WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental problems related

  1. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  2. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  3. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... in the external environment. The nature and extent of the practical use of quantitative techniques in corporate environmental management systems is discussed on the basis of a number of company surveys in four European countries.......Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  4. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  5. Environmental problems relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The regulations of the mining and milling of uranium as they relate to the environment are discussed. The industry is primarily under the jurisdiction of the federal government and administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This authority can in some instances be relegated to the states. Certain areas of jurisdiction have been given over to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the courts. The Safe Drinking Water Act is discussed as it relates to in situ leach mining. The role of the Department of Interior in the regulating of uranium mining, as described in the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, is discussed. The requirement for environmental impact statements prior to licensing by the NRC or the individual states is also discussed. Air quality and radioactive waste disposal as they relate to uranium mining are also discussed

  6. Geotechnical and environmental problems related to shales in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Six (6) samples of shale and five (5) water samples from hand-dug wells and boreholes, from different locations within the ... dark grey in colour, blocky, and non-micaceous in most locations. ..... Advances in water treatment and environmental ...

  7. Evaluation of the non-radiological environmental problems relating to the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, T.E.

    1983-02-01

    The major non-radiological environmental problems addressed are: air pollution, water pollution and sanitary waste, solid waste, domestic drinking water, occupational health and safety and toxic chemicals

  8. Framework for regional environmental management. [Problem-solving techniques; public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievering, H.; Sinopoli, J.

    1976-04-01

    A framework for environmental decision-making is described in which both qualitative and quantitative aspects of regional problems can be integrated into a problem-solving context. The techniques employed in this framework are computer simulation, games, and vote-trading. The paper concludes that through this framework: (a) environmental analysts can assess public value structure goal sets which can be used in the development of regional simulations, and (b) in turn, the quantitative aspects of the problems will be more easily communicated to the affected public. A brief description of the application of the framework is also presented.

  9. Falls among elderly and its relation with their health problems and surrounding environmental factors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman A Alshammari

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Falls among the elderly are common. Significantly, if the health of the individuals is impaired, and there are contiguous environmental risk factors, these elements combine to play a part in the occurrence of such falls. There is, therefore, a need to design and develop a health awareness program to prevent such problems in the elderly.

  10. Access to environmental reward mediates the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol problems and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G

    2018-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...

  12. Urban Environmental Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situma, F.D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid urbanization and resultant heavy concentration of population in urban centres have led to many urban areas failing to provide the necessary infrastructure and amenities as the demands placed on them have overwhelmed their financial and institutional capacities. In many urban areas, the capacity for resource mobilization and delivery of social services has either broken down completely or tethers on breaking point. Although in 1986 the GoK launched a new strategy for the balanced development of rural and urban areas aimed at avoiding excessive concentration of population in urban areas, the fruits of this strategy are yet to be realized. As a result, developments in urban areas have been unsustainable and environmentally unsound. The general quality of the environment has deteriorated so much so that urgent policy intervention is required. Appropriate environmental management measures and practices are needed to address the current trend of spiralling environmental problems in the context of the existing legal and institutional frameworks and makes some proposals for reform to address these problems in order to make urban areas environmentally

  13. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  14. The use of remote sensors to relate biological and physical indicators to environmental and public health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between biological, ecological and botanical structures, and disease organisms and their vectors which might be detected and measured by remote sensing are determined. In addition to the use of trees as indicators of disease or potential disease, an attempt is made to identify environmental factors such as soil moisture and soil and water temperatures as they relate to disease or health problems and may be detected by remote sensing. The following three diseases and one major health problem are examined: Malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Encephalitis and Red Tide. It is shown that no single species of vascular plant nor any one environmental factor can be used as the indicator of disease or health problems. Entire vegetation types, successional stages and combinations of factors must be used.

  15. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  16. ELECTED PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL HEAVY METALS EXPOSURE AND CHELATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to heavy metals leads to functional and metabolic disturbances and many of them are included in pathogenesis of common diseases (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative processes. In this context new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies are necessary. Patients diagnosed with chronic heavy metals intoxication usually require chelation to increase mobilisation of metals from tissues and elimination of them via urine. Acute poisoning with toxic metal may be difficult to diagnosis, especially in case of accidental intoxication or suicidal intention. Patients also require chelation after causative factor is identified. Objectives: To describe some problems connected with toxicity of metals poisoning and to review pharmacologic therapies that could have a role in poisoning with metals. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out and expert opinion expressed. Results/conclusion: Chelation is a common therapy in case of poisoning with toxic metals but it is satisfied only partially. A combined therapy with structurally different chelators or long-term acting chelators could become viable alternatives in the future. A combined therapy with an antioxidant plus chelator may be a good choice in patients chronically poisoned with metals. Exposure to lead should be taken into account during estimation of global cardiovascular risk.

  17. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwilliam, K.M.; Geerlings, H.

    1992-04-01

    This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

  18. Application of EREP imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards and environmental problems in mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous fracture traces were detected on both the color transparencies and black and white spectral bands. Fracture traces of value to mining hazards analysis were noted on the EREP imagery which could not be detected on either the ERTS-1 or high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. Several areas of mine subsidence occurring in the Busseron Creek area near Sullivan, Indiana were successfully identified using color photography. Skylab photography affords an increase over comparable scale ERTS-1 imagery in level of information obtained in mined lands inventory and reclamation analysis. A review of EREP color photography permitted the identification of a substantial number of non-fuel mines within the Southern Indiana test area. A new mine was detected on the EREP photography without prior data. EREP has definite value for estimating areal changes in active mines and for detecting new non-fuel mines. Gob piles and slurry ponds of several acres could be detected on the S-190B color photography when observed in association with large scale mining operations. Apparent degradation of water quality resulting from acid mine drainage and/or siltation was noted in several ponds or small lakes and appear to be related to intensive mining activity near Sullivan, Indiana.

  19. Audits reveal ten common environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The old saying that open-quotes an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cureclose quotes rings particularly true in environmental matters in the 1990s. Environmental problems can potentially lead to expensive fines, costly cleanups, negative public relations, and even criminal sanctions against members of the corporation. A recurring pattern of problems has been noted during the performance of environmental disposition, acquisition, and compliance assessments of many different operators in most of the producing states. The ten most common problems found in oilfield audits are discussed here in an effort to enhance the awareness of operators

  20. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  1. Environmental problems: the expert opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental problems constitute one of the questions the most complicated which sets up to modern societies. Indeed, their reasons are multiple and their consequences are not always known with certainty. Several scientific contributions are given in this book on the following fields: the stratospheric ozone, the oceans pollution, the industrial and municipal wastes, the urbanization, the transports, the civil nuclear, the greenhouse effect, the air pollution, the water pollution and the main industrial accidents. Only the five last points are detailed later on. (O.L.). refs., tabs

  2. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2014-01-01

    to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper...... involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also......; (2) implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3) ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification...

  3. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  4. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  5. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, R.; Crowley, J.; Moran, R.

    1992-04-01

    This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

  6. Application of EREP imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards and environmental problems in mining. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. All Skylab 2 imagery received to date has been analyzed manually and data related to fracture analysis and mined land inventories has been summarized on map-overlays. A comparison of the relative utility of the Skylab image products for fracture detection, soil tone/vegetation contrast mapping, and mined land mapping has been completed. Numerous fracture traces were detected on both color and black and white transparencies. Unique fracture trace data which will contribute to the investigator's mining hazards analysis were noted on the EREP imagery; these data could not be detected on ERTS-1 imagery or high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. Stream segments controlled by fractures or joint systems could be identified in more detail than with ERTS-1 imagery of comparable scale. ERTS-1 mine hazards products will be modified to demonstrate the value of this additional data. Skylab images were used successfully to update a mined land map of Indiana made in 1972. Changes in mined area as small as two acres can be identified. As the Energy Crisis increases the demand for coal, such demonstrations of the application of Skylab data to coal resources will take on new importance.

  7. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  8. Environmental problems in the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    This paper provide the authors' views on the environmental problems facing the Department of Energy. Testimony is based on a large body of work, over 50 reports and testimonies since 1981, on environmental, safety, and health aspects of DOE's nuclear weapons complex. This work has shown that the complex faces a wide variety of serious problem areas including aging facilities, safety concerns which have shut down DOE's production reactors, and environmental cleanup

  9. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    2001-01-01

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  10. Approaching messy problems: strategies for environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid; R. R. Ziemer; T. E. Lisle

    1996-01-01

    Environmental problems are never neatly defined. Instead, each is a tangle of interacting processes whose manifestation and interpretation are warped by the vagaries of time, weather, expectation, and economics. Each problem involves livelihoods, values, and numerous specialized disciplines. Nevertheless, federal agencies in the Pacific Northwest have been given the...

  11. Environmental problems facing the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on the environmental problems facing the electricity industry was first presented at the World Electricity Conference, Nov. 1987. According to the author, the biggest immediate environmental challenge the electricity industry faces is the need for the role and importance of nuclear power to be reasserted clearly and unambiguously. The main environmental problems from electricity generation are air pollution and the carbon dioxide/greenhouse issue, and the author thinks that both could be reduced by an increased use of nuclear power as an energy source. (U.K.)

  12. Application of nuclear techniques on environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1998-01-01

    Radioanalysis and tracer techniques that can be used on environmental pollution problems. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are the two methods that are used frequently on such problems. These methods are used for metal analysis. Tracer technique with radioactive labeled compounds are used to study the fate of the pollution substances in environmental systems. It is very important to validate every new developed analysis method, due to the environmental pollution problem closely related to the low enforcement. (author)

  13. Transboundary environmental problems in international politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerrissen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Transboundary environmental problems with their far-reaching consequences impinge on vital interests of the affected countries. As states interdepend not only ecologically but also, or even primarily, economically, environmental problems usually engender a clash between ecological and economic interests. Although economic power is central to getting one's way, economically powerful states by no means always succeed in realising their aims. This topical monograph deals with the subject of regional and global debates and conflicts about transboundary environmental problems. The author points out the prerequisites for realising ecological interests in conditions of complex interdependence, illustrating his findings with two case studies. One is about the establishment of a regime for climate protection, while the other concerns the new ruling on transalpine commercial road transport. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Environmental communication in business relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    in the way, in which a company organise, communicate and learn in order to succeed in business. The ambition level regarding environmental improvements in each strategy can differ. The three strategies are not mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they supplement and support each other. Empirical data...... is collected by means of environmental reports, qualitative questionnaires, and a case study at Grundfos A/S in Denmark. These data will be discussed in relation to the three strategies of environmental communication. Different trends in environmental communication practise are found, and on this basis......, recommendations are made in order to improve environmental communication in business relations....

