into account the economic factors which enable it to compete with existed technology.

  16. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  17. Safety of radiation sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicic-Kolsek, A.; Sutej, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Slovenia, a central European country which has been independent since 1991, has about 2 million inhabitants and an area of 20,256 km 2 . The Constitutional Law on Enforcement of the Basic Constitutional Charter on the Autonomy and Independence of the Republic of Slovenia, adopted on 23 June 1991 (Off. Gaz. of the R of Slovenia No. 1/91), provided that all the laws adopted by the Socialist Federal Republic (SFR) of Yugoslavia should remain in force in the Republic of Slovenia pending the adoption of appropriate legislation by the Slovene Parliament. Under the Slovene Constitution, all international treaties ratified by Slovenia constitute an integral part of Slovenia's legislation and can be applied directly. In Slovenia, all regular types of ionizing radiation source are being used for peaceful purposes and are covered by a system for their safe use and control. All radiation sources and radioactive materials are registered and under regulatory control. Inspections are carried out periodically by the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS) and, in the case of nuclear installations, the Slovene Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). Technical checks on radiation sources are carried out periodically by technical support organizations: the Jozef Stefan Institute and the Institute for Occupational Safety (IOS). (author)

  18. Nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Major factors by which the radiation situation in Kazakhstan is formed are: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium mining and milling activity and geological exploration of uranium; nuclear power plant and research reactors; residues of atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions, which were conducted for military and peaceful purposes at different test sites; mining and milling of commercial minerals accompanied by radioactive substances; use of radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific research. Since 1991, after getting sovereignty, creation was started of an own legislative basis of the country for the field of atomic energy use. It includes laws, regulations and standards for nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations, personnel, involved in the activity with using of atomic energy, population and environment. An applicable system of state regulation in this area (including a central regulatory body in the field of atomic energy use) and various ministries, agencies and committees, was created. As a result of these reforms, regulatory activities were improved in the country. This paper presents the current matters of nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan and some difficulties which Kazakhstan encountered during the transition to an independent state. (author)

  19. Radiation chemistry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, A.N.; Tarasova, N.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    A combination of different technological methods in one plant is usually economically advantageous in industry. Such a general approach is also useful in solving ecological problems by methods of radiation technology. This method of cleaning 'harsh' sufactants and 'mold' products and a stage of subsequent biological purification of these products from the water. Combining radiation and adsorption techniques is also promising. A relatively large number of examples can now be cited. At the same time, purely radiational technologies are also possible. The authors discuss one of these technologies in more detail. This concerns electron-beam scrubbing of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the gases from electric power plants. This method can also be used for scrubbing sulfur dioxide from waste gases from sulfuric acid and metallurgical plants

  20. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  1. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  2. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  3. Communication on radiation safety: ability and sensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, Jose de Julio; Ministry of Environment

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Communication Issues today, combine aspects of nuclear science, public approach and psychological subjects. The principal objectives are to systematize nuclear public information and to prepare researchers or communicators in a position to comment on the nuclear issues of our stage. The programme should focused on progress of nuclear energy, public perception of risk, conflicts among scientists, as the radiation effect at low doses, and how nuclear industry and scientists may better communicate information concerning the potential for hazard to property, health and the environment. There will be occasions where the competent authority should have formal link with other organizations, as in case of abnormal situation or emergency. Particular attention should be paid to the exchange of distinct parts in order to avoid misinterpretation or mistakes when divulging information to the public.Communication is emphasized in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, [1] as well as, the current approach created to enlarge the relationship between man, practices and protection by the encouragement of a better understanding and implementation of the Safety Culture concept. The application of this concept involves better protection on Radiation Safety to workers, public and environment not only reducing accidents, but also avoiding unnecessary stresses and strains due to intensified operations. This means an advance towards the humanization of practices, equally observed by industrialized and developing countries. Finally, this paper also comment about two very important lessons that there were not yet learned as in reality necessary, considering the goals for a competent Nuclear Communication: the psychological effects of Chernobyl accident in April 1986 resulted from the lack of public information; the psychological effects of the Radiological Accident in Goiania resulted from the misunderstanding of the basic concept of ionizing radiation, which was translated into fear and

  4. Report on administrative work for radiation safety from April 2006 to March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, Akio; Kaneko, Osamu; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Asakura, Yamato; Kawano, Takao; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Miyake, Hitoshi

    2007-10-15

    The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is proceeding with the research on magnetic confining nuclear fusion both experimentally and theoretically. During the experiment with deals with very hot plasma, X ray is generated. Therefore the experimental devices with their surroundings are administrated in conformity with the Industrial Safety and Health Law to keep workplace safety. The Radiation Control Safety Office of Safety Hygiene Protection Bureau carries out measuring the radiation dose level regularly, registering the employees who are engaged in plasma experiments, and training them. Non-regulated small sealed sources are used in some detectors. The treating of these sources is controlled by the Safety and Environmental Research Center. This report is on administrative works for radiation safety in the last fiscal year 2006. It includes (1) report on the establishment of radiation safety management system, (2) report on the establishment of training and registration system for radiation workers, and (3) results of radiation dose measurement and monitoring in the radiation controlled area and on the site by using Radiation Monitoring System Applicable to Fusion Experiment (RMSAFE). The report has been published annually. We hope that these reports would be helpful for future safety management in NIFS. (author)

  5. Report on administrative work for radiation safety from April 2006 to March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Akio; Kaneko, Osamu; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Asakura, Yamato; Kawano, Takao; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Miyake, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is proceeding with the research on magnetic confining nuclear fusion both experimentally and theoretically. During the experiment with deals with very hot plasma, X ray is generated. Therefore the experimental devices with their surroundings are administrated in conformity with the Industrial Safety and Health Law to keep workplace safety. The Radiation Control Safety Office of Safety Hygiene Protection Bureau carries out measuring the radiation dose level regularly, registering the employees who are engaged in plasma experiments, and training them. Non-regulated small sealed sources are used in some detectors. The treating of these sources is controlled by the Safety and Environmental Research Center. This report is on administrative works for radiation safety in the last fiscal year 2006. It includes (1) report on the establishment of radiation safety management system, (2) report on the establishment of training and registration system for radiation workers, and (3) results of radiation dose measurement and monitoring in the radiation controlled area and on the site by using Radiation Monitoring System Applicable to Fusion Experiment (RMSAFE). The report has been published annually. We hope that these reports would be helpful for future safety management in NIFS. (author)

  6. Safety guide data on radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Noboru; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1986-04-01

    In a reprocessing facility, various radiation sources are handled and have many geometrical conditions. To aim drawing up a safety guidebook on radiation shielding in order to evaluate shielding safety in a reprocessing facility with high reliability and reasonableness, JAERI trusted investigation on safety evaluation techniques of radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility to Nuclear Safety Research Association. This report is the collection of investigation results, and describes concept of shielding safety design principle, radiation sources in reprocessing facility and estimation of its strength, techniques of shielding calculations, and definite examples of shielding calculation in reprocessing facility. (author)

  7. Maintenance of radiation safety information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Sun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Chung, Chong Kyu; Lim, Bock Soo; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chang, Kwang Il; Nam, Kwan Hyun; Cho, Hye Ryan [AD center incubation LAB, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of radiation safety information system maintenance are to maintain the requirement of users, change of job process and upgrade of the system performance stably and effectively while system maintenance. We conduct the code of conduct recommended by IAEA, management of radioisotope inventory database systematically using analysis for the state of inventory database integrated in this system. This system and database will be support the regulatory guidance, rule making and information to the MOST, KINS, other regulatory related organization and general public optimizationally.

  8. A concept of radiation safety in radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitskij, R.V.; Vasil'ev, V.N.; Lebedev, L.A.; Blinov, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual problems of up to date radiation safety dosimetric ensurance in radiation diagnostics and radiotherapy of nontumor diseases are as follows: selection of dosimetric criteria of nonequilibrium radiation influence with an account of probable remote radiation aftereffects; determination of dose-response dependence character by low radiation doses; development of optimal technological principles for radiation diagnostics and therapy; development of organizational and methodical approaches to decreasing dose loads by radiation diagnostics and therapy of nontumor diseases; optimization of studies by ALARA principle

  9. Operations report 1985 of the Department of Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Frenkler, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Under the heading 'Licensing' the report deals with licensing procedures and the handling of nuclear-fuels and radioactive materials. Operational radiation protection is concerned with operational and personnel monitoring, mathematical methods and safety analyses. Environmental protection deals with emission control, immission monitoring and meteorological measurements, and safety technology with α/β-analysis, dosimetry, equipment servicing and mechanics, nuclear material safeguards. Other subdepartments take care of industrial safety, physical protection, emergency protection and training. Subjects dealt with, too, are dispersion pollutants in atmosphere and environment, further development of radiation protection methods, and the bibliography of radiation protection in KFA. (HK) [de

  10. Safety and Environmental Protection Division 1975 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Ash, J.A.

    1976-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other environmental pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory during 1975 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in precipitation; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk, grass and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  11. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group

  12. Transfer of Tritium in the Environment after Accidental Releases from Nuclear Facilities. Report of Working Group 7 Tritium Accidents of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (Emras II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for assessing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Tritium Accidents Working Group

  13. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group.

  14. The activity at the state organs of Russia in the field for providing radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The principles of reliable, efficient radiation safety of enterprises, research institute and organizations of Minatom of Russian Federation, environmental protection and some other problems have been discussed in this report. It consists of three parts. The first contents the information of the governmental and industrial safety systems on the territory of Russian Federation. The second part comprises the findings distinguishing the safety of the NPPs and the enterprises of nuclear industry. Some problems of the actual researches and application developments including the development of new international nuclear safety standards based on recommendations of International Committee of Radiation Protection have been written in third part. (author)

  15. Recommendation for the continued development of the Radiation Protection Program of the Federal Minister for Environmental, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    During the last 5 years, this catalogue of topics served as a reference source for promoting research topics in radiation protection. The topics receiving support are listed. During the time between 1986 and 1990, a total of 222 projects have been supported at an overall expense of about 160 million DM. Research results show that considerable progress has been made in population protection and that of occupationally exposed individuals. SSK is submitting a request for radiation protection research programs to be supported by the Federal Minister for the Environment (BMU). All major previously and supplementary recommended research topics are divided into 10 subject areas. A brief survey of supplementary recommended topics is given. A detailed description of all so far supported research topics and of those to be promoted in future are listed together with respective substantiations. The proposals for new research topics - as far as they lie within the authority of BMU - were formulated by the SSK and its committees. (orig./DG) [de

  16. GERMON. Global Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Between 15-18 December 1987, a meeting of experts of WHO/UNEP met at Le Vesinet, France, to develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON) which would have the function of reporting on a regular basis environmental radiation levels, and be positioned to provide rapid and reliable radiation measurements in the event of a major radiation release. To date, some 58 countries have indicated their willingness to become part of GERMON. About 40 of these have technical staff and equipment to meet the minimum requirements for joining the network, and about 30 have designated appropriate organizations within their country to serve as national Liaison Institutions for GERMON. Sixteen countries are now providing data on a regular basis to the CCC at SCPRI in Le Vesinet, France. Thirty-two countries responded to the request of WHO for readiness to take part in a IAEA radiation emergency exercise. The present meeting has been held in Montgomery, Alabama, USA at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory between 27 April 1992 and 30 April 1992, with the purpose of reviewing GERMON. One important topic considered was the implementation of GERMON in the Americas. Particular attention was given to the need for better coordination with IAEA in responding to the Convention on Early Notification, to the role of the CCC, to forms of data transmission, etc

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, Y.B.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.; Chung, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    For the KAERI site, various environmental samples were collected three times a month, and the natural environmental radiation levels were also measured at each sampling point. Measurements for gross alpha and beta radioactivities of the samples were routinely measured for all samples. Strontium-90 concentrations were also analysed for the fallout and air samples collected daily basis on the roof of the main building. Accumulated exposure including the possibility of determination of low level environmental radiation field by employing thermoluminescent dosimeter, CaSO 4 : Dsub(y)-0.4 teflon disc type, at 6 posts in on-site of the KAERI. As for Kori site, at 19 points of ON, OFF-site, and at the same time the environmental radiation exposure rate at each sampling point were measured. Several environmental samples such as surface soil, pine needles, water samples, milk sample and pasture samples were collected and analysed on a quarterly basis. As a result of the survey it can be said that no significant release of radiation to the environment due to the operations of nuclear facilities including research reactor at the KAERI and power reactor at the Kori has been found during the period of the survey and monitoring. (author)

  18. Radiation safety aspects in the use of radiation sources in industrial and heath-care applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-01-01

    The principle underlying the philosophy of radiation protection and safety is to ensure that there exists an appropriate standard of protection and safety for humans, without unduly limiting the benefits of the practices giving rise to exposure or incurring disproportionate costs in interventions. To realise these objectives, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) and IAEA's Safety Series (IAEA Safety Series 120, 1996) have enunciated the following criteria for the application and use of radiation: (1) justification of practices; (2) optimisation of protection; (3) dose limitation and (4) safety of sources. Though these criteria are the basic tenets of radiation protection, the radiation hazard potentials of individual applications vary and the methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives principles are different. This paper gives a brief overview of the various applications of radiation and radioactive sources in India, their radiation hazard perspective and the radiation safety measures provided to achieve the basic radiation protection philosophy. (author)

  19. Radiation Protection and Safety Department - annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, H.; Koelzer, W.

