WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental qcm sensors

  1. QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

  2. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM Sensors

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    Sibel Emir Diltemiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (biosensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.. On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (biosensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor (QCM for Bilirubin Detection

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    Çiğdem Çiçek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the preparation of a QCM sensor for the detection of bilirubin in human plasma. Bilirubin-imprinted poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester (PHEMATrp nanofilm (MIP on the gold surface of a QCM chip was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique. Meanwhile, the non-imprinted PHEMATrp (NIP nanofilm was synthesized by the same experimental technique to examine the imprinting effect. Characterization of MIP and NIP nanofilms on the QCM chip surface was achieved by atomic force microscopy (AFM, ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR and contact angle measurements (CA. The observations indicated that the nanofilm was almost in a monolayer. Thereinafter, the imprinted and the non-imprinted QCM chips were connected to the QCM system to investigate kinetic and affinity properties. In order to examine the selectivity of the MIP-PHEMATrp nanofilm, competitive adsorption of bilirubin with cholesterol and estradiol was performed. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ values were calculated as 0.45 μg/mL and 0.9 μg/mL, respectively.

  4. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixed Odor Classification for QCM Sensor Data by Neural Network

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    Sigeru OMATU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} Compared with metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors, quarts crystal microbalance (QCM sensors are sensitive for odors. Using an array of QCM sensors, we measure mixed odors and classify them into an original odor class beforemixing based on neural networks. For simplicity we consider the case that two kinds of odor are mixed since more than two becomes too complex to analyze the classification results. We have used eight sensors and four kinds of odor are used as the original odors. The neural network used here is a conventional layered neural network. The classification is acceptable although the perfect classification could not been achieved.

  6. Mixed Odor Classification for QCM Sensor Data by Neural Network

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    Hiroyuki NAKAZUMI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} Compared with metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors, quarts crystal microbalance (QCM sensors are sensitive for odors. Using an array of QCM sensors, we measure mixed odors and classify them into an original odor class before mixing based on neural networks. For simplicity we consider the case that two kinds of odor are mixed since more than two becomes too complex to analyze the classification results. We have used eight sensors and four kinds of odor are used as the original odors. The neural network used here is a conventional layered neural network. The classification is acceptable although the perfect classification could not been achieved.

  7. Rancang Bangun Mini System Spin Coating Untuk Pelapisan Sensor Qcm (Quartz Crystal Microbalance)

    OpenAIRE

    Hudha, Lalu Sahrul; Sakti, Setyawan; Masruroh, Masruroh

    2013-01-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) adalah salah satu sensor yang dapat mengukur massa per unit area dengan cara mengukur Perubahan frekuensi pada resonator kristal kuarsa. Tebal dan keseragaman lapisan yang melapisi QCM ini mempengaruhi sensitifitas dan kestabilan sensor QCM. Oleh karena itu, perlu dibuat suatu teknik pelapisan yang dapat menghasilkan lapisan yang diinginkan. Salah satunya adalah teknik spin atau yang bisa disebut sebagai spin coating. Oleh karena itu, telah dilakukan pembuata...

  8. Highly sensitive BTX detection using surface functionalized QCM sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Asuman Aşıkoğlu; Özdemir, Okan; Altındal, Ahmet, E-mail: altindal@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    A novel organic compound was designed and successfully synthesized for the fabrication of QCM based sensors to detect the low concentrations of BTX gases in indoor air. The effect of the long-range electron orbital delocalization on the BTX vapour sensing properties of azo-bridged Pcs based chemiresistor-type sensors have also been investigated in this work. The sensing behaviour of the film for the online detection of volatile organic solvent vapors was investigated by utilizing an AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. It was observed that the adsorption of the target molecules on the coating surface cause a reversible negative frequency shift of the resonator. Thus, a variety of solvent vapors can be detected by using the phthalocyanine film as sensitive coating, with sensitivity in the ppm range and response times in the order of several seconds depending on the molecular structure of the organic solvent.

  9. Batch fabrication of polymer microfluidic cartridges for QCM sensor packaging by direct bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Niklas; Zandi Shafagh, Reza; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2017-12-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensing is an established technique commonly used in laboratory based life-science applications. However, the relatively complex, multi-part design and multi-step fabrication and assembly of state-of-the-art QCM cartridges make them unsuited for disposable applications such as point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics. In this work, we present the uncomplicated manufacturing of QCMs in polymer microfluidic cartridges. Our novel approach comprises two key innovations: the batch reaction injection molding of microfluidic parts; and the integration of the cartridge components by direct, unassisted bonding. We demonstrate molding of batches of 12 off-stoichiometry thiol-ene epoxy polymer (OSTE+) polymer parts in a single molding cycle using an adapted reaction injection molding process; and the direct bonding of the OSTE+  parts to other OSTE+  substrates, to printed circuit boards, and to QCMs. The microfluidic QCM OSTE+  cartridges were successfully evaluated in terms of liquid sealing as well as electrical properties, and the sensor performance characteristics are on par with those of a commercially available QCM biosensor cartridge. The simplified manufacturing of QCM sensors with maintained performance potentializes novel application areas, e.g. as disposable devices in a point of care setting. Moreover, our results can be extended to simplifying the fabrication of other microfluidic devices with multiple heterogeneously integrated components.

  10. A versatile planar QCM-based sensor design for nonlabeling biomolecule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sota, Hiroyuki; Yoshimine, Hiroshi; Whittier, Robert F; Gotoh, Masanori; Shinohara, Yasuro; Hasegawa, Yukio; Okahata, Yoshio

    2002-08-01

    Despite high theoretical sensitivity, low-cost manufacture, and compactness potentially amenable to lab-on-a-chip use, practical hurdles have stymied the application of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for aqueous applications such as detection of biomolecular interactions. The chief difficulty lies in achieving a sufficiently stable resonance signal in the presence of even minute fluctuations in hydrostatic pressure. In this work, we present a novel versatile planar sensor chip design (QCM chip) for a microliter-scale on-line biosensor. By sealing the quartz resonator along its edges to a flat, solid support, we provide uniform support for the crystal face not exposed to solvent, greatly decreasing deformation of the crystal resonator under hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, this cassette design obviates the need for direct handling when exchanging the delicate quartz crystal in the flow cell. A prototype 27-MHz sensor signal exhibited very low noise over a range of flow rates up to 100 microL/min. In contrast, signals obtained from a conventional QCM sensor employing an O-ring-based holder were less stable and deteriorated even further with increasing flow rate. Additional control designs with intermediate amounts of unsupported undersurface yielded intermediate levels of stability, consistent with the interpretation that deformation of the crystal resonator under fluctuating hydraulic pressure is the chief source of noise. As a practical demonstration of the design's high effective sensitivity, we readily detected interaction between myoglobin and surface-bound antibody.

  11. Detection of AU(III) ions using a poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-coated QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Hideaki; Kitamura, Eri; Seida, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    A polymer-coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor has been developed for the detection of Au(III) ions in a HCl aqueous solution. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (poly(DMAA)) gel was used as a sensing material. The poly(DMAA) gel adsorbs Au(III) ions in the HCl aqueous solution, whereas it is inactive toward most other metal ions. The equilibrium adsorption of Au(III) ions onto the poly(DMAA) gel can be expressed by the Henry-type isotherm. The oscillation behavior of the poly(DMAA)-coated QCM sensor was investigated, and linear relationships between the resonance frequency shift and the concentration of Au(III) ions were obtained for concentrations of less than 0.032 mol/m(3) (6.3 mg/m(3)) in the single and multicomponent metal systems. The poly(DMAA)-coated QCM sensor detects Au(III) ions successfully with high selectivity and sensitivity even in the presence of other metal ions and organic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcos-Acevedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product ( of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for  measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  13. Monitoring contamination due to materials outgassing by QCM-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    F. Dirri, E. Palomba, A. Longobardo, D. Biondi, A. Boccaccini, E. Zampetti, B. Saggin, D. Scaccabarozzi, A. Tortora, A. Nanni, J. Alves, A. Tighe Outgassing from spacecraft materials often occurs and degassing contaminants can degrade critical spacecraft surfaces, such as optical systems, solar panels, thermal radiators and thermal management systems. The main contaminants are the water adsorbed by cold surface, organics from spacecraft structure, electronics, insulation and thrusters firings [1]. Thus, it is fundamental to monitor these low-outgassing rates especially in a long duration mission: Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based sensors (i.e. single and double crystal configurations) are a suitable instruments to monitor step by step these degradation processes which occur in space conditions. The Contamination Assessment Microbalance (CAM) is a device aimed at monitoring in-orbit contamination of sensitive surfaces and payloads on ESA's future satellites. The device, developed by a consortium of Italian research Institutes, is based on QCM technology, previously considered by NASA and ESA experiments performed on Space Shuttle and satellite missions [2,3,4]. CAM is a low mass (200 grams for the sensor head), low volume (smaller than 5x5x5 cm3 for the sensor head) and low power consumption (less than 1.5 W) sensor. The device is composed by: 1) the Sensor Head, containing a sensing crystal (which measures the deposited contaminant mass), a reference crystal (used as frequency reference), their related Proximity Electronics (PE) and a Temperature Control System (TCS); 2) the Main Electronics Unit (MEU), which acquires the signal in output from Sensor Head unit; 3) the Harness connecting Sensor Head and MEU; 4) the User Interface (UI) to read and display the data. The device shows several improvements, i.e. possibility to measure directly the crystal temperature (with an accuracy better than 0.1°C), large measurable mass range (from 5•10-9 to 7•10-4 g/cm2

  14. Determining the Optimum Exposure and Recovery Periods for Efficient Operation of a QCM Based Elemental Mercury Vapor Sensor

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    K. M. Mohibul Kabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mass based transducers such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM have gained huge interest as potential sensors for online detection of elemental mercury (Hg0 vapor from anthropogenic sources due to their high portability and robust nature enabling them to withstand harsh industrial environments. In this study, we determined the optimal Hg0 exposure and recovery times of a QCM based sensor for ensuring its efficient operation while monitoring low concentrations of Hg0 vapor (<400 ppbv. The developed sensor was based on an AT-cut quartz substrate and utilized two gold (Au films on either side of the substrate which functions as the electrodes and selective layer simultaneously. Given the temporal response mechanisms associated with mass based mercury sensors, the experiments involved the variation of Hg0 vapor exposure periods while keeping the recovery time constant following each exposure and vice versa. The results indicated that an optimum exposure and recovery periods of 30 and 90 minutes, respectively, can be utilized to acquire the highest response magnitudes and recovery rate towards a certain concentration of Hg0 vapor whilst keeping the time it takes to report an accurate reading by the sensor to a minimum level as required in real-world applications.

  15. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

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    Guang Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2 surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species.

  16. The quest for highly sensitive QCM humidity sensors: the coating of CNT/MOF composite sensing films as case study

    KAUST Repository

    Chappanda, Karumbaiah. N.

    2017-11-01

    The application of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sensing layer has been attracting great interest over the last decade, due to their uniform properties in terms of high porosity and tunability, which provides a large surface area and/or centers for trapping/binding a targeted analyte. Here we report the fabrication of a highly sensitive humidity sensor that is based on composite thin films of HKUST-1 MOF and carbon nanotubes (CNT). The composite sensing films were fabricated by spin coating technique on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and a comparison of their shift in resonance frequencies to adsorbed water vapor (5 to 75% relative humidity) is presented. Through optimization of the CNT and HKUST-1 composition, we could demonstrate a 230% increase in sensitivity compared to plain HKUST-1 film. The optimized CNT-HKUST-1 composite thin films are stable, reliable, and have an average sensitivity of about 2.5×10−5 (Δf/f) per percent of relative humidity, which is up to ten times better than previously reported QCM-based humidity sensors. The approach presented here is facile and paves a promising path towards enhancing the sensitivity of MOF-based sensors.

  17. A Study of a QCM Sensor Based on TiO2 Nanostructures for the Detection of NO2 and Explosives Vapours in Air

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    Marcin Procek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigations concerning the construction of sensors based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM containing a TiO2 nanostructures sensor layer. A chemical method of synthesizing these nanostructures is presented. The prepared prototype of the QCM sensing system, as well as the results of tests for detecting low NO2 concentrations in an atmosphere of synthetic air have been described. The constructed NO2 sensors operate at room temperature, which is a great advantage, because resistance sensors based on wide gap semiconductors often require much higher operation temperatures, sometimes as high as 500 °C. The sensors constructed by the authors can be used, among other applications, in medical and chemical diagnostics, and also for the purpose of detecting explosive vapours. Reactions of the sensor to nitroglycerine vapours are presented as an example of its application. The influence of humidity on the operation of the sensor was studied.

  18. A Study of a QCM Sensor Based on TiO2 Nanostructures for the Detection of NO2 and Explosives Vapours in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procek, Marcin; Stolarczyk, Agnieszka; Pustelny, Tadeusz; Maciak, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with investigations concerning the construction of sensors based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) containing a TiO2 nanostructures sensor layer. A chemical method of synthesizing these nanostructures is presented. The prepared prototype of the QCM sensing system, as well as the results of tests for detecting low NO2 concentrations in an atmosphere of synthetic air have been described. The constructed NO2 sensors operate at room temperature, which is a great advantage, because resistance sensors based on wide gap semiconductors often require much higher operation temperatures, sometimes as high as 500 °C. The sensors constructed by the authors can be used, among other applications, in medical and chemical diagnostics, and also for the purpose of detecting explosive vapours. Reactions of the sensor to nitroglycerine vapours are presented as an example of its application. The influence of humidity on the operation of the sensor was studied. PMID:25912352

  19. Utilisation of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with Dissipation (QCM-D) for a Clauss Fibrinogen Assay in Comparison with Common Coagulation Reference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberfrank, Stephanie; Drechsel, Hartmut; Sinn, Stefan; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of fibrinogen levels is one of the most important coagulation measurements in medicine. It plays a crucial part in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, often associated with time-critical conditions. The commonly used measurement is the Clauss fibrinogen assay (CFA) where plasma is activated by thrombin reagent and which is conducted by mechanical/turbidimetric devices. As quartz crystal microbalance sensors with dissipation (QCM-D) based devices have a small footprint, can be operated easily and allow measurements independently from sample transportation time, laboratory location, availability and opening hours, they offer a great opportunity to complement laboratory CFA measurements. Therefore, the objective of the work was to (1) transfer the CFA to the QCM-D method; (2) develop an easy, time- and cost-effective procedure and (3) compare the results with references. Different sensor coatings (donor’s own plasma; gold surface) and different QCM-D parameters (frequency signal shift; its calculated turning point; dissipation signal shift) were sampled. The results demonstrate the suitability for a QCM-D-based CFA in physiological fibrinogen ranges. Results were obtained in less than 1 min and in very good agreement with a standardized reference (Merlin coagulometer). The results provide a good basis for further investigation and pave the way to a possible application of QCM-D in clinical and non-clinical routine in the medical field. PMID:26927107

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

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    Chuanjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL; nonanal (NAL and bezaldehyde (BAL. The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT; diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA; nonanoic acid (NA and benzoic acid (BA were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA; multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP effect and the matrix

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanjun; Wyszynski, Bartosz; Yatabe, Rui; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-16

    The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG) materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL); nonanal (NAL) and bezaldehyde (BAL). The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT). Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT); diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP) and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP) were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA); nonanoic acid (NA) and benzoic acid (BA) were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA); multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP) effect and the matrix

  2. A Noncontact Dibutyl Phthalate Sensor Based on a Wireless-Electrodeless QCM-D Modified with Nano-Structured Nickel Hydroxide

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    Daqi Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dibutyl phthalate (DBP is a widely used plasticizer which has been found to be a reproductive and developmental toxicant and ubiquitously existing in the air. A highly sensitive method for DBP monitoring in the environment is urgently needed. A DBP sensor based on a homemade wireless-electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D coated with nano-structured nickel hydroxide is presented. With the noncontact configuration, the sensing system could work at a higher resonance frequency (the 3rd overtone and the response of the system was even more stable compared with a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. The sensor achieved a sensitivity of 7.3 Hz/ppb to DBP in a concentration range of 0.4–40 ppb and an ultra-low detection limit of 0.4 ppb of DBP has also been achieved.

  3. Viscoelasticity of thin biomolecular films: a case study on nucleoporin phenylalanine-glycine repeats grafted to a histidine-tag capturing QCM-D sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Nico B; Andersson, Fredrik I; Frey, Steffen; Richter, Ralf P

    2012-08-13

    Immobilization of proteins onto surfaces is useful for the controlled generation of biomolecular assemblies that can be readily characterized with in situ label-free surface-sensitive techniques. Here we analyze the performance of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) sensor surface that enables the selective and oriented immobilization of histidine-tagged molecules for morphological and interaction studies. More specifically, we characterize monolayers of natively unfolded nucleoporin domains that are rich in phenylalanine-glycine repeats (FGRDs). An FGRD meshwork is thought to be responsible for the selectivity of macromolecular transport across the nuclear pore complex between the cytosol and the nucleus of living cells. We demonstrate that nucleoporin FGRD films can be formed on His-tag Capturing Sensors with properties comparable to a previously reported immobilization platform based on supported lipid bilayers (SLB). Approaches to extract the film thickness and viscoelastic properties in a time-resolved manner from the QCM-D response are described, with particular emphasis on the practical implementation of viscoelastic modeling and a detailed analysis of the quality and reliability of the fit. By comparing the results with theoretical predictions for the viscoelastic properties of polymer solutions and gels, and experimental data from an atomic force microscopy indentation assay, we demonstrate that detailed analysis can provide novel insight into the morphology and dynamics of FG repeat domain films. The immobilization approach is simple and versatile, and can be easily extended to other His-tagged biomolecules. The data analysis procedure should be useful for the characterization of other ultrathin biomolecular and polymer films.

  4. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  5. Prototypes of Newly Conceived Inorganic and Biological Sensors for Health and Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Spera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimal implementation of three newly conceived sensors for both health and environmental applications, utilizing a wide range of detection methods and complex nanocomposites. The first one is inorganic and based on matrices of calcium oxide, the second is based on protein arrays and a third one is based on Langmuir-Blodgett laccase multi-layers. Special attention was paid to detecting substances significant to the environment (such as carbon dioxide and medicine (drug administration, cancer diagnosis and prognosis by means of amperometric, quartz crystal microbalance with frequency (QCM_F and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM_D technologies. The resulting three implemented nanosensors are described here along with proofs of principle and their corresponding applications.

  6. Sensor technologies: healthcare, wellness, and environmental applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGrath, Michael J., Ph.D; Ní Scanaill, Cliodhna

    Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications explores the key aspects of sensor technologies, covering wired, wireless, and discrete sensors for the specific application domains of healthcare...

  7. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  8. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmoji Kosuru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  9. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji

    2016-06-28

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP) and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  10. Environmental Monitoring Using Microcantilever Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thundat, Thomas; Brown, Gilbert M.; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2003-03-27

    There is presently an urgent need for rugged, low cost sensing systems for real-time, in situ chemical sensors for characterization and monitoring of ground water, contaminated soil and process streams. Recent advances in designing and fabricating microcantilever beams capable of detecting extremely small forces, mechanical stress and mass additions offer the promising prospect of environmental sensing with unprecedented sensitivity and dynamic range. The resonance frequency of a cantilever beam varies sensitively as a function of molecular adsorption. In addition, when the adsorption is confined to one side of the cantilever, the cantilever undergoes deflection due to adsorption-induced variation in surface free energy. Chemical selectivity can be achieved by coating the cantilevers with selective molecules. We have detected a number of ions such as Cs, Cr, Cu, Hg and methyl Hg in ground water with very high sensitivity. Recent results from nanocantilever sensor arrays will be presented.

  11. Smart sensor for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Malecha, Michael M.; Saini, Selwayan; Setford, Steven J.

    2005-07-01

    For the past two decades intensive research has been carried out on the development of environmental sensors. Nevertheless, the applicability of such devices has been hindered by harsh work conditions and the complexity of the sample matrices. A novel approach centres on the integration of sample pre-treatment steps, where the technology involved can be used advantageously for the design of a Micro Total Analysis System (fluid motion and detection enhancement). The synergistic mixed surfactant system allows the development an independent "green" target specific extraction scheme. Amphiphiles are routinely used in the electrophoretic separation process for their intrinsic detection signal enhancement (i.e. by optical/electrochemical methods). They can also be regarded as a means of flow generation (e.g. Marangoni's Flow) in micro-systems. In this perspective, we are currently developing micro-systems based on glass and polymeric substrates (e.g. poly dimethyl silicone). Whilst the surface chemistry of glass substrates allows the integration of mesoporous silica and ceramics, soft lithographic methods, such as micro-moulding or prototyping, renders the design of PDMS substrate simple. While the selectivity of the system may be based on molecular imprinted silicates, biologically compatible ceramics such as titanium dioxide can be used for the design of a single optical/ electrochemical detection cell. All of these previously cited technologies form a standing bridge towards independent, automated, at-/on-line sensor systems.

  12. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo (Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  13. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  14. Detection of Stress Hormone in the Milk for Animal Welfare Using QCM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a rapid and sequential analysis system to determine stress marker in the milk. One of the famous stress markers, cortisol, was detected using our method. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM method with a twin sensor was used in this study. One channel detected stress marker corresponding to antigen-antibody interaction and the other channel was used as a reference to remove environmental influences. Although nonspecific adsorption was monitored on each channel, frequency difference between them was within a few Hz on the injection of sample solution. One determination cycle including regeneration step could be performed within 10 minutes. The system could detect the cortisol level from 0.1 pg/mL to 100 pg/mL. These results show that our system has a potential to check the daily feeding condition for cows in terms of animal welfare.

  15. Environmental sensor networks in ecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W; Graham, Eric A; Allen, Michael F; Fisher, Jason C; Harmon, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sensor networks offer a powerful combination of distributed sensing capacity, real-time data visualization and analysis, and integration with adjacent networks and remote sensing data streams. These advances have become a reality as a combined result of the continuing miniaturization of electronics, the availability of large data storage and computational capacity, and the pervasive connectivity of the Internet. Environmental sensor networks have been established and large new networks are planned for monitoring multiple habitats at many different scales. Projects range in spatial scale from continental systems designed to measure global change and environmental stability to those involved with the monitoring of only a few meters of forest edge in fragmented landscapes. Temporal measurements have ranged from the evaluation of sunfleck dynamics at scales of seconds, to daily CO2 fluxes, to decadal shifts in temperatures. Above-ground sensor systems are partnered with subsurface soil measurement networks for physical and biological activity, together with aquatic and riparian sensor networks to measure groundwater fluxes and nutrient dynamics. More recently, complex sensors, such as networked digital cameras and microphones, as well as newly emerging sensors, are being integrated into sensor networks for hierarchical methods of sensing that promise a further understanding of our ecological systems by revealing previously unobservable phenomena.

  16. High-frequency phase shift measurement greatly enhances the sensitivity of QCM immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Carmen; García, José V; Sánchez, Ángel; Arnau, Antonio; Jiménez, Yolanda; García, Pablo; Manclús, Juan J; Montoya, Ángel

    2015-03-15

    In spite of being widely used for in liquid biosensing applications, sensitivity improvement of conventional (5-20MHz) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors remains an unsolved challenging task. With the help of a new electronic characterization approach based on phase change measurements at a constant fixed frequency, a highly sensitive and versatile high fundamental frequency (HFF) QCM immunosensor has successfully been developed and tested for its use in pesticide (carbaryl and thiabendazole) analysis. The analytical performance of several immunosensors was compared in competitive immunoassays taking carbaryl insecticide as the model analyte. The highest sensitivity was exhibited by the 100MHz HFF-QCM carbaryl immunosensor. When results were compared with those reported for 9MHz QCM, analytical parameters clearly showed an improvement of one order of magnitude for sensitivity (estimated as the I50 value) and two orders of magnitude for the limit of detection (LOD): 30μgl(-1) vs 0.66μgL(-1)I50 value and 11μgL(-1) vs 0.14μgL(-1) LOD, for 9 and 100MHz, respectively. For the fungicide thiabendazole, I50 value was roughly the same as that previously reported for SPR under the same biochemical conditions, whereas LOD improved by a factor of 2. The analytical performance achieved by high frequency QCM immunosensors surpassed those of conventional QCM and SPR, closely approaching the most sensitive ELISAs. The developed 100MHz QCM immunosensor strongly improves sensitivity in biosensing, and therefore can be considered as a very promising new analytical tool for in liquid applications where highly sensitive detection is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymerization Parameters Influencing the QCM Response Characteristics of BSA MIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam V. H. Phan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for sensing proteins is still a somewhat empirical process due to the inherent complexity of protein imprinting. Based on Bovine Serum Albumin as a model analyte, we explored the influence of a range of experimental parameters on the final sensor responses. The optimized polymer contains 70% cross linker. Lower amounts lead to higher sensitivity, but also sensor response times substantially increase (to up to 10 h at constant imprinting effect (signal ratio MIP/NIP on quartz crystal microbalance—QCM. However, by shifting the polymer properties to more hydrophilic by replacing methacrylic acid by acrylic acid, part of the decreased sensitivity can be recovered leading to appreciable sensor responses. Changing polymer morphology by bulk imprinting and nanoparticle approaches has much lower influence on sensitivity.

  18. Investigating calcite growth rates using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Stack, Andrew G.; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lammers, Laura N.; Hu, Yandi

    2018-02-01

    Calcite precipitation plays a significant role in processes such as geological carbon sequestration and toxic metal sequestration and, yet, the rates and mechanisms of calcite growth under close to equilibrium conditions are far from well understood. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used for the first time to measure macroscopic calcite growth rates. Calcite seed crystals were first nucleated and grown on sensors, then growth rates of calcite seed crystals were measured in real-time under close to equilibrium conditions (saturation index, SI = log ({Ca2+}/{CO32-}/Ksp) = 0.01-0.7, where {i} represent ion activities and Ksp = 10-8.48 is the calcite thermodynamic solubility constant). At the end of the experiments, total masses of calcite crystals on sensors measured by QCM-D and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were consistent, validating the QCM-D measurements. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were compared with reported macroscopic growth rates measured with auto-titration, ICP-MS, and microbalance. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were also compared with microscopic growth rates measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with rates predicted by two process-based crystal growth models. The discrepancies in growth rates among AFM measurements and model predictions appear to mainly arise from differences in step densities, and the step velocities were consistent among the AFM measurements as well as with both model predictions. Using the predicted steady-state step velocity and the measured step densities, both models predict well the growth rates measured using QCM-D and AFM. This study provides valuable insights into the effects of reactive site densities on calcite growth rate, which may help design future growth models to predict transient-state step densities.

  19. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio; Mignani, Anna Grazia

    2008-01-01

    Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-to-date guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported. PMID:27879807

  20. Innovative Sensors for Environmental Monitoring in Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Mignani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Different physical and chemical factors, such as light, temperature, relative humidity, pollutants and so on, can affect works of art on display. Each factor does not act individually, but its effect can be enhanced or accelerated by the presence of other factors. Accordingly, an evaluation of the impact of the whole environment on art objects is recognized as an essential requirement for conservation purposes. To meet the most up-todate guidelines on preventive conservation, in recent years several scientific projects supported by the EC were aimed at developing innovative tools that could complement the standard methods for environmental monitoring in museums. These research projects produced a new generation of passive sensors that are capable of taking into account the overall environmental effects by mimicking in some way the behaviour of real works of art. The main goal of the present paper is to provide a survey of these sensors, which represent a new frontier in the environmental control in museums. Furthermore, the use of optical fibres, as both intrinsic sensors and devices for interrogating sensors, will also be illustrated, and examples of their use in the cultural heritage field will be reported.

  1. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried R. Waldvogel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM. Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.

  2. In situ kinetic study of zinc sulfide activation using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fucheng; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2012-02-15

    We have studied the activation kinetics of zinc sulfide (ZnS) using silver as an activator by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The zinc sulfide coating on QCM-D sensor was shown to have similar crystallographic structure, composition, and surface properties as nature sphalerite through the characterization of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and xanthate adsorption measurement using QCM-D. The activation of ZnS sensor by silver was confirmed by the mass increase in ZnS sensor coupled with subsequent xanthate adsorption during QCM-D measurement, the change of surface wettability, and the presence of Ag(2)S on the surface. Two distinct stages on the silver uptake vs. time curve were identified and fitted well by a logarithmic function for the initial stage and a parabolic law in the later stage, which agrees with the two-stage zinc-silver reaction kinetics reported previously. Argon sputtering followed by XPS measurement on the ZnS surface demonstrated the penetration of silver into the bulk ZnS after activation. The present study is the first of its kind to apply the QCM-D technique to investigate sphalerite activation, which introduces a new in situ approach to investigate surface adsorption and activation in many mineral processes and surface modifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. QCM sensing of melphalan via electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polythiophene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Singh, Ambareesh; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-12-15

    A sensor for the determination of melphalan (mel) using 3-thiophene acetic acid (3-TAA) as functional monomer was fabricated by electropolymerization on gold surface. The polymeric film was formed on the surface of gold electrode as well as on gold-coated electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) electrode by electropolymerization of 3-TAA in presence of mel template by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Various parameters were optimized for controlling the performance of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified sensor such as ratio of monomer and template ratio, number of electropolymerization cycles, mass deposited in each cycle, pH, etc. The prepared MIP sensor was highly specific towards mel and the recognition was analyzed by both differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to verify the changes in currents. In the optimal condition, response of MIP sensor to mel was linearly proportional to its concentration with limit of detection (LOD) as 5.40 ng mL(-1). Hence, a highly sensitive and selective piezoelectric sensor for mel has been reported here via imprinting approach for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simple environmental sensor webs for classroom inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes a platform for inquiry-driven learning in environmental science at the secondary and undergraduate levels including preliminary results from two pilot sensor web-driven projects, in progress. The work presented here emphasizes - Documenting construction and use of the platform - Analysis of results over technology used - Open-ended iteration of the inquiry process Cognitive theory suggests that pedagogical modes of 'information-transfer' fall short as a means of building (arguably useful) problem solving and critical thinking skills in comparison with inquiry-driven modes. In view of limited classroom time and constraints such as standardized testing, sensor web-driven environmental inquiry faces a two-fold challenge: Minimize time-intrusion into the curriculum and make that time highly productive and valuable for students. The technology employed here is a wireless microcomputer network ruggedized for outdoor use, interfaces to simple environmental sensors, supplemental data from a low-cost meteorological station, and data recovery and analysis by means of a laptop PC. Target cost of the system (not including the PC) is 2000USD. The baseline study subject is watershed hydrology, with a corollary aim of "identifiying the doorways" into related subjects and story lines. The general plan of action proceeds in these steps: - Build and test the system - Students work with the system in the classroom - Students formulate a deployment plan - Instruments deployed, data acquired and formatted - Student analysis, hypothesis generation, research - Reiterate the previous three steps as possible Once this platform/program is established the idea is to expand to include personalized reflection and self- expression per the curriculum established by the River of Words non-profit organization. The second expansion idea is (per the eScience model) to facilitate Internet-based exchanges and equipment sharing with students located in other geographical regions

  5. Multiparametric methane sensor for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Duk, M.; Kociubiński, A.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Today, methane sensors find applications mostly in safety alarm installations, gas parameters detection and air pollution classification. Such sensors and sensors elements exists for industry and home use. Under development area of methane sensors application is dedicated to ground gases monitoring. Proper monitoring of soil gases requires reliable and maintenance-free semi-constant and longtime examination at relatively low cost of equipment. The sensors for soil monitoring have to work on soil probe. Therefore, sensor is exposed to environment conditions, as a wide range of temperatures and a full scale of humidity changes, as well as rain, snow and wind, that are not specified for classical methane sensors. Development of such sensor is presented in this paper. The presented sensor construction consists of five commercial non dispersive infra-red (NDIR) methane sensing units, a set of temperature and humidity sensing units, a gas chamber equipped with a micro-fan, automated gas valves and also a microcontroller that controls the measuring procedure. The electronics part of sensor was installed into customized 3D printed housing equipped with self-developed gas valves. The main development of proposed sensor is on the side of experimental evaluation of construction reliability and results of data processing included safety procedures and function for hardware error correction. Redundant methane sensor units are used providing measurement error correction as well as improved measurement accuracy. The humidity and temperature sensors are used for internal compensation of methane measurements as well as for cutting-off the sensor from the environment when the conditions exceed allowable parameters. Results obtained during environment sensing prove that the gas concentration readings are not sensitive to gas chamber vertical or horizontal position. It is important as vertical sensor installation on soil probe is simpler that horizontal one. Data acquired during six

  6. Sensors for everyday life environmental and food engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Postolache, Octavian; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Swain, Akshya

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date overview of the concepts, modeling, technical and technological details and practical applications of different types of sensors, and discusses the trends of next generation of sensors and systems for environmental and food engineering. This book is aimed at researchers, graduate students, academics and industry professionals working in the field of environmental and food engineering, environmental monitoring, precision agriculture and food quality control.

  7. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  8. Characterization of nanoparticle-lipid membrane interactions using QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Rickard; Svedhem, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    In vitro characterization of nanoparticles is becoming increasingly important due to the rapid development of novel nanoparticle formulations for applications in the field of nanomedicine and related areas. Commonly, nanoparticles are simply characterized with respect to their size and zeta potential, and additional in vitro characterization of nanoparticles is needed to develop useful nanoparticle structure-activity relationships. In this context it is highly interesting to characterize the interactions between nanoparticles and model interfaces, such as lipid membranes. Here, we describe a methodology to study such interactions using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring technique (QCM-D). In order to mimic some aspects of the native cell membrane, a supported lipid membrane is formed on the QCM-D sensor surface. Subsequently the membrane is exposed to nanoparticles, and the nanoparticle-lipid membrane interactions are monitored in real time. The outcome of such analysis provides information on the adsorption process (importantly kinetics and adsorbed amounts) as well as on the integrity of both the nanoparticles and the lipid membrane upon interaction. QCM-D analyses are suitable for screening of nanoparticle-lipid membrane interactions due to the fair throughput of the technique, which can be complemented, when needed, by additional analyses by other surface-sensitive analytical techniques.

  9. Perspectives on next-generation technology for environmental sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Benson; Barbara J. Bond; Michael P. Hamilton; Russell K. Monson; Richard. Han

    2009-01-01

    Sensor networks promise to transform and expand environmental science. However, many technological difficulties must be overcome to achieve this potential. Partnerships of ecologists with computer scientists and engineers are critical in meeting these challenges. Technological issues include promoting innovation in new sensor design, incorporating power optimization...

  10. High Performance Fiber-Optic Sensor for Environmental Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a low-cost, compact, lightweight, rugged and easy-to-use environmental monitoring optical fiber sensor device based on...

  11. Environmental sensor networks for vegetation, animal and soil sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, A.; Viscarra Rossel, R. A.; Swain, D. L.; Wark, T.; Handcock, R. N.; Doerr, V. A. J.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; Doerr, E. D.; Gibbons, P. G.; Lobsey, C.

    2010-10-01

    Environmental sensor networks (ESNs) provide new opportunities for improving our understanding of the environment. In contrast to remote sensing technologies where measurements are made from large distances (e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photography, airborne radiometric surveys), ESNs focus on measurements that are made in close proximity to the target environmental phenomenon. Sensors can be used to collect a much larger number of measurements, which are quantitative and repeatable. They can also be deployed in locations that may otherwise be difficult to visit regularly. Sensors that are commonly used in the environmental sciences include ground-based multispectral vegetation sensors, soil moisture sensors, GPS tracking and bioacoustics for tracking movement in wild and domesticated animals. Sensors may also be coupled with wireless networks to more effectively capture, synthesise and transmit data to decision-makers. The climate and weather monitoring domains provide useful examples of how ESNs can provide real-time monitoring of environmental change (e.g. temperature, rainfall, sea-surface temperature) to many users. The objective of this review is to examine state-of-the-art use of ESNs for three environmental monitoring domains: (a) terrestrial vegetation, (b) animal movement and diversity, and (c) soil. Climate and aquatic monitoring sensor applications are so extensive that they are beyond the scope of this review. In each of the three application domains (vegetation, animals and soils) we review the technologies, the attributes that they sense and briefly examine the technical limitations. We conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  12. QCM-D studies on polymer behavior at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    QCM-D Studies on Polymer Behavior at Interfaces reviews the applications of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in polymer research, including the conformational change of grafted polymer chains, the grafting kinetics of polymer chains, the growth mechanism of polyelectrolyte multilayers, and the interactions between polymers and phospholipid membranes. It focuses on how QCM-D can be applied to the study of polymer behavior at various solid-liquid interfaces. Moreover, it clearly reveals the physical significance of the changes in frequency and dissipation associated with the different polymer behaviors at the interfaces.

  13. Quantitative Rheometry of Thin Soft Materials using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadman, Kazi; Wiener, Clinton G; Weiss, R A; White, Christopher C; Shull, Kenneth R; Vogt, Bryan D

    2018-02-23

    In the inertial limit, the resonance frequency of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is related to the coupled mass on the quartz sensor through the Sauerbrey expression that relates the mass to the change in resonance frequency. However, when the thickness of the film is sufficiently large, the relationship becomes more complicated and both the frequency and damping of the crystal resonance must be considered. In this regime, a rheological model of the material must be used to accurately extract the adhered film's thickness, shear modulus, and viscoelastic phase angle from the data. In the present work we examine the suitability of two viscoelastic models, a simple Voigt model (Physica Scripta 1999, 59, 391-396) and a more realistic power-law model (Langmuir 2015, 31, 4008), to extract the rheological properties of a thermo-responsive hydrogel film. By changing temperature and initial dry film thickness of the gel, the operation of QCM was traversed from the Sauerbrey limit, where viscous losses do not impact the frequency, through the regime where the QCM response is sensitive to vis- coelastic properties. The density-shear modulus and the viscoelastic phase angle from the two models are in good agreement when the shear wavelength ratio, d/ln, is in the range of 0.05- 0.20, where d is the film thickness and ln is the wavelength of the mechanical shear wave at the nth harmonic. We further provide a framework for estimating the physical properties of soft materials in the megahertz regime by using the physical behavior of polyelectrolyte complexes. This provides the user with an approximate range of allowable film thicknesses for accurate viscoelastic analysis with either model, thus enabling better use of the QCM-D in soft materials research.

  14. Environmental analysis by electrochemical sensors and biosensors fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Moretto, Ligia Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an exhaustive overview of electrochemical sensors and biosensors for the analysis and monitoring of the most important analytes in the environmental field, in industry, in treatment plants and in environmental research. The chapters give the reader a comprehensive, state-of-the-art picture of the field of electrochemical sensors suitable to environmental analytes, from the theoretical principles of their design to their implementation, realization and application. The first three chapters discuss fundamentals, and the last three chapters cover the main groups of analytes of environmental interest.