  15. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  16. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS? ATTITUDES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek OZMEN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine university students? attitudes towards environmental problems and the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on it. The present descriptive study was carried out at the Celal Bayar University School of Health, SHMYO and Faculty of Medicine (N=742. A questionnaire designed by researches and Environmental Attitudes Scale (EAS were applied to n=410 students who were present at the school at the time of applying. Although 65,0% of the students have stated that they were sensitive to environmental issues, 84,9% of them have not participitated to an activity about environmental issues. Total score of EAS of the students of Faculty of Medicine and School of Health, the students whose age were higher than 20, female students, the students who lived longest at city, the students who were sensitive to environmental issues, the students who thought an education must be given in high school, the students who has siblings fewer than 3 and the students whose parents were university graduate were higher than other students (p < 0,05. An education program should be developed for the students who were sensitive about the environmental issues to change their behavior about environmental matters. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 330-344

  17. Environmental problems in Russian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.; Oumnov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the Russian coal industry is complicated both economically and environmentally. Most mines are unprofitable. Several coal mines are intended to be closed. So, under existing conditions, coal mines are unable to give much attention to environmental protection problems. At the same time, coal mining is one of the most polluting industries. The main trends in this industry's negative influence upon the environment are: land spoilage and immobilization to lay out open-pit mines and mineral waste dump areas and tailing piles as well as with industrial waste water runoff; atmospheric pollution with the air coming from underground and substances blown off from dumps, hydrogeological regime intervention in coal mining areas, etc. One way to solve environmental problems in coal mining is a more rational utilization of the accompanying natural coal resources. Such measures make it possible to obtain complementary profits not only at the expense of reducing environmental destruction but producing new kinds of goods or services as well. Examples of similar solutions are solid mineral wastes utilization, underground space utilization, coal gas utilization and other issues

  18. Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach a Pareto optimal outcome with transboundary environmental problems, there must be some kind of international agreement. One possibility would be an international agreement focusing directly on emissions in each country. Given such an agreement, an important issue is whether one should supplement the agreement with some kind of policy coordination, or if the choice of environmental policies should be left for each country to decide for itself. The present paper shows that under ``ideal`` conditions, policies need not be coordinated across countries. Such ideal conditions include, among other things, that all markets, including the labour market, are competitive. However, if one has imperfect competition in goods markets, or unemployment, it may be desirable to let an international environmental agreement not only specify emission levels, but also the policy mix between emission taxes and direct regulation. 16 refs.

  19. Challenges of Environmental Problems to the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moricmichi

    2015-01-01

    We live in an age in which the destruction of the environment has become a major concern. However, until recently, environmental problems have not become a major issue for the philosophy of education. The reason for this is that for a very long time the philosophy of education was intimately related to the concept of nature as the foundation and…

  20. Ecological and Economic Problems of Environmental Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashchenko Maryna A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining a common mechanism for assessing the ecological and economic threats and ecological losses on the basis of a long-term study to ensure the environmental security of the State. The necessity of a new approach to the State regulation through achievement of environmental security is displayed, that will allow to reduce tensions of the ecological-economic problems in Ukraine. For implementation of this approach, a general mechanism for estimation of ecological-economic threats and ecological losses is provided, which is carried out through formation of an integral costs system. The costs system is presented in the article in the form of an in-depth mechanism for estimating the ecological-economic threats on the example of ecological impacts. Structuring and preparation of the costs system for applied researches is the next stage of this prolonged research.

  1. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  2. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Bobolovich, V.N.; Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Kochenov, A.S.; Koryakin, Yu.I.; Stolyarevskij, A.Ya.; Chernyaev, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system [ru

  3. Operational approach to the environmental problems in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, F

    1980-01-01

    Environmental programs associated with socioeconomic development are examined. In most developing countries, environmental problems affecting human health are connected with poverty, over-population, and biological pollutants. An analysis of the environmental problems associated with socioeconomic development in Surabaya City, Indonesia, is presented. An analytical methodology and a mathematical model for an integrated environmental program are described. (1 diagram, 5 references, 5 tables)

  4. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  5. Energy resources of the Denver and Cheyenne Basins, Colorado - resource characteristics, development potential, and environmental problems. Environmental Geology 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.M.; Ladwig, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The geological characteristics, development potential, and environmental problems related to the exploration for and development of energy resources in the Denver and Cheyenne Basins of Colorado were investigated. Coal, lignite, uranium, oil and natural gas were evaluated. Emphasis is placed on environmental problems that may develop from the exploration for an extraction of these energy resources

  6. Junior High School Students’ Perception about Simple Environmental Problem as an Impact of Problem based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    Environmental problem is a real problem that occur in student’s daily life. Junior high school students’ perception about environmental problem is interesting to be investigated. The major aim of this study is to explore junior high school students’ perception about environmental problems around them and ways to solve the problem. The subject of this study is 69 Junior High School Students from two Junior High School in Bandung. This study use two open ended question. The core of first question is environmental problem around them (near school or house). The core of second question is the way to prevent or to solve the problem. These two question are as an impact of problem based learning in science learning. There are two major findings in this study. The first finding, based on most students’ perception, plastic waste cause an environmental problem. The second finding, environmental awareness can be a solution to prevent environmental pollution. The third finding, most student can classify environmental pollution into land, water and air pollution. We can conclude that Junior High School Students see the environmental problem as a phenomenon and teacher can explore environmental problem to guide the way of preventing and resolving environmental problem.

  7. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  8. CFC environmental problems and cooling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, M.O.

    1991-08-01

    The aim of the report is to provide a broad survey of the technological problems imposed on the production of cooling systems by the demands for reduction in the use of chlorofluorocarbons as refrigerants. With regard to industrial research in this area the present situation is clarified and possible future developments are discussed. The influence of CFC gasses on the global environment and international and national legislation within this field are explained. Alternative refrigerants and cooling processes, and ways of reducing refrigerant leakage, are described. It is concluded that currently the use of alternative refrigerants is the policy which is generally accepted, and intensive research is being carried out in this field. R134a should substitute R12 in the cases of household refrigerators and air conditioning, and will soon be commercially available. The use of R22 and ammonia will be extended. This is a practical policy to follow up commercially, whereas the policy of alternative processes presents more problems because they are not so developed and there is less available know-how in this area. The possibilities for hermetic sealing of cooling systems are unrealistic and should anyway be regarded only as a supplement to alternative refrigerants. Within the European Community it is intended to provide standards and regulations in relation to air pollution from refrigerants. (AB) (58 refs.)

  9. Cool energy. Renewal solutions to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, M.

    1992-01-01

    This book begins with a chapter describing some of the economic and environmental consequences of America's fossil-fuel-based economy. It makes the case that, despite some progress in reducing pollution from fossil fuels, no lasting cure for the deteriorating environment - in particular, the looming threat of global warming - is possible without developing alternative fuel sources. That renewable energy can provide the bulk of the new supplies needed is the theme of the second chapter, which discusses the relative advantages of these resources compared to fossil fuels and nuclear power and evaluates their long-term potential. The bulk of the book considers five broad categories of renewable energy sources: solar, wind, biomass (plant matter), rivers and oceans, and geothermal. For each of these sources, the book describes its current application, discusses its costs, analyzes new technologies under development, and assesses its positive and negative environmental impacts. This book shows the vital role renewable sources can and should play in America's energy future. It cites studies indicating that, with the right policies, renewable energy could provide as much as half of America's energy within 40 years, and an even larger fraction down the road. Such a rapid shift from existing energy sources would be dramatic but not unprecedented. In 1920, coal supplied 70% of US energy, but within 40 years its share had dropped to just 20% as oil and natural gas use increased. Sooner or later, oil and natural gas will also fade in importance. The real question is when. This book makes the case that the time to move decisively toward a renewable energy economy has arrived

  10. [How do universities confront and manage environmental problems?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadera, H

    2001-06-01

    Occupational medicine is concerned with the recognition and prevention of diseases related to the work environment. The special tools, namely, epidemiology, toxicology, and public health and clinical expertise, are joined by another specialty, environmental medicine. The Environmental Science Center (ESC) of the University of Tokyo was established in April 1975 for the purpose of treating chemically-hazardous wastes deriving from the university. The ESC houses various sections including research, education, operations, management, and also a waste-collection and-treatment division. In this review, the author intends to summarize the activity of the ESC, and then review the approaches we have applied in order to deal with the environmental problems we have faced.

  11. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  12. Promoting Renewable Energy or Environmental Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raftopoulos, Malayna; Riethof, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    emissions and their vulnerability to climate change and environmental disasters such as droughts, floods, deforestation, landslides and pollution. In environmental terms, Brazil’s exports to China have led to changes in land use focused on export agriculture, the construction of infrastructure in vulnerable...

  13. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lone; Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . The questionnaire included questions on patients' perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74......% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area....... The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2-4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74...