    1978-03-01

    The duties cover tasks relative to radiation protection and safety on behalf of the institutes and departments of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and environmental monitoring for the whole Nuclear Research Center as well as own research and development work, mainly performed under the Nuclear Research Center and the Nuclear Safeguards Project. The centers of interest of R and D activities were: investigation of the atmospheric diffusion in the micro- and meso-scale, study of the radiological consequences of accidents in reactors under probabilistic aspects, implementation of nuclear fuel safeguarding systems, improvements in radiation protection measurement technology. This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1977 routine measurements, and reports about new results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the department. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhe, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in 'work procedures'. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au)

  1. Supervisor's experiments on radiation safety trainings in school of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Radiation safety training courses in School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, were introduced. The number of radiation workers and the usage of radiation and radioisotopes have been surveyed for past 14 years. The number of radiation workers in School of Engineering has increased due to the treatment of X-ray analysis of materials, recently. It is important for workers to understand the present situation of School of Engineering before the treatment of radiation and radioisotopes. What the supervisor should tell to radiation workers were presented herewith. The basic questionnaires after the lecture are effective for radiation safety trainings. (author)

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring of Vizag City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekanth, B.; Narsaiah, M.V.R.; Saindane, Shashank; Pujari, Raju; Krishna, N.S.; Sambamurthy, T.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiological impact assessment is to be carried out following any radiological emergency to implement the required counter measures. A ground based environmental radiation monitoring of Vizag city has been carried out by installing various radiation monitoring instruments in a vehicle to generate the base line radiation data. It also helps to check the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources and also identifying the orphan sources. The average background radiation level observed in Vizag city was 80 nGy/h. Database of baseline radiation level with GPS location at all important locations of the whole city has been developed. No illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and orphan sources were detected during the survey. All the detectors used in the survey shown good correlation in their response. The study showed that mobile monitoring methodology will be useful in the quick assessment of radiological impact and strengthens the decision makers in reducing consequences by initiating immediate counter measures

  3. Introduction [Radiation processing: Environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the world. Population growth, higher standards of living, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities all contribute to environmental degradation. For example, fossil fuels - including coal. natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen - are the main primary sources of heat and electrical energy production, and are responsible for a large number and amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry. power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. All of these fuels are composed of major constituents such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and other components including sulphur and nitrogen compounds and metals. During the combustion process, different pollutants are emitted, such as fly ash (containing diverse trace elements (heavy metals)), SO x (including SO 2 and SO 3 ). NO x (including NO 2 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollution caused by particulate matter and other pollutants not only directly impacts the atmospheric environment but also contaminates water and soil, leading to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of the environment. These phenomena have a negative impact on human health and on vegetation

  4. The practice of safety culture construction in radiation processing enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangshan; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Liu Wei; Hao Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Security is an integral part of the process of business operations. The radiation processing enterprises due to their own particularity, more need to focus on the operation of the safety factors, the construction of corporate safety culture is of great significance in guiding carry out the work of the Radiation Protection. Radiation processing enterprises should proceed from their own characteristics, the common attitude of security systems and security construction, and constantly improved to ensure the personal safety of radiation workers in the area of safety performance. (authors)

  5. Code of practice for safety in laboratory - non ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli Jaya; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Khoo Boo Huat; Khatijah Hashim

    1995-01-01

    The code identifies the non-ionizing radiation encountered in laboratories and the associated hazards. The code is intended as a laboratory standard reference document for general information on safety requirements relating to the usage of non-ionizing radiations in laboratories. The nonionizing radiations cover in this code, namely, are ultraviolet radiation, visible light, radio-frequency radiation, lasers, sound waves and ultrasonic radiation. (author)

  6. Environmental external radiation at some Bulgarian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Gelev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the environmental radiation background are important from several points of view. First, they permit to estimate the exposure of humans to natural radiation background as a function of different geographical and geophysical parameters. Second, such studies can give also relevant information concerning the consequences of human activities on the presence of ionizing radiation and its sources in the environment. Our both institutions have started since 2000 year common studies in the field of environmental radiation background and its variation with the locality considered. First we have decided to compare the measuring methods used. They were compared on the territory of the Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE BAS), particularly in the surroundings of IRT 2000 research reactor. Further, they were compared also at the monitoring station on the territory of INRNE BAS. Finally, the studies were enlarged to the Moussala Observatory of the Institute at Rila Mountains. Several measuring instruments were used to characterize external environmental radiation exposure: Environmental radiation dose rate meter NB 3201 developed in the Czech Republic with a plastic scintillator with small NaI-TL crystal used to compensate the energy dependence to low energy photons; MDU-Liulin semiconductor spectrometer with Si-diode as the sensitive element able to characterize the radiation with both low and high LET; Thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) CaSO 4 :Dy, powder of this TLD material was filled to an Al dose. Results obtained are presented, analysed and discussed. A good agreement of the results obtained was observed, also when compared to the results of other experimental groups. (authors)

  7. Determination of radiation direction in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vicente de Paulo de; Moura, Eduardo S.; Rocha, Felicia D.G.; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of environmental exposure has been performed in Brazil using the thermoluminescence technique at Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Laboratory (LDT), at Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). To carry out these measurements, several thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) were used to measure the expose. In this procedure, very few information of direction where the radiation came from is available. A vague supposition about the direction from where the radiation came from could be inferred only by evaluation of multiple dosimeters displaced at entire region of monitoring, but this demand to much effort or sometimes become impractical for certain situations. In this work, a single device is used to provide information about the direction from where the radiation came through. This device is called directional dosimeter (DD). Using more than one DD it is possible to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements and determine the radiation source position. The DD basically consists of a regular solid with high effective atomic number, where one TLD is positioned at each face. The DD allows evaluating the environmental exposure and the direction of the radiation by a simple vector sum. At each face of the DD, it is associated an orthogonal vector, and modulus of this vector represents the correspond exposure measured by the TLD. The direction of the radiation source is the sum of these faces vectors. The prototype used in this work was a lead cube with six TLDs of CaSO 4 :Dy/Teflon. The TLDs have high sensibility and are already used in area, environmental and personal monitoring. The measurements had shown the correct environmental exposure and a good indication of the radiation direction. (author)

  8. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  9. Post-graduate course on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Vol. 1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety containing two parts some was prepared mainly by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentine Republic, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The contents o this handbook have the principals aspects: radiation detection, radio dosimetry, biological effects of the ionizing radiation, occupational exposure, environmental effects, contamination and decontamination, radioactive waste management, transport of radioactive materials, medical and industrial applications and the Argentine regulatory system

  10. Overview of physical safety of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The threat of 'radiological terrorism' has been recognized worldwide after the event of September 11, 2001. Radioactive sources can be used for the development of DDR ('dirty bomb') devices. Studies show that the use of a DDR could cause health damage, psychosocial and economic and environmental damage. Brazil follows this worldwide concern, since it has a large medical-industrial park that uses radioactive sources. This paper presents an overview of the physical safety of radioactive sources in Brazil, based on the inventory of radiative facilities, regulatory aspects and international recommendations. For the preparation of the study, the database of radioactive sources of the regulatory body, the current normative status and the international recommendations were used. In Brazil there are approximately 2,500 radiative installations, with about 400 radioactive sources Category 1 and 2, which are the biggest concern in terms of physical safety. The Brazilian licensing standard addresses only some aspects of physical protection, not providing a clear orientation for the elaboration and implementation of physical protection systems, in accordance with international recommendations. For Brazil to be included in the world scenario of physical safety of radioactive sources, it is urgent to elaborate specific legislation with well-defined regulatory criteria. The lack of more detailed requirements makes it difficult to make a more careful regulatory assessment of the physical protection conditions of the facilities, either through the evaluation of plans and other physical protection documents or through regulatory inspections

  11. Review of radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.W.; Moore, R.J.; Balter, S.

    1992-01-01

    With the increasing use of coronary arteriography and interventional procedures, radiation exposure to patients and personnel working in cardiac catheterization laboratories has increased. Proper technique to minimize both patient and operator exposure is necessary. A practical approach to radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is presented. This discussion should be useful to facilities with well-established radiation safety programs as well as facilities that require restructuring to cope with the radiation environment in a modern cardiac catheterization laboratory

  12. A survey of radiation safety training among South African interventionalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rose

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ionising radiation is increasingly being used in modern medicine for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic purposes. There has been an improvement in technology, resulting in lower doses being emitted. However, an increase in the number of procedures has led to a greater cumulative dose for patients and operators, which places them at increased risk of the effects of ionising radiation. Radiation safety training is key to optimising medical practice.Objective. To present the perceptions of South African interventionalists on the radiation safety training they received and to offer insights into the importance of developing and promoting such training programmes for all interventionalists.Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from interventionalists (N=108 using a structured questionnaire.Results. All groups indicated that radiation exposure in the workplace is important (97.2%. Of the participants, the radiologists received the most training (65.7%. Some participants (44.1% thought that their radiation safety training was adequate. Most participants (95.4% indicated that radiation safety should be part of their training curriculum. Few (34.3% had received instruction on radiation safety when they commenced work. Only 62% had been trained on how to protect patients from ionising radiation exposure.Conclusion. Radiation safety training should be formalised in the curriculum of interventionalists’ training programmes, as this will assist in stimulating a culture of radiation protection, which in turn will improve patient safety and improve quality of care.

  13. Radiation safety actuality in Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharuk, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecological monitoring issues and radiation safety are actual in the Republic of Moldova. Japan events show us the possibility of natural disasters. Republic of Moldova is surrounded by 8 NPPs, the closest being at the distance of 160 km. Moldovas territory is in seismic zone where underground earthquake shocks reaches 7 points or more. Thatis why radiation safety and radioecological monitoring is actual in our republic. Traces of Chernobyl were left in Moldovas soils. The fallouts of radio nuclides formed on the soil surfaces in the Republic of Moldova following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident have been continuously affected by attacks of both natural and technicaly generated agents since the time of fallout. During the past decade a shift in emphasis has taken place regarding the need for more complete and accurate information on reservoir sedimentation. Classical sedimentation surveys involve repeated field measurement and, therefore, this is probably the most costly and time consuming method. The application of radio nuclides, particularly Cs 137, for water erosion and sedimentation studies in Republic of Moldova has not been attempted so far. This paper presents the results obtained on reservoir sedimentation rates in an area subjected to wide range in land degradation dy sheet-rill erosion. The profil characteristics support the assumption that in most undisturbed sites there is a sharp decline in Cs 137 activity with increasing dept. Such an asymmetrical distribution of the Cs 137 would suggest a standard pattern in the form of a cantilever. If the validity of this assamption is accepted it is possible to define two major types of Cs 137 cantilever distribution: shallow and deep buried cantilever. The main criterion in classifying these pattents lies generally in the shape of Cs 137 depth profile and particularly in burial magnitude of Cs 137 peak derived from Chernobyl. Hills area has been impacted by greatest sendimentation. This regional

  14. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    , from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

  15. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements and monitoring of the environmental radiation levels, as well as radioactivity of the various environmental samples were carried out three times a month in the on-site and the off-site around the KAERI site. Measurements were made for both gross alpha and beta radioactivity of all environmental samples. Gross beta measurements were made for radioactivity of the fallout, airborne particulates and precipitations which were collected on a daily basis on the roof of the main building. Measurements of the accumulated doses were also carried out at 10 posts on a bimonthly basis by employing thermoluminescent dosimeters

  16. Safety and radiation protection in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadge, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    operations to ensure that exposure of personnel are low in line with ALARA principle. In the area of occupational radiation protection, collective dose is an important safety performance indicator and reduction of collective dose is an ongoing programme. Continuous efforts in this direction have yielded dividend over the years. The radioactive waste in the form of gaseous, liquid and solid is generated during the operation/maintenance of NPPs. The safe management of radioactive waste forms a very important part of nuclear fuel cycle. All the NPPs have well established radioactive waste management programmes and meet the stringent regulatory requirements on environmental protection. The limited quantities of wastes generated from the NPPs enable safe management and disposal of the waste. The Environment Survey Laboratory located at each site monitors air, water and food items in the surrounding environment for radioactivity periodically and the finding is that the resulting dose is about a few percent of the stipulated limit at the plant boundary. In addition to the radiation protection measures and strong safety culture, a robust program of emergency preparedness is in place for all NPPs. These emergency plans are periodically rehearsed to ensure their readiness for implementation, if required. (author)

  17. Radiation in the human environment: health effects, safety and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports selectively on three other aspects of radiation (used throughout to mean ionizing radiation) in the human environment: the human health effects of radiation, radiation safety policy and practices, and the acceptability of scientifically justified practices involving radiation exposures. Our argument is that the science of radiation biology, the judgemental techniques of radiation safety, and the social domain of radiation acceptability express different types of expertise that should complement - and not conflict with or substitute for - one another. Unfortunately, communication problems have arisen among these three communities and even between the various disciplines represented within a community. These problems have contributed greatly to the misperceptions many people have about radiation and which are frustrating a constructive dialogue on how radiation can be harnessed to benefit mankind. Our analysis seeks to assist those looking for a strategic perspective from which to reflect on their interaction with practices involving radiation exposures. (author)

  18. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles, A.; Pérez, Y.; Duménigo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice. [es

  19. Environmental radiation monitoring in Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Albuquerque, A.M. de; Vasconcellos, N.V. de

    1991-01-01

    The results of environmental radiation monitoring that CETESB (Technological Company of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo) does in influence areas of radioactive materials store of Nuclemon Minero-Quimica S.A. in the municipality of Itu, Sao Paulo State, are presented. The data comprises the period of 1983-1990 with information about concentration levels of radium-225 in underground and superficial waters of the region. On March, 1989, was detected contamination in a well near of the stores. The levels observed, its implications in terms of health risks and possible causes of event are discussed too. The goals that CETESB intends to reach in terms of monitoring of environmental radiation in Sao Paulo State are also presented. (C.M.)