  15. Development of a QCM-D biosensor for Ochratoxin A detection in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Haupt, Karsten; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2017-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a highly toxic compound, is one of the most widely spread mycotoxins that contaminates a large variety of agricultural commodities. Due to its presence in the food chain, it imposes a hazard on both human and animal health. Therefore, there is a need for precise, fast and simple methods for toxin quantification. Herein, a novel sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and antibodies for specific analyte recognition was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of OTA in red wine. The combination of indirect competitive assay with QCM-D gives a straightforward device, which can simultaneously measure frequency (Δf) and dissipation (ΔD) changes resulting in detailed information about the mass attached to the sensor surface as well as conformational changes, viscoelastic properties and the hydration state of the film. Small molecules (such as OTA) suffer from poor LOD due to the high concentration of primary antibody needed to generate adequate signal. In the present study, amplification of the QCM-D signal was obtained by applying secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Thanks to this, a linear detection range of 0.2-40ngmL(-1) has been achieved with an excellent LOD of 0.16ngmL(-1,) which is one order of magnitude lower than LOD specified by European Union legislation concerning the limit of OTA in food. Moreover, a matrix effect (caused by the occurrence of polyphenols in wine) and associated non-specific interactions with the sensor surface was completely eliminated by a simple pre-treatment of the wine with the addition of 3% poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SensorKit: An End-to-End Solution for Environmental Sensor Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Graham, E.; Deschon, A.; Lam, Y.; Goldman, J.; Wroclawski, J.; Kaiser, W.; Benzel, T.

    2008-12-01

    Modern day sensor network technology has shown great promise to transform environmental data collection. However, despite the promise, these systems have remained the purview of the engineers and computer scientists who design them rather than a useful tool for the environmental scientists who need them. SensorKit is conceived of as a way to make wireless sensor networks accessible to The People: it is an advanced, powerful tool for sensor data collection that does not require advanced technological know-how. We are aiming to make wireless sensor networks for environmental science as simple as setting up a standard home computer network by providing simple, tested configurations of commercially-available hardware, free and easy-to-use software, and step-by-step tutorials. We designed and built SensorKit using a simplicity-through-sophistication approach, supplying users a powerful sensor to database end-to-end system with a simple and intuitive user interface. Our objective in building SensorKit was to make the prospect of using environmental sensor networks as simple as possible. We built SensorKit from off the shelf hardware components, using the Compact RIO platform from National Instruments for data acquisition due to its modular architecture and flexibility to support a large number of sensor types. In SensorKit, we support various types of analog, digital and networked sensors. Our modular software architecture allows us to abstract sensor details and provide users a common way to acquire data and to command different types of sensors. SensorKit is built on top of the Sensor Processing and Acquisition Network (SPAN), a modular framework for acquiring data in the field, moving it reliably to the scientist institution, and storing it in an easily-accessible database. SPAN allows real-time access to the data in the field by providing various options for long haul communication, such as cellular and satellite links. Our system also features reliable data storage

  17. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar eHAYAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  18. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-10-24

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S levels which are important for early warnings of two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial gas leaks. The temperature sensor has TCR of -0.018/°, the highest of any inkjet-printed sensor and the H2S sensor can detect as low as 3 ppm of gas. These sensors and an antenna have been realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing have been combined in order to realize a unique low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node. Field tests show that these sensor nodes can wirelessly communicate up to a distance of over 100m. Our proposed sensor node can be a part of internet of things with the aim of providing a better and safe living.

  19. Biofouling protection for marine environmental sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Delauney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, pH or fluorescence. Emphasis has to be put on the long term quality of measurements, yet sensors may face very short-term biofouling effects. Biofouling can disrupt the quality of the measurements, sometimes in less than a week.

    Many techniques to prevent biofouling on instrumentation are listed and studied by researchers and manufacturers. Very few of them are implemented on instruments and of those very few have been tested in situ on oceanographic sensors for deployment of at least one or two months.

    This paper presents a review of techniques used to protect against biofouling of in situ sensors and gives a short list and description of promising techniques.

  20. QCM Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (QTGA) Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Meadows, George

    2004-01-01

    The ASTM E-1559 apparatus has been used for years at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine in situ outgassing rate information, as well as pertinent in situ TML and multiple VCM values. The apparatus also affords the opportunity to experimentally compute the evaporation rates of molecular species that are reemitted as the Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCMs) are gradually warmed up at some controlled temperature. Typically the molecular mass that accumulates onto the test QCMs are a compilation of species that are outgassing from the sample due to their respective activation energies and the desorption processes that the sample undergoes at various tested temperatures. It has been speculated that if there is too much molecular buildup of condensed water vapor (ice) onto the QCM crystal that a significantly higher temperature would be needed to break these "ice" bonds. ASTM E-1559 data plots will be used to demonstrate the thermogravimetric effects of water and other miscible molecular species with various water/ice thicknesses and at different evaporation rates.

  1. NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO Coatings on Gold Sensors—a QCM Study of Hemocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank K. Gehring

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of implantable blood sensors is often hampered by unspecific adsorption of plasma proteins and blood cells. This not only leads to a loss of sensor signal over time, but can also result in undesired host vs. graft reactions. Within this study we evaluated the hemocompatibility of isocyanate conjugated star shaped polytheylene oxide—polypropylene oxide co-polymers NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO when applied to gold surfaces as an auspicious coating material for gold sputtered blood contacting sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensors were coated with ultrathin NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO films and compared with uncoated gold sensors. Protein resistance was assessed by QCM measurements with fibrinogen solution and platelet poor plasma (PPP, followed by quantification of fibrinogen adsorption. Hemocompatibility was tested by incubation with human platelet rich plasma (PRP. Thrombin antithrombin-III complex (TAT, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG and platelet factor 4 (PF4 were used as coagulation activation markers. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to visualize platelet adhesion to the sensor surfaces. Compared to uncoated gold sensors, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO coated sensors revealed significant better resistance against protein adsorption, lower TAT generation and a lower amount of adherent platelets. Moreover, coating with ultrathin NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO films creates a cell resistant hemocompatible surface on gold that increases the chance of prolonged sensor functionality and can easily be modified with specific receptor molecules.

  2. In search for a robust design of environmental sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Setia; Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg; Malhotra, Vishv; Turner, Paul

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the design of environmental sensor networks (ESN) which aims at providing a robust, fit-for-purpose network with minimum redundancy. A set of near optimum ESN designs is sought using an evolutionary algorithm, which incorporates redundancy and robustness as fitness functions. This work can assist the decision-making process when determining the number of sensor nodes and how the nodes are going to be deployed in the region of interest.

  3. Environmental Data Collection Sensor to Decision Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... Accurate near real-time environmental data is critical to the success of Mine Warfare operations as was demonstrated in Operation Iraqi Freedom in clearing the approach to the deep water port of Umm Qasr...

  4. QCM studies of gel spreading: Kraton gels on polystyrene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunalee, F Nelson; Shull, Kenneth R

    2006-01-03

    Contact of a polymer gel made from a styrene/ethylene-butene/styrene triblock copolymer in mineral oil was investigated by bringing the gel into contact with the coated surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The experimental apparatus enabled simultaneous measurement of the load, displacement, and contact area, in addition to the resonant frequency and dissipation of the oscillating quartz crystal. The QCM response was determined by the linear viscoelastic properties of the gel at the frequency of oscillation. A geometric correction factor involving the contact area provided a means for quantitatively determining these viscoelastic parameters as the gel spread over the QCM surface. When the gel was removed from the surface, a thin solvent layer was left behind. The thickness of this solvent layer was determined from the QCM response and was compared to predictions from a simple model involving the disjoining pressure of the film and the osmotic pressure of the gel. Qualitative agreement with the model required that tensile, adhesive forces at the perimeter of the gel/QCM contact area were taken into account when calculating the film thickness.

  5. Potentials and Limitations of Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, J.; Remmler, P.; Hutschenreuther, T.; Toepfer, H.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding and dealing with environmental challenges worldwide requires suitable interdisciplinary methods and a level of expertise to be able to implement these solutions, so that the lifestyles of future generations can be secured in the years to come. To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behaviour, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. In this presentation, the possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term environmental monitoring are presented. To underline the importance of this future technology, example concepts are given in the field of near-surface geothermics, groundwater observation, measurement of spatial radiation intensity and air humidity on soils, measurement of matter fluxes, greenhouse gas measurement, and landslide monitoring.

  6. Introducing a sensor to measure budburst and its environmental drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, George J; Lintz, Heather E; Kruger, Anton; Niemeier, James J; Salino-Hugg, Michael J; Thomas, Christoph K; Still, Christopher J; Kim, Youngil

    2015-01-01

    Budburst is a key adaptive trait that can help us understand how plants respond to a changing climate from the molecular to landscape scale. Despite this, acquisition of budburst data is constrained by a lack of information at the plant scale on the environmental stimuli associated with the release of bud dormancy. Additionally, to date, little effort has been devoted to phenotyping plants in natural populations due to the challenge of accounting for the effect of environmental variation. Nonetheless, natural selection operates on natural populations, and investigation of adaptive phenotypes in situ is warranted and can validate results from controlled laboratory experiments. To identify genomic effects on individual plant phenotypes in nature, environmental drivers must be concurrently measured, and characterized. Here, we designed and evaluated a sensor to meet these requirements for temperate woody plants. It was designed for use on a tree branch to measure the timing of budburst together with its key environmental drivers; temperature, and photoperiod. Specifically, we evaluated the sensor through independent corroboration with time-lapse photography and a suite of environmental sampling instruments. We also tested whether the presence of the device on a branch influenced the timing of budburst. Our results indicated the following: the temperatures measured by the budburst sensor's digital thermometer closely approximated the temperatures measured using a thermocouple touching plant tissue; the photoperiod detector measured ambient light with the same accuracy as did time lapse photography; the budburst sensor accurately detected the timing of budburst; and the sensor itself did not influence the budburst timing of Populus clones. Among other potential applications, future use of the sensor may provide plant phenotyping at the landscape level for integration with landscape genomics.

  7. FIBER OPTIC SENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to decades of neglect as well as ever-increasing industrial activity, environmental monitoring has become an important issue. Given the expense and time constraints associated with classical laboratory analysis, there exists a growing interest in cost-effective and real-time ...

  8. Mobile sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters and the human pressure on natural resources have increased the need for environmental monitoring. Proper decisions, based on real-time information gathered from the environment, are critical to protecting human lives and natural resources. To this end, mobile

  9. Integrating modelling and smart sensors for environmental and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Stefan; Seto, Edmund; Northcross, Amanda; Quinn, Nigel W T; Convertino, Matteo; Jones, Rod L; Maier, Holger R; Schlink, Uwe; Steinle, Susanne; Vieno, Massimo; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life, generating data at an unprecedented rate and scale. However, models that assess impacts of human activities on environmental and human health, have typically been developed in contexts where data scarcity is the norm. Models are essential tools to understand processes, identify relationships, associations and causality, formalize stakeholder mental models, and to quantify the effects of prevention and interventions. They can help to explain data, as well as inform the deployment and location of sensors by identifying hotspots and areas of interest where data collection may achieve the best results. We identify a paradigm shift in how the integration of models and sensors can contribute to harnessing 'Big Data' and, more importantly, make the vital step from 'Big Data' to 'Big Information'. In this paper, we illustrate current developments and identify key research needs using human and environmental health challenges as an example.

  10. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INTEGRATIVE SENSORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard A., Michael A. Lewis, Andreas Nocker and Joe E. Lepo. In press. Microbial Biofilms as Integrative Sensors of Environmental Quality. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 34 p. (ERL,GB 1198). Microbial biofilms are comple...

  11. Introducing a Sensor to Measure Budburst and its Environmental Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacob Kleinknecht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Budburst is a key adaptive trait that can help us understand how plants respond to a changing climate from the molecular to landscape scale. Despite this, acquisition of budburst data is currently constrained by a lack of information at the plant scale on the environmental stimuli associated with the release of bud dormancy. Additionally, to date, little effort has been devoted to phenotyping plants in nature due to the challenge of accounting for the effect of environmental variation. Nonetheless, natural selection operates on natural populations, and investigation of adaptive phenotypes in situ is warranted and can validate results from controlled laboratory experiments. In order to identify genomic effects on individual plant phenotypes in nature, environmental drivers must be concurrently measured and characterized. Here, we designed and evaluated a sensor to meet these requirements for temperate woody plants. It was designed for use on a tree branch to measure the timing of budburst together with its key environmental drivers, temperature and photoperiod. Specifically, we evaluated the sensor through independent corroboration with time-lapse photography and a suite of environmental sampling instruments. We also tested whether the presence of the device itself on a branch influenced the timing of budburst. Our results indicated the following: the budburst sensor’s digital thermometer closely approximated a thermocouple touching plant tissue; the photoperiod detector measured ambient light with the same accuracy as time lapse photography; the phenology sensor accurately detected the timing of budburst; and the sensor itself did not influence bud phenology of Populus clones. Among other potential applications, future use of the sensor can provide plant phenotyping at the landscape level for integration with landscape genomics.

  12. A Semantic Sensor Web for Environmental Decision Support Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alasdair J. G.; Sadler, Jason; Kit, Oles; Kyzirakos, Kostis; Karpathiotakis, Manos; Calbimonte, Jean-Paul; Page, Kevin; García-Castro, Raúl; Frazer, Alex; Galpin, Ixent; Fernandes, Alvaro A. A.; Paton, Norman W.; Corcho, Oscar; Koubarakis, Manolis; De Roure, David; Martinez, Kirk; Gómez-Pérez, Asunción

    2011-01-01

    Sensing devices are increasingly being deployed to monitor the physical world around us. One class of application for which sensor data is pertinent is environmental decision support systems, e.g., flood emergency response. For these applications, the sensor readings need to be put in context by integrating them with other sources of data about the surrounding environment. Traditional systems for predicting and detecting floods rely on methods that need significant human resources. In this paper we describe a semantic sensor web architecture for integrating multiple heterogeneous datasets, including live and historic sensor data, databases, and map layers. The architecture provides mechanisms for discovering datasets, defining integrated views over them, continuously receiving data in real-time, and visualising on screen and interacting with the data. Our approach makes extensive use of web service standards for querying and accessing data, and semantic technologies to discover and integrate datasets. We demonstrate the use of our semantic sensor web architecture in the context of a flood response planning web application that uses data from sensor networks monitoring the sea-state around the coast of England. PMID:22164110

  13. Mixed Odor Classification for QCM Sensor Data by Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula ROCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite relevant insights from socio-economics, little research in multi-agent systems has addressed the interconnections between trust and normative notions such as contracts and sanctions. Focusing our attention on scenarios of betrayal, in this paper we combine the use of trust and sanctions in a negotiation process. We describe a scenario of dyadic relationships between truster agents, which make use of trust and/or sanctions, and trustee agents, characterized by their ability and integrity, which may influence their attitude toward betrayal. Both agent behavior models are inspired in socio-economics literature. Through simulation, we show the virtues and shortcomings of using trust, sanctions, and a combination of both in processes of selection of partners.

  14. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor using ionophore for ammonium ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yasuhiro; Takano, Kosuke; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2012-01-01

    Ionophore-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) ammonium ion sensors with a detection limit for ammonium ion concentrations as low as 2.2 microM were fabricated. Ionophores are molecules, which selectively bind a particular ion. In this study, one of the known ionophores for ammonium, nonactin, was used to detect ammonium ions for environmental in-situ monitoring of aquarium water for the first time. To fabricate the sensing films, poly(vinyl chloride) was used as the matrix for the immobilization of nonactin. Furthermore, the anionic additive, tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate potassium salt and the plasticizer dioctyl sebacate were used to enhance the sensor properties. The sensor allowed detecting ammonium ions not only in static solution, but also in flowing water. The sensor showed a nearly linear response with the increase of the ammonium ion concentration. The QCM resonance frequency increased with the increase of ammonium ion concentration, suggesting a decreasing weight of the sensing film. The detailed response mechanism could not be verified yet. However, from the results obtained when using a different plasticizer, nitrophenyl octyl ether, it is considered that this effect is caused by the release of water molecules. Consequently, the newly fabricated sensor detects ammonium ions by discharge of water. It shows high selectivity over potassium and sodium ions. We conclude that the newly fabricated sensor can be applied for detecting ammonium ions in aquarium water, since it allows measuring low ammonium ion concentrations. This sensor will be usable for water quality monitoring and controlling.

  15. Harvesting Ambient Environmental Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have grown dramatically and made a great progress in many applications. But having limited life, batteries, as the power sources of wireless sensor nodes, have restricted the development and application of WSNs which often requires a very long lifespan for better performance. In order to make the WSNs prevalent in our lives, an alternative energy source is required. Environmental energy is an attractive power source, and it provides an approach to make the sensor nodes self-powered with the possibility of an almost infinite lifetime. The goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the various possible energy harvesting technologies from ambient environment for WSNs.

  16. Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Afzal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread from infected to healthy human beings. The most important step in the treatment of these contagious diseases and to prevent their unwanted spread is to timely detect the disease-causing viruses. Gravimetric viral diagnostics based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM transducers and natural or synthetic receptors are miniaturized sensing platforms that can selectively recognize and quantify harmful virus species. Herein, a review of the label-free QCM virus sensors for clinical diagnostics and point of care (POC applications is presented with major emphasis on the nature and performance of different receptors ranging from the natural or synthetic antibodies to selective macromolecular materials such as DNA and aptamers. A performance comparison of different receptors is provided and their limitations are discussed.

  17. An environmental monitoring system for managing spatiotemporal sensor data over sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su Wook; Lee, Yang Koo; Vu, Thi Hong Nhan; Jung, Young Jin; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2012-01-01

    In a wireless sensor network, sensors collect data about natural phenomena and transmit them to a server in real-time. Many studies have been conducted focusing on the processing of continuous queries in an approximate form. However, this approach is difficult to apply to environmental applications which require the correct data to be stored. In this paper, we propose a weather monitoring system for handling and storing the sensor data stream in real-time in order to support continuous spatial and/or temporal queries. In our system, we exploit two time-based insertion methods to store the sensor data stream and reduce the number of managed tuples, without losing any of the raw data which are useful for queries, by using the sensors' temporal attributes. In addition, we offer a method for reducing the cost of the join operations used in processing spatiotemporal queries by filtering out a list of irrelevant sensors from query range before making a join operation. In the results of the performance evaluation, the number of tuples obtained from the data stream is reduced by about 30% in comparison to a naïve approach, thereby decreasing the query execution time.

  18. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-08-28

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  19. An Environmental Monitoring System for Managing Spatiotemporal Sensor Data over Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Ho Ryu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network, sensors collect data about natural phenomena and transmit them to a server in real-time. Many studies have been conducted focusing on the processing of continuous queries in an approximate form. However, this approach is difficult to apply to environmental applications which require the correct data to be stored. In this paper, we propose a weather monitoring system for handling and storing the sensor data stream in real-time in order to support continuous spatial and/or temporal queries. In our system, we exploit two time-based insertion methods to store the sensor data stream and reduce the number of managed tuples, without losing any of the raw data which are useful for queries, by using the sensors’ temporal attributes. In addition, we offer a method for reducing the cost of the join operations used in processing spatiotemporal queries by filtering out a list of irrelevant sensors from query range before making a join operation. In the results of the performance evaluation, the number of tuples obtained from the data stream is reduced by about 30% in comparison to a naïve approach, thereby decreasing the query execution time.

  20. QCM Biosensor Based on Polydopamine Surface for Real-Time Analysis of the Binding Kinetics of Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM biosensor based on polydopamine (PDA surface was developed for real-time analysis of the binding kinetics of protein-protein interactions. The biosensor was fabricated by simply immersing the gold sensor chip into an aqueous dopamine solution at pH 8.5 leading to a spontaneous deposition of PDA film onto the sensor chip surface, which was followed by incubation with the protein to immobilize it onto the PDA-coated sensor chip surface via Michael addition and/or Schiff base reactions. In this paper, the interaction between monoclonal anti-myoglobin 7005 antibody (IgG1 and its antigen human cardiac myoglobin was used as a model system for real-time analysis of biomolecule interactions on the biosensor surface. The kinetic parameters of the interaction between anti-myoglobin 7005 and myoglobin were studied on the biosensor surface, which were consistent with the results obtained via amine coupling. The biosensor based on PDA surface has excellent regenerability, reproducibility, and specificity. Compared with the most frequently/typically used amine coupling method for immobilization of proteins on carboxylated substrates, the modification methodology presented in this paper is simple, mild and is not subjected to the limitations of the isoelectric point (pI of the protein. In addition, the PDA biosensor chip can be easily reused, which makes QCM biosensor analysis more efficient and cost effective.

  1. Prototypes of newly conceived inorganic and biological sensors for health and environmental applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolini, Claudio; Adami, Manuela; Sartore, Marco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bavastrello, Valter; Spera, Rosanna; Pechkova, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the optimal implementation of three newly conceived sensors for both health and environmental applications, utilizing a wide range of detection methods and complex nanocomposites...

  2. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) affinity biosensor for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Ilaria; Minunni, Maria; Tombelli, Sara; Mascini, Marco

    2003-03-01

    A DNA piezoelectric sensor has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The probe sequences were internal to the sequence of the 35S promoter (P) and Nos terminator (T), which are inserted sequences in the genome of GMOs regulating the transgene expression. Two different probe immobilisation procedures were applied: (a) a thiol-dextran procedure and (b) a thiol-derivatised probe and blocking thiol procedure. The system has been optimised using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were then applied to samples of plasmidic and genomic DNA isolated from the pBI121 plasmid, certified reference materials (CRM), and real samples amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analytical parameters of the sensor have been investigated (sensitivity, reproducibility, lifetime etc.). The results obtained showed that both immobilisation procedures enabled sensitive and specific detection of GMOs, providing a useful tool for screening analysis in food samples.

  3. Standards-based Internet of Things sub-GHz environmental sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bragg, Graeme McLachlan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been shift in the use of wireless sensor networks from standalone systems that use bespoke methods of communication and data transfer to systems that use Internet standards and can interact more directly with the Internet. This has allowed wireless sensor networks to become a key enabler of the Internet of Things; however, the same is not true for environmental sensor networks as the focus of most existing research into Internet of Things wireless sensor networks has...

  4. Differential Sensor for PH Monitoring of Environmental Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential pH sensor is proposed. Reference electrode and measuring electrode are the same type. Reference electrode is immersed in standard buffer solution with known pH value. The differential pH sensor has longer service life as compared with the traditionally used sensors with silver chloride reference electrode. Ultrasonic cleaning system is proposed to clean the primary measuring transducer from pollution that form as result of silting during long-term operation with the sensor.

  5. Differential Sensor for PH Monitoring of Environmental Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Romanenko Sergey; Radenkov Timofey; Newsky Egor; Kagirov Artur

    2016-01-01

    Differential pH sensor is proposed. Reference electrode and measuring electrode are the same type. Reference electrode is immersed in standard buffer solution with known pH value. The differential pH sensor has longer service life as compared with the traditionally used sensors with silver chloride reference electrode. Ultrasonic cleaning system is proposed to clean the primary measuring transducer from pollution that form as result of silting during long-term operation with the sensor.

  6. Sensing Conformational Changes in DNA upon Ligand Binding Using QCM-D. Polyamine Condensation and Rad51 Extension of DNA Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Lu

    2014-10-16

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Biosensors, in which binding of ligands is detected through changes in the optical or electrochemical properties of a DNA layer confined to the sensor surface, are important tools for investigating DNA interactions. Here, we investigate if conformational changes induced in surface-attached DNA molecules upon ligand binding can be monitored by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique. DNA duplexes containing 59-184 base pairs were formed on QCM-D crystals by stepwise assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides of designed base sequences. The DNA films were exposed to the cationic polyamines spermidine and spermine, known to condense DNA molecules in bulk experiments, or to the recombination protein Rad51, known to extend the DNA helix. The binding and dissociation of the ligands to the DNA films were monitored in real time by measurements of the shifts in resonance frequency (Δf) and in dissipation (ΔD). The QCM-D data were analyzed using a Voigt-based model for the viscoelastic properties of polymer films in order to evaluate how the ligands affect thickness and shear viscosity of the DNA layer. Binding of spermine shrinks all DNA layers and increases their viscosity in a reversible fashion, and so does spermidine, but to a smaller extent, in agreement with its lower positive charge. SPR was used to measure the amount of bound polyamines, and when combined with QCM-D, the data indicate that the layer condensation leads to a small release of water from the highly hydrated DNA films. The binding of Rad51 increases the effective layer thickness of a 59bp film, more than expected from the know 50% DNA helix extension. The combined results provide guidelines for a QCM-D biosensor based on ligand-induced structural changes in DNA films. The QCM-D approach provides high discrimination between ligands affecting the thickness and the structural properties of the DNA layer differently. The reversibility of the film

  7. Correlation of environmental data measurements with polarimetric LWIR sensor measurements of manmade objects in natural clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James; Woolley, Mark; Roth, Luz

    2010-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in using polarimetric imaging sensors for terrestrial remote sensing applications because of their ability to discriminate manmade objects in a natural clutter background. However, adverse weather limits the performance of these sensors. Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) polarimetric sensor data of a scene containing manmade objects in a natural clutter background is compared with simultaneously collected environmental data. In this paper, a metric is constructed from the Stokes parameter S1 and is correlated with some environmental channels. There are differences in the correlation outputs, with the sensor data metric positively correlated with some environmental channels, negatively correlated with some channels and uncorrelated with other channels. Results from real data measurements are presented and interpreted. An uncooled LWIR sensor using an achromatic retarder to capture the polarimetric states performed the data collection. The environmental channels include various meteorological channels, radiation loading and soil properties.

  8. Data Center Environmental Sensor for safeguarding the CERN data archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, J.; Bahyl, V.; Cancio, G.; Cano, E.; Genoud, Q.; Kruse, D. F.; Murray, S.

    2017-10-01

    CERN has been archiving data on tapes in its Computer Center for decades and its archive system is now holding more than 135 PB of HEP data in its premises on high density tapes. For the last 20 years, tape areal bit density has been doubling every 30 months, closely following HEP data growth trends. During this period, bits on the tape magnetic substrate have been shrinking exponentially; today’s bits are now smaller than most airborne dust particles or even bacteria. Therefore tape media is now more sensitive to contamination from airborne dust particles that can land on the rollers, reels or heads. These can cause scratches on the tape media as it is being mounted or wound on the tape drive resulting in the loss of significant amounts of data. To mitigate this threat, CERN has prototyped and built custom environmental sensors that are hosted in the production tape libraries, sampling the same airflow as the surrounding drives. This paper will expose the problems and challenges we are facing and the solutions we developed in production to better monitor CERN Computer Center environment in tape libraries and to limit the impact of airborne particles on the LHC data.

  9. Low-power wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaloiu-Elefteri, Razvan

    Significant progress has been made in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks in the decade that passed since its inception. This thesis presents several advances intended to make these networks a suitable instrument for environmental monitoring. The thesis first describes Koala, a low-power data-retrieval system that can achieve duty cycles below 1% by using bulk transfers, and Low Power Probing, a novel mechanism to efficiently wake up a network. The second contribution is Serendipity, another data-retrieval system, which takes advantage of the random rendezvous inherent in the Low Power Probing mechanism to achieve a very low duty cycle for low data rate networks. The third part explores the problem of and presents a solution for the interference between WSNs using IEEE 802.15.4 radios and the ubiquitous WiFi networks in the 2.4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. The last contribution of this thesis is Latte, a restricted version of the JavaScript language, that not only can be compiled to C and dynamically loaded on a sensing node, but can also be simulated and debugged in a JavaScript-enabled browser.

  10. Smart sensors and systems innovations for medical, environmental, and IoT applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan; Lin, Youn-Long

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoT). The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from materials, process, circuits, and big data domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc. Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book provides a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms. Profiles active research on smart sensors based on CMOS microelectronics; Describes applications of sensors and sensor systems in cyber physical systems, the social information infrastructure in our modern world; Includes coverage of a variety of related information technologies supporting the application of sensors; Discusses the integration of computation, networking, actuation, database...

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity.

  12. NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Andres, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University

    2007-01-03

    Under this funding, we proposed to: i) develop a ChemFET sensor platform, ii) develop a ChemDiode sensor platform, iii) synthesize receptor molecules suitable for chemical sensing, iv) study the electrostatic potential changes induced by receptor/target binding on surfaces and v) develop VLSI fabrication approaches for micron-scale chemical sensor devices. The accomplishments under these various thrusts are summarized in this section.

  13. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Rüdiger, Christoph; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-02-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  14. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT, many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  15. Nano-fin based mercury-sensor for environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L O; Kallis, K T; Fiedler, H L

    2010-09-01

    This Nano-Fin-Sensor bases on a lithography-independent technology-process, enabling research on Nano-Sensors without cost-intensive technology-equipment. Background for the sensor described within this paper is the high pollution with mercury of the environment and the lack of cheap, easy to use and portable sensors. The lithography-independent process is based on a "deposition and etch-back" technique defining Nano-Fins. Active sensor-material is a gold-layer, deposited on the fin, increasing resistance being exposed to mercury-vapor due to the process of amalgamation. Regeneration is done by heating-up the gold-layer using the poly-silicon fin as resistance-heating-device driving out the adsorbed mercury. To increase the measurement-accuracy, the sensor is made up of four Nano-Fin-Sensors, connected as Wheatstone-bridge. Two sensors have to be passivated by a mercury diffusion barrier, here a silicon-nitride-layer.

  16. Rapid Detection of Microorganisms Based on Active and Passive Modes of QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Farka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Label-free immunosensors are well suited for detection of microorganisms because of their fast response and reasonable sensitivity comparable to infection doses of common pathogens. Active (lever oscillator and frequency counter and passive (impedance analyzer modes of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM were used and compared for rapid detection of three strains of E. coli. Different approaches for antibody immobilization were compared, the immobilization of reduced antibody using Sulfo‑SMCC was most effective achieving the limit of detection (LOD 8 × 104 CFU·mL−1 in 10 min. For the passive mode, software evaluating impedance characteristics in real-time was developed and used. Almost the same results were achieved using both active and passive modes confirming that the sensor properties are not limited by the frequency evaluation method but mainly by affinity of the antibody. Furthermore, reference measurements were done using surface plasmon resonance. Effect of condition of cells on signal was observed showing that cells ruptured by ultrasonication provided slightly higher signal changes than intact microbes.

  17. Chemical sensor systems for environmental and emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Darmastuti, Zhafira; Bur, Christian; Huotari, Joni; Bjorklund, Robert; Lindqvist, Niclas; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Jantunen, Heli; Schütze, Andreas; Andersson, Mike

    2013-05-01

    Focusing on environment and health aspects, the importance of monitoring and controlling dangerous gases and particulate matter increases. For this purpose we present a new version of silicon carbide based gas sensors with improved properties and suitable for high temperature and harsh environments such as power plants or car exhausts. Development of sulfur dioxide sensors for a power plant application is described as well as sensors for detection of ammonia in connection with the SCR process where urea is converted to ammonia, which reduces nitric oxide components in the exhausts. We also describe progress on nanoparticle detection, especially related to detection of the content of adsorbed particles through heating and detection of emitted molecules by a sensor array. Some results are also presented from impedance spectroscopy for detection of the concentration of nanoparticles but with the potential to reveal more details about the particles such as shape and kind of particles.

  18. Real-time GIS data model and sensor web service platform for environmental data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianya; Geng, Jing; Chen, Zeqiang

    2015-01-09

    Effective environmental data management is meaningful for human health. In the past, environmental data management involved developing a specific environmental data management system, but this method often lacks real-time data retrieving and sharing/interoperating capability. With the development of information technology, a Geospatial Service Web method is proposed that can be employed for environmental data management. The purpose of this study is to determine a method to realize environmental data management under the Geospatial Service Web framework. A real-time GIS (Geographic Information System) data model and a Sensor Web service platform to realize environmental data management under the Geospatial Service Web framework are proposed in this study. The real-time GIS data model manages real-time data. The Sensor Web service platform is applied to support the realization of the real-time GIS data model based on the Sensor Web technologies. To support the realization of the proposed real-time GIS data model, a Sensor Web service platform is implemented. Real-time environmental data, such as meteorological data, air quality data, soil moisture data, soil temperature data, and landslide data, are managed in the Sensor Web service platform. In addition, two use cases of real-time air quality monitoring and real-time soil moisture monitoring based on the real-time GIS data model in the Sensor Web service platform are realized and demonstrated. The total time efficiency of the two experiments is 3.7 s and 9.2 s. The experimental results show that the method integrating real-time GIS data model and Sensor Web Service Platform is an effective way to manage environmental data under the Geospatial Service Web framework.

  19. Secure Data Exchange in Environmental Health Monitoring System through Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang Sudarsono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, disseminating latest sensory information regarding the status of environmental health in the surroundings of human life is one of very important circumstances which must be known by everyone. These circumstances should be accessible at anytime and anywhere by everyone through any type of end-user devices, both fixed and mobile devices, i.e., Desktop PCs, Laptop PCs, and Smartphones. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is one of the networks which deals with data sensors distribution from sensor nodes to the gateway node toward a Data Center Server. However, there is a big possibility for many adversaries to intercept and even manipulate data sensors crossing the network. Hence, a secure data sensor exchange in the system would be strongly desirable. In this research, we propose an environmental health conditions monitoring system through WSN and its implementation with considering secure data sensor exchange within the network and secure data sensor access. This work may contribute to support a part of smart cities and take in part the Internet of Thing (IoT technology. In our proposed system, we collect some environmental health information such as temperature, humidity, luminosity, noise, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 from sensor nodes. We keep the confidentiality and integrity of transmitted data sensors propagating through IEEE802.15.4-based communication toward a gateway node. Further, the collected data sensors in the gateway are synchronized to the Data Center Server through a secure TCP/IP connection for permanently storing. At anytime and anywhere, only legitimated users who successfully pass-through an attribute-based authentication system are able to access the data sensors.

  20. Development of Laser LEDs Based a Programmable Optical Sensor for Detection of Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser LED based optical sensor and its multifunctional operation for detection of environmental pollutants are described. The work will provide the instructions to design of circuitry for optical sensor instrument with a program based on a microcontroller (8902051-24PI, and to allow this program to communicate via RS-232 with computer. An algorithm is outlined by which the sensor instrument can use three laser LEDs (blue, Green and red to quantify the composition of pollutant. The operation of measurement through optical sensor has been applied to the study of detection and rate of reaction of pollutant i.e. methyl parathion and the produced informative data were also correlated with UV-vis spectrophotometry for the validation of results. The purpose of designed optical sensor is that the sophisticated analytical techniques show costly impact, time taking process, high consumable solvents and not suit for field application purpose which focuses the merits of the optical sensor.

  1. Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

    1991-09-01

    A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. As introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

  2. Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

    1991-09-01

    A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. An introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

  3. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  4. Multi-Planet Exosystems All Obey Orbital Angular Momentum Quantization per Unit Mass predicted by Quantum Celestial Mechanics (QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum celestial mechanics (QCM predicts that all orbiting bodies in gravitationally bound systems exhibit the quantization of orbital angular momentum per unit mass. I show that the 15 known multi-planet systems with four or more planets obey this QCM prediction. This angular momentum constraint could be the explanation for their orbital stability for billions of years, suggesting that viable models of the formation and evolution of gravitational systems must include QCM.

  5. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III chloride (MnTSPP used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA. Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR and respiratory pattern (RP. The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  6. Development of eco-sensor for the continuous monitoring of environmental volatile organic chlorinated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahashi, Mizuho; Ishimori, Yoshio; Kawano, Koichiro; Kase, Takao; Mouri, Mitsuo; Morita, Yasutaka; Murakami, Yuji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2002-02-01

    In recent years, we have developed an advanced environmental monitoring system (AEMS) containing the eco-sensor, which means a sensor for the measurement of environmental pollutants, based on lipid membranes for continuous monitoring of underground water in industry areas such as semiconductor factories. The AEMS project is composed of three work packages followed by 1)Eco-sensor, 2)Prediction of plume propagation using a computer simulation technique, and 3)Environmental protection method. In this presentation, we would like to focus on the study of the eco-sensor. The reason why lipid membranes selected as a sensing element for environmental pollutants is that the pollutants should be interacted with cell membranes because cells are surrounded by cell membranes containing lipid components. Improving the applicability and the responsibility of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) in the eco-sensor, we have investigated the automatic BLMs preparation device. An automatic BLMs preparation was remarkably improved. The sensitivity to volatile organic chlorinated compounds such as cis-1,2-dichloroethylene was in the order of 10ppb using the monoolein BLMs even in real underground water. We also have been developing a smaller sized eco-sensor for the practical use.

  7. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Crooke, Emma; Doherty, Cara M; Hill, Anita J; Myers, Matthew; Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew

    2011-10-03

    Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably responsible for variations in the QCM sensitivity at high hydrocarbon concentrations. The results suggest that polymer membrane conditioning in water is an issue that needs to be considered when performing QCM measurements in the aqueous phase. In addition, the study shows that the hydrocarbon

  8. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  9. Sustainable unattended sensors for security and environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Molter, Trent M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes two ocean energy harvesting approaches and technologies for providing sustainable power for distributed unattended sensor and unmanned underwater vehicle networks in open ocean and in coastal and riverine areas. Technologies and systems described include energy harvesting using bottom mounted microbial fuel cells and energy harvesting from naturally occurring methane and methane hydrate deposits. The potential continuous power that could be extracted using these methods ranges from milliwatts for very small microbial fuel cells to tens of kilowatts for methane hydrate processing systems. Exploiting the appropriate naturally occurring ocean or coastal energy source will enable the placement and use of large networks of unattended sensors, both fixed in position and on rechargeable unmanned undersea vehicles. The continuous operation of such systems will have a profound impact on our knowledge of marine biological, physical and chemical processes and systems and will also facilitate improved homeland security and port surveillance.

  10. Fast responsive, optical trace level ammonia sensor for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Tobias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ammonia is a ubiquitous chemical substance which is created in technical and biological processes and harmful to many different organisms. One specific problem is the toxicity of ammonia in fish at levels of 25 μg/l - a very common issue in today’s aqua culture. In this study we report a development of a fast responsive, optical ammonia sensor for trace concentrations. Results Different hydrogels have been investigated as host polymers for a pH based sensing mechanism based on fluorescent dyes. A porous hydrophobic fluoropolymer membrane was used as an ion barrier cover layer to achieve a good ammonia permeability. The sensor’s sensitivity towards ammonia as well as crosssensitivity towards pH-value and salinity, and the temperature dependency have been determined. Two different methods to reference fluorescence signals have been employed to eliminate intensity-based measurement drawbacks. Conclusion The presented sensor features high sensitivity and a fast response even at concentrations near 1 ppb. No cross sensitivity towards pH and salinity could be observed and temperature dependency was determined as compensateable. Both referencing approaches prove themselves to be able to provide a simple use of the sensor for in-field applications.