  14. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Traction-related problems are poorly described in the existing literature. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe traction-related problems and how patients perceive these problems. The study was a descriptive cohort study and data were collected from questionnaires and patient files. The questionnaire included questions on patients’ perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area. The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2–4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74% of the patients reported traction-related problems. This is significantly higher than previously reported. The present study found a high rate of complaints from the knee and ankle joints that have not previously been reported. The presented data suggest the need for more pre-surgery patient information about possible traction-related problems. PMID:28630721

  15. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  16. Correcting environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses DOE's efforts to correct the environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex. It focuses on three main points. First, the weapons complex faces a variety of serious and costly environmental problems. Second, during the past year, DOE has made some important changes to its organization that should help change its management focus from one that emphasizes materials production to one that more clearly focuses on environmental concerns. Third, because resolution of DOE's environmental problems will require considerable resources during a period of budgetary constraints, it is imperative that DOE have internal controls in place to ensure that resources are spent efficiently

  17. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  18. Students' Environmental Competence Formation as a Pedagogical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Yelena V.; Yessaliev, Aidarbek A.; Kenzhebekova, Rabiga I.; Moldabek, Kulahmet; Larchekova, Liudmila A.; Dairbekov, Serik S.; Asambaeva, Lazzat

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally conscious and preparation of competent professionals' in higher education system in Kazakhstan is a priority. The need for more effective environmental competence formation for students actualizes the problem of development and scientific substantiation of the theoretical model of students' environmental competence, methods of…

  19. Consumption, Ecological Footprints and Global Inequality: A Lesson in Individual and Structural Components of Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obach, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    As evidence of the growing ecological crisis mounts, it is imperative that sociologists speak to this social problem and incorporate a sociological perspective on environmental issues into the curriculum. Central to understanding how social issues relate to environmental problems is an examination of the ties between consumption and its ecological…

  20. Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.

  1. Can Ethics answer to the modern environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Restrepo, Rubiel

    2012-01-01

    The human being has an indisputable biological and cultural specificity; however, he is constantly in touch with many things of the environment, he uses them, and often depletes beyond the capacity of recovery of that environment. Then, the modern and serious environmental problems arise, and end up compromising the survival of our species as well as every possible shape of life. These situation demands of the human being, attitudes and behaviors that show a responsibility for his environment as for himself, taking into account the gravity of his actions. That the human being gives an account of their own actions, correspond to what historically is known as moral which philosophical study is ethics. But a look to the historically constituted ethics shows that because of their prevailing anthropocentrism, they can not answer to the modern environmental problems. That why is necessary and urgent to think of an alternative ethic, in relation to its principles and its topics, as an answer to the gravity of the environmental issues.

  2. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

  3. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  4. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Maarten B; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-12-16

    To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Review. Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. © Jalink et al 2014.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of environmental problems of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaganovich Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problems of the ecological analysis of physicochemical processes in power units and the impact of energy systems on the nature in large territorial regions. The model of extreme intermediate states developed at the Energy Systems Institute based on the principles of classical equilibrium thermodynamics was chosen to devise specific computational methods. The results of the conducted studies are presented and directions for further work are outlined.

  6. The Burnside problem and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adian, Sergei I

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of results related to the famous Burnside problem on periodic groups. A negative solution of this problem was first published in joint papers of P.S. Novikov and the author in 1968. The theory of transformations of words in free periodic groups that was created in these papers and its various modifications give a very productive approach to the investigation of hard problems in group theory. In 1950 the Burnside problem gave rise to another problem on finite periodic groups, formulated by Magnus and called by him the restricted Burnside problem. Here it is called the Burnside-Magnus problem. In the Burnside problem the question of local finiteness of periodic groups of a given exponent was posed, but the Burnside-Magnus problem is the question of the existence of a maximal finite periodic group R(m,n) of a fixed period n with a given number m of generators. These problems complement each other. The publication in a joint paper by the author and Razborov in 1987 of the first effective proof of the well-known result of Kostrikin on the existence of a maximal group R(m,n) for any prime n, together with an indication of primitive recursive upper bounds for the orders of these groups, stimulated investigations of the Burnside-Magnus problem as well. Very soon other effective proofs appeared, and then Zel'manov extended Kostrikin's result to the case when n is any power of a prime number. These results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Bibliography: 105 titles.

  7. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  8. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, N.; Aykul, H.; Erarslan, K.; Ediz, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  9. Eco-analytical Methodology in Environmental Problems Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agienko, M. I.; Bondareva, E. P.; Chistyakova, G. V.; Zhironkina, O. V.; Kalinina, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Among the problems common to all mankind, which solutions influence the prospects of civilization, the problem of ecological situation monitoring takes very important place. Solution of this problem requires specific methodology based on eco-analytical comprehension of global issues. Eco-analytical methodology should help searching for the optimum balance between environmental problems and accelerating scientific and technical progress. The fact that Governments, corporations, scientists and nations focus on the production and consumption of material goods cause great damage to environment. As a result, the activity of environmentalists is developing quite spontaneously, as a complement to productive activities. Therefore, the challenge posed by the environmental problems for the science is the formation of geo-analytical reasoning and the monitoring of global problems common for the whole humanity. So it is expected to find the optimal trajectory of industrial development to prevent irreversible problems in the biosphere that could stop progress of civilization.

  10. Global environmental problems, voluntary action and government intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Brousseau, E.; Dedeurwaerdere, T.; Jouvet, P.A.; Willonger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The global community faces several very pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, depletion of the high-sea fisheries, and unprecedented rates of biodiversity loss. Governments are in the process of designing environmental policies to address these problems unilaterally, but also

  11. China's Environmental Problems: Selected Issues and Solutions in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1996-01-01

    China has experienced outstanding economic growth in recent decades, but not without environmental problems and costs. Environmental costs have included increased air and water pollution, loss of natural vegetation cover and deforestation, soil erosion and a decline in the fertility of the soil and biodiversity loss. Consequently, some writers have questioned whether China’s rate of growth is environmentally sustainable and doubt if China will attain middle-income status in the next century b...

  12. Environmental problems and economic development in an endogenous fertility model

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Joest; Martin Quaas; Johannes Schiller

    2006-01-01

    Population growth is often viewed as a most oppressive global problem with respect to environmental deterioration, but the relationships between population development, economic dynamics and environmental pollution are complex due to various feedback mechanisms. We analyze society’s economic decisions on birth rates, investment into human and physical capital, and polluting emissions within an optimal control model of the coupled demographic-economic-environmental system. We show that a long-...

  13. Prioritization of environmental cleanup problems at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    New technologies and scientific research are needed to clean up the Hanford Site. However, there is insufficient funding to develop every technology that is identified or to undertake every scientific research project that is proposed. Thus, the Department of Energy (DOE) must focus its resources on science and technology (S ampersand T) that will have the most significant impacts on the overall cleanup effort. Hanford has recognized the importance of identifying and prioritizing its most critical problems and the most promising solutions to them. Hanford cleanup will require numerous decisions about technology development and implementation, which will be complicated because there are substantial uncertainties about the risks and the costs of new technologies. Further, the choice of a specific technology for a specific application must be evaluated with respect to multiple (and often conflicting) objectives (e.g., risk reduction, increasing effectiveness, cost reduction, increasing public acceptability, regulatory compliance). This paper provides an overview of the decision analysis methodology that was used to prioritize S ampersand T needs for Hanford cleanup

  14. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  15. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  16. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  17. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  18. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu Tao; Ma Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu Jian; Zhang Shiqiu

    2007-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  19. Environmental data quality problems: ''Technical'' vs. ''legal'' defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luker, R.S.; Brooks, M.C.; Stagg, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Two significant aspects of environmental data quality are currently being emphasized throughout the industry as critical precursors to environmental decision making: technical integrity and legal defensibility. Because audit findings and consequent perceptions by a client often pose more questions than answers--especially with respect to the ''systemic'' nature and significance of problems based on nonstatistical, ad hoc sampling of large programs--quality assurance in environmental restoration must do more than implement traditional administrative controls. A major problem persists in achieving a consensus opinion between quality assurance and technical staff on the significance of various data problems. This case study compares and contrasts ''technical integrity'' and ''legal defensibility'', and provides performance measures developed to optimize both components in a large, complex DOE environmental restoration program. Performance measures of both administrative and technical processes are being used to ensure that conclusions drawn concerning ''systematic'' problems are not premature, and are founded on thorough, representative aspects of the program. Improved methods to reach consensus opinions on environmental decision-making are imperative and environmental data quality, the cornerstone on which the decisions are built, must be not only scientifically solid, but perceived as solid, if stakeholders are to be satisfied

  20. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  1. Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis VLACHOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx. The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission. The proposed AD algorithm is applied for EED of a simple power system.

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on conduct and antisocial personality problems in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseldijk, Laura W; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M

    2017-01-01

    Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and

  3. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....

  4. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document is updated on a quarterly basis

  5. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis

  6. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  7. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E macro much larger than M P . We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E macro /N·M P .

  8. Students' Preconceptions about Urban Environmental Problems and Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined students' preconceptions about environmental problems in cities, particularly that of urban disposable waste. They found that students' ideas were dominated by what they perceived, without regard to existing interactions, and that students were unaware of the fundamental role of reuse and recycling in the solution of the disposal of solid…

  9. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the environmental problems and methods of waste management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually the one produced by human activities in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or on local ...