  20. Regulation on the organizatjon of radiation safety control bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document on matters of structure, organization, objectives, rights, and responsibilities of agencies enforcing compliance with radiation safety standards set up in Bulgaria. Under Public Health Law and Ministerial Council Decree No. 117, the organization and management of radiation safety in Bulgaria is entrusted to the Ministry of Public Health (MPH). Within its agency, the State Sanitary Control, authorities specialized in the area of radiation safety are as follows: the Radiation Hygiene Division (RHD) of the MPH Hygiene-and Epidemiology Bureau (HEB); the Specialized Radiation Safety Inspectorate of the Research Institute of Radiobiology and Radiation Hygiene (RIRRH); the Radiation Hygiene Sections of country HEBs; and State sanitary Inspectors assigned to large establishments in the country. (G.G.)

  1. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, Geetha [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are {sup 85}Kr, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 3}H and {sup 232}Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha; Shukla, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 3 H and 232 Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Operational and safety requirement of radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali

    2007-01-01

    Gamma and electron irradiation facilities are the most common industrial sources of ionizing radiation. They have been used for medical, industrial and research purposes since the 1950s. Currently there are more than 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation worldwide. These facilities are either used for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, or the eradication of insect infestation. Irradiation with electron beam, gamma ray or ultra violet light can also destroy complex organic contaminants in both liquid and gaseous waste. EB systems are replacing traditional chemical sterilization methods in the medical supply industry. The ultra-violet curing facility, however, has found more industrial application in printing and furniture industries. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, and thus there is a potential of accidental exposure in the irradiation chamber which can be lethal within minutes. Although, the safety record of this industry has been relatively very good, there have been fatalities recorded in Italy (1975), Norway (1982), El Salvador (1989) and Israel (1990). Precautions against uncontrolled entry into irradiation chamber must therefore be taken. This is especially so in the case of gamma irradiation facilities those contain large amounts of radioactivity. If the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed. This paper will, to certain extent, describe safety procedure and system being installed at ALURTRON, Nuclear Malaysia to eliminate accidental exposure of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  4. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  5. Radiation cancer, safety standards and current levels of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer can be induced by radiation in any tissue where cancer occurs naturally. The observation that antenatal diagnostic radiography causes a small but definite increase in childhood cancer is as good evidence as could be expected in support of the scientific expectation that there would be no threshold of dose for carcinogenesis. A linear relation between radiation dose and frequency of induced cancer is a necessary assumption for a system of radiological protection but is not necessarily a reasonable basis for realistic assessments of cancer risk. Indeed there are radiobiological and epidemiological reasons to the contrary. If the linear hypothesis is accepted then at the present time in the UK the routine practice of medicine is of about 2 orders of magnitude more important in causing cancer than environmental pollution by discharge of radio-activity. The acceptability of radiation safety standards for occupational exposure may be justified by comparison of radiation cancer risks with risks from fatal accidents in the safer industries. The acceptability of the corresponding standards for members of the public seems to require more public discussion of the concept of negligible risk. Emotional reactions to uncontrolled releases of radio-activity are based at least in part on a failure to appreciate the hypothesis of linearity

  6. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  7. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Sigurdsson, T.; Meier Pedersen, K.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  8. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring from the decommission of TRIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2000-03-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around TRIGA Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around TRIGA Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation measured by potable ERM and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with thepast years. Gross {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. but only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. (author)

  10. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  11. The Australian radiation protection and Nuclear Safety Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, D.; Burn, P.; Rubendra, R.

    1998-01-01

    The author talks about the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), the new regulatory authority which will combine the existing resources of the Australian Radiation Laboratory and the Nuclear Safety Bureau. Most uses of radiation in Australia are regulated by State or Territory authorities, but there is presently no regulatory authority for Commonwealth uses of radiation. To provide for regulation of the radiation practices of the Commonwealth, the Australian Government has decided to establish the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and a Bill has passed through the House of Representatives and will go to the Spring sitting of the Senate. The new agency will subsume the resources and functions of the Nuclear Safety Bureau and the Australian Radiation Laboratory, with additional functions including the regulation of radiation protection and nuclear safety of Commonwealth practices. Another function of ARPANSA will be the promotion of uniform regulatory requirements for radiation protection across Australia. This will be done by developing, in consultation with the States and Territories, radiation health policies and practices for adoption by the Commonwealth, States and Territories. ARPANSA will also provide research and services for radiation health, and in support of the regulatory and uniformity functions. The establishment of ARPANSA will ensure that the proposed replacement research reactor, the future low level radioactive waste repository and other Commonwealth nuclear facilities and radiation practices are subject to a regulatory regime which reflects the accumulated experience of the States and Territories and best international practice, and meets public expectations

  12. Measurements of environmental radioactivity and radiation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuming; Huang Chingchung

    1993-01-01

    Established in 1974, the Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) is responsible for the environmental radiation surveillance and related fields in Taiwan. Its environmental radiation monitoring programs can be categorized into two parts: surveillance of natural ionizing radiation and surveillance of man-made ionizing radiation. For natural ionizing radiation, surveillance programs are mainly to establish the radiation baseline data including radon. For man-made ionizing radiation, surveillance programs include the radio-fallout surveillance and the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities. This article summarizes the relevant studies carried out by TRMC in the recent years

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Belleville-Sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Blayais nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 86 and 110). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Nogent-Sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 129 and 130). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Dampierre-En-Burly nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Civaux nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Golfech nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 135 and 142). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Penly nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Saint-Alban Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 119 and 120). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 135 and 142). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 129 and 130). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 86 and 110). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. NRPA develops regulatory cooperation with Central Asian authorities for nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    With the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the NRPA has initiated a regional regulatory cooperation project with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to improve regulations on nuclear safety, radiation protection and environmental issues, and assist the countries in re mediating radioactively contaminated sites. There is a critical lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring, as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. (Author)

  5. Environmental radiation protection - a brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapantis, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionising radiation on man has been studied intensely for decades, and the system of radiation protection for man has been continually refined in the light of those studies. That system assumes that if man is protected, non-human biota at the species level will also be adequately protected. However, an increasing recognition of the need to protect the environment, and international agreements signed in 1992, have resulted in that paradigm being questioned, with the onus shifting slowly towards demonstrating that the environment is protected. Further, radiation protection agencies and environmental protection agencies around the world have now started considering the issue of developing a system of radiation protection for the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are also active in this area. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline some of the issues confronting environmental and radiation protection specialists, and to mention some of the initiatives being taken by the international community to resolve those issues

  6. Environmental radiations and childhood dynamic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1981-01-01

    In Fukushima prefecture the first nuclear power plant attained criticality in 1971. Since then 6 reactors have been in operation. Increasing concern is the possible adverse effects due to ionizing radiations released from nuclear reactors. As the radiation level around the nuclear power plants is usually low, induced effects are necessarily delayed ones which require tens of years to appear. Among other tissues, embryos and foetuses are most radiosensitive and induced effects result in the change of childhood dynamic statistics. In this report dynamic statistics including stillbirth, perinatal death, neonatal death, infant death, 3rd year examinations were surveyed in 18 health centers in the prefecture from 1961 to 1979. Environmental radiation levels in each district (health centers) were compared and were arranged in order, 1, 2, ... etc. Dynamic statistics were also compared for each district and were arranged in order. Order correlation coefficients were calculated and a linearity between radiation level and health status was tested. No significant values were obtained ranging from 0.66 to -0.43 of correlation coefficients. Still birth decreased 4.4%/y since 1963 and neonatal death decreased 6.7%/y and infant death also decreased 8.7%/y since 1957 on an average. These decreases were negatively correlated with the proliferation of water supply service, sewage service and increase of physicians in 18 districts including 2 which are under continuous observation of environmental radiations released from nuclear power plants. Childhood dynamic statistics have been turning better in the last 10 years in prefecture with the difference of 47 mR/y (lowest values of 56 mR/y on an average in 3 prefectures and highest of 103 mR/y in 4 ones). Environmental radiation may initiate adverse effects on prenatal lives but the hygienic improvement in recent years must extinguish the promotion of the adverse effects. This may be a plausible explanation. (author)

  7. Radiation safety of Takasaki ion accelerators for advanced radiation in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Susumu; Anazawa, Yutaka

    1991-01-01

    Building layout of Takasaki ion accelerator facility has been started since 1987, with the propulsion of research development of (1) cosmetic environment materials, (2) nuclear fusion reactors, (3) biotechnology, and (4) new functional materials. This paper deals with an AVF cyclotron and a tandem type accelerator, focusing on safety design, radiation safety management, and radioactive waste management. Safety design is discussed in view of radiation shielding and activation countermeasures. Radiation safety management covers radiation monitoring in the workplace, exhaust radioactivity, environment outside the facility, and the other equipments; personal monitoring; and protective management of exposure. For radiation waste management, basic concept and management methods are commented on. (N.K.)

  8. Study programme on safety for environmental radioactivity during the period from 1986 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The study programme is divided into four topics. The first topic is a study on environmental doses, which was designed to identify levels of radioactivity, and characteristics and behavior of radiation sources in the ambient air, and to elucidate population dose estimates. The second topic concerning biological effects of radiation focusses on the elucidation for mechanism whereby radiation acts on the living body, for effects of low dose radiation using experimental animals, and for radiation effects on the human body using epidemiological approaches. The aim of the third topic is to study incorporation of alpha radiators, including transuranic elements, and tritium in the human body. The last topic is the safety evaluation, for which it is required to establish methods of evaluating human risk of environmental radiation and to prepare data base. An outline of these topics is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Radiation protection and safety aspects in the use of radiation in medicine, industry and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    While ionizing radiations have significant and indispensable uses in several fields, it must be borne in mind that it may be harmful to the radiation workers and public if used indiscriminately and without due caution. Radiation doses received by these individuals should be kept well within the recommended limits through good work practices. It is therefore necessary to ensure safety of radiation workers, patients undergoing radiation diagnosis and treatment, public and environment so that maximum benefit is derived from the use of radiation with minimum and acceptable risk. General principles of radiation protection and safety in various applications of radiations are discussed

  10. Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In execution of the new Atomic Energy Act the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection was put into force on 1 February 1985. It takes into account all forms of peaceful nuclear energy and ionizing radiation uses in nuclear installations, irradiation facilities and devices in research, industries, and health services, and in radioactive isotope production and laboratories. It covers all aspects of safety and protection and defines atomic safety as nuclear safety and nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, whereas radiation protection includes the total of requirements, measures, means and methods necessary to protect man and the environment from the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. It has been based on ICRP Recommendation No. 26 and the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards and supersedes the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1969

  11. The main goals and principles of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern radiation technology expands in various fields of human activity. The most advanced approach, methods and technologies and also radiation technologies are of great importance in industrial, medical, agricultural, construction, science, education, and etc. areas of the fastest growing Azerbaijan Republic. Ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety, safety standards, main principles and conception of safety play a crucial role. The following ten principles are taken as a basis to ensure safety measures. 1. Responsible for ensuring safety; 2. The role of government; 3. Leadership and management of security interests; 4. Devices and justification of activity; 5. Optimization of preservation; 6. Limiting of risks for physical persons; 7. The protection of present and future generations; 8. The prevention of accidents; 9. Emergency preparedness and response; 10. Reducing of risks of existing and unregulated radiation protection measures. The safety principles are applied together

  12. Impact of environmental radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    A clean environment is essential for human health because the interaction between the environment and human health shows the complexity. Air pollution, less water quality, noise etc directly affects the health. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land can also affect human health. Most of the modern technologies produce radiations in the environment having both beneficial and harmful effects through radioactive material. Natural radioactive sources include Cosmic radiation comes from the sun and outer space is absorbed by the atmosphere, a small amount reaches the earth's surface to which we are exposed. The exposure to this type of radiation is higher for people living above sea level. Radon is produced through the decay of uranium and thorium that are found naturally in the earth's crust. Primordial and terrestrial radiation are present in rocks and soils and occur when naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium decay within the earth's crust. Artificial (or man-made) radioactive sources include Fallout radiation, which results from past atmospheric nuclear bomb tests (1950s and 1960s many test explosions). Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, transmit disease. Today, radiation is a common used in medicine to diagnose illnesses, research to treat diseases and industry to generate electricity in nuclear power reactors. Radiation is energy that moves through space or matter at a very high speed. This energy can be in the form of particles, such as alpha or beta particles, which are emitted from radioisotopes. Radioactive Material is material that contains an unstable atomic nucleus releases radiation in the process of changing to a stable form. There are two types of health effects from radiation - threshold and non threshold

  13. Radiation protection and environmental surveillance programme in and around Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of the operation of the Indian nuclear fuel cycle facilities and safety culture has been inculcated in all the spheres of its operation. Nuclear fuel cycle comprises of mineral exploration, mining, ore processing, fuel fabrication, power plants, reprocessing, waste management and accelerator facilities. Health Physics Division of BARC is entrusted with the responsibility of radiation protection and environmental surveillance in all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  14. Developing a generic environmental safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been charged with implementing the United Kingdom government's policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste by planning, building and operating a geological disposal facility (GDF). Within the NDA, we - the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) - are tasked with the development of a GDF. The UK government has also decided that a process of voluntarism and partnership will be followed to identify a suitable site for the GDF. To date there is no volunteer community and the site selection process to find a volunteer host community is under review. RWMD has an ongoing role to provide advice to UK radioactive waste producers on the conditioning and packaging of wastes and to undertake disposability assessments of waste packaging proposals to determine their suitability for eventual disposal in a GDF. We also need to demonstrate our confidence that a GDF would be safe. Therefore RWMD has published a generic Environmental Safety Case (ESC) (NDA, 2010) to demonstrate that we are confident that a GDF could be developed to meet the guidelines set down by the environmental regulators (EA/NIEA, 2009) in a range of geological settings. The ESC includes reference case calculations that are used as a benchmark for disposability assessments. (author)

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ATTRIBUTES GEOSTRATEGIC HEGEMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bohan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with modern aspects of manifestation geostrategic hegemony in the context of its environmental and safety attributes that determine the appearance of new determinants of economic development and progress of the world. Specificity of the geopolitical sphere in the context of a retrospective and prospects of development of civilization, which requires the use of new system-methodological approaches to its study. Defined mechanisms to enhance the status of the hegemon, which by their nature are accompanied by threats and challenges of globalization and conflict-military factors in the fight for resources and ecological imbalance in the world. The space competition geopolitical actors are increasingly extended to third countries, thus causing their economic instability, environmental vulnerability and permanent conflict. The factors, causes and conditions for the identification of new measurements geostrategic hegemony, which can affect the configuration of world order, the balance of economic power and the establishment of constructive international dialogue aimed at security, sustainable development and well-being of all mankind.