  11. Data-driven modeling of nano-nose gas sensor arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Larsen, Jan; Nielsen, Claus Højgård

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-driven approach to classification of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor data. The sensor is a nano-nose gas sensor that detects concentrations of analytes down to ppm levels using plasma polymorized coatings. Each sensor experiment takes approximately one hour hence...

  12. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Da; Su, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Yang; Huang, Yang-Jing; Peng, Sheng-Yu; Yu, Shih-An; Lin, Chih-Ting; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2017-03-29

    A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO₂ detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO₂ sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) system-on-chip (SoC) is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE), an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC), a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU). Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO₂/Humidity) sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations.

  13. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chang Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO2 detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO2 sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS system-on-chip (SoC is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE, an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC, a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU. Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO2/Humidity sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations.

  14. A Self-Sustained Wireless Multi-Sensor Platform Integrated with Printable Organic Sensors for Indoor Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Ching-Da; Su, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Yang; Huang, Yang-Jing; Peng, Sheng-Yu; Yu, Shih-An; Lin, Chih-Ting; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2017-01-01

    A self-sustained multi-sensor platform for indoor environmental monitoring is proposed in this paper. To reduce the cost and power consumption of the sensing platform, in the developed platform, organic materials of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/EB-PANI are used as the sensing films for humidity and CO2 detection, respectively. Different from traditional gas sensors, these organic sensing films can operate at room temperature without heating processes or infrared transceivers so that the power consumption of the developed humidity and the CO2 sensors can be as low as 10 μW and 5 μW, respectively. To cooperate with these low-power sensors, a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) system-on-chip (SoC) is designed to amplify and to read out multiple sensor signals with low power consumption. The developed SoC includes an analog-front-end interface circuit (AFE), an analog-to-digital convertor (ADC), a digital controller and a power management unit (PMU). Scheduled by the digital controller, the sensing circuits are power gated with a small duty-cycle to reduce the average power consumption to 3.2 μW. The designed PMU converts the power scavenged from a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) module into required supply voltages for SoC circuits operation under typical indoor illuminance conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first multiple environmental parameters (Temperature/CO2/Humidity) sensing platform that demonstrates a true self-powering functionality for long-term operations. PMID:28353680

  15. Gold nanoparticle-based optical microfluidic sensors for analysis of environmental pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Senkbeil, Silja; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for direct in-field sensing at remote locations. This report demonstrates the vast potential of gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors for the rapid, in......-field, detection of two important classes of environmental contaminants – heavy metals and pesticides. Using gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors linked to a simple digital camera as the detector, detection limits as low as 0.6 μg L−1 and 16 μg L−1 could be obtained for the heavy metal mercury...... and the dithiocarbamate pesticide ziram, respectively. These results demonstrate that the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticle probes combine synergistically with the inherent qualities of microfluidic platforms to offer simple, portable and sensitive sensors for environmental contaminants....

  16. Environmental sensors based on micromachined cantilevers with integrated read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thaysen, Jacob; Jensenius, Henriette

    2000-01-01

    An AFM probe with integrated piezoresistive read-out has been developed and applied as a cantilever-based environmental sensor. The probe has a built-in reference cantilever, which makes it possible to subtract background drift directly in the measurement. Moreover, the integrated read-out facili......An AFM probe with integrated piezoresistive read-out has been developed and applied as a cantilever-based environmental sensor. The probe has a built-in reference cantilever, which makes it possible to subtract background drift directly in the measurement. Moreover, the integrated read...

  17. Humidity and illumination organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine sensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, K S; Qazi, I; Khan, T A; Draper, P H; Khalid, F A; Mahroof-Tahir, M

    2008-06-01

    In this investigation properties of organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) capacitive humidity and illumination sensors were studied. Organic thin film was deposited by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with silver surface-type electrodes to form the Ag/CuPc/Ag sensor. The capacitance of the samples was evaluated at room temperature in the relative humidity range of 35-92%. It was observed that capacitance of the Ag/CuPc/Ag sensor increases with increase in humidity. The ratio of the relative capacitance to relative humidity was about 200. It is assumed that in general the capacitive response of the sensor is associated with polarization due to absorption of water molecules and transfer of charges (electrons and holes). It was observed that under filament lamp illumination of up to 1,000 lx the capacitance of the Ag/CuPc/Ag photo capacitive detectors increased continuously by 20% as compared to dark condition. It is assumed that photo capacitive response of the sensor is associated with polarization due to transfer of photo-generated electrons and holes. An equivalent circuit of the Ag/CuPc/Ag capacitive humidity and illumination sensor was developed. Humidity and illumination dependent capacitance properties of this sensor make it attractive for use in humidity and illumination multi-meters. The sensor may be used in instruments for environmental monitoring of humidity and illumination.

  18. A brief review on recent developments of electrochemical sensors in environmental application for PGMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Van Der Horst, Charlton; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-12-05

    This study offers a brief review of the latest developments and applications of electrochemical sensors for the detection of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) using electrochemical sensors. In particular, significant advances in electrochemical sensors made over the past decade and sensing methodologies associated with the introduction of nanostructures are highlighted. Amongst a variety of detection methods that have been developed for PGMs, nanoparticles offer the unrivaled merits of high sensitivity. Rapid detection of PGMs is a key step to promote improvement of the public health and individual quality of life. Conventional methods to detect PGMs rely on time-consuming and labor intensive procedures such as extraction, isolation, enrichment, counting, etc., prior to measurement. This results in laborious sample preparation and testing over several days. This study reviewed the state-of-the-art application of nanoparticles (NPs) in electrochemical analysis of environmental pollutants. This review is intended to provide environmental scientists and engineers an overview of current rapid detection methods, a close look at the nanoparticles based electrodes and identification of knowledge gaps and future research needs. We summarize electrodes that have been used in the past for detection of PGMs. We describe several examples of applications in environmental electrochemical sensors and performance in terms of sensitivity and selectivity for all the sensors utilized for PGMs detection. NPs have promising potential to increase competitiveness of electrochemical sensors in environmental monitoring, though this review has focused mainly on sensors used in the past decade for PGMs detection. This review therefore provides a synthesis of outstanding performances in recent advances in the nanosensor application for PGMs determination.

  19. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-06-05

    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Environmental monitoring of coastal and oceanic areas with orbital sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Genovez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PETROBRAS is using spaceborne multi-sensor remote sensing for its sea surface monitoring program at the Campos, Santos and Espírito Santo basins, southeastern Brazilian coast. Ocean color (SeaWiFS and MODIS, thermal infrared (NOAA/AVHRR, scatterometer (QuikSCAT and Synthetic Aperture Radar (RADARSAT-1 and ASAR/ENVISAT data were integrated in order to detect and characterize different sorts of marine pollution and meteo-oceanographic phenomena. The near real time processing and delivery of the radar data allowed the timely in-situ verification and sampling of the remotely detected events. The integrated analysis of these dataset presents an important decision tool for emergencies, as well for the elaboration of contingency plans and evaluation of the oil industry activity impacts.

  1. Environmental Perception and Sensor Data Fusion for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs that can drive autonomously in cross-country environment have received a good deal of attention in recent years. They must have the ability to determine whether the current terrain is traversable or not by using onboard sensors. This paper explores new methods related to environment perception based on computer image processing, pattern recognition, multisensors data fusion, and multidisciplinary theory. Kalman filter is used for low-level fusion of physical level, thus using the D-S evidence theory for high-level data fusion. Probability Test and Gaussian Mixture Model are proposed to obtain the traversable region in the forward-facing camera view for UGV. One feature set including color and texture information is extracted from areas of interest and combined with a classifier approach to resolve two types of terrain (traversable or not. Also, three-dimension data are employed; the feature set contains components such as distance contrast of three-dimension data, edge chain-code curvature of camera image, and covariance matrix based on the principal component method. This paper puts forward one new method that is suitable for distributing basic probability assignment (BPA, based on which D-S theory of evidence is employed to integrate sensors information and recognize the obstacle. The subordination obtained by using the fuzzy interpolation is applied to calculate the basic probability assignment. It is supposed that the subordination is equal to correlation coefficient in the formula. More accurate results of object identification are achieved by using the D-S theory of evidence. Control on motion behavior or autonomous navigation for UGV is based on the method, which is necessary for UGV high speed driving in cross-country environment. The experiment results have demonstrated the viability of the new method.

  2. Dynamic sensing model for accurate delectability of environmental phenomena using event wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missif, Lial Raja; Kadhum, Mohammad M.

    2017-09-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been widely used for monitoring where sensors are deployed to operate independently to sense abnormal phenomena. Most of the proposed environmental monitoring systems are designed based on a predetermined sensing range which does not reflect the sensor reliability, event characteristics, and the environment conditions. Measuring of the capability of a sensor node to accurately detect an event within a sensing field is of great important for monitoring applications. This paper presents an efficient mechanism for even detection based on probabilistic sensing model. Different models have been presented theoretically in this paper to examine their adaptability and applicability to the real environment applications. The numerical results of the experimental evaluation have showed that the probabilistic sensing model provides accurate observation and delectability of an event, and it can be utilized for different environment scenarios.

  3. Design of optical channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for environmental sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudin, D.; Huda, N.; Estu, T. T.; Fathnan, A. A.; Daud, P.; Hardiati, S.; Hasanah, L.; Wijayanto, Y. N.

    2017-04-01

    High sensitivity environmental sensors with a simple and compact structure are required to monitor unwanted pollution such as liquid waste. In this research, a component of environmental sensor based on optical channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) has been designed and also simulated. The materials used in the design were titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a core and silicon dioxide (SiO2) with air as cladding. The sensitivity value of the MZI sensor obtained by simulation using computer program was 11 nm/RIU at the angle of 16°. Meanwhile, the obtained fixed length of MZI sensing arm was 4 μm. The proposed design can be used for identifying the existence of liquid material precisely.

  4. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement—The Promise and the Current Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented. PMID:28974042

  5. Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise and the Current Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, David M

    2017-10-02

    The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air quality monitoring, yet their capability to capture urban-scale spatiotemporal pollutant patterns has not been thoroughly examined to date. Here, we summarize our studies on the practicalities of using data streams from sensor nodes for air quality measurement and the required methods to tune the results to different stakeholders and applications. We summarize the results from eight cities across Europe, five sensor technologies-three stationary (with one tested also while moving) and two personal sensor platforms, and eight ambient pollutants. Overall, few sensors showed an exceptional and consistent performance, which can shed light on the fine spatiotemporal urban variability of pollutant concentrations. Stationary sensor nodes were more reliable than personal nodes. In general, the sensor measurements tend to suffer from the interference of various environmental factors and require frequent calibrations. This calls for the development of suitable field calibration procedures, and several such in situ field calibrations are presented.

  6. Sensor arrays: an inspired idea or an objective measurement of environmental odours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, R M; Nicolas, J

    2001-01-01

    The measure of annoyance odours from sewage tratment, landfill and agricultural practise has become highly significant in the control and prevention of dorous emissions from existing facilities and its crucial for new planning applications. Current methods (such as GC-MS analysis, H2S and NH3 measurements) provide an accurate description of chemical compositions or act as surrogates for odour strength, but tell us very little about the perceived effect, whereas olfactometry gives the right human response but is very subjective and expensive. The use of non-specific sensor arrays may offer an objective and on-line instrument for assessing olfactive annoyance. Results have shown that sensor array systems can discriminate between different odour sources (wastewater, livestock and landfill). The response patterns from these sources can be significantly different and that the intensity of sensor responses is proportional to the concentration of the volatiles. The correlation of the sensors responses against odour strengths have also shown that reasonable fits can be obtained for a range of odour concentrations (100-800,000 ou/m3). However, the influence of environmental fluctuations (humidity and temperature) on sensor baselines still remains an obstacle, as well as the need for periodic calibration of the sensory system and the choice of a suitable gas for different environmental odours.

  7. Assessing metabolic rate and indoor air quality with passive environmental sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Iván; Sprowls, Mark; Deng, Yue; Kulick, Doina; Destaillats, Hugo; Forzani, Erica S

    2018-02-13

    The present work introduces the use of environmental sensors to assess indoor air quality (IAQ) in combination with human biometrics. The sensor array included temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and noise sensors. The array was used in a classroom as well as in a vehicle cabin to assess the indoor air quality and carbon dioxide production rate of individuals in a closed ventilation environment. Analysis of carbon dioxide production allowed for the quantification of the average metabolic rate of the group of individuals in the classroom, and for one individual in the vehicle cabin. These results yielded a mere 5% difference from the values assessed using commercial metabolic rate instruments, and averaged values from epidemiological studies. The results presented in this work verify the feasibility of determining an individual's metabolic rate using passive environmental sensors; these same sensors are able to provide a metric of indoor air quality that helps characterize the safety of the environment in which the individual is present. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Modified electrode voltammetric sensors for trace metals in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Christopher M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nafion-modified mercury thin film electrodes have been investigated for the analysis of trace metals in environmental samples of waters and effluent by batch injection analysis with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method, involving injection over the detector electrode of untreated samples of volume of the order of 50 microlitres has fast response, blocking and fouling of the electrode is minimum as shown by studies with surface-active components. Comparison is made between glassy carbon substrate electrodes and carbon fibre microelectrode array substrates, the latter leading to a small sensitivity enhancement. Application to analysis of river water and industrial effluent for labile zinc, cadmium, lead and copper ions is demonstrated in collected samples and after acid digestion.

  9. The Oklahoma Mesonet: A Pilot Study of Environmental Sensor Data Citations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study of 110 scientific papers utilizing environmental sensor data from the Oklahoma Mesonet during its first two decades of operations demonstrates the diversity of potential purposes in scientific research for a robust, rigorously maintained, accessible source of environmental sensor data, as well as the challenges involved in identifying uses of that data within scientific papers. The study authors selected three publication years (1995, 2005, 2015 from an extensive corpus of peer-reviewed journal publications, identified each paper’s specific citation of and uses of the Mesonet’s environmental sensor data, and derived a typology of those usages (assimilation, experimentation, observation, simulation, utilization, validation found to be most common. The rapid increase in data assimilation research projects today is discussed in terms of the difficulty and importance of correct attribution to individual data sources in these complex research projects. The study examines the possible role played by highly-cited papers that describe the quality assurance procedures in sensor data sources, which may serve as surrogates to signal the quality of the data provided by such sources, and which may also provide a useful contribution towards understanding data citation as a special form of scholarly citation.

  10. A Semantic Sensor Web for Environmental Decision Support Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl García-Castro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensing devices are increasingly being deployed to monitor the physical world around us. One class of application for which sensor data is pertinent is environmental decision support systems, e.g., flood emergency response. For these applications, the sensor readings need to be put in context by integrating them with other sources of data about the surrounding environment. Traditional systems for predicting and detecting floods rely on methods that need significant human resources. In this paper we describe a semantic sensor web architecture for integrating multiple heterogeneous datasets, including live and historic sensor data, databases, and map layers. The architecture provides mechanisms for discovering datasets, defining integrated views over them, continuously receiving data in real-time, and visualising on screen and interacting with the data. Our approach makes extensive use of web service standards for querying and accessing data, and semantic technologies to discover and integrate datasets. We demonstrate the use of our semantic sensor web architecture in the context of a flood response planning web application that uses data from sensor networks monitoring the sea-state around the coast of England.

  11. Design and deployment of a new wireless sensor node platform for building environmental monitoring and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essa Jafer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly agreed that a 15–40% reduction of building energy consumption is achievable by efficiently operated buildings when compared with typical practice. Existing research has identified that the level of information available to Building Managers with existing Building Management Systems and Environmental Monitoring Systems is insufficient to perform the required performance-based building assessment. The majority of today’s buildings are insufficiently sensored to obtain an unambiguous understanding of performance. The cost of installing additional sensors and meters is extremely high, primarily due to the estimated cost of wiring and the needed labour. From these perspectives wireless sensors technology proves to have a greater cost-efficiency while maintaining high levels of functionality and reliability. In this paper, a wireless sensor network mote hardware design and implementation are introduced particularly for building deployment application. The core of the mote design is based on the 8-bit AVR microcontroller, Atmega1281 and 2.4 GHz wireless communication chip, CC2420. The sensors were selected carefully to meet both the building monitoring and design requirements. Beside the sensing capability, actuation and interfacing to external meters/sensors are provided to perform different management control and data recording tasks.

  12. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  13. Feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating and Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility of utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG and long-period fiber grating (LPFG sensors for nondestructive evaluation (NDE of infrastructures using Portland cement concretes and asphalt mixtures for temperature, strain, and liquid-level monitoring. The use of hybrid FBG and LPFG sensors is aimed at utilizing the advantages of two kinds of fiber grating to implement NDE for monitoring strains or displacements, temperatures, and water-levels of infrastructures such as bridges, pavements, or reservoirs for under different environmental conditions. Temperature fluctuation and stability tests were examined using FBG and LPFG sensors bonded on the surface of asphalt and concrete specimens. Random walk coefficient (RWC and bias stability (BS were used for the first time to indicate the stability performance of fiber grating sensors. The random walk coefficients of temperature variations between FBG (or LPFG sensor and a thermocouple were found in the range of −0.7499 °C/ to −1.3548 °C/. In addition, the bias stability for temperature variations, during the fluctuation and stability tests with FBG (or LPFG sensors were within the range of 0.01 °C/h with a 15–18 h time cluster to 0.09 °C/h with a 3–4 h time cluster. This shows that the performance of FBG or LPFG sensors is comparable with that of conventional high-resolution thermocouple sensors under rugged conditions. The strain measurement for infrastructure materials was conducted using a packaged FBG sensor bonded on the surface of an asphalt specimen under indirect tensile loading conditions. A finite element modeling (FEM was applied to compare experimental results of indirect tensile FBG strain measurements. For a comparative analysis between experiment and simulation, the FEM numerical results agreed with those from FBG strain measurements. The results of the liquid-level sensing tests show the LPFG-based sensor could discriminate five stationary liquid

  14. Highly sensitive nanostructure SnO2 based gas sensor for environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgaokar, Sushil; Moradiya, Meet; Prajapati, Om; Thakkar, Pranav; Pala, Jay; Savaliya, Chirag; Parikh, Sachin; Markna, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    A major quantity of pollutants are produced from industries and vehicles in the form of gas. New approaches are needed to solve well-known environmental pollutants like CO, CO2, NO2, SOx. Therefore detection with effective gas sensors is a vital part of pollution prevention efforts. There is a need to develop fast, rapid, cost-effective, highly sensitive, low power, and non-intrusive rugged sensors that can be easily installed. In the present study, nanostructured SnO2 used as a sensitive material in the devices and synthesized using hydrothermal process. The detailed development of the fabrication of SnO2 nanostructures gas sensor is described, which shows the remarkable change in the sensing properties with varying particle size. Additionally, we have used X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterization and carefully examined the relative parameters like response magnitude (sensitivity) and selectivity of SnO2 nano structures with different particle size.

  15. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  16. A long-term environmental sensor network in a glacial environment: challenges and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, K.; Hart, J. K.; Basford, P. J.; Gong, X.; Edwards, L.; Pethica, C.; Glacsweb Team

    2011-12-01

    We report the findings from wireless environmental sensor network installed at Skalafellsjökull, Iceland, which has now been deployed for three years. The scientific aim of the project was to use a sensor network to better understand subglacial processes in order to investigate the response of glaciers to climate change. The engineering aim was to produce a working environmental sensor network which could operate in a very challenging environment. The sensor network comprised: 1. Wireless subglacial probes which monitored the subglacial environment for 2 years. They were able to show the nature of the subglacial environment, in particular the occurrence of stick-slip motion. 2. Base Station on the glacier surface, collecting probe data, as well as GPS and weather data for 3 years. 3. Reference Station close to the glacier, collecting GPS and weather data for 2 years 4. Automatic web-data harvesting of weather, GPS recordings and web cams. A combination of this data allowed us to interpret glacier dynamics over the period, while evaluating the performance of the sensor network under extreme conditions. This paper will report on the most recent deployments which include; long range WiFi alongside GPRS backup for communications off-site, Python scripting of base station power-sensitive behaviour, adaptive sampling based on energy availability and trials of the Contiki operating system in the new custom wireless sensor nodes. Additional data streams have also been established by equipping the base station with geophones and putting a full weather station at the reference station. Further enhancements that have been made include moving further into the glacier in order to experience faster flows.

  17. Energy performance assessment of virtualization technologies using small environmental monitoring sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Masfary, Osama; Antonopoulos, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The increasing trends of electrical consumption within data centres are a growing concern for business owners as they are quickly becoming a large fraction of the total cost of ownership. Ultra small sensors could be deployed within a data centre to monitor environmental factors to lower the electrical costs and improve the energy efficiency. Since servers and air conditioners represent the top users of electrical power in the data centre, this research sets out to explore methods from each subsystem of the data centre as part of an overall energy efficient solution. In this paper, we investigate the current trends of Green IT awareness and how the deployment of small environmental sensors and Site Infrastructure equipment optimization techniques which can offer a solution to a global issue by reducing carbon emissions.

  18. Energy Performance Assessment of Virtualization Technologies Using Small Environmental Monitoring Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trends of electrical consumption within data centres are a growing concern for business owners as they are quickly becoming a large fraction of the total cost of ownership. Ultra small sensors could be deployed within a data centre to monitor environmental factors to lower the electrical costs and improve the energy efficiency. Since servers and air conditioners represent the top users of electrical power in the data centre, this research sets out to explore methods from each subsystem of the data centre as part of an overall energy efficient solution. In this paper, we investigate the current trends of Green IT awareness and how the deployment of small environmental sensors and Site Infrastructure equipment optimization techniques which can offer a solution to a global issue by reducing carbon emissions.

  19. Mid- infrared semiconductor laser based trace gas sensor technologies for environmental monitoring and industrial process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Rafał; Jahjah, Mohammad; Ma, Yufei; Tittel, Frank K.; Stefanski, Przemyslaw; Tarka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of compact sensors based on mid-infrared continuous wave (CW), thermoelectrically cooled (TEC) and room temperature operated quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) for the detection, quantification and monitoring of trace gas species and their applications in environmental and industrial process analysis will be reported. These sensors employ a 2f wavelength modulation (WM) technique based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that achieves detection sensitivity at the ppb and sub ppb concentration levels. The merits of QEPAS include an ultra-compact, rugged sensing module, with wide dynamic range and immunity to environmental acoustic noise. QCLs are convenient QEPAS excitation sources that permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense in the mid-infrared than overtone transitions in the near infrared spectral region.

  20. A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahjah, Mohammad; Ren, Wei; Stefański, Przemysław; Lewicki, Rafał; Zhang, Jiawei; Jiang, Wenzhe; Tarka, Jan; Tittel, Frank K

    2014-05-07

    A methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sensor based on a sensitive, selective and well established technique of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was developed for environmental and biomedical measurements. A thermoelectrically cooled (TEC) distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL), capable of continuous wave (CW) mode hop free emission in the 7.83 μm wavelength range, was used as an excitation source. For the targeted CH4 and N2O absorption lines located at 1275.04 cm(-1) and 1275.49 cm(-1) detection limits (1σ) of 13 ppbv and 6 ppbv were achieved with a 1 second data acquisition time, respectively. Environmental data of CH4 and N2O mixing ratios acquired using the QEPAS sensor system are also reported.

  1. From Sensor to Observation Web with Environmental Enablers in the Future Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Denis; Schade, Sven; Sabeur, Zoheir A.; Mazzetti, Paolo; Watson, Kym; Berre, Arne J.; Mon, Jose Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the grand challenges in global sustainability research and the objectives of the FP7 Future Internet PPP program within the Digital Agenda for Europe. Large user communities are generating significant amounts of valuable environmental observations at local and regional scales using the devices and services of the Future Internet. These communities’ environmental observations represent a wealth of information which is currently hardly used or used only in isolation and therefore in need of integration with other information sources. Indeed, this very integration will lead to a paradigm shift from a mere Sensor Web to an Observation Web with semantically enriched content emanating from sensors, environmental simulations and citizens. The paper also describes the research challenges to realize the Observation Web and the associated environmental enablers for the Future Internet. Such an environmental enabler could for instance be an electronic sensing device, a web-service application, or even a social networking group affording or facilitating the capability of the Future Internet applications to consume, produce, and use environmental observations in cross-domain applications. The term “envirofied” Future Internet is coined to describe this overall target that forms a cornerstone of work in the Environmental Usage Area within the Future Internet PPP program. Relevant trends described in the paper are the usage of ubiquitous sensors (anywhere), the provision and generation of information by citizens, and the convergence of real and virtual realities to convey understanding of environmental observations. The paper addresses the technical challenges in the Environmental Usage Area and the need for designing multi-style service oriented architecture. Key topics are the mapping of requirements to capabilities, providing scalability and robustness with implementing context aware information retrieval. Another essential research topic is handling

  2. From Sensor to Observation Web with Environmental Enablers in the Future Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Lorenzo Mon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the grand challenges in global sustainability research and the objectives of the FP7 Future Internet PPP program within the Digital Agenda for Europe. Large user communities are generating significant amounts of valuable environmental observations at local and regional scales using the devices and services of the Future Internet. These communities’ environmental observations represent a wealth of information which is currently hardly used or used only in isolation and therefore in need of integration with other information sources. Indeed, this very integration will lead to a paradigm shift from a mere Sensor Web to an Observation Web with semantically enriched content emanating from sensors, environmental simulations and citizens. The paper also describes the research challenges to realize the Observation Web and the associated environmental enablers for the Future Internet. Such an environmental enabler could for instance be an electronic sensing device, a web-service application, or even a social networking group affording or facilitating the capability of the Future Internet applications to consume, produce, and use environmental observations in cross-domain applications. The term “envirofied” Future Internet is coined to describe this overall target that forms a cornerstone of work in the Environmental Usage Area within the Future Internet PPP program. Relevant trends described in the paper are the usage of ubiquitous sensors (anywhere, the provision and generation of information by citizens, and the convergence of real and virtual realities to convey understanding of environmental observations. The paper addresses the technical challenges in the Environmental Usage Area and the need for designing multi-style service oriented architecture. Key topics are the mapping of requirements to capabilities, providing scalability and robustness with implementing context aware information retrieval. Another essential research

  3. Evaluation and environmental correction of ambient CO2 measurements from a low-cost NDIR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cory R.; Zeng, Ning; Karion, Anna; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ren, Xinrong; Turpie, Bari N.; Weber, Kristy J.

    2017-07-01

    Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors are a low-cost way to observe carbon dioxide concentrations in air, but their specified accuracy and precision are not sufficient for some scientific applications. An initial evaluation of six SenseAir K30 carbon dioxide NDIR sensors in a lab setting showed that without any calibration or correction, the sensors have an individual root mean square error (RMSE) between ˜ 5 and 21 parts per million (ppm) compared to a research-grade greenhouse gas analyzer using cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. Through further evaluation, after correcting for environmental variables with coefficients determined through a multivariate linear regression analysis, the calculated difference between the each of six individual K30 NDIR sensors and the higher-precision instrument had an RMSE of between 1.7 and 4.3 ppm for 1 min data. The median RMSE improved from 9.6 for off-the-shelf sensors to 1.9 ppm after correction and calibration, demonstrating the potential to provide useful information for ambient air monitoring.

  4. Distributed Multi-Sensor Real-Time Building Environmental Parameters Monitoring System with Remote Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinarts Ivars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the advanced monitoring system of multiple environmental parameters is presented. The purpose of the system is a long-term estimation of energy efficiency and sustainability for the research test stands which are made of different building materials. Construction of test stands, and placement of main sensors are presented in the first chapter. The structure of data acquisition system includes a real-time interface with sensors and a data logger that allows to acquire and log data from all sensors with fixed rate. The data logging system provides a remote access to the processing of the acquired data and carries out periodical saving at a remote FTP server using an Internet connection. The system architecture and the usage of sensors are explained in the second chapter. In the third chapter implementation of the system, different interfaces of sensors and energy measuring devices are discussed and several examples of data logger program are presented. Each data logger is reading data from analog and digital channels. Measurements can be displayed directly on a screen using WEB access or using data from FTP server. Measurements and acquired data graphical results are presented in the fourth chapter in the selected diagrams. The benefits of the developed system are presented in the conclusion.

  5. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  6. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  7. Development of an eco-sensor based on bilayer lipid membrane for the continuous monitoring of environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yoshio; Kawano, Koichiro; Ishizuka, Masaru; Murahashi, Mizuho; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, we have developed an advanced environmental monitoring system (AEMS) containing the eco-sensor, which means a sensor for the measurement of environmental pollutants, based on lipid membranes for continuous monitoring of ground water in industry areas such as semiconductor factories. The AEMS project is composed of three work packages as follows, 1) Eco -sensor, 2) Prediction of plume propagation using a computer simulation technique, and 3) Environmental protection method. In this paper, we would like to focus on the study of the eco-sensor. We considered that modified lipid membranes serve as good models for cell membranes because they would be ideal hosts for receptor molecules of biological origin or disruptive environmental pollutants. Thus, we selected lipid membrane as a sensing element for environmental pollutants. We have already confirmed that the eco-sensor could detect a 10 ppb level of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene in ground water. Here, we tried to apply the eco-sensor to measure other environmental pollutants containing pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals. We made a novel automatic bilayer lipid membrane preparation device and a new system for the continuous measurement of environmental pollutants in ground water.

  8. Improving temporal coverage of an energy-efficient data extraction algorithm for environmental monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Ligtenberg, A

    2009-01-01

    Collecting raw data from a wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring applications can be a difficult task due to the high energy consumption involved. This is especially difficult when the application requires specialized sensors that have very high energy consumption, e.g. hydrological

  9. Cyberinfrastructure for remote environmental observatories: a model homogeneous sensor network in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty; Slater, David; Fritzinger, Eric; Lyles, Bradley; Kent, Graham; Smith, Kenneth; Dascalu, Sergiu; Harris, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Sensor-based data collection has changed the potential scale and resolution of in-situ environmental studies by orders of magnitude, increasing expertise and management requirements accordingly. Cost-effective management of these observing systems is possible by leveraging cyberinfrastructure resources. Presented is a case study environmental observation network in the Great Basin region, USA, the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). NevCAN stretches hundreds of kilometers across several mountain ranges and monitors climate and ecohydrological conditions from low desert (900 m ASL) to high subalpine treeline (3360 m ASL) down to 1-minute timescales. The network has been operating continuously since 2010, collecting billions of sensor data points and millions of camera images that record hourly conditions at each site, despite requiring relatively low annual maintenance expenditure. These data have provided unique insight into fine-scale processes across mountain gradients, which is crucial scientific information for a water-scarce region. The key to maintaining data continuity for these remotely-located study sites has been use of uniform data transport and management systems, coupled with high-reliability power system designs. Enabling non-proprietary digital communication paths to all study sites and sensors allows the research team to acquire data in near-real-time, troubleshoot problems, and diversify sensor hardware. A wide-area network design based on common Internet Protocols (IP) has been extended into each study site, providing production bandwidth of between 2 Mbps and 60 Mbps, depending on local conditions. The network architecture and site-level support systems (such as power generation) have been implemented with the core objectives of capacity, redundancy, and modularity. NevCAN demonstrates that by following simple but uniform "best practices", the next generation of regionally-specific environmental observatories can evolve to

  10. Machine Learning-Based Calibration of Low-Cost Air Temperature Sensors Using Environmental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Togami, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Norio; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2017-06-05

    The measurement of air temperature is strongly influenced by environmental factors such as solar radiation, humidity, wind speed and rainfall. This is problematic in low-cost air temperature sensors, which lack a radiation shield or a forced aspiration system, exposing them to direct sunlight and condensation. In this study, we developed a machine learning-based calibration method for air temperature measurement by a low-cost sensor. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to balance the effect of multiple environmental factors on the measurements. Data were collected over 305 days, at three different locations in Japan, and used to evaluate the performance of the approach. Data collected at the same location and at different locations were used for training and testing, and the former was also used for k-fold cross-validation, demonstrating an average improvement in mean absolute error (MAE) from 1.62 to 0.67 by applying our method. Some calibration failures were noted, due to abrupt changes in environmental conditions such as solar radiation or rainfall. The MAE was shown to decrease even when the data collected in different nearby locations were used for training and testing. However, the results also showed that negative effects arose when data obtained from widely-separated locations were used, because of the significant environmental differences between them.

  11. QCM DNA biosensor for the diagnosis of a fish pathogenic virus VHSV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Rok; Jeong, Hyun-Do; Hong, Suhee

    2010-08-15

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is one of the most serious viral diseases damaging both fresh and marine fish species. VHS caused by VHSV and diagnosis of VHSV has been dependent on the conventional methods, such as cell culture and RT-PCR, which takes a few days or several hours. This study demonstrates a rapid and sensitive QCM biosensor for diagnosis of VHSV infection in fish. The QCM biosensor was developed to detect a main viral RNA encoding G protein in VHSV using the specific DNA probe. To maximize the sensitivity of the biosensor, we prepared three different DNA probes which modified 3' end of DNA by thiol, amine, or biotin and compared three different immobilisation methods on quartz surface coated with gold: immobilisation of thiol labelled probe DNA on naked gold surface, immobilisation of amino labelled probe DNA on gold surface prepared as carboxyl chip using MPA followed by EDC/NHS activation, and immobilisation of biotin labelled probe DNA on gold surface after immobilising avidin on carboxyl chip prior to biotin. As a result, immobilisation method using avidin-biotin interaction was most efficient to immobilise probe DNA and to detect target DNA. The QCM biosensor system using biotinylated probe DNA was stable enough to withstand 32 times of repeated regenerations and the detection limit was 0.0016muM. Diagnosis using the QCM biosensor system was more sensitive and much faster than a conventional RT-PCR analysis in detecting the viral RNA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Camera-laser fusion sensor system and environmental recognition for humanoids in disaster scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), Florida (United States); Oh, Jaesung; Oh, Jun-Ho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inhyeok [NAVER Green Factory, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This research aims to develop a vision sensor system and a recognition algorithm to enable a humanoid to operate autonomously in a disaster environment. In disaster response scenarios, humanoid robots that perform manipulation and locomotion tasks must identify the objects in the environment from those challenged by the call by the United States’ Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, e.g., doors, valves, drills, debris, uneven terrains, and stairs, among others. In order for a humanoid to undertake a number of tasks, we con- struct a camera–laser fusion system and develop an environmental recognition algorithm. Laser distance sensor and motor are used to obtain 3D cloud data. We project the 3D cloud data onto a 2D image according to the intrinsic parameters of the camera and the distortion model of the lens. In this manner, our fusion sensor system performs functions such as those performed by the RGB-D sensor gener- ally used in segmentation research. Our recognition algorithm is based on super-pixel segmentation and random sampling. The proposed approach clusters the unorganized cloud data according to geometric characteristics, namely, proximity and co-planarity. To assess the feasibility of our system and algorithm, we utilize the humanoid robot, DRC-HUBO, and the results are demonstrated in the accompanying video.

  13. Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Wireless Sensor Nodes for Environmental and Health Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-11-01

    Increase in population and limited resources have created a growing demand for a futuristic living environment where technology enables the efficient utilization and management of resources in order to increase quality of life. One characteristic of such a society, which is often referred to as a ‘Smart City’, is that the people are well informed about their physiological being as well as the environment around them, which makes them better equipped to handle crisis situations. There is a need, therefore, to develop wireless sensors which can provide early warnings and feedback during calamities such as floods, fires, and industrial leaks, and provide remote health care facilities. For these situations, low-cost sensor nodes with small form factors are required. For this purpose, the use of a low-cost, mass manufacturing technique such as inkjet printing can be beneficial due to its digitally controlled additive nature of depositing material on a variety of substrates. Inkjet printing can permit economical use of material on cheap flexible substrates that allows for the development of miniaturized freeform electronics. This thesis describes how low-cost, inkjet-printed, wireless sensors have been developed for real-time monitoring applications. A 3D buoyant mobile wireless sensor node has been demonstrated that can provide early warnings as well as real-time data for flood monitoring. This disposable paper-based module can communicate while floating in water up to a distance of 50 m, regardless of its orientation in the water. Moreover, fully inkjet-printed sensors have been developed to monitor temperature, humidity and gas levels for wireless environmental monitoring. The sensors are integrated and packaged using 3D inkjet printing technology. Finally, in order to demonstrate the benefits of such wireless sensor systems for health care applications, a low-cost, wearable, wireless sensing system has been developed for chronic wound monitoring. The system

  14. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  15. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  16. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  17. Publication of sensor data in the long-term environmental sub-observatory TERENO Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Ulbricht, Damian; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data provided by the different web services of the single observatories and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also publishes time series of environmental sensor data through the DOI registration service at GFZ Potsdam. This service uses the DataCite infrastructure to make research data citable and is able to keep and disseminate metadata popular to the geosciences [1]. The metadata required by DataCite are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML metadata. The GFZ data management tool kit panMetaDocs is used to manage and archive file based datasets and to register Digital Object Identifiers (DOI

  18. SMA-Based System for Environmental Sensors Released from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pellone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work at hand, a shape memory alloy (SMA-based system is presented. The system, conceived for releasing environmental sensors from ground or small unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV (often named UAS, unmanned aerial system, is made of a door, integrated into the bottom of the fuselage, a device distributor, operated by a couple of antagonistic SMA springs, and a kinematic chain, to synchronize the deployment operation with the system movement. On the basis of the specifications (weight, available space, energy supply, sensors size, etc., the system design was addressed. After having identified the main system characteristics, a representative mock-up was manufactured, featuring the bottom part of the reference fuselage. Functionality tests were performed to prove the system capability to release the sensors; a detailed characterization was finally carried out, mainly finalized at correlating the kinematic chain displacement with the SMA spring temperature and the supplied electrical power. A comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental outcomes showed good agreement.

  19. Implementing the distributed consensus-based estimation of environmental variables in unattended wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rodrigo; Restrepo, Silvia E.; Pezoa, Jorge E.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the prototype implementation of a scalable, distributed protocol for calculating the global average of sensed environmental variables in unattended wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is presented. The design and implementation of the protocol introduces a communication scheme for discovering the WSN topology. Such scheme uses a synchronous flooding algorithm, which was implemented over an unreliable radiogram-based wireless channel. The topology discovery protocol has been synchronized with sampling time of the WSN and must be executed before the consensus-based estimation of the global averages. An average consensus algorithm, suited for clustered WSNs with static topologies, was selected from the literature. The algorithm was properly modified so that its implementation guarantees that the convergence time is bounded and less than the sampling time of the WSN. Moreover, to implement the consensus algorithm, a reliable packet-passing protocol was designed to exchange the weighting factors among the sensor nodes. Since the amount of data exchanged in each packet is bounded by the degree of the WSN, the scalability of the protocol is guaranteed to be linear. The proposed protocol was implemented in the Sun SPOT hardware/software platform using the Java programming language. All the radio communications were implemented over the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and the sensed environmental variables corresponded to the temperature and luminosity.