  10. Environmental protection - a national and international problem to solve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, O.; Iacob, S.; Marciu, R.; Jedlicska, M.; Jemna, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents solutions for two major environmental problems - decreasing of thermal power plants pollution and air quality monitoring in ares with heavy industrial pollution. The solutions are applied in the most important Romanian fossil power plants in parallel with the retrofitting of the electrostatic precipitators. The air monitoring system, set in one of the 'hotspot' areas in Romania Baia-Mare, is described

  11. Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems : Individual or Institutional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahlquist, J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The actions performed by individuals, as consumers and citizens, have aggregate negative consequences for the environment. The question asked in this paper is to what extent it is reasonable to hold individuals and institutions responsible for environmental problems. A distinction is made between

  12. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Stina; So¨derstro¨m, Hanna; Andersson, Patrik L.; Nording, Malin L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Chemistry covers a range of topics within the discipline of chemistry, from toxicology to legislation, which warrants interdisciplinary study. Consequently, problem-based learning (PBL), a style of student-centered learning which facilitates the integration of multiple subjects, was investigated to determine if it would be a more…

  13. Institutional issues of environmental policy; Institutionelle Probleme der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Institutions and institutional theory are important topics in contemporary economic theory. However, their application to issues of environmental economics still is in its infancy. The book summarizes the state of the art in research on institutional aspects of environmental economics, as seen from the angle of the economic and social sciences, and outlines a variety of perceivable approaches oriented towards integrating the institutional aspects in environmental economic theory. This process eventually leading to broader consideration of implementation problems, enforcement and organisational aspects, legal aspects or market factors and functions influencing environmental policy, theory and practice of environmental policy are expected to draw near to each other and thus create the long-hoped-for chance to commence a true interdisciplinary dialogue about the entire spectrum of environmental issues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Institutionen und Institutionentheorie nehmen in der aktuellen oekonomischen Diskussion einen breiten Raum ein. Ihre Einbeziehung auch in der umweltoekonomischen Diskussion steht freilich erst noch in den Anfaengen. Der Band beleuchtet aus wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Sicht den gegenwaertigen Forschungsstand und vermittelt einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Ansaetze einer fuer institutionelle Probleme offenen Umweltoekonomik. Die Beruecksichtigung von Implementationsproblemen, die Einbeziehung von Vollzugs- und Organisationsfragen, von Rechtsproblemen sowie der konkreten Funktionsbedingungen von Maerkten im Umweltschutz tragen nicht nur dazu bei, dass sich die Theorie und Praxis der Umweltpolitik deutlich naeherruecken, sie bieten auch die lange vermisste Chance eines echten interdisziplinaeren Dialogs ueber Umweltprobleme. (orig.)

  14. Sustainability of urban systems and most important problems related to environmental geological components; Sostenibilita` dei sistemi urbani e principali problematiche geologico-territoriali: L`analisi di dati di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, Francesco; Basili, Mauro; Del Ciello, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The most important aspects of environmental geology, related to the urban syatems are analysed in this paper; the term urban system is here preferred to urban environment, since the second one refers to a part of a complex system, that comprises social, economic, etc. environments. All the possible environmental impacts have been described to evaluate how the urban system is affected by the environmental geological components. They are subdivided into urban impacts on the environment and environmental impacts on the cities. The environmental changes induced by: quarries, natural surfaces waterproofing, drained marshes, subways for transportation networks, bridges and gully-holes, topography changes, natural hollows filling up and ground piles, loss of the natural conditions for river beds, loss of soils, falls in piezometry and connected subsistence phenomena, are classified into the firdt type of impacts, also defined as anthropic risks. The pollution of soils, surface waters (marine and fluvial), groundwater and the impact of watse management and their restorage were also dealth with. The geological risks have also been analyzed as pressure factors from the environmenton the cities. They are generally interrelated and in some cases added up. The main instruments to help monitor and manage the environment are also described. They are monitoring networks that constitute a part of the Informative Environmental Systems. A great relevance is given to the indicators and indexes of the environmental quality, either for the measurement of the quality of life that for the measurement of environmental sustainability of cities. The scientific use of such indicators and indexes is presently a subject of debate world-wide. The authors consider is correct to delineate concise indexes, obtained from state indicators for the quality of life. They are represented by the umber of days/per year in which a service was suspended, or the environment didn`t present the characteristics

  15. New energy technology cope with global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimoto, Tatsuya

    1991-01-01

    At present, the national and private storage of oil is the quantity for about 140 days in total, and it can cope with the temporary fear of oil supply, but if the Gulf War was prolonged, the large effect should be exerted to the energy supply. The reduction of the degree of oil dependence and the increase of the dependence on nonfossil fuel are taken up as the basic idea of the long term energy demand and supply in Japan. Also in the action plan for preventing global warming, the further promotion of energy conservation and the adoption of clean energy were decided to be carried out for decreasing carbon dioxide. In this report, among clean energies, the technology of electric power generation by sun beam, wind force and geotherm is described. The power generation by sun beam has many features, but the energy density is low, and the area for installation becomes large. The cost of power generation is relatively high. The power generation by wind force is superior in its environmental characteristics, and has been already put in practical use in USA and Europe. The problem is the reliability of the system. The geothermal power generation is available also in Japan, and is important for the energy security. The plants of about 270 MW are installed in Japan. (K.I.)

  16. [Saskatchewan Fund for environmental problems]. Annual report and financial statements 1996--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This gives the annual report of the Fund, established by the Provincial Government in 1989 to replace the well deposit system and to provide the government with a means to address unique oil and gas related environmental problems. The Fund guarantees the proper drilling, completion and abandonment of wells, including surface restoration, and allows the government to respond to a major spill or environmental problem when liability for the problem cannot initially be determined. This report describes the purpose of the Fund, and summarizes its activities. A financial statement is included

  17. Overlapping genetic and environmental influences among men's alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, J E; Prom-Wormley, E; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and problems are associated with interpersonal difficulties. We used a twin design to assess in men the degree to which genetic or environmental influences contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support. The sample included adult male-male twin pairs (697 monozygotic and 487 dizygotic) for whom there were interview-based data on: alcohol consumption (average monthly alcohol consumption in the past year); alcohol problems (lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms); romantic conflict and warmth; friend problems and support; and relative problems and support. Key findings were that genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and romantic conflict; genetic factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and romantic conflict; and common and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and friend problems. Recognizing and addressing the overlapping genetic and environmental influences that alcohol consumption and problems share with romantic quality and other indicators of social support may have implications for substance use prevention and intervention efforts.

  18. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  19. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  20. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  1. Insufficiencies in solving global environmental problems by specialized scientific expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, S.G.; Kra, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The most paradoxical and urgent problem faces the world today. We find ourselves between the horns of a dilemma. One horn represents the accelerating demand for energy, and the other, the irreversible degradation of our natural environment. There are two directions that we can take to solve our growing global crisis. The first step is to encourage scientific specialists to think in broader terms. The second necessary approach is to make decision makers aware of the complexity of the situation as well as the dangers of tunnel vision that experts often fall into. Therefore, to find a long-term holistic solution, decision makers, be they government officials or academics, must be, themselves, solution oriented and capable of directing scientists along broadened problem-solving pathways. Up till now, scientists have been required to research environmental problems, discover causal associations and determine effects. Contemporary scientists, in the truest sense of the meaning, are no longer generalists but are specialists in their own fields with great depth and accuracy of knowledge. However, experts of high standing may have difficulty visualizing adjacent sciences, which causes them to lose sight of topics peripheral to their main field of interest. The consequence of this can be that solutions to a problem will be sought only within particular and specialized areas, but it is, unfortunately, a fact of life that environmental problems do not come neatly packaged in scientific disciplines: they happen in their entirety, with all their synergistic implications. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  3. ON THE OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dávalos Chuquipoma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is studied the optimal control of distributed parameter systems applied to an environmental pollution problem. The model consists of a differential equation partial parabolic modeling of a pollutant transport in a fluid. The model is considered the speed with which the pollutant spreads in the environment and degradation that suffers the contaminant by the presence of a factor biological inhibitor, which breaks the contaminant at a rate that is not dependent on space and time. Using the method of Lagrange multipliers is possible to prove the existence solving the problem of control and obtaining optimality conditions for optimal control.

  4. Environmental problems due to mining in Jharia Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.P.

    1985-06-01

    The Jharia coalfield to the NW of Calcutta, India is the most important source of coking coal in the country. Coal mining started in 1890; in 1971-3 the coking coal mines were nationalised, the remainder being operated by the Bharat Coking Coal Ltd., TISCO and IISCO. Intensive mining has resulted in major environmental problems - land damage, water pollution, air pollution and overpopulation - which a major reconstruction programme started in 1976 hopes to solve. 2 references.

  5. Problems and perspectives in energy law and environmental law. Documentation; Probleme und Perspektiven im Energieumweltrecht. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Wolfram; Pielow, Johann-Christian (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This book contains the contributions and discussion of the 13th annual meeting of the Institute of Mining Law and Energy Law of the Ruhr University Bochum. The meeting washed on 6 March 2009 under the title ''Problems and Perspectives in Energy Law and Environmental Law''. (orig.)

  6. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  7. Regulatory problems relating to energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyi, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of basic problems of the transition in the energy economy is, how far the process of liberalisation and privatisation could go, i.e. to what extent the control of state/government would be given up, and how the breakdown of the commanding positions of the government would be managed. The transition in the energy sector toward a market economy is characterised by restructuring the regulatory framework of the energy industry, changing the operational structure of the sector and profound reshaping of ownership structures of the enterprises. In Hungary the government, being convinced of the importance of the implementation of the market forces, in 1991 made the first step on the way of restructuring the energy sector in order to increase economic efficiency, to enable companies to react to market forces and to privatise them. Parallel and partly after the restructuring, a profound modification of legal and regulatory framework took place and finally a relatively large scale of privatisation has newly emerged, which will continue in future, too. The process of the energy sector liberalisation in Hungary has a stop and go character and the game is not over. The process can be characterised by institutional restructuring in the energy sector (coal, oil/gas, power ), which is the basic condition for market liberalisation and privatisation, and by the creation of an appropriate environment (regulatory framework, pricing policy, etc. ) for the smooth implementation of the liberation process(author)

  8. Anholonomic Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Lie derivative approach to the Cauchy problem in general relativity is applied to the evolution along an arbitrary timelike vector field for the case where the dynamical degrees of freedom are chosen as the (generally anholonomic) metric of the hypersurface elements orthogonal to the vector field. Generalizations of the shear, rotation, and acceleration are given for a nonunit timelike vector field, and applied to the three-plus-one breakup of the Riemann tensor into components parallel and orthogonal to the vector field, resulting in the anholonomic Gauss--Codazzi equations. A similar breakup of the Einstein field equations results in the form of the constraint and evolution equations for the anholonomic case. The results are applied to the case of a space--time with a timelike Killing vector field (stationary field) to demonstrate their utility. Other possible applications, such as in the numerical integration of the field equations, are mentioned. Definitions are given of three-index shear, rotation, and acceleration tensors, and their use in a two-plus-two decomposition of the Riemann tensor and field equations is indicated

  9. INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL SECTORS UNDER THE ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to deal with environmental problems for agricultural sectors caused by goods and services production. The aspects to calculate the real benefit of agricultural sectors and environmental cost for analyzing are natural resources materials, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. From the research it was found that the highest environmental cost of natural resources materials was 026: charcoal and fire-wood, while the lowest was 010 coconut. The highest environmental cost for energy and transportation was 024: agricultural services, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was 011: palm oil. lastly, 017: other agricultural products was found as the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar service. As a result, 010: coconut gained the highest real benefit, while 024: agricultural services presented as the lowest read benefit for the company. If Thailand using environmental problem indicator, especially with the agricultural sector, it can help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in 3 development areas, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  10. Some geomedical problems in relation to soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laag, J.