  16. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadu, Mary; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Amoako, Joseph Kwabena; Akrobortu, Emmanuel; Hasford, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Although the use of radioisotopes in Ghana began in 1952, the Radiation Protection Board of Ghana was established in 1993 and served as the national competent authority for authorization and inspection of practices and activities involving radiation sources until 2015. The law has been superseded by an Act of Parliament, Act 895 of 2015, mandating the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ghana to take charge of the regulation of radiation sources and their applications. The Radiation Protection Institute in Ghana provided technical support to the regulatory authority. Regulatory and service activities that were undertaken by the Institute include issuance of permits for handling of a radiation sources, authorization and inspection of radiation sources, radiation safety assessment, safety assessment of cellular signal towers, and calibration of radiation-emitting equipment. Practices and activities involving application of radiation are brought under regulatory control in the country through supervision by the national competent authority.

  17. Regulation on Radiation Safety of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This regulation includes all the requirements administrative, radiation protection, that licensees must meet in order to obtain authorization from the competent authority to apply and use radiation sources, equipment emiting ionizing radiation in different practices authorized

  18. Report on administrative work for radiation safety from April 2004 to March 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Asakura, Yamato; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Kawano, Takao; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Miyake, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) constructed the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is the largest magnetic confinement plasma experimental device using a super conducting magnet coils system. The first plasma shot was carried out in March 1998 after eight years of construction. Since then high temperature plasmas and improved plasma confinement experiments have been achieved. On 1st April 2004, NIFS became one of the research institutes which constitute National Institute of Natural Sciences. Since then the regulation system of safety, health and environmental management has been minorly changed. This is a report on administrative work for radiation safety at the LHD and the Compact Helical System (CHS), and radiation measurement and monitoring on the site from 1st April 2004 to 31st March 2006. Major topics are as follows. (1) Establishment of a radiation safety management system based on the law of occupational safety, health and environment. (2) Radiation dose measurement and monitoring in the radiation controlled area and on the site using a particularly developed monitoring system named Radiation Monitoring System Applicable to Fusion Experiments (RMSAFE). (3) Establishment of an education and registration system for radiation workers, and accessing control system for the LHD controlled area. This report has been annually published from fiscal year 1999. We expect that these reports could be helpful for future radiation safety management in NIFS. (author)

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitzlack, G.; Scheel, H.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation protection organization in the GDR is outlined laying emphasis on the tasks of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. In addition to the basic tasks, the various forms of radiation protection monitoring, the management of radioactive wastes, and international responsibilities are briefly explained. (author)

  20. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, O.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-04-01

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and 238 PuO 2 aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of 238 PuO 2 pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of 238 PuO 2 as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent

  1. New environmental applications of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of recent data on environmental applications of radiation technology obtained with participation of the author. It includes the results of the study on combined electron-beam and ozone treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow and electron-beam purification of water from heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium) by two methods (in the presence of formate as an OH radical scavenger or sorbents of inorganic and plant origins)

  2. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  3. Environmental radiation protection. The new ICRP concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaps, C.; Lorenz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of the environment regarding radiation protection was so far reduced to the concept: if man is protected the environment is protected well enough. This was derived from the radiosensitivity curve, according to which highly developed organisms are more sensible to radiation than less highly developed. ICRP publication 103 put this simple concept in question. Even before, ICRP set up a committee to discuss this theme. End of 2012 ICRP released a new concept of environmental protection regarding different exposure situations and brought it up for discussion in the internet. This concept is based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and analogous to the concept of the protection for man. The exposure for representative organisms regarding ionizing radiation shall be estimated and compared with Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs). If the DCRLs are reached or exceeded there is a need to react. This concept raises several questions. (orig.)

  4. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs

  5. Radiation Safety Culture in Medicine AFROSAFE_R_A_D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyabanda, R.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation that include X-rays and Gamma rays Radio waves, infrared and visible light carries sufficient energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules. Becquerel first person to discover evidence of radioactivity, who shared a Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 with Marie and Pierre Curie. Prof Sievert and Louis Harold Gray are the Medical physicists who had major contribution in the study of the biological effects of radiation. Ionizing radiation causes displacement of an electron which can inflict damage on DNA either directly or indirectly. A radiation-safety campaign developed by the radiation health workers in Africa. Radiosensitive organs is highest in cells which are highly mitotic or undifferentiated. E.g basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus, gonads, and lens cells. Relatively low radiosensitivity in muscle, bones, and nervous system tissues. A radiation-safety campaign developed by the radiation health workers in Africa. AFROSAFE Strategies Strengthen radiation protection of patients, health workers and public, Promote safe and appropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Foster improvement of the benefit-risk dialogue with patients and the public. Enhance the safety and quality of radiological procedures in medicine, Promote safety in radiological equipment and facilities and Promote research in radiation protection and safety

  6. International cooperation in the safety and environmental assessment for the ITER engineering design activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.; Baker, D.J.; Bartels, H-W.

    1998-01-01

    The ITER Project includes design and assessment activities to ensure the safety and environmental attractiveness of ITER and demonstrate that it can be sited in any of the sponsoring Parties with a minimum of site-specific redesign. This paper highlights some of the efforts to develop an international consensus approach for ITER safety design and assessment, including: development of general safety and environmental design criteria; development of quantitative dose-release assessment criteria; development of a radiation protection program; waste characterization; and development of safety analysis guidelines. The high level of interaction, cooperation and collaboration between the Joint Central Team and the Home Teams, and between the safety team and designers, and the spirit of consensus that has guided them have resulted in a safe design for ITER and a safety design and assessment that can meet the needs of the potential host countries. (author)

  7. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  8. Personnel radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.

    1979-05-01

    The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)

  9. Application of radiation to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Machi, Sueo

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made to investigate the current applications of radiations to environmental protection. Electron irradiation is used for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas. Flue gas generated from combusted fossil fuel such as coal and oil is irradiated with electrons to oxidize sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are then removed to clean the flue gas. Ammonia or lime may be added before irradiation to convert sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides into ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate or convert sulfur dioxide into calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Radiations are helpful for treatment of waste water. When water is irradiated with radiations, most of the energy is absorbed by water to cause decomposition of water molecules, resulting in the production of highly reactive species such as OH radical and H atom. Contaminants then react with these species and are oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Other methods are also available for applying radiations to water treatment. Sludge contains a large amount of organic substances that serve as fertilizer components. Thus, radiations can be used to sterilize and compost sludge. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Li Jianhui; Wang Xiaoqing; Huang Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  11. Proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2005 Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from November 23rd through the 25th of 2005. The sessions held were: (1) Medical Exposure, (2) Environmental Measurement and Radiation Source Handling, (3) Radiation Measurement and Influence of Electromagnetic Waves, (4) Utilization of Irradiation, (5) Countermeasures against Contamination and Inspection of Contamination, (6) Imaging Plate, (7) Controlled Measurement and Dose Evaluation, (8) Working Environment Measurement 1, (9) Working Environment Measurement 2, (10) Establishment of Software and System, (11) Radiation Education 1, (12) Radiation Education 2, and (13) Exposure Reduction and Safety Control. The poster sessions held were: (1) Exposure Reduction and Radiation Evaluation, (2) Radiation Measurement and Influence of Electromagnetic Waves, (3) Education Training, (4) Safety Control, (5) Software, Data Handling, and Shielding Calculation, and (6) Environmental Radioactivity. The keynote lectures held were: (1) 'Situation of Medical Exposure' and (2) 'Cosmic Radiation While Boarding on Airplanes'. The symposia held were: (1) 'Food Irradiation' and (2) 'Life Science'. (S.K.)

  12. 10. Latin American Regional Congress IRPA Protection and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The 10.Latin American Regional Congress IRPA Protection and Radiation Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the april 12 and 17, 2015. In this event, were presented almost 400 papers about these subjects: radiation protection in medicine and industry; radiological and nuclear emergencies; NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials); reactors; radiation dosimetry; radiotherapy; non-ionizing radiations; policies and communications; etc.

  13. Radiation sources safety and radioactive materials security regulation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyshliaiev, A.; Holubiev, V.; Makarovska, O.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in Ukraine. There are about 2500 users in industry, science, education and about 2800 in medicine. About 80,000 sealed radiation sources with total kerma-equivalent of 450 Gy*M 2 /sec are used in Ukraine. The exact information about the radiation sources and their users will be provided in 2001 after the expected completion of the State inventory of radiation sources in Ukraine. In order to ensure radiation source safety in Ukraine, a State System for regulation of activities dealing with radiation sources has been established. The system includes the following elements: establishment of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety; authorization activity, i.e. issuance of permits (including those in the form of licences) for activities dealing with radiation sources; supervisory activity, i.e. control over observance of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety and fulfilment of conditions of licences for activities dealing with radiation sources, and also enforcement. Comprehensive nuclear legislation was developed and implemented from 1991 to 2000. Radiation source safety is regulated by three main nuclear laws in Ukraine: On the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety (passed on 8 February 1995); On Human Protection from Impact of Ionizing Radiation (passed on 14 January 1998); On permissive activity in the area of nuclear energy utilization (passed on 11 January 2000). The regulatory authorities in Ukraine are the Ministry for Ecology and Natural Resources (Nuclear Regulatory Department) and the Ministry of Health (State sanitary-epidemiology supervision). According to the legislation, activities dealing with radiation sources are forbidden without an officially issued permit in Ukraine. Permitted activities with radiation sources are envisaged: licensing of production, storage and maintenance of radiation sources; licensing of the use of radiation sources; obligatory certification of radiation sources and transport

  14. Radiation safety and regulatory aspects in Medical Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation safety and regulatory aspect of medical facilities are relevant in the context where radiation is used in providing healthcare to human patients. These include facilities, which carry out radiological procedures in diagnostic radiology, including dentistry, image-guided interventional procedures, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The safety regulations provide recommendations and guidance on meeting the requirements for the safe use of radiation in medicine. The different safety aspects which come under its purview are the personnel involved in medical facilities where radiological procedures are performed which include the medical practitioners, radiation technologists, medical physicists, radiopharmacists, radiation protection and over and above all the patients. Regulatory aspects cover the guidelines provided by ethics committees, which regulate the administration of radioactive formulation in human patients. Nuclear medicine is a modality that utilizes radiopharmaceuticals either for diagnosis of physiological disorders related to anatomy, physiology and patho-physiology and for diagnosis and treatment of cancer

  15. A National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of radiation protection within Australia is fragmented on a number of different levels. Each state has its own radiation protection organisation. Within the Commonwealth there is also a large number of bodies which deal with different aspects of radiation protection or nuclear safety. There is also an interest in occupational radiation protection by Departments responsible for Occupational Health and Safety. It is estimated that this fragmentation affects the practice of radiation protection at a State level and also the role which Australia can play internationally. The establishment of a National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety is therefore proposed. Possible structures and organizational arrangements for such an institute are discussed. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  17. Proceedings of the 6. Argentine congress on radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 6th Argentine Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the 22 and 24 of september of 1998. In this event, were presented almost 66 papers in the following sessions, about these subjects: 1.- Safety in nuclear installations. 2.- Control of nuclear material and physical protection of nuclear installations. 3.- Programs of quality assurance. 4.- Training, technical information and public information. 5.- Physical dosimetry. 6.- Physical dosimetry and occupational radiation protection. 7.- Exposure of the natural radiation. 8.- Environmental radiological safety. 9.- Biological effects of the ionizing radiations and biological dosimetry. 10.- Radiological protection of the medical practice and the radiological emergencies. 11.- Radioactive wastes management. 12.- Transport of radioactive materials

  18. Sweden's Cooperation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dassen, Lars; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela

    2011-09-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented in 2010 cooperation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Lithuania and Moldova based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host country as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2010

  19. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  20. Safety, Health, and Environmental Auditing A Practical Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Simon Watson

    2010-01-01

    A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring on the CERN sites during 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M; Wittekind, D

    1997-03-25

    With the beginning of the year Radiation Protection's Environmental Section was integrated administratively into the Technical Support Section of the General Safety Group. This move assures a direct technical support of the extended detection and monitoring equipment used by the environmental section for their measurements. It remains however the duty of RP to define the environmental programme and particularly to be responsible for the reporting of the results both inside and outside CERN. Various RP services were considerably occupied with the CRH-RAD affair, in particular the Environmental Section. Special measurements were made in collaboration with the Sektion zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet (SUeR) in Fribourg proving that the allegations made with respect to a contamination of the environment by CERN's activities were unfounded. Part I of this Annual Report describes the results of measurements which are relevant for assessing the radiological impact of CERN operations on the environment and the population living in the vicinity of the CERN sites. Measurements of radioactivity released into the atmosphere and into water, as well as measurements of stray radiation at or near the CERN site boundaries are reported.