  20. Improving Temporal Coverage of an Energy-Efficient Data Extraction Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo Chatterjea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Collecting raw data from a wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring applications can be a difficult task due to the high energy consumption involved. This is especially difficult when the application requires specialized sensors that have very high energy consumption, e.g. hydrological sensors for monitoring marine environments. This paper introduces a technique for reducing energy consumption by minimizing sensor sampling operations. In addition, we illustrate how a randomized algorithm can be used to improve temporal coverage such that the time between the occurrence of an event and its detection can be minimized. We evaluate our approach using real data collected from a sensor network deployment on the Great Barrier Reef.

  1. Towards a personalized environmental health information service using low-cost sensors and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Liu, Hai-Ying; Schneider, Philipp; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    Most European cities exceed the air quality guidelines established by the WHO to protect human health. As such, citizens are exposed to potentially harmful pollutant levels. Some cities have services (e.g., web pages, mobile apps, etc.) which provide timely air quality information to the public. However, air quality data at individual level is currently scarce or non-existent. Making this information directly useful to individuals poses a challenge. For instance, if a user is informed that the air quality is "poor", what does that mean for him/her, and how can this information be acted upon? Despite individuals having a unique relationship with their environment, the information on the state of atmospheric components and related hazards is currently mostly generic, and seldom personally relevant. This undermines citizens' interest in their environment, and consequently limits their ability to recognize and change both their contribution and their exposure to air pollution. In Oslo, two EU founded projects, CITI-SENSE (Engelken-Jorge et al., 2014) and Citi-Sense-MOB (Castell et al., 2014), are trying to establish a dialogue with citizens by providing them with the possibility of getting personalized air quality information on their smartphones. The users are able to check the air quality in their immediate surroundings and track their individual exposure while moving through the urban environment (Castell et al., 2014). In this way, they may be able to reduce their exposure such as by changing transport modes or routes, for example by selecting less polluted streets to walk or cycle through. Using a smartphone application, citizens are engaged in collecting and sharing environmental data generated by low-cost air quality sensors, and in reporting their individual perception (turning citizens into sensors themselves). The highly spatially resolved data on air quality and perception is geo-located. This allows for simultaneous visualization of both kinds of the sensor

  2. Kinetics of silver nanoparticle deposition at PAH monolayers: reference QCM results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena

    2015-03-17

    The deposition kinetics of silver nanoparticles on Au/SiO2 /PAH substrate was studied under in situ conditions using the QCM method and the ex situ SEM imaging. Because of low dissipation, the Sauerbrey equation was used for calculating the mass per unit area (coverage). Measurements were done for various bulk suspension concentrations, flow rates, and ionic strengths. It was shown that particle deposition for the low coverage regime is governed by the bulk mass transfer step that results in a linear increase of the coverage with the time. A comparison of QCM and SEM results showed that the hydration of the silver monolayers was negligible. This allowed one to derive a universal kinetic equation that describes the mass transfer rates in the cell as a function of the bulk concentration, flow rate, and diffusion coefficient. Measurements were also performed for longer times and for various ionic strengths where the deposition kinetics and the maximum coverage of particles were determined. The experimental data confirmed a significant increase in the maximum coverage with ionic strength. This was interpreted as due to the decreasing range of the electrostatic interactions among deposited particles. These results were adequately interpreted in terms of the extended random sequential adsorption (eRSA) model. Additionally, it was shown that the QCM data matched the ex situ SEM results, indicating that the monolayer hydration was also negligible for higher coverage range. These results derived for the model silver nanoparticle system can be exploited as reference data for the interpretation of protein adsorption kinetics where the dry mass is needed in order to assess the extent of hydration.

  3. Gravimetric chemical sensors based on silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Zheng, Qi; Zhu, Yongheng; Lou, Huihui; Xiang, Qun; Cheng, Zhixuan

    2014-09-01

    Silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid material modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors have been examined for their ability to achieve highly sensitive and selective detection. Mesoporous silica SBA-15 serves as an inorganic host with large specific surface area, facilitating gas adsorption, and thus leads to highly sensitive response; while the presence of organic functional groups contributes to the greatly improved specific sensing property. In this work, we summarize our efforts in the rational design and synthesis of novel sensing materials for the detection of hazardous substances, including simulant nerve agent, organic vapor, and heavy metal ion, and develop high-performance QCM-based chemical sensors.

  4. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  5. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  6. Survey of Energy Harvesting Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks in Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziadak Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have existed for many years and had assimilated many interesting innovations. Advances in electronics, radio transceivers, processes of IC manufacturing and development of algorithms for operation of such networks now enable creating energy-efficient devices that provide practical levels of performance and a sufficient number of features. Environmental monitoring is one of the areas in which WSNs can be successfully used. At the same time this is a field where devices must either bring their own power reservoir, such as a battery, or scavenge energy locally from some natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of energy harvesting methods reduces complexity of WSN structures. This survey is based on practical examples from the real world and provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that are used to create energyefficient WSNs with energy harvesting.

  7. Integration of Environmental Sensors with BIM: case studies using Arduino, Dynamo, and the Revit API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensek, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of connecting environmental sensors such as light, humidity, or CO2 receptors to a building information model (BIM. A base case was created in Rhino; using Grasshopper and Firefly, a simple digital model responded to lighting-levels detected by a photoresistor on an Arduino board. The case study was duplicated using Revit Architecture, a popular BIM software, and Dynamo, a visual programming environment, in an innovative application. Another case study followed a similar procedure by implementing the Revit API directly instead of using Dynamo. Then the process was reversed to demonstrate that not only could data could be sent from sensors to change the 3D model, but changes to parameters of a 3D model could effect a physical model through the use of actuators. It is intended that these virtual/physical prototypes could be used as the basis for testing intelligent façade systems before constructing full size mock-ups.Este estudio investiga la posibilidad de conectar sensores ambientales como de luz, humedad, o dióxido de carbono con un modelo de información de un edificio (siglas BIM en inglés. Un caso base fue creado en Rhino; usando Grasshopper and Firefly, donde un simple modelo digital respondió a niveles de luz detectados por un foto resistor en una tarjeta Arduino. El caso de estudio fue duplicado usando Revit Architecture, una herramienta popular en BIM, y Dynamo, un ambiente de programación gráfica, en una creativa aplicación. Un segundo caso de estudio siguió un procedimiento similar implementando Revit API directamente en vez de usar Dynamo. Entonces el proceso fue revertido para demostrar que no solamente la información podría ser enviada desde sensores para cambiar el modelo tridimensional, pero cambios en los parámetros de un modelo tridimensional podrían afectar un modelo físico mediante el uso de actuadores. Se espera que esos modelos virtuales puedan ser usados como base para

  8. Open Source Based Sensor Platform for Mobile Environmental Monitoring and Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schima, Robert; Goblirsch, Tobias; Misterek, René; Salbach, Christoph; Schlink, Uwe; Francyk, Bogdan; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The impact of global change, urbanization and complex interactions between humans and the environment show different effects on different scales. However, the desire to obtain a better understanding of ecosystems and process dynamics in nature accentuates the need for observing these processes in higher temporal and spatial resolutions. Especially with regard to the process dynamics and heterogeneity of urban areas, a comprehensive monitoring of these effects remains to be a challenging issue. Open source based electronics and cost-effective sensors are offering a promising approach to explore new possibilities of mobile data acquisition and innovative strategies and thereby support a comprehensive ad-hoc monitoring and the capturing of environmental processes close to real time. Accordingly, our project aims the development of new strategies for mobile data acquisition and real-time processing of user-specific environmental data, based on a holistic and integrated process. To this end, the concept of our monitoring system covers the data collection, data processing and data integration as well as the data provision within one infrastructure. This ensures a consistent data stream and a rapid data processing. However, the overarching goal is the provision of an integrated service instead of lengthy and arduous data acquisition by hand. Therefore, the system also serves as a data acquisition assistant and gives guidance during the measurements. In technical terms, our monitoring system consists of mobile sensor devices, which can be controlled and managed by a smart phone app (Android). At the moment, the system is able to acquire temperature and humidity in space (GPS) and time (real-time clock) as a built in function. In addition, larger system functionality can be accomplished by adding further sensors for the detection of e.g. fine dust, methane or dissolved organic compounds. From the IT point of view, the system includes a smart phone app and a web service for

  9. Generic Sensor Data Fusion Services for Web-enabled Environmental Risk Management and Decision-Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeur, Zoheir; Middleton, Stuart; Veres, Galina; Zlatev, Zlatko; Salvo, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    The advancement of smart sensor technology in the last few years has led to an increase in the deployment of affordable sensors for monitoring the environment around Europe. This is generating large amounts of sensor observation information and inevitably leading to problems about how to manage large volumes of data as well as making sense out the data for decision-making. In addition, the various European Directives (Water Framework Diectives, Bathing Water Directives, Habitat Directives, etc.. ) which regulate human activities in the environment and the INSPIRE Directive on spatial information management regulations have implicitely led the designated European Member States environment agencies and authorities to put in place new sensor monitoring infrastructure and share information about environmental regions under their statutory responsibilities. They will need to work cross border and collectively reach environmental quality standards. They will also need to regularly report to the EC on the quality of the environments of which they are responsible and make such information accessible to the members of the public. In recent years, early pioneering work on the design of service oriented architecture using sensor networks has been achieved. Information web-services infrastructure using existing data catalogues and web-GIS map services can now be enriched with the deployment of new sensor observation and data fusion and modelling services using OGC standards. The deployment of the new services which describe sensor observations and intelligent data-processing using data fusion techniques can now be implemented and provide added value information with spatial-temporal uncertainties to the next generation of decision support service systems. The new decision support service systems have become key to implement across Europe in order to comply with EU environmental regulations and INSPIRE. In this paper, data fusion services using OGC standards with sensor

  10. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) studies of the viscoelastic response from a continuously growing grafted polyelectrolyte layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunér, Gunnar; Thormann, Esben; Dedinaite, Andra

    2013-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) was grown from substrates by photopolymerization, and the grafting process was monitored in situ by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) measurements in a 1:1 v/v mixture of water/ethanol. The polymerization process was monitored into the thick film region, wher...

  11. REAL-TIME ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS TO IMPROVE HEALTH IN THE SENSING CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity of an emerging smart city in post-disaster Christchurch has been explored as a way to improve the quality of life of people suffering Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, which is a progressive disease that affects respiratory function. It affects 1 in 15 New Zealanders and is the 4th largest cause of death, with significant costs to the health system. While, cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD, long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust can also cause and exacerbate it. Currently, we do know little what happens to the patients with COPD after they leave a doctor’s care. By learning more about patients’ movements in space and time, we can better understand the impacts of both the environment and personal mobility on the disease. This research is studying patients with COPD by using GPS-enabled smartphones, combined with the data about their spatiotemporal movements and information about their actual usage of medication in near real-time. We measure environmental data in the city, including air pollution, humidity and temperature and how this may subsequently be associated with COPD symptoms. In addition to the existing air quality monitoring network, to improve the spatial scale of our analysis, we deployed a series of low-cost Internet of Things (IoT air quality sensors as well. The study demonstrates how health devices, smartphones and IoT sensors are becoming a part of a new health data ecosystem and how their usage could provide information about high-risk health hotspots, which, in the longer term, could lead to improvement in the quality of life for patients with COPD.

  12. Environmental information system and odour monitoring based on citizen and technology innovative sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledent, Philippe [SPACEBEL S.A., Angleur (Belgium); Stevenot, Bernard [APS Technology, Namur (Belgium); Delva, Julien [ODOMETRIC SA, Meix-Devant-Virton (Belgium); and others

    2013-07-01

    The challenge is the integration of citizens as ''community-based'' observation providers, giving the odour perception and discomfort and getting feed-back in real time from a learning monitoring system. The level of annoyance depends on how odours are emitted and in what intensity, their dispersion under ambient atmospheric conditions and finally on citizens' exposure and perception. The Environmental Information System and Odour Monitoring developed in the project OMNISCIENTIS funded by the EU brings together state of the art technologies and open communication capabilities in order to mitigate odour annoyance. The project allows for citizen feedback, deepens knowledge on odour measurement and management and aims to support harmonised legislation at EU level. Moreover the project results can provide savings to industries. The core is an information system allowing inhabitants to serve as human sensors, acting according to sociological patterns, which influence odour perception, discomfort and nuisance. It provides a dedicated tool to consider odour acceptability, based on a community-based opinion. Due to the subjective nature of odour perception, odour monitoring and fast modelling is used to assist and adjust the information citizens provide via Smartphone and obtained by e-nose and modelling. Innovative in-situ sensors are improved to monitor ambient odour exposures. A specific odour dispersion model system is developed to obtain interrelated spatial odour exposure levels. This fast and innovative model system helps us to evaluate the performance of measures taken at the very moment odours are emitted and with respect to the way in which these occur. The Living Lab approach ensures stakeholder involvement, citizens' participation in decision-making and supports dissemination activities. The results are conveyed to stakeholders and general public. (orig.)

  13. Real-Time Environmental Sensors to Improve Health in the Sensing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, L.; Campbell, M.; Epton, M.; Storer, M.; Kingham, S.

    2016-06-01

    The opportunity of an emerging smart city in post-disaster Christchurch has been explored as a way to improve the quality of life of people suffering Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is a progressive disease that affects respiratory function. It affects 1 in 15 New Zealanders and is the 4th largest cause of death, with significant costs to the health system. While, cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD, long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust can also cause and exacerbate it. Currently, we do know little what happens to the patients with COPD after they leave a doctor's care. By learning more about patients' movements in space and time, we can better understand the impacts of both the environment and personal mobility on the disease. This research is studying patients with COPD by using GPS-enabled smartphones, combined with the data about their spatiotemporal movements and information about their actual usage of medication in near real-time. We measure environmental data in the city, including air pollution, humidity and temperature and how this may subsequently be associated with COPD symptoms. In addition to the existing air quality monitoring network, to improve the spatial scale of our analysis, we deployed a series of low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) air quality sensors as well. The study demonstrates how health devices, smartphones and IoT sensors are becoming a part of a new health data ecosystem and how their usage could provide information about high-risk health hotspots, which, in the longer term, could lead to improvement in the quality of life for patients with COPD.

  14. Oscilador para biosensores basado en microbalanza de cristal de cuarzo (QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Javier Montagut Ferizzola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cristal de cuarzo generalmente es usado en aplicaciones como microbalanza, aprovechando la capacidad que presenta éste para variar su frecuencia de resonancia de acuerdo a los cambios de la densidad superficial de masa depositada en la superficie del resonador. De esta manera, un cristal de cuarzo puede ser utilizado como transductor en un sistema de inmunosensor piezoeléctrico, para detectar uniones antígeno - anticuerpo. En este artículo se presenta una interfaz para microbalanzasde cristal de cuarzo, QCM (del inglés Quartz Crystal Microbalance basado en una versión mejorada de oscilador en configuración diferencial equilibrado y su validación como sistema de caracterización para biosensores. El sistema fue probado con éxito en un inmunosensor piezoeléctrico para la detección del plaguicida Carbaryl.

  15. Evaluation of low-cost electro-chemical sensors for environmental monitoring of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Zuidema, Christopher; Sousan, Sinan; Hallett, Laura; Tatum, Marcus; Rule, Ana M; Thomas, Geb; Peters, Thomas M; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-02-01

    Development of an air quality monitoring network with high spatio-temporal resolution requires installation of a large number of air pollutant monitors. However, state-of-the-art monitors are costly and may not be compatible with wireless data logging systems. In this study, low-cost electro-chemical sensors manufactured by Alphasense Ltd. for detection of CO and oxidative gases (predominantly O 3 and NO 2 ) were evaluated. The voltages from three oxidative gas sensors and three CO sensors were recorded every 2.5 sec when exposed to controlled gas concentrations in a 0.125-m 3 acrylic glass chamber. Electro-chemical sensors for detection of oxidative gases demonstrated sensitivity to both NO 2 and O 3 with similar voltages recorded when exposed to equivalent environmental concentrations of NO 2 or O 3 gases, when evaluated separately. There was a strong linear relationship between the recorded voltages and target concentrations of oxidative gases (R 2 > 0.98) over a wide range of concentrations. Although a strong linear relationship was also observed for CO concentrations below 12 ppm, a saturation effect was observed wherein the voltage only changes minimally for higher CO concentrations (12-50 ppm). The nonlinear behavior of the CO sensors implied their unsuitability for environments where high CO concentrations are expected. Using a manufacturer-supplied shroud, sensors were tested at 2 different flow rates (0.25 and 0.5 Lpm) to mimic field calibration of the sensors with zero air and a span gas concentration (2 ppm NO2 or 15 ppm CO). As with all electrochemical sensors, the tested devices were subject to drift with a bias up to 20% after 9 months of continuous operation. Alphasense CO sensors were found to be a proper choice for occupational and environmental CO monitoring with maximum concentration of 12 ppm, especially due to the field-ready calibration capability. Alphasense oxidative gas sensors are usable only if it is valuable to know the sum of

  16. Novel biospectroscopy sensor technologies towards environmental health monitoring in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinaju, Blessing E; Martin, Francis L

    2013-12-01

    Biospectroscopy is an emerging inter-disciplinary field that exploits the application of sensor technologies [e.g., Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy] to lend novel insights into biological questions. Methods involved are relatively non-destructive so samples can subsequently be analysed by more conventional approaches, facilitating deeper mechanistic insights. Fingerprint spectra are derived and these consist of wavenumber-absorbance intensities; within a typical biological experiment, a complex dataset is quickly generated. Biological samples range from biofluids to cytology to tissues derived from human or sentinel sources, and analyses can be carried out ex vivo or in situ in living tissue. A reference range of a designated normal state can be derived; anything outside this is potentially atypical and discriminating chemical entities identified. Computational approaches allow one to minimize within-category confounding factors. Because of ease of sample preparation, low-cost and high-throughput capability, biospectroscopy approaches herald a new greener means of environmental health monitoring in urban environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  18. Mission-Oriented Sensor Arrays and UAVs - a Case Study on Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, N. M.; Freire, I. L.; Trindade, O.; Simões, E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA), proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013), aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software) from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical). As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  19. Gas adsorption on monolayer blue phosphorus: implications for environmental stability and gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nanshu; Zhou, Si

    2017-04-01

    Monolayer blue phosphorus has recently been synthesized by molecular beam epitaxial growth on Au(111) substrate. It is intriguing to compare this new 2D phase of phosphorus with phosphorene as to both fundamental properties and application prospects. Here, first-principles calculations are carried out to explore the adsorption behaviors of environmental gas molecules on monolayer blue phosphorus, including O2, NO, SO2, NH3, H2O, NO2, CO2, H2S, CO, and N2, and address their effects on the electronic properties of the material. Our calculations show that O2 is prone to dissociate and tends to chemisorb on the blue phosphorus sheet, phenomena which has also been observed in phosphorene. The other gas molecules can stably physisorb on monolayer blue phosphorus, showing different interaction strengths with the monolayer. These molecules induce distinct modifications to the band gap, carrier effective mass, and work function, which also depends on the molecular coverage. The responses of the electronic properties are subject to the charge transfer as well as alignment of the frontier molecular orbital levels of the gaseous molecules and band edges of the parent sheet. These results suggest that monolayer blue phosphorus is a promising candidate for novel gas sensors.

  20. Development and Application of Fiber-Optic Sensors in Environmental and Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickelt, Lars Fledelius

    The light guiding properties of optical fibers are the fundament for fiber-optic sensors. The composition of the fiber materials as well as the fabrication methods for both glass optical fibers and plastic optical fibers (POF) are useful knowledge for improvements of the sensor design. A majority...... of sensing materials includes imbedded luminescent dyes and all O2 fiber-optic sensors are based on O2 quenching of a luminophore. The mechanisms of luminescence and O2 quenching are described. A new procedure for etching a recess in the tip of multimode graded index optical glass fibers was used to improve...... the mechanical stability of O2 optodes after the sensor chemistry was immobilized into the recess. The recess improved focusing of the excitation light. An O2 optode sensor array was constructed for long-term measurements in soil and sediments. The construction and measuring characteristics of the sensor array...

  1. A Sensor Array for the Detection and Discrimination of Methane and Other Environmental Pollutant Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Hannon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the sensitive detection and discrimination of gases impacting the environment, such as CH4, NH3, SO2, and CO, using a sensor array and aided by principal component analysis (PCA. A 32-element chemiresistive sensor array consisting of nine different sensor materials including seven types of modified single-walled carbon nanotubes and two types of polymers has been constructed. PCA results demonstrate excellent discriminating ability of the chemiresistor sensor chip in the 1–30 ppm concentration range. The accuracy of the sensor was verified against data collected using cavity ring down spectroscopy. The sensor chip has also been integrated with a smartphone and has been shown to reproduce the sensing performance obtained with the laboratory measurement system.

  2. Mobilization Protocols for Hybrid Sensors for Environmental AOP Sampling (HySEAS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B.

    2014-01-01

    The protocols presented here enable the proper mobilization of the latest-generation instruments for measuring the apparent optical properties (AOPs) of aquatic ecosystems. The protocols are designed for the Hybrid Sensors for Environmental AOP Sampling (HySEAS) class of instruments, but are applicable to the community of practice for AOP measurements. The protocols are organized into eleven sections beyond an introductory overview: a) cables and connectors, b) HySEAS instruments, c) platform preparation, d) instrument installation, e) cable installation, f) test deployment, g) test recovery, h) maintenance, i) shipping, j) storage, and k) smallboat operations. Each section concentrates on documenting how to prevent the most likely faults, remedy them should they occur, and accomplishing both with the proper application of a modest set of useful tools. Within the twelve sections, there are Socratic exercises to stimulate thought, and the answers to these exercises appear in Appendix A. Frequently asked questions (FAQs) are summarized in a separate section after the answers to the exercises in Appendix B. For practitioners unfamiliar with the nautical terms used throughout this document plus others likely encountered at sea, an abbreviated dictionary of nautical terms appears in Appendix C. An abbreviated dictionary of radiotelephone terms is presented in Appendix D. To ensure familiarity with many of the tools that are presented, Appendix E provides a description of the tools alongside a thumbnail picture. Abbreviated deployment checklists and cable diagrams are provided in Appendix F. The document concludes with an acknowledgments section, a glossary of acronyms, a definition of symbols, and a list of references.

  3. Aplicações de QCM, EIS e SPR na investigação de superfícies e interfaces para o desenvolvimento de (biosensores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damos Flavio Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the quartz crystal microbalance process, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance for characterizing thin films and monitoring interfaces is presented. The theorical aspects of QCM, EIS and SPR are introduced and the main application areas are outlined. Future prospects of the combined applications of QCM, EIS and SPR methods in the studies of interfacial processes at surfaces are also discussed.

  4. Intelligent maritime security system with sensor networks for coastal environmental and homeland security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapezza, Edward M.; Bucklin, Ann

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes an innovative command and control system design and the use of low, cost distributed sensor networks for an intelligent maritime security system. This concept utilizes a network of small passive and active multi-phenomenological unattended sensors and shore based optical sensors to detect, classify, and track submerged threat objects approaching high value coastal assets, such as ports, harbors, residential, commercial, and military facilities and areas. The network of unattended, in-water sensors perform the initial detection, classification, and coarse tracking and then queues shore based optical laser radar sensors. These shore-based sensors perform a high resolution sector search to develop a precision track on the submerged threat objects. Potential threat objects include submarines, submerged barges, UUV's, swimmers carrying threat objects such as explosives, chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear materials. Reliable systems with low false alarm rates (FAR) are proposed. Tens to hundreds of low cost passive sensors are proposed to be deployed conjunctively with several active acoustic and optical sensors in threat and facility dependant patterns to maximize the detection, tracking and classification of submerged threat objects.

  5. Tripodal chelating ligand-based sensor for selective determination of Zn(II) in biological and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Singh, Ashok; Mehtab, Sameena; Singh, Udai P.; Aggarwal, Vaibhave [Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee (India)

    2007-08-15

    Potassium hydrotris(N-tert-butyl-2-thioimidazolyl)borate [KTt{sup t-Bu}] and potassium hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl-l-pyrazolyl)borate [KTp{sup t-Bu,i-Pr}] have been synthesized and evaluated as ionophores for preparation of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensor for Zn(II) ions. The effect of different plasticizers, viz. benzyl acetate (BA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE), and the anion excluders sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB), potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB), and oleic acid (OA) were studied to improve the performance of the membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained from a sensor with a of [KTt{sup t-Bu}] membrane of composition (mg): [KTt{sup t-Bu}] (15), PVC (150), DBP (275), and NaTPB (4). This sensor had a Nernstian response (slope, 29.4 {+-} 0.2 mV decade of activity) for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide concentration range (1.4 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 9.5 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. It had a relatively fast response time (12 s) and could be used for 3 months without substantial change of the potential. The membrane sensor had very good selectivity for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide variety of other cations and could be used in a working pH range of 3.5-7.8. The sensor was also found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media and could be successfully used for estimation of zinc at trace levels in biological and environmental samples. (orig.)

  6. Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gareth; Westmacott, Kelly; Honeychurch, Kevin C; Crew, Adrian; Pemberton, Roy M; Hart, John P

    2016-09-28

    This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed.

  7. A chipless sensor tag-based RFID technology for cyber-oriented environmental sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sudhir; Agarwal, Mangilal; Phoha, Vir V.; Varahramyan, Kody

    2009-05-01

    A chipless sensor tag-based radio frequency identification (RFID) technology that allows wireless collection of information from the environment, and the monitoring and accessing of the given information through cyberspace is presented. The developed system consists of a cyber enabled RFID reader and passive chipless RFID sensor tags. The reader is comprised of an analog part that wirelessly communicates with the sensor tags, and a single board computer (SBC) part. Each passive chipless sensor tag consists of a microstrip antenna and a sensor. The sensor information is amplitude modulated in the backscattered signal of the tag. The analog reader part receives the backscattered signal and feeds it to the SBC, which computes the sensor information into a 96 bit serialized global trade item number (SGTIN-96) electronic product code (EPC). Moreover, the SBC makes the information available on a cyberspace-accessible secure user interface. The reported system has been applied for temperature sensing, where the change in temperature at the tag ranging from 27°C to 140°C resulted in a 28% amplitude change at the analog part of the reader. The temperature at the tag has been monitored by accessing the reader through cyberspace using a web-based user interfaces developed for the SBC.

  8. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbo, Kazunari, E-mail: kshinbo@eng.niigata-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ohdaira, Yasuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Baba, Akira [Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyadera, Nobuo [Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 48 Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl{sub 2} was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam ({lambda} = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl{sub 2} as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  9. Colorimetric biomimetic sensor systems based on molecularly imprinted polymer membranes for highly-selective detection of phenol in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric sensor system for fast and accurate detection of phenol in envi- ronmental samples. Methods. Technique of molecular imprinting, method of in situ polymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Results. The proposed sensor is based on free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP membranes, synthesized by in situ polymerization, and having in their structure artificial binding sites capable of selective phenol recognition. The quantitative detection of phenol, selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes, is based on its reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine, which gives a pink-colored product. The intensity of staining of the MIP membrane is proportional to phenol concentration in the analyzed sample. Phenol can be detected within the range 50 nM–10 mM with limit of detection 50 nM, which corresponds to the concentrations that have to be detected in natural and waste waters in accordance with environmental protection standards. Stability of the MIP-membrane-based sensors was assessed during 12 months storage at room temperature. Conclusions. The sensor system provides highly-selective and sensitive detection of phenol in both mo- del and real (drinking, natural, and waste water samples. As compared to traditional methods of phenol detection, the proposed system is characterized by simplicity of operation and can be used in non-laboratory conditions.

  10. Development of an environmental chamber for evaluating the performance of low-cost air quality sensors under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapostolou, Vasileios; Zhang, Hang; Feenstra, Brandon J.; Polidori, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    A state-of-the-art integrated chamber system has been developed for evaluating the performance of low-cost air quality sensors. The system contains two professional grade chamber enclosures. A 1.3 m3 stainless-steel outer chamber and a 0.11 m3 Teflon-coated stainless-steel inner chamber are used to create controlled aerosol and gaseous atmospheres, respectively. Both chambers are temperature and relative humidity controlled with capability to generate a wide range of environmental conditions. The system is equipped with an integrated zero-air system, an ozone and two aerosol generation systems, a dynamic dilution calibrator, certified gas cylinders, an array of Federal Reference Method (FRM), Federal Equivalent Method (FEM), and Best Available Technology (BAT) reference instruments and an automated control and sequencing software. Our experiments have demonstrated that the chamber system is capable of generating stable and reproducible aerosol and gas concentrations at low, medium, and high levels. This paper discusses the development of the chamber system along with the methods used to quantitatively evaluate sensor performance. Considering that a significant number of academic and research institutions, government agencies, public and private institutions, and individuals are becoming interested in developing and using low-cost air quality sensors, it is important to standardize the procedures used to evaluate their performance. The information discussed herein provides a roadmap for entities who are interested in characterizing air quality sensors in a rigorous, systematic and reproducible manner.

  11. Impact Damage Localisation with Piezoelectric Sensors under Operational and Environmental Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Saleh Salmanpour; Zahra Sharif Khodaei; M H Ferri Aliabadi

    2017-01-01

    Guided-wave structural health monitoring (SHM) systems with piezoelectric sensors are investigated for localisation of barely visible impact damage in CFRP plates under vibration and different thermal conditions...

  12. Towards a Mobile Ecogenomic sensor: the Third Generation Environmental Sample Processor (3G-ESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, J. M.; Pargett, D.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Preston, C. M.; Ussler, W.; Yamahara, K.; Marin, R., III; Hobson, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ryan, J. P.; Scholin, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly using one or more autonomous platforms to characterize ocean processes that change in both space and time. Conceptually, studying processes that change quickly both spatially and temporally seems relatively straightforward. One needs to sample in many locations synoptically over time, or follow a coherent water mass and sample it repeatedly. However, implementing either approach presents many challenges. For example, acquiring samples over days to weeks far from shore, without human intervention, requires multiple systems to work together seamlessly, and the level of autonomy, navigation and communications needed to conduct the work exposes the complexity of these requirements. We are addressing these challenges by developing a new generation of robotic systems that are primarily aimed at studies of microbial-mediated processes. As a step towards realizing this new capability, we have taken lessons learned from our second-generation Environmental Sample Processor (2G-ESP), a robotic microbiology "lab-in-a-can" and have re-engineered the system for use on a Tethys-class Long Range AUV (LRAUV). The new instrument is called the third-generation ESP (3G-ESP), and its integration with the LRAUV provides mobility and a persistent presence not seen before in microbial oceanography. The 3G-ESP autonomously filters a water sample and then either preserves that material for eventual return to a laboratory, or processes the sample in real-time for further downstream molecular analytical analyses. The 3G ESP modularizes hardware needed for the collection and preparation of a sample from subsequent molecular analyses by the use of self-contained "cartridges". Cartridges currently come in two forms: one for the preservation of a sample, and the other for onboard homogenization and handoff for downstream processing via one or more analytical devices. The 3G-ESP is designed as a stand-alone instrument, and thus could be deployed on a variety of

  13. Quartz crystal micro–balance gas sensor with ink–jet printed nano–diamond sensitive layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, J.; Laposa, A.; Procházka, Václav; Husák, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2016), s. 61-64 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gas sensor * QCM * nanodiamond * ink-jet printing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2016

  14. Integrating end-user feedback in the concept stage of development of a novel sensor access system for environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fager, Susan Koch; Sorenson, Tabatha; Butte, Susanne; Nelson, Alexander; Banerjee, Nilanjan; Robucci, Ryan

    2017-05-19

    This article illustrates user-centred design of a novel sensor access system for environmental control in the concept stage of development. Focus groups of individuals with disabilities and rehabilitation healthcare professionals were provided with video illustration of the technology and asked to provide quantitative and qualitative feedback through a semistructured interview process. Qualitative methods were employed to analyse transcribed comments to develop themes supporting ongoing development of the technology. Both end-user streams rated the original design features of the sensor access system (alternative interface to assistive technologies, having wireless capabilities and not requiring batteries) as having high potential value. Both groups identified a need for the future design of the sensor technology to be able to capture minimal/reduced movements for those with severe physical impairments. Themes included (1) the sensor technology could be individualized/customized to accommodate the user, (2) minimal positioning and set-up requirement and (3) technology that alleviated problems encountered with touch-based solutions. Inclusion of end-user feedback provided the research team with valuable information that supported the initial conceptualization of the design features of the technology and provided valuable data to support development of a new prototype that can capture more reduced/minimal movements. Implication for Rehabilitation User-centered design of assistive technology is essential to the development of technology that can meet the unique needs of those with the most severe physical impairments. New sensor technology may alleviate some of the access challenges faced by individuals with severe physical impairments. Collaboration between all key stakeholders (individuals with disabilities, rehabilitation professionals, researchers, and developers) is an essential component in the iterative assistive technology design process.

  15. Decision-Making Using Real-Time Observations for Environmental Sustainability; an integrated 802.11 sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Kleissl, J.; Farhadi, M.; Kim, D.; Liu, W.; Mao, Y.; Nguyen, H. T.; Roshandell, M.; Sankur, M.; Shiga, Y.; Linden, P.; Hodgkiss, W.

    2007-12-01

    Meteorological conditions have important implications on human activities. They affect human comfort, productivity, and health, and contribute to material wear and tear. The University of California, San Diego (UCSD)'s proximity to the Pacific Ocean places it in a temperate microclimate which has unique advantages and disadvantages for campus water and energy use and air quality. In particular, the daily sea-breezes provide cool, moist, and salt-laden air to campus. For the Decision-Making Using Real-Time Observations for Environmental Sustainability (DEMROES) project a heterogeneous wireless network of monitoring stations is being set up across the UCSD campus and beyond. Conditions to be monitored include temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, surface temperatures, solar radiation, particulate matter, CO, NO2, rainfall, and soil moisture. Stations are strategically placed on rooftops and lampposts across campus, as well as select off-campus locations and will transmit data over the UCSD 802.11 wireless network. In addition to rooftop and lamppost stations, mobile stations will be deployed via remotely controlled ground and air units, and stations affixed to campus shuttle busses. These mobile stations will allow for greater spatial resolution of the environmental conditions across campus and inter-sensor calibration. The hardware consists of meteorological, hydrological, and air quality sensors connected to (a) commercial Campbell datalogging systems with serial2IP modules and wireless bridges, and (b) sensor and 802.11 boards based on the dpac technology developed in-house. The measurements will serve campus facilities management with information to feed the energy management system (EMS) for building operation and energy conservation, and irrigation management. The technology developed for this project can be applied elsewhere thereby contributing to hydrologic and ecologic observatories. Through extensive student involvement a new generation of

  16. Combining physiological, environmental and locational sensors for citizen-oriented health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, J J; Whyatt, J D; Coulton, P; Davison, B; Gradinar, A

    2017-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of combining the outputs of multiple low-cost sensor technologies for the direct measurement of spatio-temporal variations in phenomena that exist at the interface between our bodies and the environment. The example used herein is the measurement of personal exposure to traffic pollution, which may be considered as a function of the concentration of pollutants in the air and the frequency and volume of that air which enters our lungs. The sensor-based approach described in this paper removes the 'traditional' requirements either to model or interpolate pollution levels or to make assumptions about the physiology of an individual. Rather, a wholly empirical analysis into pollution exposure is possible, based upon high-resolution spatio-temporal data drawn from sensors for NO2, nasal airflow and location (GPS). Data are collected via a custom smartphone application and mapped to give an unprecedented insight into exposure to traffic pollution at the individual level. Whilst the quality of data from low-cost miniaturised sensors is not suitable for all applications, there certainly are many applications for which these data would be well suited, particularly those in the field of citizen science. This paper demonstrates both the potential and limitations of sensor-based approaches and discusses the wider relevance of these technologies for the advancement of citizen science.

  17. Environmental sensing with optical fiber sensors processed with focused ion beam and atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Dahlem, Marcus; Viegas, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    We report an optical fiber chemical sensor based on a focused ion beam processed optical fiber. The demonstrated sensor is based on a cavity formed onto a standard 1550 nm single-mode fiber by either chemical etching, focused ion beam milling (FIB) or femtosecond laser ablation, on which side channels are drilled by either ion beam milling or femtosecond laser irradiation. The encapsulation of the cavity is achieved by optimized fusion splicing onto a standard single or multimode fiber. The empty cavity can be used as semi-curved Fabry-Pérot resonator for gas or liquid sensing. Increased reflectivity of the formed cavity mirrors can be achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alternating metal oxides. For chemical selective optical sensors, we demonstrate the same FIB-formed cavity concept, but filled with different materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) which show selective swelling when immersed in different solvents. Finally, a reducing agent sensor based on a FIB formed cavity partially sealed by fusion splicing and coated with a thin ZnO layer by ALD is presented and the results discussed. Sensor interrogation is achieved with spectral or multi-channel intensity measurements.

  18. A Corrosion Sensor for Monitoring the Early-Stage Environmental Corrosion of A36 Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An innovative prototype sensor containing A36 carbon steel as a capacitor was explored to monitor early-stage corrosion. The sensor detected the changes of the surface- rather than the bulk- property and morphology of A36 during corrosion. Thus it was more sensitive than the conventional electrical resistance corrosion sensors. After being soaked in an aerated 0.2 M NaCl solution, the sensor’s normalized electrical resistance (R/R0 decreased continuously from 1.0 to 0.74 with the extent of corrosion. Meanwhile, the sensor’s normalized capacitance (C/C0 increased continuously from 1.0 to 1.46. X-ray diffraction result indicates that the iron rust on A36 had crystals of lepidocrocite and magnetite.

  19. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety.

  20. On Mass Loading and Dissipation Measured with Acoustic Wave Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Voinova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize current trends in the analysis of physical properties (surface mass density, viscosity, elasticity, friction, and charge of various thin films measured with a solid-state sensor oscillating in a gaseous or liquid environment. We cover three different types of mechanically oscillating sensors: the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring, surface acoustic wave (SAW, resonators and magnetoelastic sensors (MESs. The fourth class of novel acoustic wave (AW mass sensors, namely thin-film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBARs on vibrating membranes is discussed in brief. The paper contains a survey of theoretical results and practical applications of the sensors and includes a comprehensive bibliography.