    1988-01-01

    Geomedicine may be defined as the science dealing with the influence of ordinary environmental factors on geographical distribution of health problems in man and animals. An important group of geomedical problems is connected to nutrition. These problems may either be caused by deficiency or surplus of certain matters. Many questions concerning the pollution of nature are classified under the latter group Radioactive pollutants are regarded as important special occurrences under this group. In order to be able to solve complicated geomedical problems, knowledge is needed on the circulation processes rocks-soils-water-plants-animals-man, and waste products back to the soils. The registration of locations of different radioactive elements can give basic material for special geomedical conclusions. Many chemical reactions in which radioactive matter are involved, depend on properties of the soils. Humus and clay minerals have, generally speaking, a high capacity for the absorbtion of soluble matter, but great variations occur. The reactions of radioactive isotopes supplied from the atmosphere, depend on properties of the soil. Radioactive substances are leached relatively rapidly from a soil with low absorption capacity, and may thus be taken away from the circulation in which terrestrial plants, animals and man take part. If the substances is strongly absorbed (fixed), they can also to some extent be withdrawn from the circulation processes

  11. History of global environmental problems. Chikyu kankyo mondai no rekishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, S [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-04-15

    This paper takes general view of the history of global environmental problems. A UN human environment conference was held in Stockholm in 1972, at which the human environment declaration and an action plan were adopted. The most important among the results of the Stockholm Conference were the treaty on international transactions of wild animal and plant species feared of extinction in the 1970's, the international treaty on prevention of pollution caused by ocean vessels, and the treaty on prevention of ocean pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other materials. Also adopted in the 1970's include the action plan to prevent desertification, the action plan on the world population, and the world weather plan. The UN Nairobi Conference in 1982 has sounded the alarm on the delay in tackling with the facing problems and the progress of aggravation in the global environment. In 1987, the ozone layer protection protocol was adopted. The earth summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 adopted the Agenda 21, with which the participating nations, autonomous bodies, and civil organizations have prepared their own Agenda 21, and are now about to begin challenging the global environmental problems. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  13. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness Levels of Electromagnetic Pollution and Other Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…

  14. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Burton, Ian

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  15. Applications of ordered weighted averaging (OWA operators in environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a prioritized weighted aggregation operator based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA to deal with stakeholders' constructive participation in water resources projects. They have different degree of acceptance or preference regarding the measures and policies to be carried out, which lead to different environmental and socio-economic outcomes, and hence, to different levels of stakeholders’ satisfaction. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology has been successfully applied to a Public Participation Project (PPP in watershed management, thus obtaining efficient environmental measures in conflict resolution problems under actors’ preference uncertainties.

  16. Uncertainty related to Environmental Data and Estimated Extreme Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    The design loads on rubble mound breakwaters are almost entirely determined by the environmental conditions, i.e. sea state, water levels, sea bed characteristics, etc. It is the objective of sub-group B to identify the most important environmental parameters and evaluate the related uncertainties...... including those corresponding to extreme estimates typically used for design purposes. Basically a design condition is made up of a set of parameter values stemming from several environmental parameters. To be able to evaluate the uncertainty related to design states one must know the corresponding joint....... Consequently this report deals mainly with each parameter separately. Multi parameter problems are briefly discussed in section 9. It is important to notice that the quantified uncertainties reported in section 7.7 represent what might be regarded as typical figures to be used only when no more qualified...

  17. Engineering solutions of environmental problems in organic waste handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A. Y.; Vasilev, E. V.; Shalavina, E. V.; Kucheruk, O. N.

    2017-10-01

    This study shows the urgent need to consider modernization of agricultural production in terms of sustainable development, which takes into account environmental implications of intensive technologies in livestock farming. Some science-based approaches are offered to address related environmental challenges. High-end technologies of organic livestock waste processing were substantiated by the feasibility study and nutrient balance calculation. The technologies were assessed on the basis of best available techniques criteria, including measures such as specific capital and operational costs associated with nutrient conservation and their delivery to the plants.

  18. Computer Use and Vision.Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate. ... of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of ... prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students.

  19. The problem of the information in the environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra León R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two outstanding elements for the recent studies of environmental regulation: Firsdy the importance of recognizing the rationality agents that participate in the process to be regulated and in the other hand the asymmetric information problem. So, this context shows a mechanism regulation theory to price a natural resource, just like water, under moral hazard and adverse selection. These are issues concerned by every social scientist; therefore geographers must take these tools trying to develop harder works that engage some academic subjects.

  20. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology [it

  1. The Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory: Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R ampersand D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry

  2. Problems in evaluating health effects of occupational and environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Existing standards for exposure are based primarily on estimates of health effects obtained by extrapolation from effects of high-level exposures such as those experienced at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational and environmental exposures provide one source of data for this task. A number of studies of populations exposed in this manner have attracted recent attention. Because of the size of most of the groups and the magnitude of the exposures received, the amount that can be learned from such populations is severely limited. A number of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting such data are addressed. Many of these problems are illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant

  3. Advances in multiphase flow and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, G.

    1986-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop in multiphase flow held at Leesburg, Va. in June 1986 representing a cross-disciplinary approach to theoretical as well as computational problems in multiphase flow. Topics include composites, phase transitions, fluid-particle systems, and bubbly liquids

  4. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  5. The initial value problem as it relates to numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime is foliated by spatial hypersurfaces in the 3+1 split of general relativity. The initial value problem then consists of specifying initial data for all fields on one such a spatial hypersurface, such that the subsequent evolution forward in time is fully determined. On each hypersurface the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature describe the geometry. Together with matter fields such as fluid velocity, energy density and rest mass density, the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature then constitute the initial data. There is a lot of freedom in choosing such initial data. This freedom corresponds to the physical state of the system at the initial time. At the same time the initial data have to satisfy the Hamiltonian and momentum constraint equations of general relativity and can thus not be chosen completely freely. We discuss the conformal transverse traceless and conformal thin sandwich decompositions that are commonly used in the construction of constraint satisfying initial data. These decompositions allow us to specify certain free data that describe the physical nature of the system. The remaining metric fields are then determined by solving elliptic equations derived from the constraint equations. We describe initial data for single black holes and single neutron stars, and how we can use conformal decompositions to construct initial data for binaries made up of black holes or neutron stars. Orbiting binaries will emit gravitational radiation and thus lose energy. Since the emitted radiation tends to circularize the orbits over time, one can thus expect that the objects in a typical binary move on almost circular orbits with slowly shrinking radii. This leads us to the concept of quasi-equilibrium, which essentially assumes that time derivatives are negligible in corotating coordinates for binaries on almost circular orbits. We review how quasi-equilibrium assumptions can be used to make physically well motivated approximations that simplify the elliptic

  6. Ethical Problems Related to Surrogate Motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Aydin

    2006-01-01

    Being unable to have children is an important problem for married couples. At present, new reproduction techniques help these couples while those who can not find any solution try new approaches. One of these is the phenomenon of surrogate motherhood, which is based upon an agreement between the infertile couple and surrogate mother. Surrogate mother may conceive with the sperm of the male of the involved couple as well as by the transfer of the embryo formed by invitro fertilization. Couples...

  7. Ethical Problems Related to Surrogate Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Aydin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Being unable to have children is an important problem for married couples. At present, new reproduction techniques help these couples while those who can not find any solution try new approaches. One of these is the phenomenon of surrogate motherhood, which is based upon an agreement between the infertile couple and surrogate mother. Surrogate mother may conceive with the sperm of the male of the involved couple as well as by the transfer of the embryo formed by invitro fertilization. Couples who choose to have a child born from a pregnancy or to whom they are genetically partially connected rather than adopting a child give rise to the emergence of some ethical problems. Traditional family notion based upon having children after the union of the reproductive cells of the mother and father do not receive the pheneomenon of surrogate mother favourably. Such practices are criticised as they are far from being natural and other ethical problems are faced in the implementation.

  8. Two problems relating to cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needham, T.R.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the First Problem one unambiguous prediction of cosmic censorship is put to the test, namely that it should be impossible to destroy a black hole (i.e., eliminate its horizon) by injecting test particles into it. Several authors have treated this problem and have verified the prediction for various special cases. This author shows that if a general charged spinning particle (with parameters very much smaller than the respective hole parameters) is injected in an arbitrary manner into an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, then cosmic censorship is upheld. He also considers the injection of particles with parameters that are not small compared with those of the hole, for which cosmic censorship is apparently violated. The Second Problem is an investigation of a conjecture by W. Israel. It states, in essence, that collapsing stars will generically form black holes even though naked singularities may also be produced. More precisely, he conjectures that if a trapped surface forms during a collapse then it can be extended toward the future into a spacelike 3-cylinder OMEGA whose sections are trapped surfaces having dimensions that remain bounded above and below.

  9. Development of predictions of future pollution problems. Socio-economic environmental studies series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinn, J.E.; Reimers, R.S.