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring from the decommission of TRIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environment radioactivity analysis around TRIGA Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around TRIGA Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by potable ERM and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. v-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. 37 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  3. Environmental safety of the global information space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Степанович Волошин

    2015-03-01

    Databases of full-text publications – journals, articles, monographs- are surely a means of salvation for science. There already exist a large number of such portals. Besides, advantages and disadvantages of electronic subscriptions to periodicals should certainly be considered. The former include the following most evident ones: aggregation of large data arrays, saving money on a subscription, an opportunity to work with relevant publications, thematic collections of materials, availability of records, simultaneous access of an unlimited number of users and others. Nevertheless, there are many disadvantages that make it difficult to work with full-text publications. They are the following: selective representativeness of publication numbers, complexity of keyword search, occasional presence of obsolete text formats, printed versions, possible psychological barrier, physiological incompatibility with computer equipment, fatigue caused by prolonged work on the computer. The Internet was followed by the appearance of global control networks, their aims ranging from control of a human life support to a unified control of humanity. So, the formed global information space promises the man to get access to almost any information source. Meanwhile, environmental safety of the man, his/her objective biological psyche and abilities in harmonious development are at serious risk

  4. Monitoring and crisis system of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartok, J.; Borovansky, P.; Macica, J.; Petrovicova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we have briefly described our practical experiences with the most complex Radiation Monitoring System we have designed. This system consists of number of stations; those data are collected in the main crisis center of the whole system. The main center integrates RMS Central Database, the IMS Model Suite workstation and the Graphics workstation. The radiations probes of the RP series are the base for stationary , portable sets and for sets measuring underwater radiation. The radiation and meteorological data, which are necessary for reasonable interpretation of radiation data, are archived in RMS Central database. The Lagrangian trajectory model from the IMS Model Suite serves for radiation dispersion modeling. (authors)

  5. Radiation safety aspects pertaining to female patients and staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patni, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations in the world are committed to gender parity. Increasing number of women is working in the fields of radiation medicine and in industries dealing with radiation. Women patients may be exposed to radiation in radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, interventional cardiology, dentistry etc. Radiation safety of women staff and women patients is different from their male counterparts because of conception and pregnancy. So, fetal health is a matter of concern in the above. Also, the excess relative risk of radiation induced cancers in females relates to higher risk of thyroid cancer and high radiosensitivity as compared to males

  6. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  7. Development of an environmental safety case guidance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstead, Matthew John

    2014-01-01

    NDA RWMD is currently considering the scope, purpose and structure of a safety case manual that covers the development of nuclear operational, transport and environmental safety cases for a geological disposal facility in the United Kingdom. This paper considers the Environmental Safety Case (ESC) input into such a manual (herein referred to as the 'ESC Manual'), looking at the drivers and benefits that a guidance manual in this area may provide. (authors)

  8. INSAG's ongoing work on nuclear, radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) is an advisory group to the Director General of the IAEA. It identifies current nuclear safety issues, draws conclusions from its analyses and gives advice on those issues. INSAG is currently working on four documents: a complete revision of INSAG-3, the classical paper on safety principles for nuclear plants, published in 1988; 'Safety Management', the effective system for the management of operational strategy; 'Safe Management of the Life Cycle of Nuclear Power Plants'; and the fourth document in preparation entitled 'The Safe Management of Sources of Radiation: Principles and Strategies'. The fourth document is aimed primarily at political decision makers who have no knowledge of radiation safety or of nuclear matters generally but are called upon to make important decisions in this field. INSAG has attempted to present them with a 'unified doctrine' of the management of all radiation sources, even though, for historical reasons radiation protection and nuclear safety have evolved largely independently of each other. The major conclusion to be drawn from the paper is that a systematic application of protection and safety principles, and of appropriate strategies, goes a long way towards ensuring the safe management of technologies involving radiation. Furthermore, the management of sources of radiation could benefit from the experience accumulated in other industries facing comparable challenges

  9. Radiation safety management system in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Zayda H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper illustrates the Cuban experience in implementing and promoting an effective radiation safety system for the Centre of Isotopes, the biggest radioactive facility of our country. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. All those areas of the radiation protection program are considered (e.g. licensing and training of the staff, occupational exposure, authorization of the practices, control of the radioactive material, radiological occurrences, monitoring equipment, radioactive waste management, public exposure due to airborne effluents, audits and safety costs). A set of indicators designed to monitor key aspects of operational safety performance are used. Their trends over a period of time are analyzed with the modern information technologies, because this can provide an early warning to plant management for searching causes behind the observed changes. In addition to analyze the changes and trends, these indicators are compared against identified targets and goals to evaluate performance strengths and weaknesses. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as a basic requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. The integrated safety management system establishment has been identified as a goal and way for the continuous improvement. (author)

  10. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  11. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  12. Ukraine International cooperation in nuclear and radiation safety: public-administrative aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Krynychnay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines international cooperation of Ukraine with other States in the sphere of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety and highlights the main directions of development and improvement of nuclear and radiation safety in Ukraine based on international experience, with the aim of preventing the risks of accidents and contamination areas radiological substances. Illuminated that for more than half a century of experience in the use of nuclear energy by the international community under the auspices of the UN, IAEA and other international organizations initiated and monitored the implementation of key national and international programs on nuclear and radiation safety. Of the Convention in the field of nuclear safety and the related independent peer review, effective national regulatory infrastructures, current nuclear safety standards and policy documents, as well as mechanisms of evaluation in the framework of the IAEA constitute important prerequisites for the creation of a world community, the global regime of nuclear and radiation safety. For analysis of the state of international cooperation of Ukraine with other States in the sphere of nuclear and radiation safety, highlighted the legal substance of nuclear and radiation safety of Ukraine, which is enshrined in the domestic Law of Ukraine «On nuclear energy use and radiation safety». Considered the most relevant legal relations. It is established that, despite the current complex international instruments, existing domestic legislation on nuclear and radiation safety, partly there is a threat of emergency nuclear radiation nature, in connection with the failure of fixed rules and programs, lack of funding from the state is not always on time and in full allows you to perform fixed strategy for overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents, the prevention of the threat of environmental pollution. Found that to improve and further ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of

  13. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  14. Systematic approach to training for competence building in radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiamah, S.D.; Schandorf, C.; Darko, E.O.

    2003-01-01

    Competence building involves four main attributes, namely, knowledge, skills, operating experience and attitude to radiation safety. These multi-attribute requirements demand a systematic approach to education and training of regulatory staff, licensees/registrants and service providers to ensure commensurate competence in performance of responsibilities and duties to specified standards. In order to address issues of competencies required in radiation safety a national programme for qualification and certification has been initiated for regulatory staff, operators, radiation safety officers and qualified experts. Since the inception of this programme in 1993, 40 training events have been organized involving 423 individuals. This programme is at various levels of implementation due to financial and human resource constraints. A department for Human Resource Development and Research was established in 2000 to enhance and ensure the sustainability of the effectiveness of capacity building in radiation safety. (author)

  15. An evaluation of the uranium mine radiation safety course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The report evaluates the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course focussing on the following areas: effectivenss of the course; course content; instructional quality; course administration. It notes strengths and weaknesses in these areas and offers preliminary recommendations for future action

  16. Basic elements of a regulatory programme for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the objectives of IAEA TECDOC 1067: Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of sources (1999) is presented

  17. Radiation safety status at a bio medical research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes are being used for biomedical research purpose at School of Life Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University for the last twenty five years. Present paper analyses the overall status of radiation safety at this Centre

  18. Requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services are established. The norms is applied to activities related to the radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutics and 'in vivo' diagnostics purposes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Radiation safety in nuclear industry in retrospect and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    More than 30 years have passed since the starting up of nuclear industry in China from the early 1950's. Over the past 30-odd years, nuclear industry has always kept a good record in China thanks to the policy of 'quality first, safety first' clearly put forward for nuclear industry from the outset and a lot of suitable effective measures taken over that period. Internationally, there is rapid progress in radiation protection and nuclear safety (hereafter refereed to as radiation safety) and a number of new concepts in the field of radiation protection have been advanced. Nuclear industry is developing based on the international standardization. To ensure the further development of nuclear utility, radiation safety needs to be further strengthened

  20. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail

  1. Handbook on radiation safety. Spravochnik po radiatsionnoj bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, V R

    1977-01-01

    The handbook reflects changes, in quotas, providing radiation safety in the Soviet Union, and in state standards. It includes the data, published in the soviet and foreign press up to 1975 on problems of ionizing radiation interaction with a substance, on terminology and units for measuring ionizing radiations and radioactivity, doses of background and admissible personnel irradiation in space, resulting from natural and artificial sources,from medical procedures. Given are the norms and sanitary rules of radiation protection when operating ionizing radiations sources at nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, critical assemblies, placing and operating charged particle accelerators. Included is ample information on dosimetry of X-ray, gamma-, and neutron radiation, on dosimetry of charged particles, aerosols and gases, on radiometry and spectrometry of internal irradiation and radiation sources. Devices for ionizina radiation registration, model radiation sources, radionuclide solutions and their calibration are described.

  2. Proceedings of the 5th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2006 Nagoya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 5th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from November 29th through December 1st of 2006. The sessions held are: (1) Radiation Measurement 1, (2) Education Method, (3) Radiation Control, (4) Waste Handling, Contamination Inspection, and Renewal, (5) Exposure Reduction, Radiation Evaluation, and Radioactivity Control (6) Radiation Measurement 2, (7) Operation Environment, (8) Medical Exposure, (9) Radiation Measurement 3, (10) Software, IT Technology, and Data Processing, (11) Emission and Drainage Handling, and (12) Radiation Effect and Contamination Countermeasure. The poster sessions held are: (1) Radiation Measurement, (2) Environmental Radiation, (3) Scattering Rate, Penetration Rate, and Contamination Inspection, (4) Education Method, (5) Medical Exposure, (6) Access Control and Software, and (7) Radiation Control Method and Monitoring. The symposia held are: (1) 'Toward Establishment of Guideline for Safe X-ray Handling Education' and 'International Situation of Radiation Safety'. 2 keynote lectures were also held. (S.K.)

  3. Radiation Safety of Accelerator Facility with Regard to Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedi Sunaryadi; Gloria Doloresa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation safety of accelerator facility and the status of the facilities according to licensee in Indonesia as well as lesson learned from the accidents are described. The atomic energy Act No. 10 of 1997 enacted by the Government of Indonesia which is implemented in Radiation Safety Government Regulation No. 63 and 64 as well as practice-specific model regulation for licensing request are discussed. (author)

  4. A proposal for an international convention on radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1998-01-01

    One century has passed since harmful effects of radiation on living tissues were recognized. Organized efforts to reduce radiation hazards began in early 1920s. Major efforts by the ICRP since 1928, aided by ICRU, greatly helped in formulating principles, policies and guidance for radiation protection. The WHO formally recognized ICRP in 1956 and began implementing ICRP recommendations and guidance throughout the world. The IAEA, after it took office in 1957, began to establish or adopt standards of safety based on ICRP recommendations and provide for application of these standards in the field of atomic energy. Later on, other pertinent international organizations joined IAEA in establishing the Basic Safety Standards on radiation safety. The IAEA has issued, until now, nearly couple of hundred safety related documents on radiation safety and waste management. However, in spite of all such international efforts for three quarter of a century, there has been no effective universal control in radiation safety. Problems exist at the user, national, international and manufacturers and suppliers levels. Other problems are management of spent sources and smuggling of sources across international borders. Although, radiation and radionuclides are used by all countries of the world, regulatory and technical control measures in many countries are either lacking or inadequate. The recommendations and technical guidance provided by the international organizations are only advisory and carry no mandatory force to oblige countries to apply them. Member States approve IAEA safety standards and guides at the technical meetings and General Conference, but many of them do not apply these. An International Convention is, therefore, essential to establish international instrument to ensure universal application of radiation safety. (author)

  5. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  6. Radiation safety and workers safety: partners instead of rivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambotte, S.; Severitt, S.; Sobetzko, T.; Voelker, T.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how important and paying it is to look upon working systems as a whole with regard to danger and load at the working place, and to use existing synergies. At many places, a change of approach in this direction is still necessary, in order to recognize the connection between the various fields of operational safety as well as the potential that is hidden behind an effective utilization of the instruments for workers safety. (orig.)