  1. Adsorption of albumin and sodium hyaluronate on UHMWPE: a QCM-D and AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Degiampietro, K; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2010-06-15

    The biotribological properties of artificial joints, in particular the efficiency of the lubrication, strongly determine their lifetime. The most commonly used artificial joints combine a metallic or ceramic part articulating against a ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) counterface, and are lubricated by the periprosthetic fluid. This fluid contains several macromolecules, namely albumin and sodium hyaluronate (NaHA), that are known to be involved in the lubrication process. There are several studies in the literature concerning the interaction of the referred macromolecules with ceramic or metallic prosthetic materials. However, to our knowledge, information about their binding to the polymeric surface is practically inexistent. The objective of this work is to contribute to clarify the role played by albumin and NaHA on the biolubrication process, through the investigation of their interaction with the UHMWPE surface. The study involves adsorption measurements using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), the characterization of the adsorbed films by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and wettability determinations. Albumin was found to adsorb strongly and extensively to the polymer, while NaHA led to a very low adsorption. In both cases rigid films were obtained, but with different morphology and porosity. The high binding affinity of the protein to the polymer was demonstrated both by the results of the fittings to Langmuir and Freundlich models and by the values of the adhesion forces determined by AFM. In the simultaneous adsorption of albumin and NaHA, protein adsorption is predominant and determines the surface properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and evaluation of an open-source, low-cost distributed sensor network for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, N.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Stoll, R.; Khadka, A.

    2018-02-01

    Over the last decade there has been a proliferation of low-cost sensor networks that enable highly distributed sensor deployments in environmental applications. The technology is easily accessible and rapidly advancing due to the use of open-source microcontrollers. While this trend is extremely exciting, and the technology provides unprecedented spatial coverage, these sensors and associated microcontroller systems have not been well evaluated in the literature. Given the large number of new deployments and proposed research efforts using these technologies, it is necessary to quantify the overall instrument and microcontroller performance for specific applications. In this paper, an Arduino-based weather station system is presented in detail. These low-cost energy-budget measurement stations, or LEMS, have now been deployed for continuous measurements as part of several different field campaigns, which are described herein. The LEMS are low-cost, flexible, and simple to maintain. In addition to presenting the technical details of the LEMS, its errors are quantified in laboratory and field settings. A simple artificial neural network-based radiation-error correction scheme is also presented. Finally, challenges and possible improvements to microcontroller-based atmospheric sensing systems are discussed.

  3. Data analysis and integration of environmental sensors to meet human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; De Rango, Floriano; Barletta, Domenico; Falbo, Domenico; Imbrogno, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays one of the main task of technology is to make people's life simpler and easier. Ambient intelligence is an emerging discipline that brings intelligence to environments making them sensitive to us. This discipline has developed following the spread of sensors devices, sensor networks, pervasive computing and artificial intelligence. In this work, we attempt to enhance the Internet Of Things (loT) with intelligence and environments exploring various interactions between humans' beings and the environment they live in. In particular, the core of the system is composed of an automation system, which is made up with a domotic control unit and several sensors installed in the environment. The task of the sensors is to collect information from the environment and to send them to the control unit. Once the information is collected, the core combines them in order to infer the most accurate human needs. The knowledge of human needs and the current environment status compose the inputs of the intelligence block whose main goal is to find the right automations to satisfy human needs in a real time way. The system also provides a Speech Recognition service which allow users to interact with the system by their voice so human speech can be considered as additional input for smart automatisms.

  4. Harnessing sensor and information/communication technologies to revolutionize how environmental data are collected and integrated to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Raymond, Michelle; Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States); Armbruster, Walter J. [Farm Foundation, Darien, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring the levels of pollutants in ambient air has long been the responsibility of environmental agencies, and traditional programs have relied on a relatively small number of fixed stations that are expensive to install and operate. The spatial coverage of pollutant data ranges from limited in many urban areas to very sparse in smaller suburban and rural areas. Increasingly, the latter are being affected by new pollutant sources such as backyard drilling systems for energy development, and concentrated animal feeding operations and biodiesel production facilities on former agricultural lands. Regional measurement stations are not able to inform local communities about the types and concentrations of pollutants in their ambient and indoor air. Meanwhile, epidemiology studies and clinical data continue to indicate a link between air pollutants and adverse health effects, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease. With asthma on the rise and heart disease among the leading killers, the public has become increasingly concerned about knowing what their personal exposure levels are so they can determine appropriate measures to protect their health. To address this long-standing need, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has embarked upon an innovative program to improve the understanding of air pollution at the community and neighborhood scales. This program harnesses striking advances in sensor technology, mobile applications, and environmental informatics, with citizens playing a key role. The goal is to facilitate the development and widespread use of inexpensive mobile sensors, for widespread collection and integration of air quality data by citizens across the nation (and world), to help guide environmental health protection programs. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of the Native and Denatured Herceptin by ELISA and QCM using a High-Affinity Single Chain Fragment Variable (scFv) Recombinant Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Mernaugh, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Herceptin/Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1κ light chain antibody used to treat some forms of breast cancer. A phage-displayed recombinant antibody library was used to obtain an scFv (designated 2B4) to a linear synthetic peptide representing Herceptin’s heavy chain CDR3. ELISAs and piezoimmunosensor/quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assays were used to characterize 2B4-binding activity to both native and heat denatured Herceptin. The 2B4 scFv specifically bound to heat denatured Herceptin in a concentration dependent manner over a wide (35–220.5 nM) dynamic range. Herceptin denatures and forms significant amount of aggregates when heated. UV-Vis characterization confirms that Herceptin forms aggregates as the temperature used to heat Herceptin increases. QCM affinity assay shows that binding stoichiometry between 2B4 scFv and Herceptin follows a 1:2 relationship proving that 2B4 scFv binds strongly to the dimers of heat denatured Herceptin aggregates and exhibits an affinity constant of 7.17 × 1013 M−2. The 2B4-based QCM assay was more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA. Combining QCM with ELISA can be used to more fully characterize non-specific binding events in assays. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of these results and the advantages of using QCM to characterize human therapeutic antibodies in samples are also discussed. PMID:22934911

  6. Formation and stability of manganese-doped ZnS quantum dot monolayers determined by QCM-D and streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oćwieja, Magdalena; Matras-Postołek, Katarzyna; Maciejewska-Prończuk, Julia; Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Sovinska, Svitlana; Żaba, Adam; Gajewska, Marta; Król, Tomasz; Cupiał, Klaudia; Bredol, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Manganese-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) stabilized by cysteamine hydrochloride were successfully synthesized. Their thorough physicochemical characteristics were acquired using UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The average particle size, derived from HR-TEM, was 3.1nm, which agrees with the hydrodynamic diameter acquired by DLS, that was equal to 3-4nm, depending on ionic strength. The quantum dots also exhibited a large positive zeta potential varying between 75 and 36mV for ionic strength of 10-4 and 10-2M, respectively (at pH 6.2) and an intense luminescent emission at 590nm. The quantum yield was equal to 31% and the optical band gap energy was equal to 4.26eV. The kinetics of QD monolayer formation on silica substrates (silica sensors and oxidized silicon wafers) under convection-controlled transport was quantitatively evaluated by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the streaming potential measurements. A high stability of the monolayer for ionic strength 10-4 and 10-2M was confirmed in these measurements. The experimental data were adequately reflected by the extended random sequential adsorption model (eRSA). Additionally, thorough electrokinetic characteristics of the QD monolayers and their stability for various ionic strengths and pH were acquired by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ conditions. These results were quantitatively interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional (3D) electrokinetic model that furnished bulk zeta potential of particles for high ionic strengths that is impractical by other experimental techniques. It is concluded that these results can be used for designing of biosensors of controlled monolayer structure capable to bind various ligands via covalent as well as electrostatic interactions. Copyright

  7. Electrical output of bryophyte microbial fuel cell systems is sufficient to power a radio or an environmental sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ross J.; Felder, Fabienne; Cooper, Matt B.; Royles, Jessica; Harrison, Susan T. L.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant microbial fuel cells are a recently developed technology that exploits photosynthesis in vascular plants by harnessing solar energy and generating electrical power. In this study, the model moss species Physcomitrella patens, and other environmental samples of mosses, have been used to develop a non-vascular bryophyte microbial fuel cell (bryoMFC). A novel three-dimensional anodic matrix was successfully created and characterized and was further tested in a bryoMFC to determine the capacity of mosses to generate electrical power. The importance of anodophilic microorganisms in the bryoMFC was also determined. It was found that the non-sterile bryoMFCs operated with P. patens delivered over an order of magnitude higher peak power output (2.6 ± 0.6 µW m−2) than bryoMFCs kept in near-sterile conditions (0.2 ± 0.1 µW m−2). These results confirm the importance of the microbial populations for delivering electrons to the anode in a bryoMFC. When the bryoMFCs were operated with environmental samples of moss (non-sterile) the peak power output reached 6.7 ± 0.6 mW m−2. The bryoMFCs operated with environmental samples of moss were able to power a commercial radio receiver or an environmental sensor (LCD desktop weather station). PMID:27853542

  8. Calibration Uncertainty in Ocean Color Satellite Sensors and Trends in Long-term Environmental Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Franz, Bryan A.; Del Castillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Launched in late 2011, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft is being evaluated by NASA to determine whether this sensor can continue the ocean color data record established through the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). To this end, Goddard Space Flight Center generated evaluation ocean color data products using calibration techniques and algorithms established by NASA during the SeaWiFS and MODIS missions. The calibration trending was subjected to some initial sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Here we present an introductory assessment of how the NASA-produced time series of ocean color is influenced by uncertainty in trending instrument response over time. The results help quantify the uncertainty in measuring regional and global biospheric trends in the ocean using satellite remote sensing, which better define the roles of such records in climate research.

  9. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  10. Implementing a Probabilistic Line of Sight in EASEE (Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    LVIS Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index RGB Red...most common dig- ital elevation models (DEM) are digital terrain models (DTM), which rep- resents the soil or ground level, and digital surface models...land cover classes that had to be mapped to internal vegetation and soil type variables to support existing EASEE capabilities. We developed two

  11. Q-SOS—A Sensor Observation Service for Accessing Quality Descriptions of Environmental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusuriya Devaraju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide Sensor Web comprises observation data from diverse sources. Each data provider may process and assess datasets differently before making them available online. This information is often invisible to end users. Therefore, publishing observation data with quality descriptions is vital as it helps users to assess the suitability of data for their applications. It is also important to capture contextual information concerning data quality such as provenance to trace back incorrect data to its origins. In the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE framework, there is no sufficiently and practically applicable approach how these aspects can be systematically represented and made accessible. This paper presents Q-SOS—an extension of the OGC’s Sensor Observation Service (SOS that supports retrieval of observation data together with quality descriptions. These descriptions are represented in an observation data model covering various aspects of data quality assessment. The service and the data model have been developed based on open standards and open source tools, and are productively being used to share observation data from the TERENO observatory infrastructure. We discuss the advantages of deploying the presented solutions from data provider and consumer viewpoints. Enhancements applied to the related open-source developments are also introduced.

  12. STM, QCM, and the windshield wiper effect: a joint theoretical-experimental study of adsorbate mobility and lubrication at high sliding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmaksoud, M; Lee, S M; Padgett, C W; Irving, D L; Brenner, D W; Krim, J

    2006-11-07

    We have observed that when mobile adsorbed films of benzene, tricresyl phosphate, and tertiary-butyl phenyl phosphate are present on the surface electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), oscillation of the QCM produces clearer scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of the electrode surface. This is in contrast to an immobile overlayer of iodobenzene, where oscillation of the QCM does not affect image quality. This observation is attributed to a "windshield wiper effect", where at MHz frequencies the tip motion maintains a region of the surface where the absorbate concentration is reduced, which leads to a clearer image. A straightforward model is presented that supports this conclusion and that provides guidelines for effective lubrication of contacts operating at MHz frequencies.

  13. Elastic and viscous bond components in the adhesion of colloidal particles and fibrillated streptococci to QCM-D crystal surfaces with different hydrophobicities using Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Westen, Rebecca; Sharma, Prashant K; De Raedt, Hans; Vermue, Ijsbrand; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2017-01-01

    A quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) can measure molecular mass adsorption as well as register adhesion of colloidal particles. However, analysis of the QCM-D output to quantitatively analyze adhesion of (bio) colloids to obtain viscoelastic bond properties is still a subject of

  14. The Environmental Post-Mission Analysis System: Through-the-Sensor to the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Post-Mission Analysis ( EPMA ) system addresses this need with a powerful, cross-platform data analysis system that manages the compilation...and integration of environmental data. EPMA is being developed for the mine warfare community, but will also have broader data analysis...format, and then export it as a geo-rectified TIFF image. Each of these manifestations of the data has a specific purpose. In the EPMA system, this

  15. Enabling synthesis of spatially and temporally diverse data collected from environmental sensors within the Long Term Ecological Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Castle, J. R.; Servilla, M. S.; San Gil, I.; Michener, B. K.; Waide, R. B.; Scuderi, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Network Office (LNO) of the 26 site Long Term Ecological Research Network (LTER) is involved in the design and implementation of cyberinfrastructure (CI) that will support and enable synthesis of spatially and temporally diverse sets of environmental sensor data. Funded by the NSF, the LTER and LNO are driven to provide a methodology and a CI that enables researchers, and ultimately society, to share and exploit integrated current and historical observations from sensor data representing twenty-five years of environmental observatory experience for purposes of projecting trends and patterns that will provide knowledge about the our changing ecosystems. An example of this includes the "Biophony Grid Portal", which provides researchers direct access to environmental acoustic data. This project involves aggregation of streaming acoustic data from field microphones sent by Internet to a staging server at Michigan State University. Metadata for the acoustic files are stored at the LNO for discovery and access purposes using the LTER Metacat, a metadata catalog and Internet accessible data repository. An application portal developed with the National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) integrate these data for analysis and synthesis using high-performance computers located at NCSA. Collaborations with the USGS National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) disseminates such information by sharing metadata standards and content within the NBII clearinghouse system a channel to the broader research community. Working with the NBII, the LTER Network has adopted the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) for data documentation. Conforming to FGDC standards, EML supports discovery of these data through both the LTER Metacat and the NBII data search capabilities developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics. The (LNO) maintains a rich archive of historical remote sensing data, documented

  16. Proposed Mechanisms of Tethered Antimicrobial Peptide Chrysophsin-1 as a Function of Tether Length Using QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeau, Lindsay D; Alexander, Todd E; Camesano, Terri A

    2015-10-15

    Rising antibiotic resistance has led to a call for the development of alternative antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising, but their potential has not been fully explored because of toxicity and lack of stability in vivo. Multiple recent studies have focused on surface immobilization of AMPs to maximize antimicrobial activity and stability while mitigating toxicity. We covalently tethered cysteine-modified chrysophsin-1 (C-CHY1) via PEG of three molecular weights, 866, 2000, and 7500. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to characterize thickness and grafting density of tethered C-CHY1, which were related to its activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and found to be important in determining mechanisms leading to activity. The PEG 866 tether promoted an antimicrobial mechanism that caused displacement of positive cations from bacterial membranes. The PEG 7500 tether maintained C-CHY1's ability to effectively form membrane pores, promoting the highest activity. When AMP was tethered with PEG 2000, antimicrobial activity was limited, apparently because neither mechanism of AMP activity was able to occur with this tether. Using QCM-D, we calculated thickness and density of PEG-tethered C-CHY1 and correlated it with antimicrobial effectiveness to determine the mechanisms by which tethered C-CHY1 acts against bacteria.

  17. Interaction of local and general anaesthetics with liposomal membrane models: a QCM-D and DSC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, José Gabriel; Paradiso, Patrizia; Serro, Ana Paula; Fernandes, Anabela; Saramago, Benilde

    2012-06-15

    The behaviour of four local anaesthetics (lidocaine, levobupivacaine, ropivacaine and tetracaine) and one general anaesthetic (propofol) is compared when interacting with two types of model membranes: supported layers of liposomes and liposomes in solution. Several liposomal compositions were tested: dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), binary mixtures of DMPC with cholesterol (CHOL), and ternary mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), DMPC, and CHOL. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, QCM-D, was used to assess changes in the properties of supported layers of liposomes. The effect of the anaesthetics on the phase behaviour of the liposomes in suspension was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Both techniques show that all anaesthetics have a fluidizing effect on the model membranes but, apparently, the solid supported liposomes are less affected by the anaesthetics than the liposomes in solution. Although the different anaesthetics were compared at different concentrations, tetracaine and propofol seem to induce the strongest perturbation on the liposome membrane. The resistance of the liposomes to the anaesthetic action was found to increase with the presence of cholesterol, while adding DPPC to the binary mixture DMPC+CHOL does not change its behaviour. The novelty of the present work resides upon three points: (1) the use of supported layers of liposomes as model membranes to study interactions with anaesthetics; (2) application of QCM-D to assess changes of the adsorbed liposomes; (3) a comparison of the effect of local and general anaesthetics interacting with various model membranes in similar experimental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methylatable Signaling Helix Coordinated Inhibitory Receiver Domain in Sensor Kinase Modulates Environmental Stress Response in Bacillus Cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Chi; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Shu, Jwu-Ching; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    σB, an alternative transcription factor, controls the response of the cell to a variety of environmental stresses in Bacillus cereus. Previously, we reported that RsbM negatively regulates σB through the methylation of RsbK, a hybrid sensor kinase, on a signaling helix (S-helix). However, RsbK comprises a C-terminal receiver (REC) domain whose function remains unclear. In this study, deletion of the C-terminal REC domain of RsbK resulted in high constitutive σB expression independent of environmental stimuli. Thus, the REC domain may serve as an inhibitory element. Mutagenic substitution was employed to modify the putative phospho-acceptor residue D827 in the REC domain of RsbK. The expression of RsbKD827N and RsbKD827E exhibited high constitutive σB, indicating that D827, if phosphorylatable, possibly participates in σB regulation. Bacterial two-hybrid analyses demonstrated that RsbK forms a homodimer and the REC domain interacts mainly with the histidine kinase (HK) domain and partly with the S-helix. In particular, co-expression of RsbM strengthens the interaction between the REC domain and the S-helix. Consistently, our structural model predicts a significant interaction between the HK and REC domains of the RsbK intradimer. Here, we demonstrated that coordinated the methylatable S-helix and the REC domain of RsbK is functionally required to modulate σB-mediated stress response in B. cereus and maybe ubiquitous in microorganisms encoded RsbK-type sensor kinases. PMID:26379238

  19. Methylatable Signaling Helix Coordinated Inhibitory Receiver Domain in Sensor Kinase Modulates Environmental Stress Response in Bacillus Cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chi Chen

    Full Text Available σB, an alternative transcription factor, controls the response of the cell to a variety of environmental stresses in Bacillus cereus. Previously, we reported that RsbM negatively regulates σB through the methylation of RsbK, a hybrid sensor kinase, on a signaling helix (S-helix. However, RsbK comprises a C-terminal receiver (REC domain whose function remains unclear. In this study, deletion of the C-terminal REC domain of RsbK resulted in high constitutive σB expression independent of environmental stimuli. Thus, the REC domain may serve as an inhibitory element. Mutagenic substitution was employed to modify the putative phospho-acceptor residue D827 in the REC domain of RsbK. The expression of RsbKD827N and RsbKD827E exhibited high constitutive σB, indicating that D827, if phosphorylatable, possibly participates in σB regulation. Bacterial two-hybrid analyses demonstrated that RsbK forms a homodimer and the REC domain interacts mainly with the histidine kinase (HK domain and partly with the S-helix. In particular, co-expression of RsbM strengthens the interaction between the REC domain and the S-helix. Consistently, our structural model predicts a significant interaction between the HK and REC domains of the RsbK intradimer. Here, we demonstrated that coordinated the methylatable S-helix and the REC domain of RsbK is functionally required to modulate σB-mediated stress response in B. cereus and maybe ubiquitous in microorganisms encoded RsbK-type sensor kinases.

  20. A differential evolution-based routing algorithm for environmental monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Xu, Lizhong; Wang, Huibin; Song, Jie; Yang, Simon X

    2010-01-01

    The traditional Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol is a clustering-based protocol. The uneven selection of cluster heads results in premature death of cluster heads and premature blind nodes inside the clusters, thus reducing the overall lifetime of the network. With a full consideration of information on energy and distance distribution of neighboring nodes inside the clusters, this paper proposes a new routing algorithm based on differential evolution (DE) to improve the LEACH routing protocol. To meet the requirements of monitoring applications in outdoor environments such as the meteorological, hydrological and wetland ecological environments, the proposed algorithm uses the simple and fast search features of DE to optimize the multi-objective selection of cluster heads and prevent blind nodes for improved energy efficiency and system stability. Simulation results show that the proposed new LEACH routing algorithm has better performance, effectively extends the working lifetime of the system, and improves the quality of the wireless sensor networks.

  1. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-02

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  2. Lobster (Panulirus argus captures and their relation with environmental variables obtained by orbital sensors for Cuban waters (1997-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla Duthit Somoza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll concentrations (Chl a data obtained from the Sea Viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWIFS ocean color monthly images, Sea Surface Temperature (SST pathfinder data obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensors, and lobster (Panulirus argus captures at the Cuban shelf were examined in order to analyze their spatial and temporal variability. A cross-correlation analysis was made between the standardized anomalies of the environmental variables (Chl a and SST and the standardized anomalies of lobster captures for each fishery zones for the period between 1997 and 2005. For the deep waters adjacent to the fishing zones it was not observed a clear Chl a seasonality and on average the lowest values occurred south of the Island. It is with the three years lag that Chl a had the greatest numbers of significant correlation coefficients for almost all fishing zones. However, the cross-correlation coefficients with SST showed higher values with 1,5 year lag at all zones. Since the two environmental variables obtained by satellite sensors (SST and Chl a influence the lobsters mainly during the planktonic life cycle, the cross-correlation with lobster captures begin to show significant indexes with lags of 1.5 years or more.Dados de captura da lagosta Panulirus argus na plataforma cubana foram comparados com concentrações de clorofila (Chl a e valores de Temperatura de Superfície do Mar (TSM obtidos pelos sensores Sea Viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWIFS e Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, respectivamente. Uma análise de correlação cruzada foi realizada entre as anomalias padronizadas das variáveis ambientais (Chl a e TSM e as anomalias padronizadas de capturas da lagosta para cada zona de pesca no período 1997-2005. Para as águas profundas adjacentes às zonas de pesca não foi observada uma sazonalidade evidente da Chl a. De forma geral, os menores valores de Chl a ocorreram ao sul da

  3. A Social Environmental Sensor Network Integrated within a Web GIS Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorghos Voutos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in an era where typical measures towards the mitigation of environmental degradation follow the identification and recording of natural parameters closely associated with it. In addition, current scientific knowledge on the one hand may be applied to minimize the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities, whereas informatics on the other, playing a key role in this ecosystem, do offer new ways of implementing complex scientific processes regarding the collection, aggregation and analysis of data concerning environmental parameters. Furthermore, another related aspect to consider is the fact that almost all relevant data recordings are influenced by their given spatial characteristics. Taking all aforementioned inputs into account, managing such a great amount of complex and remote data requires specific digital structures; these structures are typically deployed over the Web on an attempt to capitalize existing open software platforms and modern developments of hardware technology. In this paper we present an effort to provide a technical solution based on sensing devices that are based on the well-known Arduino platform and operate continuously for gathering and transmitting of environmental state information. Controls, user interface and extensions of the proposed project rely on the Android mobile device platform (both from the software and hardware side. Finally, a crucial novel aspect of our work is the fact that all herein gathered data carry spatial information, which is rather fundamental for the successful correlation between pollutants and their place of origin. The latter is implemented by an interactive Web GIS platform operating oversight in situ and on a timeline basis.

  4. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-05

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less.

  5. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  6. PTR-MS in Italy: A Multipurpose Sensor with Applications in Environmental, Agri-Food and Health Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Biasioli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community.

  7. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  8. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vanegas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP, so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV, to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  9. Enabling UAV Navigation with Sensor and Environmental Uncertainty in Cluttered and GPS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Fernando; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-05-10

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can navigate with low risk in obstacle-free environments using ground control stations that plan a series of GPS waypoints as a path to follow. This GPS waypoint navigation does however become dangerous in environments where the GPS signal is faulty or is only present in some places and when the airspace is filled with obstacles. UAV navigation then becomes challenging because the UAV uses other sensors, which in turn generate uncertainty about its localisation and motion systems, especially if the UAV is a low cost platform. Additional uncertainty affects the mission when the UAV goal location is only partially known and can only be discovered by exploring and detecting a target. This navigation problem is established in this research as a Partially-Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), so as to produce a policy that maps a set of motion commands to belief states and observations. The policy is calculated and updated on-line while flying with a newly-developed system for UAV Uncertainty-Based Navigation (UBNAV), to navigate in cluttered and GPS-denied environments using observations and executing motion commands instead of waypoints. Experimental results in both simulation and real flight tests show that the UAV finds a path on-line to a region where it can explore and detect a target without colliding with obstacles. UBNAV provides a new method and an enabling technology for scientists to implement and test UAV navigation missions with uncertainty where targets must be detected using on-line POMDP in real flight scenarios.

  10. Adsorption of bacteria and polycations on model surfaces of cellulose, hemicellulose and wood extractives studied by QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Taina; Raulio, Mari; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Stenius, Per; Laine, Janne

    2011-08-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used as the tools to study the adsorption of bacteria onto surfaces of silica and polystyrene coated with materials related to papermaking. Cationic polyelectrolytes used as fixatives and retention aids in paper industry were found to promote irreversible adsorption of the ubiquitous white water bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis, onto model surfaces of cellulose (pH 8). The high charged low molecular weight polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDADMAC) adsorbed to silica surface as a flat and rigid layer, whereas the low charged cationic polyacryl amide (C-PAM) of high molecular weight adsorbed as a thick and loose layer. AFM images showed that the polyelectrolytes accumulated as layers around each bacterial cell. In the presence of wood hemicellulose (O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan) the bacteria adsorbed massively, as large, tightly packed rafts (up to 0.05mm in size) onto the polystyrene crystal surface coated with wood extractives (pH 4.7). AFM and FESEM micrographs also showed large naked areas (with no bacteria) in between the bacterial rafts on the crystal surface. In this case, QCM-D only incompletely responded to the massiveness of the bacterial adsorption. The results indicate that cationic polymers can be used to increase the retention of bacteria from the process water onto the fibre web and that, depending on the balance between hemicelluloses and wood extractives and pH of the process waters, bacteria can be drawn from process waters onto surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of grafted PEG chain conformation on albumin and lysozyme adsorption: A combined study using QCM-D and DPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Han, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chang; Liu, Jingchuan; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Jinghua; Liang, Haojun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, elucidation of protein adsorption mechanism is performed using dual polarization interferometry (DPI) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) to study adsorption behaviors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) on poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) layers. From the analysis of DPI, PEG2000 and PEG5000 show tight and loose mushroom conformations, respectively. Small amount of LYZ could displace the interfacial water surrounding the tight mushroomed PEG2000 chains by hydrogen bond attraction, leading to protein adsorption. The loose mushroomed PEG5000 chains exhibit a more flexible conformation and high elastic repulsion energy that could prevent protein adsorption of all BSA and most of LYZ. From the analysis of QCM, PEG2000 and PEG5000 show tight and extended brush conformations. The LYZ adsorbed mass has critical regions of PEG2000 (0.19 chain/nm(2)) and PEG5000 (0.16 chain/nm(2)) graft density. When graft density of PEG is higher than the critical region (brush conformations), the attraction of hydrogen bonds between PEG and LYZ is the dominant factor. When graft density of PEG is lower than the critical region (mushroom conformations), elastic repulsion between PEG and proteins is driven by the high conformation entropy of PEG chains, which is the dominant force of steric repulsion in PEG-protein systems. Therefore, the adsorption of BSA is suppressed by the high elastic repulsion energy of PEG chains, whereas the adsorption of LYZ is balanced by the interactions between the repulsion of entropy elasticity and the attraction of hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature and salinity data from moored seacat sensors of the Multi-disciplinary Ocean Sensors for Environmental Analyses and Networks (MOSEAN) project 2004-2007 (NODC Accession 0115703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity data were collected by seacat sensors from seven deployments within 2004-2007 on the HALE-ALOHA mooring, a location about 100 km north of...

  13. A multigrid method for the estimation of geometric anisotropy in environmental data from sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, I.; Hristopulos, D. T.; Petrakis, M. P.; Chorti, A.

    2011-03-01

    This paper addresses the estimation of geometric anisotropy parameters from scattered spatial data that are obtained from environmental surveillance networks. Estimates of geometric anisotropy improve the accuracy of spatial interpolation procedures that aim to generate smooth maps for visualization of the data and for decision making purposes. The anisotropy parameters involve the orientation angle of the principal anisotropy axes and the anisotropy ratio (i.e., the ratio of the principal correlation lengths). The approach that we employ is based on the covariance Hessian identity (CHI) method, which links the mean gradient tensor with the Hessian matrix of the covariance function. We extend CHI to clustered CHI for application in data sets that include patches of extreme values and clusters of varying sampling density. We investigate the impact of CHI anisotropy estimation on the performance of spatial interpolation by ordinary kriging using a data set that involves both real background radioactivity measurements and a simulated release of a radioactive plume.

  14. Preparation and characterization of ALD deposited ZnO thin films studied for gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, S.I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, V. [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, R. [Department of Microelectronics, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Raicheva, Z. [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szilágyi, I.M. [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing towards NO{sub 2} of very thin ALD ZnO films is studied. • The very thin ALD ZnO films showed excellent sensitivity to NO{sub 2} at room temperature. • These very thin film ZnO-based QCM sensors very well register even low concentrations. • The sensors have fully reversible sorption and are able to be recovered in short time. • Described fast and cost-effective ALD deposition of ZnO thin films for QCM gas sensor. - Abstract: Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The gas sensing of the ZnO films to NO{sub 2} was tested in the concentration interval between 10 and 5000 ppm. On the basis of registered frequency change of the QCM, for each concentration the sorbed mass was calculated. Further characterization of the films was carried out by various techniques, i.e. by SEM-EDS, XRD, ellipsometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. Although being very thin, the films were gas sensitive to NO{sub 2} already at room temperature and could register very well as low concentrations as 100 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible. Our results for very thin ALD ZnO films show that the described fast, simple and cost-effective technology could be implemented for producing gas sensors working at room temperature and being capable to detect in real time low concentrations of NO{sub 2}.

  15. Implementación de un nuevo método de caracterización de biosensores basados en balanza de cristal de cuarzo (QCM) mediante instrumentos virtuales multipropósito

    OpenAIRE

    Piñón-Pazos, A.

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen] El presente trabajo de investigación muestra un nuevo enfoque para la caracterización de dispositivos QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance – Microbalanzas de cristal de cuarzo). El método se basa en los principios fundamentales de componentes pasivos y el propio comportamiento del componente QCM. Con la propuesta, se obtienen los parámetros del circuito equivalente QCM basado en el modelo BVD (Butterworth-Van Dyke). Los resultados obtenidos con esta nueva técnica son vali...

  16. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica Monoliths — A Novel Approach Towards Fabrication of Solid-State Optical Sensors for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subashini, C.; Akhila Maheswari, M.

    2016-10-01

    Mesoporous silica monoliths are an attractive area of research owing to their high specific surface area, uniform channels and mesoporous size (2-30nm). This paper deals with the direct templating synthesis of a mesoporous worm-like silica monolithic material using F127 — a triblock copolymer, by micro-emulsion technique using trimethyl benzene (TMB), as the solvent. The synthesized silica monolith is characterized using SEM-EDAX, XRD, BET, NMR and FT-IR. The monolith shows an ordered worm-like mesoporous structure with tuneable through pores, an excellent host for the anchoring of chromo-ionophores for the naked-eye metal ion-sensing. The mesoporous monoliths were loaded with 4-dodecyl-6-(2-pyridylazo)-phenol (DPAP) ligand through direct immobilization, thereby acting as solid-state naked-eye colorimetric ion-sensors for the sensing toxic Pb(II) ions at parts-per-billion (ppb) level in various industrial and environmental systems. The influence of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, limiting ligand loading concentration, amount of monolith material, matrix tolerance level, limit of detection and quantification has been studied and optimized.

  17. Self-Adaptive Pre-Processing Methodology for Big Data Stream Mining in Internet of Things Environmental Sensor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, advanced IT technologies have facilitated the emergence of new ways of generating and gathering data rapidly, continuously, and largely and are associated with a new research and application branch, namely, data stream mining (DSM. Among those multiple scenarios of DSM, the Internet of Things (IoT plays a significant role, with a typical meaning of a tough and challenging computational case of big data. In this paper, we describe a self-adaptive approach to the pre-processing step of data stream classification. The proposed algorithm allows different divisions with both variable numbers and lengths of sub-windows under a whole sliding window on an input stream, and clustering-based particle swarm optimization (CPSO is adopted as the main metaheuristic search method to guarantee that its stream segmentations are effective and adaptive to itself. In order to create a more abundant search space, statistical feature extraction (SFX is applied after variable partitions of the entire sliding window. We validate and test the effort of our algorithm with other temporal methods according to several IoT environmental sensor monitoring datasets. The experiments yield encouraging outcomes, supporting the reality that picking significant appropriate variant sub-window segmentations heuristically with an incorporated clustering technique merit would allow these to perform better than others.

  18. Radiation sensors for medical, industrial and environmental applications: how to engage with schools and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, B.; Campos Rivera, N.; Gray, R.; Powell, A.; Thomson, F.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation, radiation detection and radiation protection are topics in physics and its applications which generate a wide interest in the public. This interest is either generated through medical procedures, applications of nuclear energy or nuclear accidents. The technical nature of these topics usually means that they are not well covered in the normal education stream, opening many opportunities to engage with schools and the general public to showcase the latest developments and their applications. The detection of radiation is at the very heart of understanding radiation, its fascination and associated fears. The outreach group of the nuclear physics group at the University of Glasgow demonstrates a number of successful outreach activities centred around radiation detection and described in this paper, focusing on activities delivered to a variety of audiences and related to applied nuclear physics work within our group. These concentrate on the application of novel sensor technologies for nuclear decommissioning, medical imaging modalities and the monitoring of environmental radioactivity. The paper will provide some necessary background material as well as practical instructions for some of the activities developed.

  19. Electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of herbicide MCPA and its metabolite 4-chloro-2-methylphenol. Application to photodegradation environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahemi, V; Garrido, J M P J; Borges, F; Brett, C M A; Garrido, E M P J

    2015-03-01

    The development and application of a polyaniline/carbon nanotube (CNT) cyclodextrin matrix (PANI-β-CD/MWCNT)-based electrochemical sensor for the quantitative determination of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and its main transformation product 4-chloro-2-methylphenol in natural waters are described. A simple cyclic voltammetry-based electrochemical methodology, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.0, was used to develop a method to determine both MCPA and 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, without any previous extraction or derivatization steps. A linear concentration range (10 to 50 μmol L(-1)) and detection limits of 1.1 and 1.9 μmol L(-1), respectively, were achieved using optimized cyclic voltammetric parameters. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of MCPA and 4-chloro-2-methylphenol in natural water samples with satisfactory recoveries (94 to 107%) and in good agreement with the results obtained by an established high-performance liquid chromatography technique, no significant differences being found between the methods. Interferences from ionic species and other herbicides used for broad-leaf weed control were shown to be small. The newly developed methodology was also successfully applied to MCPA photodegradation environmental studies.

  20. Nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles based fluorescent pH sensor with broad-range responding for environmental and live cells applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingfang; Su, Yubin; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Rongjun; Huang, Mengjiao; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-08-15

    A nitrogen-rich functional groups carbon nanoparticles (N-CNs) based fluorescent pH sensor with a broad-range responding was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal treatment of melamine and triethanolamine. The as-prepared N-CNs exhibited excellent photoluminesence properties with an absolute quantum yield (QY) of 11.0%. Furthermore, the N-CNs possessed a broad-range pH response. The linear pH response range was 3.0 to 12.0, which is much wider than that of previously reported fluorescent pH sensors. The possible mechanism for the pH-sensitive response of the N-CNs was ascribed to photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Cell toxicity experiment showed that the as-prepared N-CNs exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility with the cell viabilities of more than 87%. The proposed N-CNs-based pH sensor was used for pH monitoring of environmental water samples, and pH fluorescence imaging of live T24 cells. The N-CNs is promising as a convenient and general fluorescent pH sensor for environmental monitoring and bioimaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental pollution: influence on the operation of a sensor of radioactive aerosols; Contaminacion ambiental: influencia en el funcionamiento de un captador de aerosoles radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Martin Delgado, J.; Rodriguez Perestelo, N.; Perez Lopez, M.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. c.

    2013-07-01

    The content of radioactive aerosols in the air is an important component to estimate the ambient radiation dose. In the laboratories of environmental radioactivity, measurements of radionuclides in air they are performed using sensors. The flow picked up by the equipment can be changed if the degree of air pollution changes for some reason. It handles this study and the population doses are estimated due to inhalation of ambient air. (Author)

  2. MEMS sensor technologies for human centred applications in healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing: a review on research activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuti, Gastone; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2015-03-17

    Over the past few decades the increased level of public awareness concerning healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing has created an emerging need for smart sensor technologies and monitoring devices able to sense, classify, and provide feedbacks to users' health status and physical activities, as well as to evaluate environmental and safety conditions in a pervasive, accurate and reliable fashion. Monitoring and precisely quantifying users' physical activity with inertial measurement unit-based devices, for instance, has also proven to be important in health management of patients affected by chronic diseases, e.g., Parkinson's disease, many of which are becoming highly prevalent in Italy and in the Western world. This review paper will focus on MEMS sensor technologies developed in Italy in the last three years describing research achievements for healthcare and physical activity, safety and environmental sensing, in addition to smart systems integration. Innovative and smart integrated solutions for sensing devices, pursued and implemented in Italian research centres, will be highlighted, together with specific applications of such technologies. Finally, the paper will depict the future perspective of sensor technologies and corresponding exploitation opportunities, again with a specific focus on Italy.

  3. MEMS Sensor Technologies for Human Centred Applications in Healthcare, Physical Activities, Safety and Environmental Sensing: A Review on Research Activities in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuti, Gastone; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the increased level of public awareness concerning healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing has created an emerging need for smart sensor technologies and monitoring devices able to sense, classify, and provide feedbacks to users’ health status and physical activities, as well as to evaluate environmental and safety conditions in a pervasive, accurate and reliable fashion. Monitoring and precisely quantifying users’ physical activity with inertial measurement unit-based devices, for instance, has also proven to be important in health management of patients affected by chronic diseases, e.g., Parkinson’s disease, many of which are becoming highly prevalent in Italy and in the Western world. This review paper will focus on MEMS sensor technologies developed in Italy in the last three years describing research achievements for healthcare and physical activity, safety and environmental sensing, in addition to smart systems integration. Innovative and smart integrated solutions for sensing devices, pursued and implemented in Italian research centres, will be highlighted, together with specific applications of such technologies. Finally, the paper will depict the future perspective of sensor technologies and corresponding exploitation opportunities, again with a specific focus on Italy. PMID:25808763

  4. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO 2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2013-09-11

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-π-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale. © 2013 SPIE.