    1974-03-01

    The report describes the results of a program to identify, rank and project short- and intermediate-term future pollution problems. Identification was accomplished using three independent search approaches based on industrial production, environmental, and societal trends and activity. Primary emphasis was placed on the environmental trends as gleaned from EPA, Battelle, Literature, and other sources. An initial list of problems was compiled with specific stressors identified with each. Nine ranking factors were devised to select ten most serious problems from the initial list. The factors included: persistence; mobility/pervasiveness; environmental, technological, social, and political complexity; physiological risk; research needs; and bulk or volume of the pollutant. The ten problems selected by this method were further ranked in order of relative importance. The ten selected problems in rank order are as follows: (1) Impacts of new energy initiatives; (2) Geophysical modifications of the earth; (3) Trace element (metal) contaminants; (4) Proliferating hazardous and toxic chemicals; (5) Emissions from new automobile fuels, additives, and control devices; (6) Disposal of waste sludges, liquids, and solid residues; (7) Critical radiation problems; (8) Fine particulates; (9) Expanding drinking water contamination; (10) Irrigation (impoundment) practices. Five to ten year projections were made of the ten problems which resulted

  10. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on conduct and antisocial personality problems in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseldijk, Laura W; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M

    2017-06-21

    Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex. Longitudinal data were collected in the Netherlands Twin Register over a period of 27 years. Age appropriate and comparable measures of conduct and antisocial personality problems, assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, were available for 9783 9-10-year-old, 6839 13-18-year-old, and 7909 19-65-year-old twin pairs, respectively; 5114 twins have two or more assessments. At all ages, men scored higher than women. There were no sex differences in the estimates of the genetic and environmental influences. During childhood, genetic and environmental factors shared by children in families explained 43 and 44% of the variance of conduct problems, with the remaining variance due to unique environment. During adolescence and adulthood, genetic and unique environmental factors equally explained the variation. Longitudinal correlations across age varied between 0.20 and 0.38 and were mainly due to stable genetic factors. We conclude that shared environment is mainly of importance during childhood, while genetic factors contribute to variation in conduct and antisocial personality problems at all ages, and also underlie its stability over age.

  12. Current Problems of Improving the Environmental Certification and Output Compliance Verification in the Context of Environmental Management in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhambaev, Yerzhan S.; Sagieva, Galia K.; Bazarbek, Bakhytzhan Zh.; Akkulov, Rustem T.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of improving the activity of subjects of environmental management in accordance with international environmental standards and national environmental legislation. The article deals with the problem of ensuring the implementation of international environmental standards, the introduction of eco-management, and the…

  13. Problems and Issues Related to Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Symposium participants identified policy issues in these areas related to alternative education for at-risk youth: choice, equity, public perception, definition, philosophy, stakeholder involvement, evaluation, staffing, curriculum, governance, and financing. Public discourse and policy discussion were considered essential to implementing…

  14. Possibilities of using solar energy for solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouache, A.; Brakeni, A.; Skrabalek, P.; Ornst, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper there are discussed the possibilities of using solar energy to power supply of electron accelerators that can be used to solve environmental problems, such as sewage treatment and radiation sterilization. Algeria, due to geographical location, has one of the largest 'solar deposits' around the world. Insolation time exceeds 2,000 hours per year and may reach up to 3,900 hours per year on the High Plains and the Sahara. Daily energy that falls on a horizontal surface one square meter is about 5 KWh on the most territory of Algeria, i.e. approximately 1,700 kWh per m 2 per year in the North and 2,263 kWh per m 2 per year in the south. Independent energy sources from the Sun can also bring economic development of the Sahara region.

  15. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis...... Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  16. Ecology and environmental protection - a scientific and political problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenkler, H

    1983-09-01

    The strategy for life in the inter-relationship between way of life and the environment and also the cause of ecological crises and assumptions about biological innovations are indicated in this paper. The aim of man has always been to adapt animate and inanimate nature to his needs. With the help of environmental protection measures it has been possible to extent the ecological load-bearing capacity of the human population. The acceleration of cycles of elements important for the process of life and business which is wide ranging and required on a world wide basis have become a serious problem. Sensible measures for conserving the resources of the environment are a responsibility of the state.

  17. Environmental and safety problems of waste management in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwibach, J.; Jacobi, W.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental and safety problems which waste management in nuclear technology poses are discussed under the aspects of the disposal of radioactive waste by nuclear facilities and the safety of radioactive waste disposal. The release and global distribution of long-lived radionuclides such as tritium, Kr-85, C-14, I-129, and Pu-239 as well as the radiation exposure of the world population resulting thereof are investigated, the authors starting from a specific production rate of the nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Definitions of the terms 'dose commitment' and 'collective dose commitment' are given. Furthermore, local radiation exposure in reprocessing plants is investigated and compared with regional and global radiation exposure. A recommendation is made to take measures which would reduce the nuclides tritium, Kr-85, and C-14 in order to achieve considerably smaller collective doses. (HR/LN) [de

  18. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...

  19. Child prostitution: magnitude and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, T; Berhane, Y

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopia, very little is known about prostitution in general and about child prostitution in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of child prostitution and to identify problems associated with it. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 650 commercial sex workers were interviewed. Eighty eight (13.5%) were below the age of 18 years at the time of data collection. At the time of joining prostitution 268 (41.2%) were under 18 years of age. Poverty, disagreement with family, and peer influence were the major reasons leading to prostitution. Child prostitutes were likely to be victim of physical violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 1.93(1.18,3.15)] and sexual violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 2.20(1.36,3.35)] compared to adult prostitutes. Child prostitutes were about five times more likely to desire rejoining their family than the adult prostitutes [OR = (95% C.I) = 5.47(3.01;9.93)]. Strategies need to be developed to rescue child prostitutes from on-job violence, and to establish a rehabilitation program for those interested to discontinue prostitution along with efforts to minimize entry into prostitution.

  20. Soft Systems Methodology and Problem Framing: Development of an Environmental Problem Solving Model Respecting a New Emergent Reflexive Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Benoit; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Identifies the more representative problem-solving models in environmental education. Suggests the addition of a strategy for defining a problem situation using Soft Systems Methodology to environmental education activities explicitly designed for the development of critical thinking. Contains 45 references. (JRH)

  1. Issues related to the Fermion mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz Adam

    1998-09-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Each illustrates a different aspect of the fermion mass issue in elementary particle physics. In the first part, the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of uniform magnetic and electric fields is investigated. The system is studied nonperturbatively with the use of basis functions compatible with the external field configuration, the parabolic cylinder functions. It is found that chiral symmetry, broken by a uniform magnetic field, is restored by electric field. Obtained result is nonperturbative in nature: even the tiniest deviation of the electric field from zero restores chiral symmetry. In the second part, heavy quarkonium systems are investigated. To study these systems, a phenomenological nonrelativistic model is built. Approximate solutions to this model are found with the use of a specially designed Pade approximation and by direct numerical integration of Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with experimental measurements of respective meson masses. Good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found. Advantages and shortcommings of the new approximation method are analysed. In the third part, an extension of the standard model of elementary particles is studied. The extension, called the aspon model, was originally introduced to cure the so called strong CP problem. In addition to fulfilling its original purpose, the aspon model modifies the couplings of the standard model quarks to the Z boson. As a result, the decay rates of the Z boson to quarks are altered. By using the recent precise measurements of the decay rates Z → bb and Z /to [/it c/=c], new constraints on the aspon model parameters are found.

  2. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  3. The environmental problems of the Senegal coast. Les problemes environnementaux de la cote du Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niang-Diop, I

    1994-01-01

    Situated at the western extremity of the African continent, Senegal possesses a 707 km coastline. The coastal zone, defined as the area lying between an elevation of 6 m on the land side and 10 m depth on the sea side, represents a total area of 12,150 km[sup 2], or 3% of the total land area. A review is presented of the environmental problems facing the Senegalese coastal zone. These problems are numerous and include erosion and desertification, increases in water salinity, and mangrove swamp degradation. These threats are all likely to be enhanced by any climate change caused by global warming, which will lead to sea level rise. Because the coastal zone is highly populated and contains the majority of the country's economic activity, this zone has strategic importance to Senegal. It is important that policy towards this zone trends in the direction of sustainable development. Policy decisions must take into account the environmental threats to the coastal zone, and it is important to raise public awareness on these issues. However, any political action must be matched by measures to relieve the human pressures on the coast. The interior of the country is semi-desert, which encourages a rural exodus. Costal zone management must therefore be coupled with sustainable development throughout the country. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Environmental Health Problems and Indicators in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghanbari Ghozikali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental Health Indicators (EHIs are the most im¬portant criteria for evaluation of effi¬ciency and effectiveness of the activi¬ties of the health sector. The operations and situation of the health sys¬tem can be analyzed through surveying the indicators and comparing them during different times. The present study aimed to study the EHIs of Ta¬briz, using the common environmental health processes and national EHIs of the Ministry of Health. Method: The required information for determination of EHIs was col¬lected from different sources, including mainly the Environmental Health De¬partment of the Health Center of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran and other organizations. Results: We found some important desirable and undesirable EHIs in Ta¬briz, including high percentage of households with access to safe and reliable drinking water, high safety in microbiological and chemical quality of drink¬ing water, acceptable level of BOD5 and COD in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WTP, lack of complete municipal wastewa¬ter collection and treatment, relatively poor sanitation and health of food markets and public places, undesirable collection, transportation and dis¬posal of munici¬pal solid waste, low EHIs of some school classrooms, un¬acceptable disposal of medical waste in some hospitals, and finally high level of noise pollution in the city.Conclusion: Considering the poor condition of some EHIs of Tabriz, im-plementing proper actions for pro¬motion of the indicators especially devel¬opment of municipal wastewater collection, improvement of solid waste management, environmental health of some schools and mosques, and fi¬nally the noise pollution level of the city is recommended.