  7. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)

  8. New Radiation Safety Standards of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The new Radiation Safety Standards of the Russian Federation are a first step in an implementation of the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP into the existing national system of providing a radiation safety of the public. In new System the radiation source is examined as a source of harm and danger for the public. So the System shall include not only the measures for limitation of actual exposures, but also an assessment of efficiency of radiation protection in the practical activity, based on the analysis of a distribution of doses received and on the assessment of actions initiated to restrict the probability of potential exposures. The occupational and public exposure doses are only the indices of the quality of management of the source. In this System a radiation monitoring is a feedback for assessing the stability of the source and how it is controllable. It is a tool for predicting the levels of potential exposure and the relevant danger associated with the source. It is important to underline that the System of Providing a Radiation Safety is an interrelated system. None of its parts may be individually used. In particular, the mere conformity with dose limits is not yet a sufficient evidence of the successful operation of the safety system, because the normal exposure doses reflect only a source-related harm. The problems of implementation of this System of radiation protection and safety into the contemporary practice in the Russia is discussed. (author)

  9. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    -to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements

  10. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  11. Towards an international regime on radiation and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen the de facto emergence of what might be called an 'international regime on nuclear and radiation safety'. It may be construed to encompass three key elements: legally binding international undertakings among States; globally agreed international safety standards; and provisions for facilitating the application of those standards. While nuclear and radiation safety are national responsibilities, governments have long been interested in formulating harmonised approaches to radiation and nuclear safety. A principal mechanism for achieving harmonisation has been the establishment of internationally agreed safety standards and the promotion of their global application. The development of nuclear and radiation safety standards is a statutory function of the IAEA, which is unique in the United Nations system. The IAEA Statute expressly authorises the Agency 'to establish standards of safety' and 'to provide for the application of these standards'. As the following articles and supplement in this edition of the IAEA Bulletin point out, facilitating international conventions; developing safety standards; and providing mechanisms for their application are high priorities for the IAEA. (author)

  12. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2000-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Slovenia in 1999. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.

  13. Growth of the Female Professional in the Radiation Safety Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently in Korea’s Nuclear Power Plants (KHNP), the number of the female staffs has been increased as planned construction of new NPPs. However the role of the female staffs in NPPs is still limited as before. Because there is the prejudice which the operating and the maintenance work is unsuitable for female owing to the risk of the radiation exposure and the physical weakness. So female staffs mostly belong to the supporting departments. In particular, the proportion of the female staffs is significantly higher in the radiation safety department among those. The ratio is 15% and is twice higher, whereas the total percentage of the female workers in KHNP is 8%. In the past, the women staffs in the radiation safety department were usually charge of the non-technical duties like the radiation exposure dose management and the education for radiation workers. Although the ratio of the women about that is still higher, nowadays, the role of the female workers tends to diversify to technical supports like the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management while increased the proportion of female employees. This trend is expected to continue for many years to come. Thus, in Korea’s NPPs, it is expected that many women will demonstrate their professionalism especially in the radiation safety department than any other departments. This presentation contains the detailed duty and trend about female staffs in the radiation safety department in Korea’s NPPs. (author)

  14. Radiation safety requirements for training of users of diagnostic X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the aim of requirements regarding the use and ownership of diagnostic medical X-ray equipment is to limit radiation by abiding by the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. The ignorance of radiographers with regard to radiation safety requirements, however, is currently a cause of ...

  15. Radiation and ecological safety of nuclear fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbasheva, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) and radioactive waste facilities safety issues are discussed; Chernobyl NPP personnel radiation doses for 1986 are indicated; radiation contamination of environment by Am-241 is investigated; data on radioactive contamination in southern part of Kiev Poles'e are considered

  16. Investigation of radiation safety and safety culture of medical sanitation vocation in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bo; Tu Yu; Zhang Yin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the construction of radiation safety and safety culture of medical sanitation vocation in Suzhou. Methods: All medical units registered in administration center of Suzhou were included. The above selected medical units were completely investigated, district and county under the same condition of quality control. Results: The radiation safety and safety culture are existing differences among different property and grade hospitals of medicai sanitation vocation in Suzhou. Conclusion: The construction of radiation safety and safety culture is generally occupying in good level in suhzou, but there are obvious differences among different property and grade hospitals. The main reason for the differences in the importance attached to by the hospital decision-making and department management officials as well as the staff personal. (authors)

  17. Ultraviolet radiation, measurements and safety evaluations for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witew, B.; Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, one has to study that photobiologically effective radiation which induces a just measurable threshold reaction. For practical radiation protection, one has to determine the permissible duration of exposure at the end of which the threshold reaction is induced. This time limit is derived by means of spectral measurements and determination of radiation intensity. Detrimental photobiological effects can be avoided, and favourable effects optimized, by observing the time limit. Thus these measurements are used to determine the threshold at which the desired effects of ultraviolet radiation will be accompanied by unwanted effects or damage to persons, as for instance in the use of ultraviolet radiation for operating room sterilization, arc welding work, or cosmetic purposes. (orig.) [de

  18. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the year 2000 we completed our study of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human cells, and their susceptibility to radiation in particular. Examining blood samples from four countries: Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain we found that exposure to pesticides usually resulted in an increased susceptibility to the UV-C radiation, although statistical significance could only be concluded for inhabitants of Poland. In Spain, exposure to pesticides was proved to impair the lymphocyte DNA repair capability, while for the Polish group this repair capability appeared enhanced in people exposed to pesticides (see the research reports below). The possible influence of lifestyle or particular diet on the observed national differences would probably be worth analyzing. We also investigate the biological effectiveness of therapeutic beams (neutrons and X-rays). Experimental part of such study, concerning neutrons of different mean energies, is over and the results are now being processed. Our work covers hot issues of environmental and radiation biology making us research partners to many domestic and foreign scientific institutions. Our proficiency in the field is also reflected by membership in various expert boards (e.g. evaluating research applications for the Fifth EU Framework Programme for RTD and Demonstration Activities in the field 'Environment and Health', lecturing in the 2000 NATO IOS Life Science Books). We have entered the 5 th EU Programme Scheme within the EXPAH project starting January 1, 2001. (author)

  19. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Spanish ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  20. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Arabic ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  1. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian defence organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified

  2. Nuclear power plant radiation: personnel safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roekmantara, Roestan

    1975-01-01

    Reactor using water as coolant, moderator, and heat transfer can produce a sufficiently great internal and external radiation caused by contamination. The process of contamination and actions that must be taken to avoid radiation workers from receiving more than the maximum permissible dose are presented. (author)

  3. Safety and environmental aspect uranium mining and extraction in Kalan, Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudiar Masdja; Tampubolon, P.; Sihombing, W.

    1996-01-01

    Safety in uranium mining and extraction in Kalan, Kalimantan, Batan's activities, has been observed by concerning about personnel safety, monitoring of the work place and radiation surveillance. the personnel safety includes procurements of personnel protective equipment, work clothes, and washing facility. monitoring of the work place covers climate (temperature, humidity) noise frequency, poisonous gases, and tailing management. Radiation surveillance measures Rn gas and radioactive dust . Environmental assessment of Kalan site consist of physical, biological and cultural environments. The physical assessment mayor area such as water and air qualities, morphology and climatology. the biological assessment examines flora, fauna and aquatic biota. The culture assessment collect data of human population and distribution, occupation and income level, education, health and public perception. Guidelines for environmental management and monitoring have been documented and they have in Kalan site. (author). 8 refs; 3 tabs; 3 figs

  4. Ordinance on the Finnish Centre of Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Ordinance was adopted in implementation of the 1983 Act setting up the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act and entered into force on 1 November 1990. The Ordinance specifies the tasks of the Centre, as provided under both Acts, and gives it several supplementary responsibilities. In addition to its overall competence in respect of radiation safety, the Centre will carry out research into and supervise the health effects of radiation and maintain a laboratory for national measurements in that field. The Ordinance also sets out the Centre's organisation chart and the staff duties [fr

  5. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  6. Construction of data base for radiation safety assessment of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Shin

    2001-01-01

    Data base with an electronic text on the safety assessment of low dose ionizing radiation have been constructed. The contents and the data base system were designed to provide useful information to Japanese citizens, radiation specialists, and decision makers for a scientific and reasonable understanding of radiation health effects, radiation risk assessment, and radiation protection. The data base consists of the following four essential parts, namely, ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION, DETAILED INFORMATION, TOPIC INFORMATION, and RELATED INFORMATION. The first two parts of the data base are further classified into following subbranches: Radiobiological effects, radiation risk assessment, and radiation exposure and protection. (author)

  7. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheyn, David D.; Racadio, John M.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Ying, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the interventional radiology (IR) suite. As the complexity of procedures increases, radiation exposure risk increases. We believed that reinforcing staff education and awareness would help optimize radiation safety. To evaluate the effect of a radiation safety education initiative on IR staff radiation safety practices and patient radiation exposure. After each fluoroscopic procedure performed in the IR suite during a 4-month period, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, and use of shielding equipment (leaded eyeglasses and hanging lead shield) by IR physicians were recorded. A lecture and article were then given to IR physicians and technologists that reviewed ALARA principles for optimizing radiation dose. During the following 4 months, those same parameters were recorded after each procedure. Before education 432 procedures were performed and after education 616 procedures were performed. Physician use of leaded eyeglasses and hanging shield increased significantly after education. DAP and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly for uncomplicated peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) procedures and non-PICC procedures after education, but did not change for complicated PICC procedures. Staff radiation safety education can improve IR radiation safety practices and thus decrease exposure to radiation of both staff and patients. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of status of safety management in radiation handle works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amauchi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Kenji; Izumi, Kokichi

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the investigation in the title concerning the system for safety management and for accident prevention, which was done by a questionnaire in a period of 1.5 months in 2005. The questionnaire including 55 questions for safety management system, 33 for instruments and safety utilization of radiation and 57 for present status of safety management in high-risk radiation works, was performed in 780 hospitals, of which 313 answered. The first 55 questions concerned with the facility, patient identification, information exchange, management of private information, safety management activities, measures to prevent accident, manual preparation, personnel education and safety awareness; the second, with management of instruments, package insert, system for reporting the safety information, management of implants, re-imaging and radiation protection; and the third, with the systems for patients' emergency, in departments of CT/MR, of IVR, of nuclear diagnosis and of radiation therapy. Based on the results obtained, many problems, tasks and advices are presented to various items and further continuation of efforts to improve the present status is mentioned to be necessary. Details are given in the homepage of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. (T.I.)

  9. Radiation safety concerns during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Raj, D.; Livingstone, Roshan Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures are on the increase by virtue of the fact that these procedures replace highly invasive surgical and other procedures. Radiation dose to patients and hospital workers are of significance since these procedures tend to impart large dose to them. Moreover, long term risk from radiation absorbed by patients is of concern since the life expectancy of major fraction of patients is long after undergoing the procedure. This study intends to measure radiation dose imparted to patients as well as personnel- radiologists, technologists, nurses, etc. and estimate the risk factor involved

  10. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the ECRIN INB - Issue 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents the Malvesi establishment, the ECRIN basic nuclear installation (INB), the COMURHEX II project, and the policy for a sustainable development and continuous progress of this establishment. It describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: nuclear safety, safety guarantee for personnel and installations, management of emergency situations, preservation of staff health and protection, inspections, actions undertaken regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection. It reports nuclear events which occurred, describes the management of effluents and the control of the environment (environmental policy, management of effluents from the Malvesi establishment, management of effluents from the ECRIN INB, reduction of consumptions). It addresses the waste management (industrial and radioactive wastes) and the management of other impacts of the ECRIN INB. It gives an overview of actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  11. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the ECRIN INB - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents the Malvesi establishment, the ECRIN basic nuclear installation (INB), the COMURHEX II project, and the policy for a sustainable development and continuous progress of this establishment. It describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: nuclear safety, safety guarantee for personnel and installations, management of emergency situations, preservation of staff health and protection, inspections, actions undertaken regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection. It reports nuclear events which occurred, describes the management of effluents and the control of the environment (environmental policy, management of effluents from the Malvesi establishment, management of effluents from the ECRIN INB, reduction of consumptions). It addresses the waste management (industrial and radioactive wastes) and the management of other impacts of the ECRIN INB. It gives an overview of actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  12. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  13. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  14. Proceedings of the 3. Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Regional Meeting on International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)and 3. Peruvian Meeting on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    There we show works of the Third Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety held on 23-27 October, 1995 in Cusco-Peru. Latin americans specialists talk about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. Also we deal with subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation. More than 225 works were presented on the meeting

  15. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of ... are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. ... In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a ...

  16. Safety design guides for environmental qualification for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide describes the safety philosophy and requirements for the environmental qualification of safety related systems and components for CANDU 9. The environmental qualification program identifies the equipments to be qualified and conditions to be used for qualification and provides comprehensive set of documentation to ensure that the qualification is complete and can be maintained for the life of the plant. A summary of the system, components and structures requiring environmental qualification is provided in the table for the guidance of the system design, and this table will be subject to change or confirmation by the environmental qualification program. Also, plant ares subject to harsh environment is provided in the figure. The change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 1 tab., 5 figs. (Author) .new

  17. Thermal Radiation for Structural Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    The lecture notes give a short introduction of the theory of thermal radiation. The most elementary concepts and methods are presented in order to give a fundamental knowledge for calculation of the load bearing capacities of fire exposed building constructions....