  5. Xenobiotic Sensor- and Metabolism-Related Gene Variants in Environmental Sensitivity-Related Illnesses: A Survey on the Italian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Caccamo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the environmental sensitivity-related illnesses (SRIs, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS, chronic fatigue syndrome (FCS, and fibromyalgia (FM, the search for genetic polymorphisms of phase I/II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as suitable diagnostic biomarkers produced so far inconclusive results, due to patient heterogeneity, geographic/ethnic differences in genetic backgrounds, and different methodological approaches. Here, we compared the frequency of gene polymorphisms of selected cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolizing enzymes and, for the first time, the frequency of the xenobiotic sensor Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR in the three cohorts of 156 diagnosed MCS, 94 suspected MCS, and 80 FM/FCS patients versus 113 healthy controls. We found significantly higher frequency of polymorphisms CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*41 in patients compared with controls. This confirms that these genetic variants represent a genetic risk factor for SRI. Moreover, the compound heterozygosity for CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants was useful to discriminate between either MCS or FM/CFS versus SMCS, while the PM *41/*41 genotype discriminated between MCS and either SMCS or FM/CFS. The compound heterozygosity for CYP2C9 *1/*3 and CYP2D6 *1/*4 differentiated MCS and SMCS cases from FM/CFS ones. Interestingly, despite the distribution of the AHR Arg554Lys variant did not result significantly different between SRI cases and controls, it resulted useful for the discrimination between MCS and SMCS cases when considered within haplotypes in combination with CYP2C19 *1/*2 and CYP2D6 *1/*4. Results allowed us to propose the genotyping for these specific CYP variants, together with the AHR Arg554Lys variant, as reliable, cost-effective genetic parameters to be included in the still undefined biomarkers' panel for laboratory diagnosis of the main types of environmental-borne SRI.

  6. Eating of the pudding - Supporting the development life-cycle of wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring scientists and ecologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present design and tooling solutions as well as network protocols to support application experts in the entire development life-cycle of wireless sensor networks. The complete life-cycle of wireless sensor networks starts with the user/application requirement analysis. It then goes

  7. Effects of hydraulic retention time on adsorption behaviours of EPS in an A/O-MBR: biofouling study with QCM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Cheng, Botao; Ji, Cunrui; Zhou, Miao; Wang, Lei

    2017-06-06

    Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) are a major cause of membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this study, an anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) was run continuously for 98 days. The runs were divided into three stages according to hydraulic retention time (HRT) (11.8, 12.5 and 14.3 h, respectively). EPS were extracted from the reactor under the different HRTs. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) were used to study the adherence layer structures and the adsorption behaviours of EPS on the membrane surface. The results indicated that the removal rate of TN was more susceptible to HRT than NH3-N. The observations in the QCM-D suggested that at the lowest HRT (11.8 h), the structure of the adsorption layer is loose and soft and the fluidity was better than for HRTs of 12.5 or 14.3 h. It is likely one of the major reasons for the rapidly blocking of the membrane pores. Furthermore, the higher EPS adherence as analyzed in the QCM-D and EPS concentration could induce a higher osmotic pressure effect, leading to a rapid membrane-fouling rate.

  8. Broadband 120 MHz Impedance Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM with Calibrated Resistance and Quantitative Dissipation for Biosensing Measurements at Higher Harmonic Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kasper

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an impedance quartz crystal microbalance (QCM approach with the ability to simultaneously record mass changes and calibrated energy dissipation with high sensitivity using an impedance analyzer. This impedance QCM measures frequency shifts and resistance changes of sensing quartz crystals very stable, accurately, and calibrated, thus yielding quantitative information on mass changes and dissipation. Resistance changes below 0.3 Ω were measured with corresponding dissipation values of 0.01 µU (micro dissipation units. The broadband impedance capabilities allow measurements between 20 Hz and 120 MHz including higher harmonic modes of up to 11th order for a 10 MHz fundamental resonance frequency quartz crystal. We demonstrate the adsorbed mass, calibrated resistance, and quantitative dissipation measurements on two biological systems including the high affinity based avidin-biotin interaction and nano-assemblies of polyelectrolyte layers. The binding affinity of a protein-antibody interaction was determined. The impedance QCM is a versatile and simple method for accurate and calibrated resistance and dissipation measurements with broadband measurement capabilities for higher harmonics measurements.

  9. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world. PMID:22188675

  10. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Resch, Bernd; Crowley, David N; Breslin, John G; Sohn, Gunho; Burtner, Russ; Pike, William A; Jezierski, Eduardo; Chuang, Kuo-Yu Slayer

    2011-12-21

    'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  11. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Boulos Maged N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011, OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust, the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS, as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  12. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and Sensor Web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  13. Physical and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in Cooks Inlet from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 30 June 1977 to 16 July 1977 (NODC Accession 7700853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in Cooks Inlet from the ACONA. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental...

  14. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 August 1977 to 15 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental...

  15. Physical and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 10 March 1976 to 23 March 1976 (NODC Accession 7601227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory...

  16. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300°C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm–424 nm and 426 nm–464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  17. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.

  18. Mobile Sensors Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-26

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...multicellular angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (non-flowering seed plants). Animals include single-cell protozoa up through multicellular...Assessment 3-30 The Cowardin classification system has five wetland systems, eight subsystems, and 11 classes of wetlands. The term “system

  19. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl phosphate on aluminum, studied by QCM-D, XPS, and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Philip M; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2008-12-02

    The adsorption of two anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl phosphate (SDP), at surfaces of aluminum and aluminum oxide has been studied by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). It was shown that more SDP than SDS binds to the surface and that SDP prevents dissolution of aluminum in water whereas SDS does not. This was not obvious, since the adsorption isotherms of the two surfactants to aluminum pigment powder are quite similar, as shown in an earlier work. The decreased aluminum dissolution with SDP compared to SDS was explained by the formation of a more compact protective layer with less permeability on the aluminum surface with SDP than with SDS. This is explained by differences in complexing ability between the surfactants and the aluminum pigment surface. While SDP is expected to form an inner-sphere complex with aluminum, leading to a lower accessibility of aluminum sites to water, SDS is likely to form a weaker outer-sphere complex.

  20. Classification of Multiple Chinese Liquors by Means of a QCM-based E-Nose and MDS-SVM Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Gu, Yu; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-30

    Chinese liquors are internationally well-known fermentative alcoholic beverages. They have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Developing a novel, rapid, and reliable method to identify multiple Chinese liquors is of positive significance. This paper presents a pattern recognition system for classifying ten brands of Chinese liquors based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic nose (e-nose) we designed. We evaluated the comprehensive performance of the MDS-SVM classifier that predicted all ten brands of Chinese liquors individually. The prediction accuracy (98.3%) showed superior performance of the MDS-SVM classifier over the back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) classifier (93.3%) and moving average-linear discriminant analysis (MA-LDA) classifier (87.6%). The MDS-SVM classifier has reasonable reliability, good fitting and prediction (generalization) performance in classification of the Chinese liquors. Taking both application of the e-nose and validation of the MDS-SVM classifier into account, we have thus created a useful method for the classification of multiple Chinese liquors.

  1. Classification of Multiple Chinese Liquors by Means of a QCM-based E-Nose and MDS-SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquors are internationally well-known fermentative alcoholic beverages. They have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Developing a novel, rapid, and reliable method to identify multiple Chinese liquors is of positive significance. This paper presents a pattern recognition system for classifying ten brands of Chinese liquors based on multidimensional scaling (MDS and support vector machine (SVM algorithms in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-based electronic nose (e-nose we designed. We evaluated the comprehensive performance of the MDS-SVM classifier that predicted all ten brands of Chinese liquors individually. The prediction accuracy (98.3% showed superior performance of the MDS-SVM classifier over the back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN classifier (93.3% and moving average-linear discriminant analysis (MA-LDA classifier (87.6%. The MDS-SVM classifier has reasonable reliability, good fitting and prediction (generalization performance in classification of the Chinese liquors. Taking both application of the e-nose and validation of the MDS-SVM classifier into account, we have thus created a useful method for the classification of multiple Chinese liquors.

  2. Desorption of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes from silica by addition of linear polyelectrolytes studied by QCM-D and reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali; Olanya, Geoffrey; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2008-07-15

    The possibility of exchanging adsorbed layers of PEO(45)MEMA:METAC-X brush polyelectrolytes (with two different charge densities, 10 and 75 mol%, denoted by X), with poly(MAPTAC), a highly charged linear polyelectrolyte, was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and reflectometry. The studies were conducted on a silica substrate at pH 10, conditions under which only electrostatic interactions are effective in the adsorption process. Based on the results, it was concluded that PEO(45)MEMA:METAC-10 forms an inhomogeneous layer at the interface through which poly(MAPTAC) chains can easily diffuse to reach the surface. On the other hand, the PEO(45)MEMA:METAC-75 layer was not affected when exposed to a poly(MAPTAC) solution. We argue that the observed effect for PEO(45)MEMA:METAC-75 is due to the formation of a homogeneous protective brush layer, in combination with the small difference in surface affinity between the bottle-brush polyelectrolyte and poly(MAPTAC), together with the difficulty of displacing highly charged polyelectrolyte chains once they are adsorbed on the oppositely charged surface. We also use the combination of QCM-D and reflectometry data to calculate the water content and layer thickness of the adsorbed layers.

  3. Feasibility of Deploying Inhaler Sensors to Identify the Impacts of Environmental Triggers and Built Environment Factors on Asthma Short-Acting Bronchodilator Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Barrett, Meredith A; Henderson, Kelly; Humblet, Olivier; Smith, Ted; Sublett, James W; Nesbitt, LaQuandra; Hogg, Chris; Van Sickle, David; Sublett, James L

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological asthma research has relied upon self-reported symptoms or healthcare utilization data, and used the residential address as the primary location for exposure. These data sources can be temporally limited, spatially aggregated, subjective, and burdensome for the patient to collect. First, we aimed to test the feasibility of collecting rescue inhaler use data in space-time using electronic sensors. Second, we aimed to evaluate whether these data have the potential to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors associated with rescue inhaler use and to determine whether these findings would be consistent with the existing literature. We utilized zero-truncated negative binomial models to identify triggers associated with inhaler use, and implemented three sensitivity analyses to validate our findings. Electronic sensors fitted on metered dose inhalers tracked 5,660 rescue inhaler use events in space and time for 140 participants from 13 June 2012 to 28 February 2014. We found that the inhaler sensors were feasible in passively collecting objective rescue inhaler use data. We identified several environmental triggers with a positive and significant association with inhaler use, including: AQI, PM10, weed pollen, and mold. Conversely, the spatial distribution of tree cover demonstrated a negative and significant association with inhaler use. Utilizing a sensor to capture the signal of rescue inhaler use in space-time offered a passive and objective signal of asthma activity. This approach enabled detailed analyses to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors that are associated with asthma symptoms beyond the residential address. The application of these new technologies has the potential to improve our surveillance and understanding of asthma. Citation: Su JG, Barrett MA, Henderson K, Humblet O, Smith T, Sublett JW, Nesbitt L, Hogg C, Van Sickle D, Sublett JL. 2017. Feasibility of deploying inhaler sensors to

  4. Monitoring of bacteria growth using a wireless, remote query resonant-circuit sensor: application to environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, K. G.; Wang, J.; Singh, R. S.; Bachas, L. G.; Grimes, C. A.; Daunert, S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A new technique is presented for in-vivo remote query measurement of the complex permittivity spectra of a biological culture solution. A sensor comprised of a printed inductor-capacitor resonant-circuit is placed within the culture solution of interest, with the impedance spectrum of the sensor measured using a remotely located loop antenna; the complex permittivity spectra of the culture is calculated from the measured impedance spectrum. The remote query nature of the sensor platform enables, for example, the in-vivo real-time monitoring of bacteria or yeast growth from within sealed opaque containers. The wireless monitoring technique does not require a specific alignment between sensor and antenna. Results are presented for studies conducted on laboratory strains of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli JM109, Pseudomonas putida and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeijer, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roozeboom, Clifton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  6. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Lukow, Stefan R.; Comeau, Brian P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M.; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J.; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  7. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P; Lukow, Stefan R; Comeau, Brian P; Hecht, Michael H; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-07-25

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  8. Fabrication of 3-methoxyphenol sensor based on Fe3O4 decorated carbon nanotube nanocomposites for environmental safety: Real sample analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Rahman

    Full Text Available Iron oxide ornamented carbon nanotube nanocomposites (Fe3O4.CNT NCs were prepared by a wet-chemical process in basic means. The optical, morphological, and structural characterizations of Fe3O4.CNT NCs were performed using FTIR, UV/Vis., FESEM, TEM; XEDS, XPS, and XRD respectively. Flat GCE had been fabricated with a thin-layer of NCs using a coating binding agent. It was performed for the chemical sensor development by a dependable I-V technique. Among all interfering analytes, 3-methoxyphenol (3-MP was selective towards the fabricated sensor. Increased electrochemical performances for example elevated sensitivity, linear dynamic range (LDR and continuing steadiness towards selective 3-MP had been observed with chemical sensor. The calibration graph found linear (R2 = 0.9340 in a wide range of 3-MP concentration (90.0 pM ~ 90.0 mM. The limit of detection and sensitivity were considered as 1.0 pM and 9×10-4 μAμM-1cm-2 respectively. The prepared of Fe3O4.CNT NCs by a wet-chemical progression is an interesting route for the development of hazardous phenolic sensor based on nanocomposite materials. It is also recommended that 3-MP sensor is exhibited a promising performances based on Fe3O4.CNT NCs by a facile I-V method for the significant applications of toxic chemicals for the safety of environmental and health-care fields.

  9. Application of sol-gel based sensors to environmental monitoring of Mauméjean stained glass windows housed in two different buildings at downtown Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Poza, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of historical stained glass windows is mainly caused by acid attack enhanced by humidity and pollutants. Accordingly, their preventive conservation should include environmental evaluation. Mauméjean’s stained glass windows (c 1940 of two buildings located at downtown Madrid have been monitored by sol-gel sensors of acidity and temperature. The philosophy was the application of innovative glassy sol-gel sensors to assess the conservation conditions of stained glass windows, i.e. modern materials for preservation of historical materials. Conservation conditions (environmental acidity and temperature of restored and non-restored stained glass windows have been recorded throughout 13 months. The main contributing parameter to outdoor acidity is proximity to road traffic, which produces acid species able to diminish two units of pH with respect to neutral conditions. This acid environment affects both sides of stained glass windows, even in those protected with a glazing system, which allows natural ventilation. Other contributing parameters to increase the air acidity were façade orientation, sensor position, distance to pollutants sources, human interaction and uncontrolled ventilation.La degradación de vidrieras históricas se debe fundamentalmente al ataque ácido favorecido por la humedad y los contaminantes. Por tanto, su conservación preventiva debe incluir una evaluación ambiental. Se han evaluado vidrieras de Mauméjean (c 1940 de dos edificios del centro de Madrid mediante sensores sol-gel de acidez y de temperatura. La filosofía consistió en aplicar dichos sensores basados en materiales vítreos para tasar las condiciones de conservación de vidrieras del patrimonio, es decir materiales modernos para la preservación de materiales históricos. Las condiciones de conservación (acidez ambiental y temperatura de vidrieras restauradas y no restauradas se han registrado durante 13 meses. El principal parámetro que

  10. Use of environmental sensors and sensor networks to develop water and salinity budgets for seasonal wetland real-time water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Rahilly, P.J.A,; Royer, C.W.

    2009-10-01

    Successful management of river salt loads in complex and highly regulated river basins such as the San Joaquin of California presents significant challenges to Information Technology. Models are used as means of simulating major hydrologic processes in the basin which affect water quality and can be useful as tools for organizing basin information in a structured and readily accessible manner. Models can also be used to extrapolate the results of system monitoring since it is impossible to collect data for every point and non-point source of a pollutant in the Basin. Fundamental to every model is the concept of mass balance. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art sensor technologies deployed in concert to obtain the first water and salinity budgets for a 60,000 hectare tract of seasonally managed wetlands in the San Joaquin Basin of California.

  11. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  12. A Dynamic Navigation Model for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and an Application to Autonomous Front-On Environmental Sensing and Photography Using Low-Cost Sensor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Cooper; Chelsea Anne Redman; David Mark Stoneham; Luis Felipe Gonzalez; Victor Kwesi Etse

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) that uses a probabilistic model for autonomous front-on environmental sensing or photography of a target. The system is based on low-cost and readily-available sensor systems in dynamic environments and with the general intent of improving the capabilities of dynamic waypoint-based navigation systems for a low-cost UAS. The behavioural dynamics of target movement for the design of a Kalman filter and Markov model-based prediction algorithm...

  13. Bayesian prediction and adaptive sampling algorithms for mobile sensor networks online environmental field reconstruction in space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yunfei; Dass, Sarat; Maiti, Tapabrata

    2016-01-01

    This brief introduces a class of problems and models for the prediction of the scalar field of interest from noisy observations collected by mobile sensor networks. It also introduces the problem of optimal coordination of robotic sensors to maximize the prediction quality subject to communication and mobility constraints either in a centralized or distributed manner. To solve such problems, fully Bayesian approaches are adopted, allowing various sources of uncertainties to be integrated into an inferential framework effectively capturing all aspects of variability involved. The fully Bayesian approach also allows the most appropriate values for additional model parameters to be selected automatically by data, and the optimal inference and prediction for the underlying scalar field to be achieved. In particular, spatio-temporal Gaussian process regression is formulated for robotic sensors to fuse multifactorial effects of observations, measurement noise, and prior distributions for obtaining the predictive di...

  14. A Survey of Sensor Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseashta, A.; S. VASEASHTA

    2008-01-01

    Sensor networks deploy sensor nodes to detect and monitor environmental events and interactions. Existing sensor networks focus on communication within the bounds of resource restrained sensor nodes at the expense of security. In this paper, a review of sensor network components, architectures, algorithms and protocols aims to increase awareness of sensor network limitations and resulting strategies to ensure information security within wireless sensor networks. Because sensor networks deploy...

  15. Design and Realization for the Environmental Protection Type of Pig-Farm Model Based on the Sensor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ming Dan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the purpose of building a factoring pigs breeding system, a new conception of pig farm is designed in this paper which considered the reality and development level of productive forces in our country. This design is based on the sensor technology. After that, the corresponding model is built up. This model is mainly used the photoelectric transistor and contact sensor to receive light signal, then change it into electrical signal and send it to the control system. The control program which written in ROBOPRO make all process which include the controlled of food- feeding, droppings-cleaning, temperature-controlled completely automatically.

  16. From electrochemical biosensors to biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers in environmental determination of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitesta, Cosimino; Di Masi, Sabrina; Mazzotta, Elisabetta

    2017-07-01

    Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to toxicity of the samples.

  17. Pilot Test of a New Personal Health System Integrating Environmental and Wearable Sensors for Telemonitoring and Care of Elderly People at Home (SMARTA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, Lucia; Bovi, Gabriele; Panzarino, Claudia; Gower, Valerio; Ferratini, Maurizio; Andreoni, Giuseppe; Sassi, Roberto; Rivolta, Massimo W; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy is accompanied by a growing number of elderly subjects affected by chronic comorbidities, a health issue which also implies important socioeconomic consequences. Shifting from hospital or community dwelling care towards a home personalized healthcare paradigm would promote active aging with a better quality of life, along with a reduction in healthcare-related costs. The aim of the SMARTA project was to develop and test an innovative personal health system integrating standard sensors as well as innovative wearable and environmental sensors to allow home telemonitoring of vital parameters and detection of anomalies in daily activities, thus supporting active aging through remote healthcare. A first phase of the project consisted in the definition of the health and environmental parameters to be monitored (electrocardiography and actigraphy, blood pressure and oxygen saturation, weight, ear temperature, glycemia, home interaction monitoring - water tap, refrigerator, and dishwasher), the feedbacks for the clinicians, and the reminders for the patients. It was followed by a technical feasibility analysis leading to an iterative process of prototype development, sensor integration, and testing. Once the prototype had reached an advanced stage of development, a group of 32 volunteers - including 15 healthy adult subjects, 13 elderly people with cardiac diseases, and 4 clinical operators - was recruited to test the system in a real home setting, in order to evaluate both technical reliability and user perception of the system in terms of effectiveness, usability, acceptance, and attractiveness. The testing in a real home setting showed a good perception of the SMARTA system and its functionalities both by the patients and by the clinicians, who appreciated the user interface and the clinical governance system. The moderate system reliability of 65-70% evidenced some technical issues, mainly related to sensor integration, while the patient

  18. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and Sensor Web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged; Resch, Bernd; Crowley, David N.; Breslin, John G.; Sohn, Gunho; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Jeziersk, Eduardo; Slayer Chuang, Kuo Yu

    2011-12-21

    The PIE Activity Awareness Environment is designed to be an adaptive data triage and decision support tool that allows role and activity based situation awareness through a dynamic, trainable filtering system. This paper discusses the process and methodology involved in the application as well as some of its capabilities. 'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, 'noise', misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial

  19. Where 2.0 Australia’s Environment? Crowdsourcing, Volunteered Geographic Information, and Citizens Acting as Sensors for Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing, volunteered geographic information (VGI and citizens acting as sensors are currently being used in Australia via GeoWeb 2.0 applications for environmental sustainability purposes. This paper situates the origins of these practices, phenomena and concepts within the intersection of Web 2.0 and emerging online and mobile spatial technologies, herein called the GeoWeb 2.0. The significance of these origins is akin to a revolution in the way information is created, curated and distributed, attributed with transformative social impacts. Applications for environmental sustainability have the potential to be similarly transformative or disruptive. However, Web 2.0 is not described or conceptualised consistently within the literature. Australian examples implementing the GeoWeb 2.0 for environmental sustainability are diverse, but the reasons for this are difficult to ascertain. There is little published by the creators of such applications on their decisions, and Australian research is nascent, occurring across a variety of disciplinary approaches. While a substantial research literature emanates from North America and Europe, its transferability to Australia requires careful assessment. This paper contributes to this assessment by providing a review of relevant literature in the context of Australian examples for environmental sustainability.

  20. Molecular modeling of polymer composite interactions with analytes in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring in International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings (with no hydrogens). The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer and solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4- vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic (ammonia) and organic (methanol, toluene, hydrazine) compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites.

  1. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  2. A QCM study of ORR-OER and an in situ study of a redox mediator in DMSO for Li-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltin, Stijn; Vanhoutte, Gijs; Wu, Minxian; Bardé, Fanny; Fransaer, Jan

    2015-05-21

    The oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR-OER) in DMSO were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic methods. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to detect which products are formed during reduction and to evaluate the reversibility of the reactions. The studied parameters include the scan rate and the applied cathodic potential. We confirm by the QCM that LiO2 is soluble: this conclusion comes from the time delay we observed between the deposition of the expected mass (based on Faraday's law) and the measured mass. Ambiguity in reported literature values for the slope of the deposited mass per electron M/z is due to the negligence in considering this time delay. The average M/z value versus cathodic charge indicates that soluble LiO2 is the first product of the ORR which reacts further to form Li2O2, either via a disproportionation reaction or via further electrochemical reduction of LiO2. For strong negative potentials and thus large depths of discharge, Li2O is the main discharge product. The reaction pathways hence strongly depend on the experimental conditions applied; especially the reduction potential. The redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was investigated and its influence on reversibility was confirmed by cycling at moderate depths of discharge, where Li2O2 is the main discharge product.

  3. A Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Optical Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Environmental Methane in Dunkirk (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih Maamary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A room-temperature continuous-wave (CW quantum cascade laser (QCL-based methane (CH4 sensor operating in the mid-infrared near 8 μm was developed for continuous measurement of CH4 concentrations in ambient air. The well-isolated absorption line (7F2,4 ← 8F1,2 of the ν4 fundamental band of CH4 located at 1255.0004 cm−1 was used for optical measurement of CH4 concentration by direct absorption in a White-type multipass cell with an effective path-length of 175 m. A 1σ (SNR = 1 detection limit of 33.3 ppb in 218 s was achieved with a measurement precision of 1.13%. The developed sensor was deployed in a campaign of measurements of time series CH4 concentration on a site near a suburban traffic road in Dunkirk (France from 9th to 22nd January 2013. An episode of high CH4 concentration of up to ~3 ppm has been observed and analyzed with the help of meteorological parameters combined with back trajectory calculation using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model of NOAA.

  4. A Dynamic Navigation Model for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and an Application to Autonomous Front-On Environmental Sensing and Photography Using Low-Cost Sensor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew James; Redman, Chelsea Anne; Stoneham, David Mark; Gonzalez, Luis Felipe; Etse, Victor Kwesi

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) that uses a probabilistic model for autonomous front-on environmental sensing or photography of a target. The system is based on low-cost and readily-available sensor systems in dynamic environments and with the general intent of improving the capabilities of dynamic waypoint-based navigation systems for a low-cost UAS. The behavioural dynamics of target movement for the design of a Kalman filter and Markov model-based prediction algorithm are included. Geometrical concepts and the Haversine formula are applied to the maximum likelihood case in order to make a prediction regarding a future state of a target, thus delivering a new waypoint for autonomous navigation. The results of the application to aerial filming with low-cost UAS are presented, achieving the desired goal of maintained front-on perspective without significant constraint to the route or pace of target movement.

  5. A Dynamic Navigation Model for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and an Application to Autonomous Front-On Environmental Sensing and Photography Using Low-Cost Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Cooper

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an unmanned aircraft system (UAS that uses a probabilistic model for autonomous front-on environmental sensing or photography of a target. The system is based on low-cost and readily-available sensor systems in dynamic environments and with the general intent of improving the capabilities of dynamic waypoint-based navigation systems for a low-cost UAS. The behavioural dynamics of target movement for the design of a Kalman filter and Markov model-based prediction algorithm are included. Geometrical concepts and the Haversine formula are applied to the maximum likelihood case in order to make a prediction regarding a future state of a target, thus delivering a new waypoint for autonomous navigation. The results of the application to aerial filming with low-cost UAS are presented, achieving the desired goal of maintained front-on perspective without significant constraint to the route or pace of target movement.

  6. Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bobo; Yin, Mingjie; Zhang, A Ping; Qian, Jinwen; He, Sailing

    2011-02-28

    A new fiber-optic relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a thin-core fiber modal interferometer (TCFMI) with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in between is presented. Poly (N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium chloride) (P4VP·HCl) and poly (vinylsulfonic acid, sodium salt) (PVS) are layer-by-layer deposited on the side surface of the sensor for RH sensing. The fabrication of the sensing nanocoating is characterized by using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of FBG in the middle of TCFMI can compensate the cross sensitivity of the sensor to temperature. The proposed sensor can detect the RH with resolution of 0.78% in a large RH range at different temperatures. A linear, fast and reversible response has been experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  8. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  9. Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan M. Aboul Ezz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers are one of the most common, abundant components of plankton in the coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea, which means that they can be used as bio-indicators and provide useful information on the long-term dynamics of the El-Mex Bay ecosystem. Rotifera species were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed in the El-Mex Bay, west of Alexandria at eight stations to study spatial, temporal, dominance, and abundance of the rotifer community and their relation with changes in environmental conditions. Samples were collected seasonally from autumn 2011 to autumn 2012. Ecological parameters were determined and correlated with total rotifers abundance to gain information about the forces that structure the rotifer community in this dynamic environment. A total of 38 rotifer species were identified belonging to 16 genera within 12 families and 3 orders under one class and contributed about 12.1% of the total zooplankton in the study area with an average of 1077 specimens/m3. Maximum density was observed in summer 2012 with an average of 1445 specimens/m3. During autumn 2011 rotifers appeared in low density (434 specimens/m3. The predominant species Ascomorpha saltans, Brachionus urceolaris, Synchaeta oblonga, Synchaeta okai, Synchaeta pectinata and Synchaeta tremula were recorded in all study stations of the bay. Salinity, temperature, depth, and chlorophyll-a concentration were the most important environmental factors co-related with the abundance of rotifers in the El-Mex Bay. A significant positive correlation between the total rotifer abundance and chlorophyll-a was observed during winter 2012 and summer 2012 (r = 0.763 and r = 0.694, respectively, at p ⩽ 0.05.

  10. Corrosion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  11. The use of remote sensors to relate biological and physical indicators to environmental and public health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between biological, ecological and botanical structures, and disease organisms and their vectors which might be detected and measured by remote sensing are determined. In addition to the use of trees as indicators of disease or potential disease, an attempt is made to identify environmental factors such as soil moisture and soil and water temperatures as they relate to disease or health problems and may be detected by remote sensing. The following three diseases and one major health problem are examined: Malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Encephalitis and Red Tide. It is shown that no single species of vascular plant nor any one environmental factor can be used as the indicator of disease or health problems. Entire vegetation types, successional stages and combinations of factors must be used.

  12. Understanding the ‘Intensive’ in ‘Data Intensive Research’: Data Flows in Next Generation Sequencing and Environmental Networked Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNally

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic and environmental sciences represent two poles of scientific data. In the first, highly parallel sequencing facilities generate large quantities of sequence data. In the latter, loosely networked remote and field sensors produce intermittent streams of different data types. Yet both genomic and environmental sciences are said to be moving to data intensive research. This paper explores and contrasts data flow in these two domains in order to better understand how data intensive research is being done. Our case studies are next generation sequencing for genomics and environmental networked sensors.Our objective was to enrich understanding of the ‘intensive’ processes and properties of data intensive research through a ‘sociology’ of data using methods that capture the relational properties of data flows. Our key methodological innovation was the staging of events for practitioners with different kinds of expertise in data intensive research to participate in the collective annotation of visual forms. Through such events we built a substantial digital data archive of our own that we then analysed in terms of three traits of data flow: durability, replicability and metrology.Our findings are that analysing data flow with respect to these three traits provides better insight into how doing data intensive research involves people, infrastructures, practices, things, knowledge and institutions. Collectively, these elements shape the topography of data and condition how it flows. We argue that although much attention is given to phenomena such as the scale, volume and speed of data in data intensive research, these are measures of what we call ‘extensive’ properties rather than intensive ones. Our thesis is that extensive changes, that is to say those that result in non-linear changes in metrics, can be seen to result from intensive changes that bring multiple, disparate flows into confluence.If extensive shifts in the modalities of

  13. Surface modification of poly (styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) elastomer and its plasma protein adsorption by QCM-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui [Northeast Normal University, School of Physics, Changchun 130022 (China); Jin, Jing, E-mail: jjin@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Sun, Yingchun, E-mail: sunyc149@nenu.edu.cn [Northeast Normal University, School of Physics, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Grafting concentration of PEG was defined by the peak-area ratio of [C–O]/[C]. • Quantitatively investigated the adsorption processes of BSA and fibrinogen using QCM-D. • The inactivated BSA on SEBS surface could induce the subsequent fibrinogen adsorption. • SEBS-g-PEG with graft concentration of 0.207 has excellent protein resistance. - Abstract: Protein adsorption is a dynamic process and plays a major role in determining the hemocompatibility of biomaterials. We have obtained different poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) graft concentrations of SEBS-g-PEG and the surface chemical compositions are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Graft concentration is defined by peak-area ratio of [C-O]/[C] on modified SEBS surface. With increasing graft concentration, water contact angles of the modified SEBS have significantly decreased. The platelet adhesion and static protein adsorption demonstrate that the hemocompatibility of copolymers films are improved effectively and SEBS-g-PEG-2 with larger graft concentration has more superior anticoagulation than that of SEBS-g-PEG-1. Moreover, we have quantitatively investigated the adsorption process of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fib) on the surfaces of pristine SEBS and modified SEBS using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in real time. The results indicate that the inactivated BSA on the pristine SEBS can continuously induce the subsequent Fib adsorption. The hemocompatibility of SEBS-g-PEG-2 with the graft concentration of 0.207 has excellent anti-protein property and the bio-inert BSA layer on the film can resist the subsequent Fib adsorption.

  14. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  15. BAW sensor readout circuit based on Pierce oscillator architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Yin, Xi-Yang; Han, Bin; Wang, Yu-Hang

    2017-10-01

    Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators (BAWRs) have been well developed both as filters and as high sensitivity sensors in recent years. In contrast to traditional megahertz quartz resonators, BAWRs offer significant increases in resonant frequency, typically operating in gigahertz regimes. This translates into a potential sensitivity increase of more than three orders of magnitude over traditional QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) devices. Given the micrometer-scale size of BAW sensor-head, read-out circuitry can monolithic integrated with this GHz transducer is urgently needed to produce small, robust, and inexpensive sensor systems. A BAW sensor read-out circuit prototype based on Pierce oscillator architecture is fulfilled in this paper. Based on the differential measurement scheme, two uniform BAWRs are used to constitute two BAW oscillators as a reference and a measurement branch respectively. The resonant frequency shift caused by the measurand is obtained by mixing and filtering the two oscillator signals. Then, the intermediate signal is amplified, shaped and converted to a digital one. And a FPGA is used for frequency detection. Taking 2 GHz BAW mass sensor as a case study, deign procedure are given in details. Simulation and experimental results reveal a 0-99 MHz frequency shift measurement range. Main factors affecting phase noise of the BAW oscillator (i.e. mainly frequency stability of the BAW sensor readout circuit) are also discussed for further optimizations.

  16. Packaging sensing cells in spores for long-term preservation of sensors: a tool for biomedical and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Amol; Pasini, Patrizia; Sangal, Abhishek; Daunert, Sylvia

    2010-07-15

    Whole-cell sensing systems have successfully been employed for detection of various biologically and environmentally important analytes. A limitation to their use for on-field analysis is the paucity of preservation methods for long-term storage and transport. For that, we have previously developed spore-based genetically engineered whole-cell sensing systems that are able not only to maintain the activity of the sensing cells but also to preserve it for long periods of time in normal and extreme environmental conditions. Herein, we have employed these spore-based sensing systems for analysis of real samples, such as blood serum and freshwater. Spores were able to germinate in the presence of the sample matrix, and the minimum time required for the spores to germinate and generate vegetative sensing cells able to elicit a measurable response to target analytes resulted to be around 2 h. Of the two spore-based sensing systems selected to detect model analytes in real samples, one was able to detect arsenic concentrations as low as 1 x 10(-7) M in freshwater and serum samples, and the other one could sense down to 1 x 10(-6) M of zinc in serum. The analysis of human serum samples from healthy subjects for their zinc content proved the viability of spore-based sensing systems. The complete assays, including spore germination and analyte detection, were performed in 2.5 h or less for arsenic and zinc. Furthermore, the assay is inexpensive and simple to carry out and offers unique advantages for the incorporation of the spore-based sensing systems into portable analytical platforms, such as microfluidic devices, to be employed for on-site analysis.

  17. QCM-Arrays for Sensing Terpenes in Fresh and Dried Herbs via Bio-Mimetic MIP Layers †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naseer; Mustafa, Ghulam; Rehman, Abdul; Biedermann, Alexander; Najafi, Bita; Lieberzeit, Peter A.; Dickert, Franz L.

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric 10 MHz multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM), coated with six molecularly imprinted polystyrene artificial recognition membranes have been developed for selective quantification of terpenes emanated from fresh and dried Lamiaceae family species, i.e., rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum Basilicum) and sage (Salvia Officinalis). Optimal e-nose parameters, such as layer heights (1–6 KHz), sensitivity <20 ppm of analytes, selectivity at 50 ppm of terpenes, repeatability and reproducibility were thoroughly adjusted prior to online monitoring. Linearity in reversible responses over a wide concentration range <20–250 ppm has been achieved. Discrimination between molecules of similar molar masses, even for isomers, e.g. α-pinene and β-pinene is possible. The array has proven its sensitive and selective properties of sensor responses (20–1,200 Hz) for the difference of fresh and dried herbs. The sensor data attained was validated by GC-MS, to analyze the profiles of sensor emanation patterns. The shelf-life of herbs was monitored via emanation of organic volatiles during a few days. Such an array in association with data analysis tools can be utilized for characterizing complex mixtures. PMID:22163554

  18. A highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a nanofibrous membrane coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran; Pan, Fukui

    2010-02-05

    A novel humidity sensor was fabricated by electrospinning deposition of nanofibrous polyelectrolyte membranes as sensitive coatings on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results of sensing experiments indicated that the response of the sensors increased by more than two orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 6 to 95% at room temperature, exhibiting high sensitivity, and that, in the range of 20-95% RH, the Log(Deltaf) showed good linearity. The sensitivity of fibrous composite polyacrylic acid (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes was two times higher than that of the corresponding flat films at 95% RH. Compared with fibrous PAA/PVA membranes, the nanofibrous PAA membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced humidity sensitivity due to their high PAA content and large specific surface area caused by the formation of ultrathin nanowebs among electrospun fibers. Additionally, the resultant sensors exhibited a good reversible behavior and good long term stability.

  19. Evaluating Inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF-Induced Response of Mutant MCF10A Cells with an Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer treatments rely on inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced cellular responses. Evaluating drug effects on such responses becomes critical to the development of new cancer therapeutics. In this report, we have employed a label-free acoustic sensor, the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D, to track the EGF-induced response of mutant MCF10A cells under various inhibitory conditions. We have identified a complex cell de-adhesion process, which can be distinctly altered by inhibitors of signaling pathways and cytoskeleton formation in a dose-dependent manner. The dose dependencies of the inhibitors provide IC50 values which are in strong agreement with the values reported in the literature, demonstrating the sensitivity and reliability of the QCM-D as a screening tool. Using immunofluorescence imaging, we have also verified the quantitative relationship between the ΔD-response (change in energy dissipation factor and the level of focal adhesions quantified with the areal density of immunostained vinculin under those inhibitory conditions. Such a correlation suggests that the dynamic restructuring of focal adhesions can be assessed based on the time-dependent change in ΔD-response. Overall, this report has shown that the QCM-D has the potential to become an effective sensing platform for screening therapeutic agents that target signaling and cytoskeletal proteins.

  20. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lloret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field.

  1. Underwater sensor nodes and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-09-05

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field.