  5. Hydrogen problems related to reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujor, A.

    1993-09-01

    At reactor accidents, the combustion of hydrogen causes pressure and temperature transients which pose supplementary loads in containment. In certain conditions, they could reach hazardous levels and impair the integrity of the containment and the operability of the safety systems. The mechanisms of chemical reactions specific for the hydrogen-oxygen system are presented. Conditions in which combustion can occur and the various combustion modes, including the transition to detonation are also described. The related safety aspects and mitigation methods are discussed. Examples for particular applications and safety approaches for various types of reactors, included those promoted for the advanced reactors are also given. Presentation of the experimental research completed at AECL-Research, Whiteshell Laboratory is given, where the multi-point ignition effects for constant volume and for vented combustion of dry hydrogen-air mixtures in various geometries have been investigated. Various aspects of modelling and simulation of hydrogen combustion are discussed. The adaptations and the new models implemented in the codes VENT and CONTAIN, aimed to widen the simulation capabilities of hydrogen combustion models are described. The capabilities and limitations of the modelling assumptions of these two codes are also evaluated. (EG) (11 tabs., 39 ills., 82 refs.)

  6. Beyond Science and Technology: The need to incorporate Environmental Ethics to solve Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of science and technology has been critical in improving the lives of mankind. It helps mankind to cope with a number of manmade and natural challenges and disasters. Science cannot totally diminish the level of human dependency on nature; but, with the existing availability of natural resources, science has increased our productivity. However, science and technology can also have its own negative impacts on the natural environment. For the purpose of increasing productivity and satisfying human needs, humans have been egoistically exploiting nature but disregarding the effects of their activities on nature. Science has also been trying its level best to mitigate the negative effects that results from mankind’s exploitation of nature. However, science alone is incapable of solving all environmental problems. This desk research employs secondary sources of data, and argues that environmental ethics should come to the fore in order to address the gap left by science with regard to resolving environmental problems that mankind faces today.

  7. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  8. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  10. The Effects of Argumentation Implementation on Environmental Education Self Efficacy Beliefs and Perspectives According to Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlioglu, Pinar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of argumentation implementation applied in the environmental science course on science teacher candidates' environmental education self-efficacy beliefs and perspectives according to environmental problems. In this mixed method research study, convergent parallel design was utilized.…

  11. Discussion in primary ecological environmental problems and relevant countermeasures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of sufficient statistical data, the primary ecological environmental problems, including water/soil loss and dissertation, water resource shortage and water pollution, deterioration of air quality and air pollution, despoilation of biodiversity, and environmental pollution, are listed in this paper. In addition, the causes of these problems are analyzed. Finally, relevant strategies and measures for environmental protection are brought forward. (authors)

  12. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning

  13. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  15. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ?models? can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks ? one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact ? that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  16. Learning Economics and Attitudes to Market Solutions to Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Harring

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change challenges governments to reduce emissions, and to gain support for such actions from their citizens. This can be in the form of taxation or legislation, or other forms of government interventions. In previous research, several instruments have been developed to capture attitudes towards the roles of markets and governments in the economy. Some of these instruments have assumed that respondents will have the same attitude towards the role of markets and governments, regardless of the context (e.g., welfare, environment, health or the form of government intervention (law, taxation, subsidy, spending etc.. However, these studies have not examined attitudes towards, or belief in, the efficacy of government intervention in markets, through microeconomic policies on taxation (e.g., duties levied on particular products or subsidies. This paper reports on the results of taking such a specific focus, that is, investigating economics students’ knowledge of, and attitudes towards, government interventions in markets, specifically addressing the problem of climate change. We make use of unique, two-wave longitudinal data from Swedish university students. The data were collected during their initial semester at the university. The first data collection was performed at the beginning of the semester, August/September 2014, and the second wave of data collection was performed in December/January 2014/2015, at the end of the semester. We were able to match 414 students between the first and second survey. The results show that students of economics change their policy attitudes and become more knowledgeable in economics. After one semester, they are more likely to think of economic instruments/incentives (taxes and subsidies as good and efficient policy instruments, and less likely to think that other instruments (regulation and information are good and efficient policy instruments. However, further analyses show that knowledgeable students do

  17. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 1): Integrating Knowledge, education, and action for a better world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental sciences/studies movement, with more than 1000 programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, is unified by a common interest-ameliorating environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. Unfortunately, environmental programs have struggled in their efforts to integrate knowledge across disciplines and educate students to become sound problem solvers and leaders. We examine the environmental program movement as a policy problem, looking at overall goals, mapping trends in relation to those goals, identifying the underlying factors contributing to trends, and projecting the future. We argue that despite its shared common interest, the environmental program movement is disparate and fragmented by goal ambiguity, positivistic disciplinary approaches, and poorly rationalized curricula, pedagogies, and educational philosophies. We discuss these challenges and the nature of the changes that are needed in order to overcome them. In a subsequent article (Part 2) we propose specific strategies for improvement. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Problem Formulation in Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) for Environmental Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Thomas, Manoj; Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata; Levy, Jason

    2016-12-15

    With the growing popularity of data analytics and data science in the field of environmental risk management, a formalized Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) process that incorporates all applicable analytical techniques for a specific environmental risk management problem is essential. In this emerging field, there is limited research dealing with the use of decision support to elicit environmental risk management (ERM) objectives and identify analytical goals from ERM decision makers. In this paper, we address problem formulation in the ERM understanding phase of the KDDA process. We build a DM³ ontology to capture ERM objectives and to inference analytical goals and associated analytical techniques. A framework to assist decision making in the problem formulation process is developed. It is shown how the ontology-based knowledge system can provide structured guidance to retrieve relevant knowledge during problem formulation. The importance of not only operationalizing the KDDA approach in a real-world environment but also evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed procedure is emphasized. We demonstrate how ontology inferencing may be used to discover analytical goals and techniques by conceptualizing Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) exposure shifts based on a multilevel analysis of the level of urbanization (and related economic activity) and the degree of Socio-Economic Deprivation (SED) at the local neighborhood level. The HAPs case highlights not only the role of complexity in problem formulation but also the need for integrating data from multiple sources and the importance of employing appropriate KDDA modeling techniques. Challenges and opportunities for KDDA are summarized with an emphasis on environmental risk management and HAPs.

  19. Problem Formulation in Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA for Environmental Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of data analytics and data science in the field of environmental risk management, a formalized Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA process that incorporates all applicable analytical techniques for a specific environmental risk management problem is essential. In this emerging field, there is limited research dealing with the use of decision support to elicit environmental risk management (ERM objectives and identify analytical goals from ERM decision makers. In this paper, we address problem formulation in the ERM understanding phase of the KDDA process. We build a DM3 ontology to capture ERM objectives and to inference analytical goals and associated analytical techniques. A framework to assist decision making in the problem formulation process is developed. It is shown how the ontology-based knowledge system can provide structured guidance to retrieve relevant knowledge during problem formulation. The importance of not only operationalizing the KDDA approach in a real-world environment but also evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed procedure is emphasized. We demonstrate how ontology inferencing may be used to discover analytical goals and techniques by conceptualizing Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs exposure shifts based on a multilevel analysis of the level of urbanization (and related economic activity and the degree of Socio-Economic Deprivation (SED at the local neighborhood level. The HAPs case highlights not only the role of complexity in problem formulation but also the need for integrating data from multiple sources and the importance of employing appropriate KDDA modeling techniques. Challenges and opportunities for KDDA are summarized with an emphasis on environmental risk management and HAPs.

  20. Problem Formulation in Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) for Environmental Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Thomas, Manoj; Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata; Levy, Jason

    2016-01-01

    With the growing popularity of data analytics and data science in the field of environmental risk management, a formalized Knowledge Discovery via Data Analytics (KDDA) process that incorporates all applicable analytical techniques for a specific environmental risk management problem is essential. In this emerging field, there is limited research dealing with the use of decision support to elicit environmental risk management (ERM) objectives and identify analytical goals from ERM decision makers. In this paper, we address problem formulation in the ERM understanding phase of the KDDA process. We build a DM3 ontology to capture ERM objectives and to inference analytical goals and associated analytical techniques. A framework to assist decision making in the problem formulation process is developed. It is shown how the ontology-based knowledge system can provide structured guidance to retrieve relevant knowledge during problem formulation. The importance of not only operationalizing the KDDA approach in a real-world environment but also evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed procedure is emphasized. We demonstrate how ontology inferencing may be used to discover analytical goals and techniques by conceptualizing Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) exposure shifts based on a multilevel analysis of the level of urbanization (and related economic activity) and the degree of Socio-Economic Deprivation (SED) at the local neighborhood level. The HAPs case highlights not only the role of complexity in problem formulation but also the need for integrating data from multiple sources and the importance of employing appropriate KDDA modeling techniques. Challenges and opportunities for KDDA are summarized with an emphasis on environmental risk management and HAPs. PMID:27983713

  1. Environmental influences on neural systems of relational complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layne eKalbfleisch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist learning theory contends that we construct knowledge by experience and that environmental context influences learning. To explore this principle, we examined the cognitive process relational complexity (RC, defined as the number of visual dimensions considered during problem solving on a matrix reasoning task and a well-documented measure of mature reasoning capacity. We sought to determine how the visual environment influences RC by examining the influence of color and visual contrast on RC in a neuroimaging task. To specify the contributions of sensory demand and relational integration to reasoning, our participants performed a non-verbal matrix task comprised of color, no-color line, or black-white visual contrast conditions parametrically varied by complexity (relations 0, 1, 2. The use of matrix reasoning is ecologically valid for its psychometric relevance and for its potential to link the processing of psychophysically specific visual properties with various levels of relational complexity during reasoning. The role of these elements is important because matrix tests assess intellectual aptitude based on these seemingly context-less exercises. This experiment is a first step toward examining the psychophysical underpinnings of performance on these types of problems. The importance of this is increased in light of recent evidence that intelligence can be linked to visual discrimination. We submit three main findings. First, color and black-white visual contrast add demand at a basic sensory level, but contributions from color and from black-white visual contrast are dissociable in cortex such that color engages a reasoning heuristic and black-white visual contrast engages a sensory heuristic. Second, color supports contextual sense-making by boosting salience resulting in faster problem solving. Lastly, when visual complexity reaches 2-relations, color and visual contrast relinquish salience to other dimensions of problem

  2. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  3. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  4. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  5. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  6. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  7. DOE's efforts to correct environmental problems of the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-03-01

    This report focuses on four main issues: the environmental problems at DOE's nuclear weapons complex, recent changes in DOE's organizational structure, DOE's 1991 budget request, and the need for effective management systems. This report concludes that the environmental problems are enormous and will take decades to resolve. Widespread contamination can be found at many DOE sites, and the full extent of the environmental problems is unknown. DOE has taken several steps during the past year to better deal with these problems, including making organizational improvements and requesting additional funds for environmental restoration and waste management activities

  8. Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects. ... Basic findings of this study show that Nigeria.s stability, democracy, and national ... must embrace Inter-religious dialogue which demands religions nurture, faith, trust, ...