  18. Environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the responsibility of setting site-specific health and safety standards for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The same legislation that gave the Agency that responsibility, mandated a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to provide input into the bases for the EPA standards. The NAS has completed and presented a report to the Agency; this paper summarizes the report's recommendations and conclusions. Following receipt of the report, the Agency opened a comment period and held public meetings to gather comments; the major issues from the comments are summarized. Based upon the report from NAS and the public comments, EPA has started formulating proposed standards which will be known as 40 CFR Part 197. It is planned for the proposal of 40 CFR Part 197 to occur in the summer of 1996

  19. [RADIATION SAFETY DURING REMEDIATION OF THE "SEVRAO" FACILITIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Kiselev, S M; Titov, A V; Simakov, A V; Seregin, V A; Kryuchkov, V P; Bogdanova, L S; Grachev, M I

    2015-01-01

    Within a framework of national program on elimination of nuclear legacy, State Corporation "Rosatom" is working on rehabilitation at the temporary waste storage facility at Andreeva Bay (Northwest Center for radioactive waste "SEVRAO"--the branch of "RosRAO"), located in the North-West of Russia. In the article there is presented an analysis of the current state of supervision for radiation safety of personnel and population in the context of readiness of the regulator to the implementation of an effective oversight of radiation safety in the process of radiation-hazardous work. Presented in the article results of radiation-hygienic monitoring are an informative indicator of the effectiveness of realized rehabilitation measures and characterize the radiation environment in the surveillance zone as a normal, without the tendency to its deterioration.

  20. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  1. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  2. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste

  3. Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobal trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to

  4. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  5. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  6. A safe radiation environment. Environmental Objective 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A safe radiation environment is one of the 15 environmental quality objectives that form the basis for developing a ecologically sustainable society within one generation. These objectives have been adopted by the Swedish parliament, and in the present report, the five different targets for reaching Objective 13 are defined. They are: (by year 2010) 1. The emissions of radioactive substances should be low enough to protect human beings, and the ecological diversity. 2. A generally accepted method for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste should be available, that does not impose any risks for human beings and for the environment. 3. Hazards to the society, human beings or the environment from radiological accidents should be eradicated, or at least severely minimized. 4. Hazards from electromagnetic fields should be understood and, if necessary, actions planned for improving the e-m field environment. 5. The number of skin cancers in year 2020 from solar radiation should not exceed those in year 2000

  7. Safety of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA Model Project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in countries of West Asia, Jordan has amended its radiation safety legislation. The Regulatory Authority is improving its inventory system for radiation sources and other radioactive materials and also its notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement systems. It has established national provisions for the management of orphan sources after they have been found. The system for the control of the radiation sources and other radioactive materials entering the country has been improved by the Regulatory Authority. (author)

  8. Conception and activity directions of journal ''Nuclear and radiation safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olena, M.; Volodymyr, S.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the State Scientific and Technical Centre onr Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SSTC NRA) and Odessa State Polytechnic University the journal 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety' was established in 1998. In Ukraine many people are interested in nuclear energy problems. The accident in Chernobyl NPP unit 4 touches all Ukrainians and brings about strong and regular attention to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations and nuclear technology, on the other side more than 50 per cent of electric power is produced in 5 NPPs and as following national power supply depends on stability of NPPs work. Main goals of the journal are: Support to Nuclear Regulatory Administration (NRA) of MEPNS of Ukraine, creation of information space for effective exchange of results of scientific, scientific and technical, scientific and analytical work in the field of Nuclear and Radiation Safety, assistance in integrated development of research for Nuclear and Radiation Safety by publication in a single issue of scientific articles, involvement of state scientific potential in resolving actual problems, participation in international collaboration in the framework of agreements, programs and plans. (orig.)

  9. New ICRP recommendations and radiation safety of an NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.

    2007-01-01

    In March 2007 the fundamental radiation protection recommendations used world-widely in nuclear facilities were approved by the ICRP. Implementation of radiation safety standards in an NPP is a challenging issue related to all NPP phases from planning a site and its design to its decommissioning also because if neglected it could be very difficult if not impossible to implement improvement of radiation safety later during operation or decommissioning without a substantial cost. The standards are changing with a period of 15 years which is small regarding a prolonged lifetime of many NPPs and also foreseen lifetime of new NPPs, i.e. 60 years. The new recommendations are actually an upgrading of the ICRP 60. Among other changes new sets of wR and wT are given, as well as an update of around 50 different values related to doses. Two new concepts are also tackled i.e. terrorist attacks and protection of the environment. The influence of the new recommendations on the radiation safety of NPPs can be analysed by a selection of four renewed or new concepts: types of exposure situation, dose constraints, source-related approach and safety and security. Their implementation could lead to upgrading the radiation safety of future or existing NPPs as well as of decommissioning processes. Some of the concepts were already extensively and successfully used by designers of modifications or of new NPPs, as well as by operators. (author)

  10. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  11. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  13. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    thermoshrinkable tubes and types possessing '' memory effect ''. Through radiation, grafting metal adsorbents and ion exchange membranes can be developed. Radiation is early applied tool in the area of nanomaterials engineering; arrangement of atoms and ions has been performed using ion or electron beams for many years. New trends concern surface curing and development of ion track membranes and controlled release drug-delivery systems. Finally, radiation processing concerns gem stones colorization, development of high temperature resistant fibers (SiC) and semiconductor modification. Over the past few years, radiation processing technologies aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment have been developed. It has been demonstrated that radiation processing based technologies for flue gas treatment (SO X and NO X removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Electron beam technology is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. This is a dry-scrubbing process of simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal, where no waste except the fertilizer by-product are generated.The other possibility is application of the process for VOC removal. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO 2 and NO x removal. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%. The chlorocarbons including dioxins may be removed with high efficiency as well [57, 58]. During the radiolysis of water reactive radicals of strong oxidizing or reducing properties are formed that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. A large number of substances such as hard surfactants, lignin, pesticides cannot be degraded by conventional biochemical methods and thus escape from decomposition in biological treatment. Research and

  14. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong

    2015-01-01

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience

  15. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience.

  16. Assessing the Environmental Safety of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology research in the United States is coordinated under the National Nano-technology Initiative with the goal of fostering development and implementation of nanomaterials and products that incorporate them and assuring that they are environmentally safe. The environmen...

  17. Economic aspects of radiation safety in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanian, G.; Venkataraman, G.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection procedures to be adhered to while using radiological equipment in hospitals both for the patients and the medical personnel are described in detail. The hazards resulting from careless handling of equipment and the need for adequately trained staff to handle the equipment is stressed. (A.K.)

  18. White paper on nuclear safety in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    It deals with a general introduction of nuclear safety like general safety, safety regulation and system law and standard. It indicates of nuclear energy facility safety about general safety, safety regulation of operating nuclear power plant safety regulation under constructing nuclear power plant. It deals with radiation facility safety, monitoring of environmental radiation, radiation protection, radiation control, international cooperating on nuclear energy safety and establishment of safety regulation.

  19. Improving radiation worker safety at the Chernobyl Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Korneev, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Shelter (i.e. 'sarcophagus') enclosing the remains of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 that was destroyed in the April 1986 accident presents a unique radiological and nuclear safety challenge. The Chomobyl Shelter holds over 190 tons of irradiated nuclear fuel in the form of lava fuel containing masses and dust. Hazards include very high radiation, surface contamination and transient airborne radioactivity concentrations. A state-of-the-art radiation protection program is needed to support international efforts stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter, reduce the potential for major structural failure, minimize the consequences of a such an event, and develop a long-term strategy and study for its conversion into an environmentally safe site. This project consists of the first phase of efforts to transfer health physics technology necessary to support stabilization of the Chornobyl Shelter. Technical specifications for each major system and component were jointly developed by staff from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Chornobyl Shelter. Major elements of this technology transfer include equipment for external dose control (electronic dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system, portable radiation survey instruments, and area radiation monitors), internal dose control (whole body counter, bioassay system design and technical support), health physics training, and other radiological technical support. A work planning system that includes the capability to collect data such as radiological surveys, photographs, video clips, and other data, was developed from a system demonstrated at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. An access control system similar to one used at several commercial nuclear facilities in the U.S. was converted for bilingual support (Russian and English). Technology for improving contamination control includes HEPA-ventilation and vacuum cleaner systems, semi-permanent and portable

  20. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Takashi [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    `Safety and Reliability` has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs.

  1. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Yoneyama

    1997-01-01

    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  2. Radiation safety training for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    In November 1992, a working group was formed within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) accelerator facilities to develop a generic safety training program to meet the basic requirements for individuals working in accelerator facilities. This training, by necessity, includes sections for inserting facility-specific information. The resulting course materials were issued by DOE as a handbook under its technical standards in 1996. Because experimenters may be at a facility for only a short time and often at odd times during the day, the working group felt that computer-based training would be useful. To that end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) together have developed a computer-based safety training program for accelerator facilities. This interactive course not only enables trainees to receive facility- specific information, but time the training to their schedule and tailor it to their level of expertise

  3. Environmental safety issues for semiconductors (research on scarce materials recycling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    In the 21st century, in the fabrication of various industrial parts, particularly, current and future electronics devices in the semiconductor industry, environmental safety issues should be carefully considered. We coined a new term, environmental safety issues for semiconductors, considering our semiconductor research and technology which include environmental and ecological factors. The main object of this analysis is to address the present situation of environmental safety problems in the semiconductor industry; some of which are: (1) the generation and use of hazardous toxic gases in the crystal growth procedure such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), (2) the generation of industrial toxic wastes in the semiconductor process and (3) scarce materials recycling from wastes in the MBE and MOCVD growth procedure

  4. Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. 1986 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Frenkler, K.L.

    1986-02-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftragte). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. 1987 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1988-03-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftragte). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig./HP) [de

  6. 1988 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftragte). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig.) [de

  7. 1989 annual work report of the KFA Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Frenkler, K.L.

    1990-03-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftrage). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig.) [de

  8. Report on the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Since 1981 the Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has administered a semi-annual course on radiation safety in uranium mines under contract to and in consultation with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The course is intended primarily for representatives from mining companies, regulatory agencies, unions, and mine and mill workers. By the terms of its contract with the AECB, CAIRS is required to submit a report on each course it conducts. This is the report on the June 1987 course. It lists the course objectives and the timetable, outlines for each lecture, the lecturers' resumes, and the participants. The students' evaluations of the course are included

  9. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  10. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.; Oldfather, D.; Lindner, A.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 keV electron gun, 50 MeV linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  11. The Argentine Approach to Radiation Safety: Its Ethical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ethical bases of Argentina's radiation safety approach are reviewed. The applied principles are those recommended and established internationally, namely: the principle of justification of decisions that alters the radiation exposure situation; the principle of optimization of protection and safety; the principle of individual protection for restricting possible inequitable outcomes of optimized safety; and the implicit principle of inter generational prudence for protection future generations and the habitat. The principles are compared vis-a-vis the prevalent ethical doctrines: justification vis-a-vis teleology; optimization vis-a-vis utilitarianism; individual protection vis-a-vis de ontology; and, inter generational prudence vis-a-vis aretaicism (or virtuosity). The application of the principles and their ethics in Argentina is analysed. These principles are applied to All exposure to radiation harm; namely, to exposures to actual doses and to exposures to actual risk and potential doses, including those related to the safety of nuclear installations, and they are harmonized and applied in conjunction. It is concluded that building a bridge among all available ethical doctrines and applying it to radiation safety against actual doses and actual risk and potential doses is at the roots of the successful nuclear regulatory experience in Argentina.

  12. X-ray and nuclear radiation facilities: personnel safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, W.J.; Pipes, E.W.; Rucker, T.R.; Smith, D.N.; West, C.M.

    1976-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a research and production installation. The nature and versatility of this work require the use of a large number and variety of x-ray and radiographic sources for nondestructive testing and material analyses. Presently, there are over 80 x-ray generators in the plant, which range in size from small, portable units which operate at a less than 50 kilovolts potential and 0.1 milliampere current to an electron linear accelerator which operates at 12-million electron volts and produces a radiation beam of such intensity that it could deliver a lethal dose to man in a fraction of a minute. There are also almost 50 gamma and neutron sources in use in the plant. These units range in size from a few millicuries to several hundred curies. Although the radiation safety at each of these facilities was considered adequate, the administrative and maintenance procedures became unduly complicated. Accordingly, engineering standards and uniform operating procedures were considered necessary to alleviate these complications and, in so doing, provide an improved measure of radiation safety. Development and implementation of these standards are described and the general philosophy and approach to these standards are outlined. Use of a matrix (type of installation versus radiation safety feature) to facilitate equipment classification and personnel safety feature requirements is presented. Included is a set of the standards showing formats, matrices, etc., and the detailed standards for each safety feature

  13. Enhanced safety of radiation workers: a regulatory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, A [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Bombay (India)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation safety should not only be strictly implemented, but also believed and understood by the workers, the unions, the media and the general public as being fairly and adequately enforced. It is not at all sufficient that only those in the operational management levels satisfy themselves that workers` safety is properly taken care of, but it is necessary that the workers and their unions are also convinced about it and share this management view.

  14. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.