  2. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  3. Paper-Based Heavy Metal Sensors from the Concise Synthesis of an Anionic Porphyrin: A Practical Application of Organic Synthesis to Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabpal, Jutamat; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Praneenararat, Thanit

    2017-01-01

    Tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) was immobilized on patterned paper and used as a sensor for heavy metal ions in an advanced organic chemistry course. The resulting sensor could detect Hg[superscript 2+] and Cd[superscript 2+] ions colorimetrically, while Cu[superscript 2+] ion resulted in fluorescence quenching, thus demonstrating a…

  4. Eating of the pudding : supporting the development of life-cycle of wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring scientists and ecologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present design and tooling solutions as well as network protocols to support application experts in the entire development life-cycle of wireless sensor networks. The complete life-cycle of wireless sensor networks starts with the user/application requirement analysis. It then goes

  5. Flexible Plasmonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shir, Daniel; Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:27547023

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Chiral Dendrimer-Triamine-Coordinated Gd-MRI Contrast Agents Evaluated by in Vivo MRI and Estimated by in Vitro QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Miyake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we developed novel chiral dendrimer-triamine-coordinated Gd-MRI contrast agents (Gd-MRI CAs, which showed longitudinal relaxivity (r1 values about four times higher than that of clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®, Bayer. In our continuing study of pharmacokinetic differences derived from both the chirality and generation of Gd-MRI CAs, we found that the ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to circulate within the body can be directly evaluated by in vitro MRI (7 T. In this study, the association constants (Ka of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA, measured and calculated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in vitro, were found to be an extremely easy means for evaluating the body-circulation ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs. The Ka values of S-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs were generally greater than those of R-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which is consistent with the results of our previous MRI study in vivo.

  7. Quantitative electrochemical and electrochromic behavior of terthiophene and carbazole containing conjugated polymer network film precursors: EC-QCM and EC-SPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranekar, Prasad; Fulghum, Timothy; Baba, Akira; Patton, Derek; Advincula, Rigoberto

    2007-01-16

    A comparative analysis of the copolymerization behavior between an electro-active terthiophene and a carbazole moiety of a conjugated polymer precursor was investigated using electrochemical and hyphenated electrochemical methods. Five different precursor polymers were first synthesized and characterized using NMR, IR, and GPC. The polymers include homopolymers of individual electro-active groups (P3T, P-CBZ) and different compositions of 25, 50, and 75% (P3TC-25, P3TC50, and P3TC-75) with respect to the two electro-active groups. Since the oxidation potentials of terthiophene and carbazole lie very close to each other, highly cross-linked copolymer films of varying extent were produced depending on the composition. The copolymerization extent was found to be dependent primarily on the amount of the terthiophene, which in this case provided for a more efficient carbazole polymerization and copolymerization than with just carbazole alone (homopolymer). The extent of copolymerization, electrochromic properties, and viscoelastic changes was quantitatively investigated using a number of hyphenated electrochemistry techniques: spectro-electrochemistry, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies (EC-QCM), and electrochemical surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (EC-SPR). Each technique revealed a unique aspect of the electrocopolymerization behavior that was used to define structure-property relationships and the deposition/copolymerization mechanism.

  8. Interaction of human plasma proteins with thin gelatin-based hydrogel films: a QCM-D and ToF-SIMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönwälder, Sina M S; Bally, Florence; Heinke, Lars; Azucena, Carlos; Bulut, Özgül D; Heißler, Stefan; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Gebauer, Tim P; Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Lahann, Jörg; Welle, Alexander; Overhage, Jörg; Wöll, Christof

    2014-07-14

    In the fields of surgery and regenerative medicine, it is crucial to understand the interactions of proteins with the biomaterials used as implants. Protein adsorption directly influences cell-material interactions in vivo and, as a result, regulates, for example, cell adhesion on the surface of the implant. Therefore, the development of suitable analytical techniques together with well-defined model systems allowing for the detection, characterization, and quantification of protein adsorbates is essential. In this study, a protocol for the deposition of highly stable, thin gelatin-based films on various substrates has been developed. The hydrogel films were characterized morphologically and chemically. Due to the obtained low thickness of the hydrogel layer, this setup allowed for a quantitative study on the interaction of human proteins (albumin and fibrinogen) with the hydrogel by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (QCM-D). This technique enables the determination of adsorbant mass and changes in the shear modulus of the hydrogel layer upon adsorption of human proteins. Furthermore, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and principal component analysis was applied to monitor the changed composition of the topmost adsorbate layer. This approach opens interesting perspectives for a sensitive screening of viscoelastic biomaterials that could be used for regenerative medicine.

  9. Real-time and label-free analysis of binding thermodynamics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Song, Siyu; Shuai, Qi; Pei, Yihan; Aastrup, Teodor; Pei, Yuxin; Pei, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to the study of binding thermodynamics and kinetics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed, in which binding events take place at the cell surface, more closely mimicking a biologically relevant environment. In this study, colon adenocarcinoma cells (KM-12) and ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV-3) grew on the optimized polystyrene-coated biosensor chip without fixation. The association and dissociation between the cell surface carbohydrates and a range of lectins, including WGA, Con A, UEA-I, GS-II, PNA and SBA, were monitored in real time and without label for evaluation of cell surface glycosylation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the interaction between lectins and cell surface glycan were studied, providing detailed information about the interactions, such as the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, affinity constant, as well as the changes of entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. This application provides an insight into the cell surface glycosylation and the complex molecular recognition on the intact cell surface, which may have impacts on disease diagnosis and drug discovery. PMID:26369583

  10. Real-time and label-free analysis of binding thermodynamics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueming; Song, Siyu; Shuai, Qi; Pei, Yihan; Aastrup, Teodor; Pei, Yuxin; Pei, Zhichao

    2015-09-15

    A novel approach to the study of binding thermodynamics and kinetics of carbohydrate-protein interactions on unfixed cancer cell surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed, in which binding events take place at the cell surface, more closely mimicking a biologically relevant environment. In this study, colon adenocarcinoma cells (KM-12) and ovary adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV-3) grew on the optimized polystyrene-coated biosensor chip without fixation. The association and dissociation between the cell surface carbohydrates and a range of lectins, including WGA, Con A, UEA-I, GS-II, PNA and SBA, were monitored in real time and without label for evaluation of cell surface glycosylation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the interaction between lectins and cell surface glycan were studied, providing detailed information about the interactions, such as the association rate constant, dissociation rate constant, affinity constant, as well as the changes of entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. This application provides an insight into the cell surface glycosylation and the complex molecular recognition on the intact cell surface, which may have impacts on disease diagnosis and drug discovery.

  11. 40 CFR 1065.215 - Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sensors, and dewpoint sensors. 1065.215 Section 1065.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Measurement of Engine Parameters and Ambient Conditions § 1065.215 Pressure transducers, temperature sensors, and dewpoint sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified in this section to measure...

  12. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  13. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Stasch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement.

  14. Modifying the response of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance hydrocarbon sensor with functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ranwala, Nilukshi; Boyd, Leigh; Baker, Murray; Ross, Andrew

    2011-09-15

    This report compares the performance of polymer and carbon nanotube-polymer composite membranes on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene) in aqueous solutions. Several different polymers (polystyrene, polystyrene-co-butadiene, polyisobutylene and polybutadiene) and types of functionalized carbon nanotubes (multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes) were investigated at varying carbon nanotube (CNT) loading levels and film thicknesses. In a majority of instances, the difference in response between membranes comprising pure polymer and membranes containing 10% (w/w) carbon nanotubes were not statistically significant. However, a notable exception is the decreasing sensitivity towards p-xylene with increasing carbon nanotube content in a polybutadiene film. This variation in sensitivity can be attributed to a change in the sorption mechanism from absorption into the polymer phase to adsorption onto the carbon nanotube sidewalls. With much thicker coatings of 10% (w/w) carbon nanotube in polybutadiene, the sensitivity towards toluene was higher compared to the pure polymer. The increased toluene sensitivity may be partially attributed to an increase in the sorption capacity of a carbon nanotube polymer composite film relative to its corresponding pure polymer film. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements were performed to understand the mechanism of sorption and these studies showed that the addition of functionalized CNT to the polymer increases the absorption of certain types of hydrocarbons. This study demonstrates that carbon nanotubes can be incorporated into a polymer-coated QCM sensor and that composite films may be used to modify the QCM response and selectivity during the analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lightweight, Wearable, Metal Rubber Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For autonomous health monitoring. NanoSonic, Inc., has developed comfortable garments with multiple integrated sensors designed to monitor astronaut health throughout long-duration space missions. The combined high electrical conductivity, low mechanical modulus, and environmental robustness of the sensors make them an effective, lightweight, and comfortable alternative to conventional use of metal wiring and cabling.

  16. Wireless Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat G. Ong

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive review of magnetoelastic environmental sensor technology; topics include operating physics, sensor design, and illustrative applications. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons or wires, with a characteristic resonant frequency inversely proportional to length. The remotely detected resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor shifts in response to different physical parameters including stress, pressure, temperature, flow velocity, liquid viscosity, magnetic field, and mass loading. Coating the magnetoelastic sensor with a mass changing, chemically responsive layer enables realization of chemical sensors. Magnetoelastic sensors can be remotely interrogated by magnetic, acoustic, or optical means. The sensors can be characterized in the time domain, where the resonant frequency is determined through analysis of the sensor transient response, or in the frequency domain where the resonant frequency is determined from the frequency-amplitude spectrum of the sensor.

  17. Metamaterial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their intriguing properties, as well as the large potential applications for designing functional devices. In this paper, we review the current status of metamaterial sensors, with an emphasis on the evanescent wave amplification and the accompanying local field enhancement characteristics. Examples of the sensors are given to illustrate the principle and the performance of the metamaterial sensor. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterial sensor.

  18. Assessment of Wearable Sensor Technologies for Biosurveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    temperature and light detectors to analyze blood oxygen levels Vibrating Smart Tattoos Nokia Magnetic tattoo that vibrates with your cell...include: textile -based wearable sensors, epidermal tattoos, DNA and protein sensors, forensic detection of explosives, remote environmental sensing... magnetic field around the eye, the disposable device is intend for wear over a 24 hour period. Assessment of Wearable Sensor Technologies for

  19. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  20. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  1. Smart sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refer to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor systems covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of "very large scale integration" (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performance. So, sophisticated signal processing operations have been developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays on the same focal plane avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduce inside the sensor some of the basic function of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogenity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the processing techniques for only the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation threshold.

  2. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  3. A novel quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polymers for simultaneous detection of clenbuterol and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Zheng, Jianwu; Qin, Peng; Han, Tao; Zhao, Dayun

    2017-05-15

    For the rapid and robust detection of both parent clenbuterol (CLB) and its metabolites in swine urine samples, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array for CLB detection based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed in this investigation. At first, clenbuterol and the structural analogs of its metabolites, 4-Aminohippuric acid (AHA) and 4-hydroxymandelic acid (HMA), were chosen as molecular templates. Through computational molecular modeling, the optimum ratio between the functional monomer and molecular template was selected. The surface imprinting method was applied to modify QCM electrode surface to graft a thin MIP film. The grafting polymer was characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. After then, an array system composed of three sensors was employed to test the responses with different solutions and the principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to analyze the corresponding data. As a result, for the designed sensor to clenbuterol, a linear equation y=100.07x-722.96 (R 2 =0.9928) was found between the sensor frequency shift ΔF and negative logarithm of clenbuterol concentration (-lgC). The limitation of detection (LOD) was 3.0ng/mL, which is lower than the Codex Alimentarius Commission regulations residue limit 10μg/L. The corresponding data of the three template solutions were analyzed by PCA, obtaining 100% recognition. The result demonstrated the feasibility that the developed method could be applied to detect whether the livestock was feed with CLB nutrient redistribution agent by checking the urine samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Shimamura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The fieldserver is an Internet based observation robot that can provide an outdoor solution for monitoring environmental parameters in real-time. The data from its sensors can be collected to a central server infrastructure and published on the Internet. The information from the sensor network will contribute to monitoring and modeling on various environmental issues in Asia, including agriculture, food, pollution, disaster, climate change etc. An initiative called Sensor Asia is developing an infrastructure called Sensor Service Grid (SSG, which integrates fieldservers and Web GIS to realize easy and low cost installation and operation of ubiquitous field sensor networks.

  5. Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kiyoshi; Shrestha, Aadit; Witayangkurn, Apichon; Chinnachodteeranun, Rassarin; Shimamura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The fieldserver is an Internet based observation robot that can provide an outdoor solution for monitoring environmental parameters in real-time. The data from its sensors can be collected to a central server infrastructure and published on the Internet. The information from the sensor network will contribute to monitoring and modeling on various environmental issues in Asia, including agriculture, food, pollution, disaster, climate change etc. An initiative called Sensor Asia is developing an infrastructure called Sensor Service Grid (SSG), which integrates fieldservers and Web GIS to realize easy and low cost installation and operation of ubiquitous field sensor networks.

  6. Aptamer Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Marrazza, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, great progress has been accomplished in the development of aptamer sensors with different transducers. In order to improve the sensitivity of these biosensors, several methodologies have been employed. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of aptamer sensors have been explored.

  7. Soldier sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossives, Dean P.

    2010-04-01

    A new sensor system, whose functionality is not reliant on mass spectrometric or ionization methods, is combined with a substrate technology which allows for separately optimized control circuits and standardized advanced sensors in a simple packaging methodology to foster an entirely new generation of modular optical sensors. These sensors will be based on biologic and chromic compounds. The compounds will utilize reversible reaction chemistry to enable self cleaning. The detector's operation is based on simple changes in absorbance, reflectance, color, or other optical properties. The time to saturation of the sensor will determine the relative concentration in the air. A detection scheme based on these properties will function in high background levels and also be able to pick up low level concentrations as well.

  8. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  9. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Study of the Interaction of Trastuzumab and SKOV3 Epithelial Cancer Cells Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmlund, Louise; Käck, Camilla; Aastrup, Teodor; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods founded upon whole cell-based assays are of importance in early stage drug development and in fundamental studies of biomolecular recognition. Here we have studied the binding of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on human ovary adenocarcinoma epithelial cancer cells (SKOV3) using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology. An optimized procedure for immobilizing the cells on the chip surface was established with respect to fixation procedure and seeding density. Trastuzumab binding to the cell decorated sensor surface was studied, revealing a mean dissociation constant, KD, value of 7 ± 1 nM (standard error of the mean). This study provides a new perspective on the affinity of the antibody-receptor complex presented a more natural context compared to purified receptors. These results demonstrate the potential for using whole cell-based QCM assay in drug development, the screening of HER2 selective antibody-based drug candidates, and for the study of biomolecular recognition. This real time, label free approach for studying interactions with target receptors present in their natural environment afforded sensitive and detailed kinetic information about the binding of the analyte to the target. PMID:25763651

  11. Adding Processing Functionality to the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Pross, Benjamin; Jirka, Simon; Gräler, Benedikt

    2017-04-01

    The Sensor Web allows discovering, accessing and tasking different kinds of environmental sensors in the Web, ranging from simple in-situ sensors to remote sensing systems. However, (geo-)processing functionality needs to be applied to integrate data from different sensor sources and to generate higher level information products. Yet, a common standardized approach for processing sensor data in the Sensor Web is still missing and the integration differs from application to application. Standardizing not only the provision of sensor data, but also the processing facilitates sharing and re-use of processing modules, enables reproducibility of processing results, and provides a common way to integrate external scalable processing facilities or legacy software. In this presentation, we provide an overview on on-going research projects that develop concepts for coupling standardized geoprocessing technologies with Sensor Web technologies. At first, different architectures for coupling sensor data services with geoprocessing services are presented. Afterwards, profiles for linear regression and spatio-temporal interpolation of the OGC Web Processing Services that allow consuming sensor data coming from and uploading predictions to Sensor Observation Services are introduced. The profiles are implemented in processing services for the hydrological domain. Finally, we illustrate how the R software can be coupled with existing OGC Sensor Web and Geoprocessing Services and present an example, how a Web app can be built that allows exploring the results of environmental models in an interactive way using the R Shiny framework. All of the software presented is available as Open Source Software.

  12. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  13. Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

  14. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  15. Development of a Flow Injection Based High Frequency Dual Channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is used in liquid for adsorption or desorption monitoring based bio- or chemical sensing applications, the frequency shift is not only determined by the surface mass change, but also by the change of liquid characteristics, such as density and viscosity, which are greatly affected by the liquid environmental temperature. A monolithic dual-channel QCM is designed and fabricated by arranging two QCM resonators on one single chip for cancelling the fluctuation induced by environmental factors. In actual applications, one QCM works as a specific sensor by modifying with functional membranes and the other acts as a reference, only measuring the liquid property. The dual-channel QCM is designed with an inverted-mesa structure, aiming to realize a high frequency miniaturized chip and suppress the frequency interference between the neighbored QCM resonators. The key problem of dual-channel QCMs is the interference between two channels, which is influenced by the distance of adjacent resonators. The diameter of the reference electrode has been designed into several values in order to find the optimal parameter. Experimental results demonstrated that the two QCMs could vibrate individually and the output frequency stability and drift can be greatly improved with the aid of the reference QCM.

  16. Vibrissa Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Docket No. 300119 1 of 11 VIBRISSA SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention provides a...vibrissa in two dimensions. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0010] Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a sensor capable of

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE: A taste sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    A multichannel taste sensor, namely an electronic tongue, with global selectivity is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information about substances producing taste into electrical signals, which are input to a computer. The sensor output exhibits different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness, sourness and bitterness, whereas it exhibits similar patterns for chemical substances with similar tastes. The sensor responds to the taste itself, as can be understood from the fact that taste interactions such as the suppression effect, which appears for mixtures of sweet and bitter substances, can be reproduced well. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine and a drug substance by sucrose can be quantified. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes on the basis of sensor outputs. The tastes of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water, milk, sake, rice, soybean paste and vegetables can be discussed quantitatively using the taste sensor, which provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. The flavour of a wine is also discriminated using the taste-odour sensory fusion conducted by combining the taste sensor and an odour-sensor array using conducting polymer elements. The taste sensor can also be applied to measurements of water pollution. Miniaturization of the taste sensor using FET produces the same characteristics as those of the above taste sensor by measuring the gate-source voltage. Use of the taste sensor will lead to a new era of food and environmental sciences.

  18. Design of a Room Monitoring System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Kuk Noh; Kuk-Se Kim; Yoo-Kang Ji

    2013-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSN) systems, various indoor environmental parameters can be monitored in real time by an RF wireless sensor module. A wireless sensor module with several sensors is developed for an indoor environment monitoring system. ZigBee is a wireless standard for personal area network (PAN) sensor monitoring and control, also known as IEEE 802.15.4. In this paper, we designed a wireless sensor module that had a ZigBee communication module and a sensor module for monitoring...

  19. A 3D CFD Simulation and Analysis of Flow-Induced Forces on Polymer Piezoelectric Sensors in a Chinese Liquors Identification E-Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yang-Fu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zu-Wu

    2016-10-20

    Chinese liquors can be classified according to their flavor types. Accurate identification of Chinese liquor flavors is not always possible through professional sommeliers' subjective assessment. A novel polymer piezoelectric sensor electric nose (e-nose) can be applied to distinguish Chinese liquors because of its excellent ability in imitating human senses by using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems. The sensor, based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle is comprised of a quartz piezoelectric crystal plate sandwiched between two specific gas-sensitive polymer coatings. Chinese liquors are identified by obtaining the resonance frequency value changes of each sensor using the e-nose. However, the QCM principle failed to completely account for a particular phenomenon: we found that the resonance frequency values fluctuated in the stable state. For better understanding the phenomenon, a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using the finite volume method is employed to study the influence of the flow-induced forces to the resonance frequency fluctuation of each sensor in the sensor box. A dedicated procedure was developed for modeling the flow of volatile gas from Chinese liquors in a realistic scenario to give reasonably good results with fair accuracy. The flow-induced forces on the sensors are displayed from the perspective of their spatial-temporal and probability density distributions. To evaluate the influence of the fluctuation of the flow-induced forces on each sensor and ensure the serviceability of the e-nose, the standard deviation of resonance frequency value (SDF) and the standard deviation of resultant forces (SDFy) in y-direction (Fy) are compared. Results show that the fluctuations of Fy are bound up with the resonance frequency values fluctuations. To ensure that the sensor's resonance frequency values are steady and only fluctuate slightly, in order to improve the identification accuracy of Chinese liquors using

  20. Quorum sensing signal profile of Acinetobacter strains from nosocomial and environmental sources Perfil de sensores de quórum en cepas nosocomiales y ambientales de Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. González

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 43 strains corresponding to 20 classified and unclassified genomic Acinetobacter species was analyzed for the production of typical N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules in culture broths. A large percentage of the strains (74% displayed quorum sensing signals that could be separated into three statistically significantly different chromatographic groups (p Rf2 > Rf1. None of the three signals could be specifically assigned to a particular species in the genus; furthermore, no distinction could be made between the quorum sensing signals secreted by typical opportunistic strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, isolated from patients, with respect to the other species of the genus, except for the Rf1 signal which was present in all the QS positive strains belonging to this complex and DNA group 13 TU. In conclusion, quorum sensors in Acinetobacter are not homogenously distributed among species and one of them is present in most of the A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex.Se analizó la producción de moléculas típicas de N-acil homoserina lactona con actividad de quorum sensing en cultivos líquidos de un grupo de 43 cepas correspondientes a 20 especies genómicas clasificadas y no clasificadas de Acinetobacter. Un porcentaje alto de las cepas (74% mostraron señales de quorum sensing que pudieron ser separadas en tres grupos cromatográficos significativamente diferentes entre sí (p Rf2 > Rf1. Ninguna de las tres señales pudo ser asignada a una especie en particular dentro del género; es más, no se encontró diferencia entre las señales producidas por las cepas típicamente oportunistas (complejo A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii aisladas de pacientes respecto de las producidas por otras cepas del mismo género, excepto para el caso de Rf1, que se encontró presente en todos los aislamientos quorum sensing positivos del mencionado complejo y en las cepas del grupo de DNA 13TU. En conclusión, los sensores de

  1. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.

    2017-07-12

    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive measurements of otherwise invisible information and parameters about our health and surrounding environment. Through the implementation of optical wearable technologies, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose monitors, among others, individuals are becoming more empowered to generate a wealth of rich, multifaceted physiological and environmental data, making personalized medicine a reality. Furthermore, these technologies can also be implemented in hospitals, clinics, point-of-care offices, assisted living facilities or even in patients’ homes for real-time, remote patient monitoring, creating more expeditious as well as resource-efficient systems. Several key optical technologies make such sensors possible, including e.g., optical fiber textiles, colorimetric, plasmonic, and fluorometric sensors, as well as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and Organic Photo-Diode (OPD) technologies. These emerging technologies and platforms show great promise as basic sensing elements in future wearable devices and will be reviewed in this chapter along-side currently existing fully integrated wearable optical sensors.

  2. Distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Donald B; Carlin, John B; Iyengar, S Sitharama; Brooks, Richard R; University, Clemson

    2014-01-01

    An Overview, S.S. Iyengar, Ankit Tandon, and R.R. BrooksMicrosensor Applications, David ShepherdA Taxonomy of Distributed Sensor Networks, Shivakumar Sastry and S.S. IyengarContrast with Traditional Systems, R.R. BrooksDigital Signal Processing Background, Yu Hen HuImage-Processing Background Lynne Grewe and Ben ShahshahaniObject Detection and Classification, Akbar M. SayeedParameter Estimation David FriedlanderTarget Tracking with Self-Organizing Distributed Sensors R.R. Brooks, C. Griffin, D.S. Friedlander, and J.D. KochCollaborative Signal and Information Processing: AnInformation-Directed Approach Feng Zhao, Jie Liu, Juan Liu, Leonidas Guibas, and James ReichEnvironmental Effects, David C. SwansonDetecting and Counteracting Atmospheric Effects Lynne L. GreweSignal Processing and Propagation for Aeroacoustic Sensor Networks, Richard J. Kozick, Brian M. Sadler, and D. Keith WilsonDistributed Multi-Target Detection in Sensor Networks Xiaoling Wang, Hairong Qi, and Steve BeckFoundations of Data Fusion f...

  3. remote sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Unold, Georg; Junker, Astrid; Altmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-throughput (HT) plant phenotyping systems enable the quantitative analysis of a variety of plant features in a fully automated fashion. The comprehensive phenomics infrastructure at IPK comprises three LemnaTec conveyor belt-based (plant-to-sensor) systems for the simultaneous analysis of large numbers of individual plants of different sizes. For monitoring of environmental conditions within the plant growth area and soil conditions in individual pots, highly modular and flexible remote sensing devices are required. We present the architecture of a wireless sensor network implemented in the HT plant phenotyping systems at IPK in the frame of the German Plant Phenotyping Network (DPPN). This system comprises 350 soil monitoring modules, each measuring water content, water matrix potential, temperature and electric conductivity. Furthermore small and large sensor platforms enable the continuous monitoring of environmental parameters such as incident photosynthetic active radiation, total radiation balance, relative humidity and CO2 concentration and more. Finally we present an introduction into data management and maintenance."

  4. EDITORIAL: Sensors and sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Richard; Tian, Gui Yun

    2008-02-01

    Sensors are very important for measurement science and technology. They serve as a vital component in new measurement techniques and instrumentation systems. Key qualities of a good sensor system are high resolution, high reliability, low cost, appropriate output for a given input (good sensitivity), rapid response time, small random error in results, and small systematic error. Linearity is also useful, but with the advent of lookup tables and software, it is not as important as it used to be. In the last several years, considerable effort around the world has been devoted to a wide range of sensors from nanoscale sensors to sensor networks. Collectively, these vast and multidisciplinary efforts are developing important technological roadmaps to futuristic sensors with new modalities, significantly enhanced effectiveness and integrated functionality (data processing, computation, decision making and communications). When properly organized, they will have important relevance to life science and security applications, e.g. the sensing and monitoring of chemical, biological, radiological and explosive threats. A special feature in this issue takes a snapshot of some recent developments that were first presented at an international conference, the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). The conference discussed recent developments, from which a few papers have since been brought together in this special feature. Gas sensing for environmental monitoring remains a topical subject, and two papers deal with this issue. One is concerned with the exploitation of nanostructured Au-doped cobalt oxyhydroxide-based carbon monoxide sensors for fire detection at its earlier stages (Zhuiykov and Dowling), whilst another examines the role of oxygen in high temperature hydrogen sulfide detection using MISiC sensors (Weng et al). Again for environmental monitoring, another paper deals with accurate sound source localization in a reverberant

  5. Electrochemical sensor monitoring of volcanic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tjarda; Freshwater, Ray; Oppenheimer, Clive; Saffell, John; Jones, Rod; Griffiths, Paul; Braban, Christine; Mead, Iqbal

    2010-05-01

    Advances in instrumentation have fuelled a recent growth of interest in using portable sensor systems for environmental monitoring of pollution. Developments in wireless technology are enabling such systems to operate remotely and autonomously, generating a wealth of environmental data. We report here on the application of miniature Alphasense electrochemical sensors to the detection and characterisation of gases in volcanic plumes. A highly portable sensor system was developed to operate an array of 6 low cost electrochemical sensors to detect CO, H2, HCl, SO2, H2S and NO2 at 1 Hz. A miniature pump draws air over all sensors simultaneously (i.e. sensors arranged in parallel). The sensor output in these campaigns was logged on PDAs for real-time viewing, and later download (with a view to future data-streaming). The instrument was deployed at a number of volcanoes and was subject to extremely harsh conditions including highly acidic environments, low (Antarctic) temperatures, and transport over rough terrain. Analysis methods are demonstrated that consider calibration, cross-sensitivities of the sensors to multiple gases, differing sensor response times, temperature dependence, and background sensor drift with time. The analysis is applied to a range of plume field-measurements to extract gas concentrations ranging from 100's ppmv to sub-ppmv and to characterise the individual volcano emissions. Applications of similar sensor systems for real-time long-term monitoring of volcanic emissions (which may indicate and ultimately predict eruptive behavior), and UAV and balloon-borne plume sampling are now already being realised. This work focused on demonstrating the application of electrochemical sensors to monitoring of environmental pollution from volcanoes. Other applications for similar sensors include the near-source monitoring of industrial emissions, and of pollutant levels enhanced by traffic emissions in the urban environment.

  6. Environmental test results for the CDV-711 Mark III and Model 2 remote-sensor radiation meters. Technical report, May 1968-October 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeber, E.O.; Lake, G.H.

    1970-01-01

    The Air Force has a stated requirement for an instrument to monitor the gamma radiation associated with a fallout environment and to be used Air Force wide in fallout shelters and command posts. The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) has developed two instruments, the CDv-711 Mark III, that could possibly satisfy the stated requirement. Both the Model 2 and the Mark III were operationally and environmentally tested to see if one of the instruments was suitable for Air Force use, either with or without additional engineering development.

  7. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization monitoring & sensor technology crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the OFfice of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60).

  9. Glidersonde, a Meteorological Optical Profiling Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "Glidersonde"is a UAV-deployed environmental sensor suite that is air-deployed and glides into denied or hazardous areas including volcanoes or nuclear...

  10. Perancangan Sistem Sensor Pemonitor Lingkungan Berbasis Jaringan Sensor Nirkabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhuda Maulana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a problem that get a lot of people’s attention, especially at campus environment. It is evocate the stakeholder of campus to monitor the environmental conditions at the campus which themed a green campus. Advances in science and technology, especially in computer and embedded systems in principle can be applied to solve this problem. There are creating an application system that is equipped with sensor to monitor the air quality level wirelessly. The system supports several environmental monitoring sensors that are connected in a wireless sensor network. The objective of this research was to design and create a sensor system that can monitor environment condition quantity by providing the appropriate output value. Sensors that used to read the air quality parameters is TGS 2600 to read the gas concentration of carbon monoxide (CO, TGS 2201 for nitrogen dioxide (NO2, GP2Y1010AU0F for particulate matter, BH1750 for light ambient, and SHT11 for humidity and temperature. This sensor system using Arduino board that based on Atmega 2560 microcontroller. This system is equipped with RTC as a time and GPS as a coordinate where the sensor system is placed as a node. The result of this reseach is the system able to read parameters as air quality monitoring well. The error reading in this sensor system is 0.69 ppm CO gas, 2.8 lx on the intensity of light, 0.22 C in temperature reading, and 0.98% in humidity readings.

  11. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  12. An Overview of Centralised Middleware Components for Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Onderwater (Martijn)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractSensors are increasingly becoming part of our daily lives: motion detection, lighting control, environmental monitoring, and keeping track of energy consumption all rely on sensors. Combining data from this wide variety of sensors will result in new and innovative applications. However,

  13. Optical fibre microwire sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, G.; Belal, Mohammad; Jung, Y.; Song, Z.; Xu, F.; Newson, T.P.; Richardson, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews sensing applications of optical fibre microwires and nanowires. In addition to the usual benefits of sensors based on optical fibres, these sensors are extremely compact and have fast response speeds. In this review sensors will be grouped in three categories according to their morphology: linear sensors, resonant sensors and tip sensors. While linear and resonant sensors mainly exploit the fraction of power propagating outside the microwire physical boundary, tip sensors t...

  14. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Micro-balance sensor integrated with atomic layer deposition chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Alex B. F.; Libera, Joseph A.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Riha, Shannon C.

    2018-01-02

    The invention is directed to QCM measurements in monitoring ALD processes. Previously, significant barriers remain in the ALD processes and accurate execution. To turn this exclusively dedicated in situ technique into a routine characterization method, an integral QCM fixture was developed. This new design is easily implemented on a variety of ALD tools, allows rapid sample exchange, prevents backside deposition, and minimizes both the footprint and flow disturbance. Unlike previous QCM designs, the fast thermal equilibration enables tasks such as temperature-dependent studies and ex situ sample exchange, further highlighting the feasibility of this QCM design for day-to-day use. Finally, the in situ mapping of thin film growth rates across the ALD reactor was demonstrated in a popular commercial tool operating in both continuous and quasi-static ALD modes.

  16. Pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  17. Network performance of a wireless sensor network for temperature monitoring in vineyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscano, Ramiro; Jacoub, John Khalil; Dersingh, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an emerging technology which can be used for outdoor environmental monitoring. This paper presents challenges that arose from the development and deployment of a WSN for environmental monitoring as well as network performance analysis of this network. Different...... components in our sensor network architecture are presented like the physical nodes, the sensor node code, and two messaging protocols; one for collecting sensor and network values and the other for sensor node commands. An information model for sensor nodes to support plug-and-play capabilities in sensor...

  18. Nanoplasmonic sensors for biointerfacial science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Rahim Ferhan, Abdul; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-06-19

    In recent years, nanoplasmonic sensors have become widely used for the label-free detection of biomolecules across medical, biotechnology, and environmental science applications. To date, many nanoplasmonic sensing strategies have been developed with outstanding measurement capabilities, enabling detection down to the single-molecule level. One of the most promising directions has been surface-based nanoplasmonic sensors, and the potential of such technologies is still emerging. Going beyond detection, surface-based nanoplasmonic sensors open the door to enhanced, quantitative measurement capabilities across the biointerfacial sciences by taking advantage of high surface sensitivity that pairs well with the size of medically important biomacromolecules and biological particulates such as viruses and exosomes. The goal of this review is to introduce the latest advances in nanoplasmonic sensors for the biointerfacial sciences, including ongoing development of nanoparticle and nanohole arrays for exploring different classes of biomacromolecules interacting at solid-liquid interfaces. The measurement principles for nanoplasmonic sensors based on utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomena are first introduced. The following sections are then categorized around different themes within the biointerfacial sciences, specifically protein binding and conformational changes, lipid membrane fabrication, membrane-protein interactions, exosome and virus detection and analysis, and probing nucleic acid conformations and binding interactions. Across these themes, we discuss the growing trend to utilize nanoplasmonic sensors for advanced measurement capabilities, including positional sensing, biomacromolecular conformation analysis, and real-time kinetic monitoring of complex biological interactions. Altogether, these advances highlight the rich potential of nanoplasmonic sensors and the future growth prospects of

  19. Why General Outlier Detection Techniques Do Not Suffice For Wireless Sensor Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Raw data collected in wireless sensor networks are often unreliable and inaccurate due to noise, faulty sensors and harsh environmental effects. Sensor data that significantly deviate from normal pattern of sensed data are often called outliers. Outlier detection in wireless sensor networks aims at

  20. Sensors Applications, Volume 4, Sensors for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Trah, Hans-Peter; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Yokomori, Iwao

    2003-07-01

    An international team of experts from the leading companies in this field gives a detailed picture of existing as well as future applications. They discuss in detail current technologies, design and construction concepts, market considerations and commercial developments. Topics covered include vehicle safety, fuel consumption, air conditioning, emergency control, traffic control systems, and electronic guidance using radar and video. Meeting the growing need for comprehensive information on the capabilities, potentials and limitations of modern sensor systems, Sensors Applications is a book series covering the use of sophisticated technologies and materials for the creation of advanced sensors and their implementation in the key areas process monitoring, building control, health care, automobiles, aerospace, environmental technology and household appliances.

  1. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  2. Sensors for Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  3. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  4. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements.

  5. Automated biomonitoring: living sensors as environmental monitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruber, D; Diamond, J

    1988-01-01

    Water quality continues to present problems of global concern and has resulted in greatly increased use of automated biological systems in monitoring drinking water, industrial effluents and wastewater...

  6. Biomimetic flow sensors for environmental awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.

    Crickets possess hairy organs attached to their abdomen, the so-called cerci. These cerci contain highly flow-sensitive mechanosensors that enable the crickets to monitor the flow-field around them and react to specific stimuli form the environment, e.g. air-movements generated by hunting spiders.

  7. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  8. Structural characterisation of parotid and whole mouth salivary pellicles adsorbed onto DPI and QCMD hydroxyapatite sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Anthony; Burnett, Gary R; Parker, Roger; Ridout, Mike J; Rigby, Neil M; Wilde, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    In this study we investigated the differences in the properties of pellicles formed from stimulated parotid saliva (PS), which contains little or no mucin; and stimulated whole mouth saliva (WMS), which contains mainly two types of mucin: MUC5B and MUC7. By contacting WMS and PS with quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and dual polarisation interferometer (DPI) hydroxyapatite (the main component of enamel) coated sensors, we observed the formation and structure of the respective salivary pellicles. As this was the first time that DPI hydroxyapatite sensors have been used to measure salivary pellicle adsorption; the techniques combined allowed us to measure the hydrated mass, dry mass, thickness and viscoelastic properties of the pellicle; but also to record the density of the PS and WMS formed pellicles. Subsequently, the PS pellicle was shown to form a denser layer than WMS pellicle; which would suggest that the proteins present in PS are also responsible for forming the dense basal layer of the acquired enamel pellicle. Whereas proteins present in the WMS are more likely to help form the softer outer layer of the pellicle. The data presented help to further define the mechanisms leading to the multi-layered structure of the salivary pellicle and demonstrate that salivary composition has an important effect on the structural properties of the adsorbed pellicle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  10. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  11. Fiber optic sensors for corrosion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alphonso C.

    1993-01-01

    The development of fiber optic sensors for the detection of a variety of material parameters has grown tremendously over the past several years. Additionally, the potential for analytical applications of fiber optic sensors have become more widely used. New pH sensors have also been developed using fiber optic techniques to detect fluorescence characteristics from immobilized fluorogenic reagent chemicals. The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using fiber optic sensors to detect the presence of Al(sup 3+) ions made in the process of environmental corrosion of aluminum materials. The Al(sup 3+) ions plus a variety of other type of metal ions can be detected using analytical techniques along with fiber optic sensors.

  12. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Brauns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal.

  13. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    cleansing approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to the limited storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the sensor data before using it to answer queries or conduct data analysis. Popular data...

  14. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolite Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Americans with diabetes may be 50 percent higher. It is the leading cause of blindness and kidney failure among others. Intensive treatment with the goal of...Microsensors" Sensors & Actuators B 2005, 105, 365-377. 13. Zahr, A.; de Villiers, M.; Pishko, M. "Encapsulation of Drug Nanoparticles in Self-Assembled...Grimes, C. "A Room Temperature TiO2 -Nanotube Hydrogen Sensor Able to Photoactively Self-clean from Environmental Contamination" J. Mater. Res. 2004

  15. System-level Modeling of Wireless Integrated Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Hansen, Knud; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Wireless integrated sensor networks have emerged as a promising infrastructure for a new generation of monitoring and tracking applications. In order to efficiently utilize the extremely limited resources of wireless sensor nodes, accurate modeling of the key aspects of wireless sensor networks...... is necessary so that system-level design decisions can be made about the hardware and the software (applications and real-time operating system) architecture of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based abstract modeling framework that enables system-level modeling of sensor network behavior...... by modeling the applications, real-time operating system, sensors, processor, and radio transceiver at the sensor node level and environmental phenomena, including radio signal propagation, at the sensor network level. We demonstrate the potential of our modeling framework by simulating and analyzing a small...