  15. Education and training on radiation safety for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Y.; Sakurai, N.; Kamei, M.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term program for development and Utilization of nuclear energy planned by Japan Atomic Energy Commission decided to promote the international corporation with Asian countries in nuclear fields. PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has three programs in radiation safety field. They are STA program, JICA program and IAEA/RCA program. It is necessary to continue international cooperative activities to establish safety culture for development and utilization of nuclear energy in Asian countries

  16. Enhanced safety of radiation workers: a regulatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation safety should not only be strictly implemented, but also believed and understood by the workers, the unions, the media and the general public as being fairly and adequately enforced. It is not at all sufficient that only those in the operational management levels satisfy themselves that workers' safety is properly taken care of, but it is necessary that the workers and their unions are also convinced about it and share this management view

  17. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. (author)

  18. Radiation protection and safety in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Very few organisations have to address such a diverse and complex range of radiation safety matters as the Australian Defence Organisation. The Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence (its military and civilian branches) have to comply with strict regulations in normal peace time activities. The Surgeon-General, to whom responsibility for policy in radiation protection and safety falls, has established a Defence Radiation Safety Committee, which in turn oversees four specialist subcommittees. Their tasks include recommending policy and doctrine in relation to radiation safety, overseeing the implementation of appropriate regulations, monitoring their compliance. generating the relevant documentation (particularly on procedures to be followed), developing and improving any necessary training courses, and providing sound technical advice whenever and to whomever required. The internal Defence regulations do not permit radiation doses to exceed those limits recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and precautions are taken to ensure during normal peace time duties that these levels are not exceeded. At times of national emergency, the Surgeon-General provides guidance and advice to military commanders on the consequences of receiving dose levels that would not be permitted during normal peace time activities. The paper describes the methods adopted to implement such arrangements

  19. Radiation and Environmental Protection Programme for the First Upcoming Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia plans to operate the first nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2016. A radiation and environmental protection arrangement for NPPs is part of the whole safety system which is embedded in every practice involved radiation exposure to workers and members of public. A radiation and environmental protection programme for the NPP should adhere to international standards and mainstream in order to be acceptable to the public and international communities. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended a radiation protection standard for NPPs as studied in this paper. Focus is given to the operational aspects of radiation protection program and discharge control to the environment. Some documents related to Safety Analysis Reports were used as working examples on its implementation. The study includes the classification of working areas and access control; local rules and supervision of work; work planning and work permits; protective clothing and protective equipment; facilities, shielding and equipment; application of the principle of optimization of protection; and removal or reduction in intensity of sources of radiation. The radiological protection aspects blend together in the whole NPP practices, each individual has his/her own responsibility in association with the radiation protection program implementation. It also present in the whole steps of NPP preparation up to its decommissioning. Promise on safety improvement and significant dose reduction in the recent development in NPP technology should scrutinized so that the option of proven technology as required in commercial power reactor licensing considers this tendency. (author)

  20. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAEA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  1. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAEA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  2. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  3. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable

  4. Safety instruction for execution tasks involving ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, G.

    1985-01-01

    Basic directives are presented allow operations with ionizing radiations in industrial areas with high levels of safety. Contractual, technical, operational and administrative criteria are established for the safe performance of x-rays and gamographies and the use of fixed radiation based equipment (indicators of level, density, flow, etc) as well as precautions to be taken during project, procurement, transportation, assembly and maintenance of such equipment. Finally procedures are suggested for emergencies involving radioactive sources. (author)

  5. Radiation safety. Handbook for laboratory workers in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotte, E.D.; Krueger, D.J.; Connor, K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the Handbook is to provide a source of information on radiation safety for those who are involved in the use of ionizing radiation in the laboratory. The potential reader may be a laboratory worker in the university or biomedical setting or the safety professional who desires a basic understanding of radiation protection within the research environment. The Handbook may be used as a reference by the radiation protection specialist or Radiation Safety Officer. To this end, liberal use is made of Appendices to make the Handbook a source of reference for a wide spectrum of readership while avoiding complicating the main body of the text. Each chapter or appendix is designed to stand alone. A complete reading of the Handbook will show that topics may be covered more than once. For example, one may read about the hazards and protective measures on handling radioiodine in Chapter 5 on Practical Radiation Protection as well as in Appendix 19 on Safe Handling of 125 I. Extensive use of figures, rather than tables has been made to present data, in the belief that these produce a good visual representation to a level of precision which is sufficient for most purposes of radiation protection in laboratories. The reader must remember that this Handbook should be taken as a guide only to the applicable regulations. You must consult the appropriate state or federal regulation directly or receive advice of a qualified radiation safety professional. Also, some information in the Appendices, such as commercially available training institutions or radioactive waste brokers, may change with time. Telephone numbers are given for the reader to call directly and check the services provided

  6. Radiation safety of sealed sources and equipment containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide gives information and requirements concerning the technical construction, installation, use and licensing of devices containing sealed radioactive sources in order to ensure the operational safety. The requirements are in accordance with the international standards ISO 1677, ISO 2919, ISO 7205 and Nordic Recommendations on radiation protection for radionuclide gauges in permanent installation. The guide explains also the practical measures that must be taken into account when a radiation device is repaired, maintained or removed from the use. (8 refs.)

  7. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  8. Radiation safety parameters following prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, Sesalie; Wallner, Kent; Korssjoen, Tammy; Bergsagel, Carl; Hudson, Rick H.; Sutlief, Steven; Blasko, John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree and variability of radiation exposure to the general public from patients after I-125 or Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made from 38 consecutive, unselected patients with stage T1 or T2 prostatic carcinoma who had trans perineal I-125 or Pd-103 implants at the University of Washington in 1998. Results: The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface following a I-125 implant ranged from 2.2 to 8.9 mrem/hour (average: 5.0). The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface from a Pd-103 implant ranged from 0.5 to 4.9 mrem/hour (average: 1.7). Based on the current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations the time required to reach the annual limit at the anterior skin surface would be 20 hours for I-125 and 59 hours for Pd-103. For exposure at the lateral skin surface, the times would exceed 500 hours for either isotope. Conclusions: This data suggest that patients need not be concerned about being a radiation risk to the general public following their procedure

  9. Radiation safety for the emergency situation of the power plant accident. Radiation safety in society and its education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    2012-01-01

    Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunamis, and following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Accident brought about great impact on society in Japan. Accident analysis of inside reactor was studied by reactor physics or reactor engineering knowledge, while dissipation of a large amount of radioactive materials outside reactor facilities, and radiation and radioactivity effects on people by way of atmosphere, water and soil were dealt with radiation safety or radiation protection. Due to extremely low frequency and experience of an emergency, there occurred a great confusion in the response of electric power company concerned, relevant regulating competent authorities, local government and media, and related scholars and researchers, which caused great anxieties amount affected residents and people. This article described radiation safety in the society and its education. Referring to actual examples, how radiation safety or radiation protection knowledge should be dealt with emergency risk management in the society was discussed as well as problem of education related with nuclear power, radiation and prevention of disaster and fostering of personnel for relevant people. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  11. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    higher inspector presence than normal and more stringent reporting requirements. In SKI's opinion, Barsebaeck Kraft AB (BKAB), with the measures that have been implemented, is maintaining safety at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. In December, Studsvik Nuclear AB decided to close down the two reactors at Studsvik. Therefore, SKI immediately initiated an intensified supervision of the decommissioning process at the reactors. The handling of nuclear waste at nuclear power plants, including the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB) has largely functioned well for the most part. In 2004, the total radiation dose to the personnel at nuclear power plants was 6.4 manSv, which is lower than in 2003. The average value for the past five years is 9 manSv. The shutdown periods were shorter at a few reactors due to the fact that work progress surpassed expectations. Technical problems and unplanned repair work resulted in a somewhat higher dose than expected at a few reactors. No individual received a radiation dose greater than 20 mSv. The fuel defects that occurred in 2004 did not result in any significant impact on radiation protection. The dose to people living in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants in 2004 was below 1 per cent of the permitted dose. The control measurements that SSI conducts on environmental samples around nuclear power plants and on the radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cattenom nuclear power plant (INB 124, 125, 126 and 137, Moselle (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear power plant (Saint-Laurent-Nouan (FR)): 2 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors and a graphite sleeves storage silo (INB 46 and 74), and 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear power plant (Saint-Laurent-Nouan (FR)): 2 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors and a graphite sleeves storage silo (INB 46 and 74), and 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the CNPE EDF nuclear facilities of Tricastin - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Tricastin nuclear power plant (INB 87 and 88, Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux, Drome (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Creys-Malville nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the partially dismantled facilities of the Creys-Malville nuclear power plant (also known as Superphenix power plant, INB no. 91, Creys-Mepieu - Isere (FR)) and the other fuel and waste storage facilities of the site (INB no. 141). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chinon nuclear power plant (Indre-et-Loire, 37 (FR)): 4 PWR reactors in operation (Chinon B, INB 107 and 132), 3 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors (Chinon A, INB 133, 153 and 161), a workshop for irradiated materials (AMI, INB 94), and an inter-regional fuel storage facility (MIR, INB 99). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Penly nuclear power plant (INB 136 and 140, Seine-Maritime, 76 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chooz nuclear power plant (Ardennes (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (Chooz B, INB 139 and 144) and one partially dismantled PWR reactor (Chooz A, INB 163). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary followed by the viewpoint of the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Blayais nuclear power plant (INB 86 and 110, Gironde (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear power plant (INB 129 and 130, Aube (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power plant (INB 111 and 112, Ardeche (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Paluel nuclear power plant (INB no. 103 - Paluel 1, no. 104 - Paluel 2, no. 114 - Paluel 3 and no. 115 - Paluel 4, Cany-Barville - Seine-Maritime (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document ends with a glossary and no recommendation from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Tricastin power plant - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Tricastin nuclear power plant (INB 87 and 88, Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux, Drome (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Paluel nuclear power plant (INB no. 103 - Paluel 1, no. 104 - Paluel 2, no. 114 - Paluel 3 and no. 115 - Paluel 4, Cany-Barville - Seine-Maritime (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear power plant (INB 84 and 85, Loiret, 45 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Creys-Malville nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the partially dismantled facilities of the Creys-Malville nuclear power plant (also known as Superphenix power plant, INB no. 91, Creys-Mepieu - Isere (FR)) and the other fuel and waste storage facilities of the site (INB no. 141). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Tricastin power plant - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Tricastin nuclear power plant (INB 87 and 88, Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux, Drome (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Golfech nuclear power plant (INB 135 and 142, Tarn-et-Garonne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Penly nuclear power plant (INB 136 and 140, Seine-Maritime, 76 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power plant (INB 111 and 112, Ardeche (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Civaux nuclear power plant (INB 158 and 159, Vienne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chinon nuclear power plant (Indre-et-Loire, 37 (FR)): 4 PWR reactors in operation (Chinon B, INB 107 and 132), 3 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors (Chinon A, INB 133, 153 and 161), a workshop for irradiated materials (AMI, INB 94), and an inter-regional fuel storage facility (MIR, INB 99). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Blayais nuclear power plant (INB 86 and 110, Gironde (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear power plant (INB 84 and 85, Loiret, 45 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cattenom nuclear power plant (INB 124, 125, 126 and 137, Moselle (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear power plant (INB 119 and 120, Isere (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear power plant (INB 129 and 130, Aube (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear power plant (INB no. 127 - Belleville 1 and no. 128 - Belleville 2, Belleville-sur-Loire and Sury-pres-Lere - Cher (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Civaux nuclear power plant (INB 158 and 159, Vienne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Bugey nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Bugey nuclear power plant (Ain (FR)): 4 PWR reactors in operation (INB 78 and 89), one partially dismantled graphite-gas reactor (INB 45), an inter-regional fuel storage facility (MIR, INB 102), and a radioactive waste storage and conditioning facility under construction (ICEDA, INB 173). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear power plant (INB 119 and 120, Isere (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Golfech nuclear power plant (INB 135 and 142, Tarn-et-Garonne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chooz nuclear power plant (Ardennes (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (Chooz B, INB 139 and 144) and one partially dismantled PWR reactor (Chooz A, INB 163). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  14. radiation safety culture for developing country: Basis for s minimum operational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a methodology for an integrated strategy aiming at establishing an adequate radiation Safety infrastructure for developing countries, non major power reactor programme. Its implementation will allow these countries, about 50% of the IAEA's Member States, to improve marginal radiation safety, specially to those recipients of technical assistance and do not meet the Minimum radiation Safety Requirements of the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection Progress in the implementation of safety regulations depends on the priority of the government and its understanding and conviction about the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. There is no doubt to conclude that the reasons for the deficiency of sources control and dose limitation are related to the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, specially considering the establishment of an adequate legislation; A minimum legal infrastructure; A minimum operational radiation safety programme; Alternatives for a Point of Optimum Contact, to avoid overlap and conflict, that is: A 'Memorandum of Understanding' among Regulatory Authorities in the Country, dealing with similar type of licensing and inspection

  15. Radiation protection databases of nuclear safety regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection and nuclear safety of nuclear installations have a common objective, protection against ionising radiation. The operational safety of a nuclear power plant is evaluated using performance indicators as for instance collective radiation exposure, unit capability factor, unplanned capability loss factor, etc. As stated by WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) the performance indicators are 'a management tool so each operator can monitor its own performance and progress, set challenging goals for improvement and consistently compare performance with that of other plants or industry'. In order to make the analysis of the performance indicators feasible to an operator as well as to regulatory authorities a suitable database should be created based on the data related to a facility or facilities. Moreover, the international bodies found out that the comparison of radiation protection in nuclear facilities in different countries could be feasible only if the databases with well defined parameters are established. The article will briefly describe the development of international databases regarding radiation protection related to nuclear facilities. The issues related to the possible development of the efficient radiation protection control of a nuclear facility based on experience of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration will be presented. (author)

  16. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition); Surete radiologique en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in Horizontal-Ellipsis shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  17. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Seguridad radiologica en la radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring system with GPS (global positioning system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoto, Itsuro

    2000-01-01

    This system combines a radiation monitoring car with GPS and a data processor (personal computer). It distributes the position information acquired through GPS to the data such as measured environmental radiation dose rate and energy spectrum. It also displays and edits the data for each measuring position on a map. Transmitting the data to the power station through mobile phone enables plan managers to easily monitor the environmental radiation dose rate nearby and proper emergency monitoring. (author)

  19. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 17 chapters. (author)

  20. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 19 chapters.