  16. Gas Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Yunusa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of different technologies for gas sensors is presented. The different types of gas sensors technologies including catalytic gas sensor, electrochemical gas sensors, thermal conductivity gas sensor, optical gas sensor and acoustic gas sensor are discussed together with their principle of operation. The Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensor technology is discussed in greater detail. The advantages and disadvantages of each sensor technology are also highlighted. All these technologies have been used for several decades for the development of highly sensitive and responsive gas sensors for the detection of flammable and hazardous gases. However, for improved sensitivity and selectivity for these sensors, future trends and outlook for researchers are suggested in the conclusion of this article.

  17. Tape-cast sensors and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Santa Fe, NM; Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos, NM; Garzon, Fernando H [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-08-18

    A method of making electrochemical sensors in which an electrolyte material is cast into a tape. Prefabricated electrodes are then partially embedded between two wet layers of the electrolyte tape to form a green sensor, and the green sensor is then heated to sinter the electrolyte tape around the electrodes. The resulting sensors can be used in applications such as, but not limited to, combustion control, environmental monitoring, and explosive detection. A electrochemical sensor formed by the tape-casting method is also disclosed.

  18. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  19. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopters as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 20 February 1976 to 29 February 1976 (NODC Accession 7601640)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopters. Data were collected by the...

  20. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from helicopters as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 19 May 1976 to 29 May 1976 (NODC Accession 7700018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from helicopters. Data were collected by the University...

  1. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ALPHA HELIX as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 10 September 1987 to 15 December 1987 (NODC Accession 8800043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ALPHA HELIX from 10 September 1987 to 15 December...

  2. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopter as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 26 October 1975 to 10 November 1975 (NODC Accession 7601680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopter. Data were collected by the University...

  3. Temperature profile data from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1981-10-22 to 1982-10-13 (NODC Accession 8400037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and other platforms from 22 October 1981 to 13 October 1982....

  4. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 04 September 1979 to 11 September 1979 (NODC Accession 8100441)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA from 04 September 1979 to 11 September 1979....

  5. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopters as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 04 March 1977 to 11 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700757)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopters. Data were collected by the...

  6. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 10 August 1977 to 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA. Data were collected by the University of...

  7. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 30 August 1976 to 02 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7800654)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA. Data were collected by the University of...

  8. Temperature profile data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 27 July 1986 to 11 November 1987 (NODC Accession 8800064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX from 27 July 1986 to 11 November 1987. Data were...

  9. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1975-09-04 to 1975-09-30 (NODC Accession 7601585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  10. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 24 February 1978 to 04 March 1978 (NODC Accession 8100150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from 24 February 1978 to 04 March 1978. Data were collected by the...

  11. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1980-11-10 to 1980-11-13 (NODC Accession 8100539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER from 10 November 1980 to 13 November 1980. Data...

  12. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 23 February 1981 to 30 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8300167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR and other platforms from 23 February 1981 to 30 April...

  13. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 23 October 1980 to 04 November 1980 (NODC Accession 8200118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER from 23 October 1980 to 04 November 1980. Data...

  14. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 15 April 1976 to 26 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the University of...

  15. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 20 August 1974 to 30 August 1974 (NODC Accession 7601559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA. Data were collected by the University of...

  16. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 12 February 1979 to 09 April 1979 (NODC Accession 7900193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA from 12 February 1979 to 09 April 1979. Data...

  17. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 31 July 1978 to 30 September 1978 (NODC Accession 7900202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from the ACONA from 31 July 1978 to 30 September 1978. Data...

  18. Physical and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 05 June 1975 to 12 June 1975 (NODC Accession 7601225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  19. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopters as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 31 October 1976 to 04 November 1976 (NODC Accession 7700163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Beaufort Sea from helicopters. Data were collected by the...

  20. Temperature profile data from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1986-09-18 to 1987-05-14 (NODC Accession 8800019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from surface sensors, bottle casts, and CTD casts from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN from 18 September 1986 to 14 May 1987. Data...

  1. Temperature and salinity profiles from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 21 September 1975 to 22 September 1975 (NODC Accession 7601224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Gulf of Alaska from the SURVEYOR. Data were collected by the Pacific...

  2. Physical, meteorological, and other data from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from helicopters as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 08 February 1977 to 02 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7800004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from surface sensors and CTD casts in the Bering Sea from helicopter. Data were collected by the University...

  3. Moored ADCP current data from deployment 2 of the Multi-disciplinary Ocean Sensors for Environmental Analyses and Networks (MOSEAN) project north of Hawaii 2004-2005 (NODC Accession 0116094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ADCP data were collected by sensors from seven deployments within 2004-2007 on the HALE-ALOHA mooring, a location about 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. The...

  4. Interoperability developments for next generation multifunctional ocean sensor systems in nexos

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Daniel Mihai; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Moreno Lupiáñez, Manuel; Bröring, Arne; Pearlman, Jay; Delory, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and less expensive instruments to monitor Earth’s environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. This work presents an approach for the smart configuration and integration of marine sensors into an interoperable Sensor Web infrastructure such that the overall life cycle cost of sensors and observing systems is reduced and data h...

  5. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  6. Wireless sensor systems and methods, and methods of monitoring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.; Harding, L. Dean; Klingler, Kerry M.

    2007-02-20

    A wireless sensor system includes a passive sensor apparatus configured to be embedded within a concrete structure to monitor infiltration of contaminants into the structure. The sensor apparatus includes charging circuitry and a plurality of sensors respectively configured to measure environmental parameters of the structure which include information related to the infiltration of contaminants into the structure. A reader apparatus is communicatively coupled to the sensor apparatus, the reader apparatus being configured to provide power to the charging circuitry during measurements of the environmental parameters by the sensors. The reader apparatus is configured to independently interrogate individual ones of the sensors to obtain information measured by the individual sensors. The reader apparatus is configured to generate an induction field to energize the sensor apparatus. Information measured by the sensor apparatus is transmitted to the reader apparatus via a response signal that is superimposed on a return induction field generated by the sensor apparatus. Methods of monitoring structural integrity of the structure are also provided.

  7. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  8. Sensors in Smart Phone

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Chunmei; Guo, Huiling; Yang, Xiuqing; Wang, Yangqiu; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ye, Hairong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The technological innovation in electronics makes nowadays mobile phone more than a simple communication tool: it becomes a portable electronic device with integrated functions, such as listening to music, watching movies, taking photos, etc. To achieve these, many kinds of advanced sensor are used. In this paper, several applications of sensor in smart phone are introduced including Image Sensor, Fingerprint Identification Sensor, Photo-electric Sensor, Acceleration S...

  9. Sensores ópticos com detecção no infravermelho próximo e médio Near and mid infrared optical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio M. G. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical chemical sensors with detection in the near and mid infrared region are reviewed. Fundamental concepts of infrared spectroscopy and optical chemical sensors are briefly described, before presenting some aspects on optical chemical sensors, such as synthesis of NIR and IR reagents, preparation of new materials as well as application in determinations of species of biological, industrial and environmental importance.

  10. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  11. Hybrid Integrated Label-Free Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Simin; Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Label-free sensors based on electrical, mechanical and optical transduction methods have potential applications in numerous areas of society, ranging from healthcare to environmental monitoring. Initial research in the field focused on the development and optimization of various sensor platforms fabricated from a single material system, such as fiber-based optical sensors and silicon nanowire-based electrical sensors. However, more recent research efforts have explored designing sensors fabricated from multiple materials. For example, synthetic materials and/or biomaterials can also be added to the sensor to improve its response toward analytes of interest. By leveraging the properties of the different material systems, these hybrid sensing devices can have significantly improved performance over their single-material counterparts (better sensitivity, specificity, signal to noise, and/or detection limits). This review will briefly discuss some of the methods for creating these multi-material sensor platforms and the advances enabled by this design approach. PMID:24675757

  12. A Role Based Framework for Robot Sensor Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensors play an important role in the execution of robot tasks as an important component of understanding the world. In this paper, we propose a role-based sensor management framework on ROS (Robot Operating System, in which the role is a set of information needed for robot sensor development. Firstly, we develop a sensor management interface to facilitate the development of sensor applications on robot. And a subscriber module is proposed to shield the details of the sensor driver and the communication between processes, the sensor drivers on the robot are effectively managed. Robot sensors have different executive ability in different situations when robot performing tasks. For example, we know that RGB camera can collect a clear image when the light is strong, while generate a blurred image in weak light environment. Secondly, we propose an environment based sensor role dynamic evaluation mechanism to get the confidence of sensor in a certain environment. The confidence represents the executive ability of sensor when performing tasks. The confidence provides the basis for switching the task schemes. In the mechanism we can dynamically configure the environment information and confidence calculation method. In the experiment phase, we verify the effectiveness of the framework through a robot patrol task. Experiment results show that our framework can effectively manage the robot sensors with a certain environmental adaptability.

  13. Prototyping an Operational System with Multiple Sensors for Pasture Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wark

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Combining multiple proximal sensors within a wireless sensor network (WSN enhances our capacity to monitor vegetation, compared to using a single sensor or non-networked setup. Data from sensors with different spatial and temporal characteristics can provide complementary information. For example, point-based sensors such as multispectral sensors which monitor at high temporal frequency but, at a single point, can be complemented by array-based sensors such as digital cameras which have greater spatial resolution but may only gather data at infrequent intervals. In this article we describe the successful deployment of a prototype system for using multiple proximal sensors (multispectral sensors and digital cameras for monitoring pastures. We show that there are many technical issues involved in such a deployment, and we share insights relevant for other researchers who may consider using WSNs for an operational deployment for pasture monitoring under often difficult environmental conditions. Although the sensors and infrastructure are important, we found that other issues arise and that an end-to-end workflow is an essential part of effectively capturing, processing and managing the data from a WSN. Our deployment highlights the importance of testing and ongoing monitoring of the entire workflow to ensure the quality of data captured. We demonstrate that the combination of different sensors enhances our ability to identify sensor problems necessary to collect accurate data for pasture monitoring.

  14. Xsense: a miniaturised multi-sensor platform for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Realizing that no one sensing principle is perfect we set out to combine four fundamentally different sensing principles into one device. The reasoning is that each sensor will complement the others and provide redundancy under various environmental conditions. As each sensor can be fabricated us...

  15. Haussdorff and hellinger for colorimetric sensor array classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Development of sensors and systems for detection of chemical compounds is an important challenge with applications in areas such as anti-terrorism, demining, and environmental monitoring. A newly developed colorimetric sensor array is able to detect explosives and volatile organic compounds...

  16. Performance analysis of data retrieval in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitici, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are currently revolutionizing the way we live, work, and interact with the surrounding environment. Due to their ease of deployment, cost effectiveness and versatile functionality, sensors are employed in a wide range of areas such as environmental monitoring, surveillance

  17. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  18. Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Colorimetric sensing, which transduces environmental changes into visible color changes, provides a simple yet powerful detection mechanism that is well-suited to the development of low-cost and low-power sensors...

  19. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    . These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...... also describe the design and implementation of the COUGAR sensor database system....

  20. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Sol-gel-derived Thin Films as Gas Sensor for NO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O’Shea

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibilities and properties of Indium tin oxide (ITO-covered quartz crystal as a NOx toxic gas-sensor. The starting sol-gel solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride dissolved in acetylacetone and tin chloride dissolved in ethanol (0-20% by weight. The ITO thin films were deposited on the gold electrodes of quartz crystal by spin-coating technique and subsequently followed a standard photolithography to pattern the derived films to ensure all sensors with the same sensing areas. All heat treatment processes were controlled below 500°C in order to avoid the piezoelectric characteristics degradation of quartz crystal (Quartz will lose its piezoelectricity at ~573°C due to the phase change from α to β. The electrical and structural properties of ITO thin films were characterized with Hall analysis system, TG/DTA, XRD, XPS, SEM and etc. The gas sensor had featured with ITO thin films of ~100nm as the receptor to sense the toxic gas NO and quartz crystal with frequency of 10MHz as the transducer to transfer the surface reactions (mass loading, etc into the frequency shift. A homemade setup had been employed to measure the sensor response under the static mode. The experimental results had indicated that the ITO-coated QCM had a good sensitivity for NO gas, ~12Hz/100ppm within 5mins. These results prove that the ITO-covered quartz crystals are usable as a gas sensor and as an analytical device.

  1. Workflow-Oriented Cyberinfrastructure for Sensor Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R. W.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    Sensor streams comprise an increasingly large part of Earth Science data. Analytics based on sensor data require an easy way to perform operations such as acquisition, conversion to physical units, metadata linking, sensor fusion, analysis and visualization on distributed sensor streams. Furthermore, embedding real-time sensor data into scientific workflows is of growing interest. We have implemented a scalable networked architecture that can be used to dynamically access packets of data in a stream from multiple sensors, and perform synthesis and analysis across a distributed network. Our system is based on the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (irods.org), which accesses sensor data from the Antelope Real Time Data System (brtt.com), and provides virtualized access to collections of data streams. We integrate real-time data streaming from different sources, collected for different purposes, on different time and spatial scales, and sensed by different methods. iRODS, noted for its policy-oriented data management, brings to sensor processing features and facilities such as single sign-on, third party access control lists ( ACLs), location transparency, logical resource naming, and server-side modeling capabilities while reducing the burden on sensor network operators. Rich integrated metadata support also makes it straightforward to discover data streams of interest and maintain data provenance. The workflow support in iRODS readily integrates sensor processing into any analytical pipeline. The system is developed as part of the NSF-funded Datanet Federation Consortium (datafed.org). APIs for selecting, opening, reaping and closing sensor streams are provided, along with other helper functions to associate metadata and convert sensor packets into NetCDF and JSON formats. Near real-time sensor data including seismic sensors, environmental sensors, LIDAR and video streams are available through this interface. A system for archiving sensor data and metadata in Net

  2. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average, are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to their limit storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency and effectiveness.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the data before using it for answering queries or for data analysis. Popular data cleansing...

  3. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Chow

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.

  4. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    benefits over the traditional hydrogen sensors: The technology has excellent temperature stability (4K to 373 K), it can be used in cryogenic fluid applications, it is easy to apply and remove; it requires no power to operate; it has a quick response time; the leak points can be detected visually or electronically; it is nonhazardous, thus environmentally friendly; it can be reversible or irreversible; it does not require on-site monitoring; has a long shelf life; the detector is very durable; and the technology is inexpensive to manufacture.

  5. The impact of MOSFET-based sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1985-01-01

    The basic structure as well as the physical existence of the MOS field-effect transistor is without doubt of great importance for the development of a whole series of sensors for the measurement of physical and chemical environmental parameters. The equation for the MOSFET drain current already

  6. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and

  7. Embedded sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dharma Prakash

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...

  8. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  9. Biomedical Sensors of Ionizing Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, S; Speller, R; Royle, G; Olivo, A

    2010-01-01

    Sensors Technology Series Editor-in-Chief's Preface vii Preface ix 1 Biomedical Sensors: Temperature Sensor ... G. Kim Prisk 4 Biomedical Sensors of Ionizing Radiation 129 Robert Speller, Alessandro Olivo, Silvia Pani, and Gary Royle 5 ...

  10. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  11. Acoustic Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.; Venkateshan, Shakkottai

    1990-01-01

    Industrial humidity sensor measures volume fraction of water in air via its effect on speed of sound. Only portion of sensor exposed to sensed atmosphere is pair of stainless-steel tubes, one containing dry air and other containing moist air. Counters measure intervals between reflected pulses. Sensor rugged enough for use in harsh environments like those used to control drying of paper in paper mills, where most humidity sensors do not survive.

  12. Improved Active Sonar Tactical Support by Through-the-Sensor Estimation of Acoustic Seabed Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Eidem, E.J.; Ivansson, S.; Chalindar, B.; Dybedal, J.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Benders, F.P.A.; Andersson, B.L.; Juhel, B.; Cristol, X.; Olsen, G.K.; Pihl, J.N.B.; Tveit, E.; Jespers, S.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate environmental information is required for obtaining confident sonar performance predictions. This environmental information is, however, often unreliable or unavailable. To support antisubmarine warfare (ASW) operations, a through-the-sensor approach has been developed in which relevant

  13. OGC standards for end-to-end sensor network integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, K. L.; Broering, A.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Toma, D.; Del Rio, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Zedlitz, J.; Johnson, G.; Edgington, D.

    2010-12-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth's environment, and more are planned for the future. Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, more intelligent, and more reliable. But due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observing systems is not straightforward, requiring development of driver software and manual tedious configuration. Use of standard protocols and formats can improve and automate the process of sensor installation, operation, and data processing. The Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative defines standards which make sensors available over the Web through standardized formats and Web Service interfaces by hiding the heterogeneity of sensor protocols from the application layer. Current SWE standards do not deal with actual sensor protocols, and the connection between sensors and SWE services is usually established by manually adapting the internals of the SWE service implementation to the specific sensor interface. Such sensor "drivers" have to be built for each kind of sensor interface, which leads to extensive efforts in developing large-scale systems. To tackle this issue we have developed a model for Sensor Interface Descriptors (SID) which enables the declarative description of sensor interfaces, including the definition of the communication protocol, sensor commands, processing steps and metadata association. The model is designed as a profile and extension of OGC SWE's Sensor Model Language standard. In this model, a SID is defined in XML for each kind of sensor protocol. SID instances for particular sensor types can be reused in different scenarios and can be shared among user communities. A SID interpreter can be built which translates between various sensor protocols and SWE protocols, hence closing the described interoperability gap. The SID interpreter is independent of any particular sensor

  14. Array Configuration and Channel Model of MIMO Sensor for Home Security

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Kei; Yamaguchi, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses MIMO system as home security sensor. MIMO propagation channel is very sensitive to the environmental change. The proposed radio sensor called MIMO sensor utilizes this feature to detect events for home security. We report fundamental results for evaluation of array configuration and propagation channel.

  15. Value of information and mobility constraints for sampling with mobile sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, D.E.; Bruin, de S.; Bregt, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a vital role in environmental monitoring. Advances in mobile sensors offer new opportunities to improve phenomenon predictions by adapting spatial sampling to local variability. Two issues are relevant: which location should be sampled and which mobile sensor

  16. Laser sensor system documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Phase 1 of TxDOT Project 0-6873, True Road Surface Deflection Measuring Device, developed a : laser sensor system based on several sensors mounted on a rigid beam. : This sensor system remains with CTR currently, as the project is moving into Phase 2...

  17. Sensors for Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  18. Sensors and actuators, Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the organization and the research programme of the Sensor and Actuator (S&A) Research Unit of the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. It includes short descriptions of all present projects concerning: micromachined mechanical sensors and actuators, optical sensors,

  19. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow

  20. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  1. Extra Sensor Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad MOKHBERY

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the importance of sensor verification. It also describes the benefits of a portable sensor verification system and how it can be an essential tool that compliments any program in which sensors are used for control manufacturing or during critical testing.

  2. Research Update: Nanogenerators for self-powered autonomous wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Hinchet, Ronan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Largely distributed networks of sensors based on the small electronics have great potential for health care, safety, and environmental monitoring. However, in order to have a maintenance free and sustainable operation, such wireless sensors have to be self-powered. Among various energies present in our environment, mechanical energy is widespread and can be harvested for powering the sensors. Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators (NGs) have been recently introduced for mechanical energy harvesting. Here we introduce the architecture and operational modes of self-powered autonomous wireless sensors. Thereafter, we review the piezoelectric and triboelectric NGs focusing on their working mechanism, structures, strategies, and materials.

  3. Scanning mirror for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. H.; Bernstein, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A high resolution, long life angle-encoded scanning mirror, built for application in an infrared attitude sensor, is described. The mirror uses a Moire' fringe type optical encoder and unique torsion bar suspension together with a magnetic drive to meet stringent operational and environmental requirements at a minimum weight and with minimum power consumption. Details of the specifications, design, and construction are presented with an analysis of the mirror suspension that allows accurate prediction of performance. The emphasis is on mechanical design considerations, and brief discussions are included on the encoder and magnetic drive to provide a complete view of the mirror system and its capabilities.

  4. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  5. ITA Sensor Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Joel; Gibson, Christopher; Bergamaschi, Flavio; Marcus, Kelvin; Pham, Tien; Pressley, Ryan; Verma, Gunjan

    2009-05-01

    The diverse sensor types and networking technologies commonly used in fielded sensro networks provide a unique set of challenges [1] in the areas of sensor identification, interoperability, and sensor data consumability. The ITA Senor Fabric is a middleware infrastructure - developed as part of the International Technology Alliance (ITA)[2] in Network and Information Science - that addresses these challenges by providing unified access to, and management of, sensor networks. The Fabric spans the network from command and control, through forward operating bases, and out to mobile forces and fielded sensors, maximizing the availability and utility of intelligence information to users.

  6. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  7. Sensor technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Jørgensen, Birte Holst; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2001-01-01

    , robustness, dispensability, and the abilityto be self-calibrating. Future sensors are expected to be integrated systems with multiple applications. The market sectors most influenced by new sensor technology change from topic to topic. But a general conclusion is that health care is the marketsector most......The Sensor Technology Center A/S (STC) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory has carried out a sensor technology foresight in order to strengthen a strategic outlook on sensor technology. The technology foresight (with a timeframe of 2000 to2015) has been performed in the period October...... 2000 - September 2001. The conclusions of the sensor technology report are based on 1) a scanning of existing forward looking literature on sensor technology, 2) a number of workshops with Danish andinternational participants and 3) an international survey with 174 respondents. Half of the respondents...

  8. Silicon force sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  9. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  10. Software for multimodal battlefield signal modeling and optimal sensor placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenneth K.; Vecherin, Sergey N.; Wilson, D. Keith; Borden, Christian T.; Bettencourt, Elizabeth; Pettit, Chris L.

    2012-05-01

    Effective use of passive and active sensors for surveillance, security, and intelligence must consider terrain and atmospheric effects on the sensor performance. Several years ago, U.S. Army ERDC undertook development of software for modeling environmental effects on target signatures, signal propagation, and battlefield sensors for many signal modalities (e.g., optical, acoustic, seismic, magnetic, radio-frequency, chemical, biological, and nuclear). Since its inception, the software, called Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment (EASEE), has matured and evolved significantly for simulating a broad spectrum of signal-transmission and sensing scenarios. The underlying software design involves a flexible, object-oriented approach to the various stages of signal modeling from emission through processing into inferences. A sensor placement algorithm has also been built in for optimizing sensor selections and placements based on specification of sensor supply limitations, coverage priorities, and wireless sensor communication requirements. Some recent and ongoing enhancements are described, including modeling of active sensing scenarios and signal reflections, directivity of signal emissions and sensors, improved handling of signal feature dependencies, extensions to realistically model additional signal modalities such as infrared and RF, and XML-based communication with other calculation and display engines.

  11. The potential use of hydrazine as an alternative to peroxidase in a biosensor: comparison between hydrazine and HRP-based glucose sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Aminur; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2005-08-15

    The potential use of hydrazine sulfate was examined for the catalytic reduction of enzymatically generated H2O2 in a biosensor system. The performance of the hydrazine-based sensor was compared with an HRP-based glucose sensor as a model of a biosensor. Hydrazine and HRP were covalently immobilized onto a conducting polymer layer with glucose oxidase. The direct electron transfer reactions of the immobilized hydrazine and HRP onto the poly-5,2':5,2''-terthiophene-3'-carboxylic acid (poly-TTCA) layer were investigated by using cyclic voltammetric method and the electron transfer rate constants were determined. The glucose oxidase- and hydrazine-immobilized sensor efficiently reduced the enzymatically generated H2O2 at -0.15 V versus Ag/AgCl. The surface of this GOx/hydrazine/poly-TTCA-based glucose sensor was characterized by QCM, SEM, and ESCA. Glucose-sensing properties were studied using cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. Various experimental parameters were optimized according to the amount of hydrazine, pH, the temperature, and the applied potential. A linear calibration plot was obtained in the concentration range between 0.1 and 15.0 mM, and the detection limit was determined to be 40.0+/-7.0 microM. Interferences from other biological compounds were studied. The long-term stability of the GOx/hydrazine sensor was better than that of the one based on a GOx/HRP biosensor. The proposed glucose sensor was successfully applied to human whole blood and urine samples for the detection of glucose.

  12. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, Edward L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Mauck, Jerry L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Bockhorst, Richard M. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  13. Study on an Agricultural Environment Monitoring Server System using Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an agricultural environment monitoring server system for monitoring information concerning an outdoors agricultural production environment utilizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The proposed agricultural environment monitoring server system collects environmental and soil information on the outdoors through WSN-based environmental and soil sensors, collects image information through CCTVs, and collects location information using GPS modules. This collected inf...

  14. Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Stirbl, Robert; Blea, Anthony; Harding, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS). The MWTS project will result in a highly stable, monolithically integrated, high resolution infrared detector array sensor that records registered thermal imagery in four infrared wavebands to infer dynamic temperature profiles on a laser-irradiated ground target. An accurate surface temperature measurement of a target in extreme environments in a non-intrusive manner is required. The development challenge is to: determine optimum wavebands (suitable for target temperatures, nature of the targets and environments) to measure accurate target surface temperature independent of the emissivity, integrate simultaneously readable multiband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) in a single monolithic focal plane array (FPA) sensor and to integrate the hardware/software and system calibration for remote temperature measurements. The charge was therefore to develop and demonstrate a multiband infrared imaging camera with the detectors simultaneously sensitive to multiple distinct color bands for front surface temperature measurements Wavelength ( m) measurements. Amongst the requirements are: that the measurement system will not affect target dynamics or response to the laser irradiation and that the simplest criterion for spectral band selection is to choose those practically feasible spectral bands that create the most contrast between the objects or scenes of interest in the expected environmental conditions. There is in the presentation a review of the modeling and simulation of multi-wave infrared temperature measurement and also a review of the detector development and QWIP capacities.

  15. Review Of Prevention Techniques For Denial Of Service DOS Attacks In Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Rolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks comprised of several tiny sensor nodes which are densely deployed over the region to monitor the environmental conditions. These sensor nodes have certain design issues out of which security is the main predominant factor as it effects the whole lifetime of network. DDoS Distributed denial of service attack floods unnecessary packets in the sensor network. A review on DDoS attacks and their prevention techniques have been done in this paper.

  16. Review Of Prevention Techniques For Denial Of Service DOS Attacks In Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Poonam Rolla; Manpreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks comprised of several tiny sensor nodes which are densely deployed over the region to monitor the environmental conditions. These sensor nodes have certain design issues out of which security is the main predominant factor as it effects the whole lifetime of network. DDoS Distributed denial of service attack floods unnecessary packets in the sensor network. A review on DDoS attacks and their prevention techniques have been done in this paper.

  17. Development of a Capacitive Ice Sensor to Measure Ice Growth in Real Time

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi, Xiang; Cho, Hyo Chang; Wang, Bo; Ahn, Cheol Hee; Moon, Hyeong Soon; Go, Jeung Sang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the capacitive sensor to measure the growth of ice on a fuel pipe surface in real time. The ice sensor consists of pairs of electrodes to detect the change in capacitance and a thermocouple temperature sensor to examine the ice formation situation. In addition, an environmental chamber was specially designed to control the humidity and temperature to simulate the ice formation conditions. From the humidity, a water film is formed on the ice sensor, which...

  18. Passive IR sensor performance analysis using Mathcad modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, William

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents an end-to-end physics based performance model for a passive infrared (IR) sensor using the Mathcad® spreadsheet. This model will calculate both temporal and spatial noise of a staring focal plane array (FPA) IR sensor, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the sensor against different targets at different ranges (with atmospheric effects, both turbulence and extinction considered). Finally, probability of detection (Pd) based on SNR results, against these targets, are also discussed. This model will allow the user to easily define basic sensor parameters such as spectral band, detector FPA format & size, field of view (FOV), optics F/#, etc. In addition, target and environmental parameters are also considered for the analyses. This performance model will allow the user to determine if a particular IR sensor design would meet the requirements of its operational specifications, and would help the user to refine the various parameters of the IR sensor at the early design stage.

  19. MULTI SENSOR AND PLATFORMS SETUPS FOR VARIOUS AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To combine various sensors to get a system for specific use became popular within the last 10 years. Metric mid format cameras meanwhile reach the 100 MPix and entered the mapping market to compete with the big format sensors. Beside that also other sensors as SLR Cameras provide high resolution and enter the aerial surveying market for orthophoto production or monitoring applications. Flexibility, purchase-costs, size and weight are common aspects to design multi-sensor systems. Some sensors are useful for mapping while others are part of environmental monitoring systems. Beside classical surveying aircrafts also UL Airplanes, Para/Trikes or UAVs make use of multi sensor systems. Many of them are customer specific while other already are frequently used in the market. This paper aims to show some setup, their application, what are the results and what are the pros and cons of them are.

  20. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limb, Scott J. [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  1. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-06-26

    NOVELTY - The sensor has a microfluidic flow channel that is provided with an inlet port, an outlet port, and a detection chamber. The detection chamber is provided with a group of sensing electrodes (4) having a working electrode (8), a counter electrode (9), and a reference electrode (10). A flow sensor is configured to measure flow in the channel. A temperature sensor (6) is configured to measure temperature in the channel (3). An electrical connection is configured to connect the sensor to a sensing device. USE - Sensor for detecting metal such as toxic metal in sample such as clinical sample such as stool, saliva, sputum, bronchial lavage, urine, vaginal swab, nasal swab, biopsy, tissue, tears, breath, blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured for detection of metalsin samples. The sensor can provide the excellent solution for on-site metal detection, including heavy metal detection. The sensors can provide significant advantages in higher throughput, lower cost, at the same time being less labor intensive and less dependent on individual skills. The disposable design of the sensor, the enhanced reliability and repeatability of measurements can be obtained. The sensors can be widely applied in various industries. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - INDEPENDENT CLAIMS are included for the following: (1) a system for detecting metal in sample; and (2) a method for using sensor for detecting metal in sample. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING(S) - The drawing shows a schematic view of the sensor prototype. Channel (3) Sensing electrodes (4) Temperature sensor (6) Working electrode (8) Counter electrode (9) Reference electrode (10)

  2. RESTful Web services in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Yeste, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Premi Accenture al millor projecte de fi de carrera d’Enginyeria de Telecomunicació en Serveis Telemàtics (curs 2011-2012) English: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become very popular in recent years. A WSN consists of distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to cooperatively send their data through the network to a main location. A WSN facilitates the creation of low-cost networks that can be used for multiple applications when the use of wir...

  3. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  4. Sensor metadata blueprints and computer-aided editing for disciplined SensorML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliolato, Paolo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The need for continuous, accurate, and comprehensive environmental knowledge has led to an increase in sensor observation systems and networks. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative has been promoted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to foster interoperability among sensor systems. The provision of metadata according to the prescribed SensorML schema is a key component for achieving this and nevertheless availability of correct and exhaustive metadata cannot be taken for granted. On the one hand, it is awkward for users to provide sensor metadata because of the lack in user-oriented, dedicated tools. On the other, the specification of invariant information for a given sensor category or model (e.g., observed properties and units of measurement, manufacturer information, etc.), can be labor- and timeconsuming. Moreover, the provision of these details is error prone and subjective, i.e., may differ greatly across distinct descriptions for the same system. We provide a user-friendly, template-driven metadata authoring tool composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. This results in a form-based user interface that conceals the high complexity of the underlying format. This tool also allows for plugging in external data sources providing authoritative definitions for the aforementioned invariant information. Leveraging these functionalities, we compiled a set of SensorML profiles, that is, sensor metadata blueprints allowing end users to focus only on the metadata items that are related to their specific deployment. The natural extension of this scenario is the involvement of end users and sensor manufacturers in the crowd-sourced evolution of this collection of prototypes. We describe the components and workflow of our framework for computer-aided management of sensor metadata.

  5. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  6. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  7. Sensor Network Motes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin

    . In addition, we present our results from porting the highly popular sensor network operating system TinyOS to a new and emerging system on a chip based platform. Moving the sensor network field towards the use of system-on- a-chip devices has large potential in terms of price and performance. We claim to have......This dissertation describes our efforts to improve sensor network performance evaluation and portability, within the context of the sensor network project Hogthrob. In Hogthrob, we faced the challenge of building an sensor network architecture for sow monitoring. This application has hard...... requirements on price and performance, and shows great potential for using sensor networks. Throughout the project we let the application requirements guide our design choices, leading us to push the technologies further to meet the specific goal of the application. In this dissertation, we attack two key...

  8. Intelligent Sensors Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408 used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process.

  9. Clementine sensor suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  10. Working Group Report: Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  11. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  12. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  13. Intelligent Sensors Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  14. The Ringcore Fluxgate Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A model describing the fundamental working principle of the "ringcore fluxgate sensor" is derived. The model is solely based on geometrical and measurable magnetic properties of the sensor and from this a number of fluxgate phenomenon can be described and estimated. The sensitivity of ringcore...... fluxgate sensors is measured for a large variety of geometries and is for all measurements found to fall between two limits obtained by the fluxgate model. The model is used to explain the zero field odd harmonic output of the fluxgate sensor, called the "feedthrough". By assuming a non ideal sensor...... with spatially distributed magnetization, the model predicts feedthrough signals which exactly reflects the measured signals. The non-linearities in a feedback compensated ringcore fluxgate sensors, called the "transverse field effect", can also be explained by the model. Measurements on stress annealed...

  15. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  16. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  17. Bioinspired Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial summarizes and classifies the contributions presented by different authors to the special issue of the journal Sensors dedicated to Bioinspired Sensor Systems. From the coupling of sensor arrays or networks, plus computer processing abilities, new applications to mimic or to complement human senses are arising in the context of ambient intelligence. Principles used, and illustrative study cases have been presented permitting readers to grasp the current status of the field.

  18. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  19. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  20. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  1. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  2. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Francis A.

    1992-01-01

    Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

  3. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  4. Ontology Alignment Architecture for Semantic Sensor Web Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Alarcos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity. Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity’s names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall.

  5. Ontology alignment architecture for semantic sensor Web integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Velasco, Juan R; Alarcos, Bernardo

    2013-09-18

    Sensor networks are a concept that has become very popular in data acquisition and processing for multiple applications in different fields such as industrial, medicine, home automation, environmental detection, etc. Today, with the proliferation of small communication devices with sensors that collect environmental data, semantic Web technologies are becoming closely related with sensor networks. The linking of elements from Semantic Web technologies with sensor networks has been called Semantic Sensor Web and has among its main features the use of ontologies. One of the key challenges of using ontologies in sensor networks is to provide mechanisms to integrate and exchange knowledge from heterogeneous sources (that is, dealing with semantic heterogeneity). Ontology alignment is the process of bringing ontologies into mutual agreement by the automatic discovery of mappings between related concepts. This paper presents a system for ontology alignment in the Semantic Sensor Web which uses fuzzy logic techniques to combine similarity measures between entities of different ontologies. The proposed approach focuses on two key elements: the terminological similarity, which takes into account the linguistic and semantic information of the context of the entity's names, and the structural similarity, based on both the internal and relational structure of the concepts. This work has been validated using sensor network ontologies and the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) tests. The results show that the proposed techniques outperform previous approaches in terms of precision and recall.

  6. Molecularly Imprinted Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Afzal, Adeel; Hussain, Tajamal; Sharif, Ahsan; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a well-established technology to mimic antibody-antigen interaction in a synthetic platform. Molecularly imprinted polymers and nanomaterials usually possess outstanding recognition capabilities. Imprinted nanostructured materials are characterized by their small sizes, large reactive surface area and, most importantly, with rapid and specific analysis of analytes due to the formation of template driven recognition cavities within the matrix. The excellent recognition and selectivity offered by this class of materials towards a target analyte have found applications in many areas, such as separation science, analysis of organic pollutants in water, environmental analysis of trace gases, chemical or biological sensors, biochemical assays, fabricating artificial receptors, nanotechnology, etc. We present here a concise overview and recent developments in nanostructured imprinted materials with respect to various sensor systems, e.g., electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive, etc. Finally, in light of recent studies, we conclude the article with future perspectives and foreseen applications of imprinted nanomaterials in chemical sensors. PMID:28348356

  7. Tritium-powered radiation sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc S.; Russo, Johnny A.; Katsis, Dimos

    2016-05-01

    Isotope power supplies offer long-lived (100 years using 63Ni), low-power energy sources, enabling sensors or communications nodes for the lifetime of infrastructure. A tritium beta-source (12.5-year half-life) encapsulated in a phosphor-lined vial couples directly to a photovoltaic (PV) to generate a trickle current into an electrical load. An inexpensive design is described using commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) components that generate 100 μWe for nextgeneration compact electronics/sensors. A matched radiation sensor has been built for long-duration missions utilizing microprocessor-controlled sleep modes, low-power electronic components, and a passive interrupt driven environmental wake-up. The low-power early-warning radiation detector network and isotope power source enables no-maintenance mission lifetimes.

  8. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya

  9. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  10. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  11. Potentiometric anion selective sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    In comparison with selective receptors (and sensors) for cationic species, work on the selective complexation and detection of anions is of more recent date. There are three important components for a sensor, a transducer element, a membrane material that separates the transducer element and the

  12. Sensors in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Sensors rapidly become available both for personal as well as scientific use. A wide range of applications exists for personal use e.g. safety in and around the house, sport, fitness and health. In this workshop we will explore how sensors are (can be) used in education. We start with an

  13. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  14. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  15. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  16. 2-Sensor Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Segal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ad-hoc networks of sensor nodes are in general semi-permanently deployed. However, the topology of such networks continuously changes over time, due to the power of some sensors wearing out to new sensors being inserted into the network, or even due to designers moving sensors around during a network re-design phase (for example, in response to a change in the requirements of the network. In this paper, we address the problem of covering a given path by a limited number of sensors — in our case to two, and show its relation to the well-studied matrix multiplication problem.

  17. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  18. Application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruirui

    2013-12-01

    Smart Grid is a promising power delivery infrastructure integrated with communication and information technologies. By incorporating monitoring, analysis, control and communications facilities, it is possible to optimize the performance of the power system, allowing electricity to be delivered more efficiently. In the transmission and distribution sector, online monitoring of transmission lines and primary equipments is of vital importance, which can improve the reliability of power systems effectively. Optical fiber sensors can provide an alternative to conventional electrical sensors for such applications, with high accuracy, long term stability, streamlined installation, and premium performance under harsh environmental conditions. These optical fiber sensors offer immunity to EMI and extraordinary resistance to mechanical fatigue and therefore they will have great potential in on-line monitoring applications in Smart Grid. In this paper, we present a summary of the on-line monitoring needs of Smart Grid and explore the use of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid. First, the on-line monitoring needs of Smart Grid is summarized. Second, a review on optical fiber sensor technology is given. Third, the application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid is discussed, including transmission line monitoring, primary equipment monitoring and substation perimeter intrusion detection. Finally, future research directions of optical fiber sensors for power systems are discussed. Compared to other traditional electrical sensors, the application of optical fiber sensors in Smart Grid has unique advantages.

  19. Underwater sensor nodes and networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    .... This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments...

  20. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.