  9. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trop J Pharm Res, October 2016; 15(10): 2275. Tropical Journal of ... medication errors in irrational drug use, while patient adherence ..... Drug-related problems identified from geriatric medication safety ... Ann. Pharmacother. 2005; 39:1423-.

  10. Using the internet: skill related problems in users’ online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the conventional and superficial notion of measuring digital skills by proposing definitions for operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The main purpose was to identify individual skill related problems that users experience when navigating the Internet. In

  11. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Ropero, M.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs

  12. Current environmental health problems and initiatives in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugunan Pillay, M.; Debbie Siru

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the various environmental changes that have taken place and the change health status of the people in Malaysia. This includes water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, solid waste pollution, urbanisation and initiatives in environmental health protection via water resources, air quality, solid and toxic and hazardous waste , and urban management

  13. Strategies regarding the environmental problems in Valea Jiului coal basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, G.; Moraru, R.; Matei, I.

    1998-01-01

    The recent progress in environmental management concepts and tools allows to combine economic operation of industry with environmental protection if appropriate measures are used. The paper outlines some key issues facing the mining industry in the greatest romanian coal basin, where coal is industrially exploited for more than 100 years. 3 refs

  14. Current environmental health problems and initiatives in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugunan Pillay, M; Siru, Debbie [Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Engineering Div.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the various environmental changes that have taken place and the change health status of the people in Malaysia. This includes water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, solid waste pollution, urbanisation and initiatives in environmental health protection via water resources, air quality, solid and toxic and hazardous waste , and urban management.

  15. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  16. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Environmental issues in the oilsands : problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental challenges facing the oil sand industry in Alberta are discussed, including the cumulative effects to air, water quality, aquatic ecosystems, soils, vegetation, wildlife, human health and traditional land use. Each of these concerns are briefly reviewed, using Suncor's announced developments as the background. Although ground level excesses of SO 2 and NO x are not expected to be an issue, there are concerns about acidification. Soils and sensitive water bodies can potentially be affected by acid deposition as a result of SO 2 and NO x emissions. Historical ozone monitoring has shown that peak hourly ozone levels have not exceeded air quality guidelines in the last five years in either Fort McKay or Fort McMurray. The conclusion is that environmental impacts are manageable, but predictions based on environmental assessment should be monitored, and if necessary, corrective action be taken. The recent spate of multi-stakeholder collaborative projects such as the Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program (RAMP), the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD), and the Regional Air Quality Coordinating Committee (RAQCC) collectively do a very good job of ensuring responsible management of environmental and socio-economic issues. An environmental management system model structured with a regional board representing various stakeholders with a number of technical issue groups reporting to the Board has been proposed. The proposed model is now under assessment by the Cumulative Environmental Effects Management Initiative (CEEM), a group that includes aboriginal groups, federal, provincial, and municipal governments, environmental groups and regional resource industries

  18. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  19. Environmental issues related to biomass: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    With public attention increasingly focused on environmentalism and climate change, there is enormous potential for the commercial use of biomass to accelerate. Renewable feedstocks such as biomass can provide more environmentally balanced sources of energy and other non-food products than fossil fuels. Biomass utilization is in a precarious position, however, with public attention increasingly focused on both its potential and the strength of the challenges it faces. The paper is divided into five sections. Section 2 briefly addresses economic environmental issues. The extent to which externalities are accounted for in the market price of fuels plays a significant role in determining both the ultimate size of biofuel markets and the extent of the environmental benefits of feedstock cultivation and conversion processes. Sections 3 through 4 catalogue the main hazards and benefits that are likely to arise in the large scale commercialization of biomass fuel and note where the major uncertainties lay. Environmental issues arise with the cultivation of each feedstock and with each step in the process of its conversion to fuel. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3 in terms of three main groups; wastes, energy crops, and traditional agricultural crops. In Section 4, conversion processes are also divided into three groups, on the basis of the end energy carrier; gas, liquid, and solid and electricity. Section 5 is devoted to a conclusion and summary

  20. Trust and cooperation relations in environmental management of Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Nivine; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates trust and cooperation in the context of environmental management in Lebanon. Literature already indicated increasing environmental problems in this area that suffered from repeated episodes of armed conflict. The Lebanese government has been faced by many difficulties to

  1. Light pollution : A case study in framing an environmental problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Light pollution is a topic gaining importance and acceptance in environmental discourse. This concept provides a framework for categorizing the adverse effects of nighttime lighting, which advocacy groups and regulatory efforts are increasingly utilizing. However, the ethical significance of the

  2. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Pignotti, S.

    2000-01-01

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion [it

  3. The Environmental Education on the Ethical Development Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto González-Escobar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this literature review is to understand the complexity of the environmental issue in a context of civilizational crisis generated by the scientific paradigm and the prevailing forms of knowledge. From this research, the objective is to evaluate the pedagogical exercise and the role of the environmental education in the supreme task of forming a cognitive, ethical, political, and historical subject capable of taking the new planetary challenges on. The structural order of this essay focuses on a critical reflection on the environmental crisis; it also questions the restrictions of the environmental education, and, from the complexity, the reasons for trying to incorporate new fields of study with a transdisciplinary approach. This paper analyzes the structural causes of the discourse of development as factors that generate the social, political and environmental conflict in Colombia. These causes are reflected in an institutional crisis, absence of the State, and, therefore, in governability; for which education makes possible a pedagogical exercise in a critical formation that leads to a configuration of democracy and public management. The exercise of power, the decision-making and the role of human subjects must be accomplished in a conscious and ethical way (integrative values. In order to achieve this, an ethics of development is essential to understand and assume responsibility for environmental issues. It is understood, then, that the development supports an ethical dimension promoting sustainable interactions between the society and the nature.

  4. The Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem Under Environmental Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Philip; Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kontovas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem (LSRSP), which consists of designing the time schedule for a vessel to visit a fixed set of ports while minimizing costs. We extend the classical problem to include the external cost of ship air emissions and we present some...

  5. Effect of Environmental Education Based on Transformational Learning Theory on Perceptions towards Environmental Problems and Permanency of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine effect of environmental education based on transformational learning theory on primary school teacher candidates' perceptions towards environmental problems and permanency of learning. Pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design have been used in this study. The study group consists of 66 teacher candidates who…

  6. Proceedings of the fifth national symposium on environment: focal theme environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.N.; Bapat, V.N.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1996-02-01

    The fifth National Symposium on Environment was held in Calcutta from February 28 to March 1, 1996. It focused on environmental issues related to mining, milling and metallurgy. Some of the topics covered are coal mining and related environmental issues, chromium mining and associated environmental problems, heavy metals especially nuclear materials and the environmental management strategies, arsenic contamination in water in West Bengal areas and radiological issues related to fertilizers and gypsum industries. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. refs., figs., tabs

  7. What if solar energy becomes really cheap? A thought experiment on environmental problem shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, Van den Jeroen; Folke, Carl; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Steffen, Will

    2015-01-01

    Solving one environmental problem may often invoke or intensify another one. Such environmental problem shifting (EPS) is a neglected topic in global sustainability research. Indeed, it is difficult to study as it requires the merging of insights from various research areas. Here we identify

  8. What if solar energy becomes really cheap? A thought experiment on environmental problem shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Folke, C.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Solving one environmental problem may often invoke or intensify another one. Such environmental problem shifting (EPS) is a neglected topic in global sustainability research. Indeed, it is difficult to study as it requires the merging of insights from various research areas. Here we identify

  9. Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.

  10. Environmental Values related to fish and wildlife lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2000-01-01

    THe purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of key concepts related to environmental values and their importance for public land managers. The following section defines environmental values and discusses their relationship to environmnetal attitudes and beliefs. This is followed by presentation of a broad system for classifying environmental values and...

  11. 78 FR 8964 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FTA-2011-0056] RIN 2132-AB03 Environmental Impact and Related... an environmental impact statement. DATES: Effective on February 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the list of project types that normally result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement...

  12. Some human-related problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1980-01-01

    Radiation protection includes both human and source-related problems. The human problems have not only medical but also social aspects, such as labor management. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the subject of radiation protection is not a human being as living thing but as member of society. ICRP recommended that conditions of work can be divided into two classed, working condition A and B, according to annual exposure. This application is of great value to radiation protection practice. Nevertheless the legal regulations do not adopt it yet. The present condition of the medical surveillance of radiation workers is not appropriate from the scientific standpoint. This is the difficult problem which is caused by the delay of the legal application of ICRP recommendation. Compensation for occupational radiation hazards should be overlooked. This problem have been investigated by an authorized committee, but a number of unsolved problems still remain. (author)

  13. An Analysis of the Problems of Developing Environmental Education in Brazilian Federal Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Cristina A. R.; Filho, Walter Leal; Hale, William H. G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the problems encountered in developing environmental education in federally protected areas in Brazil. Suggests that the development of environmental education in those protected areas has several limitations including financial resources, lack of training, material resources, and lack of policy on environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  14. Review: Groundwater resources and related environmental issues in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aibing; Zhang, Yilong; Zhang, Eryong; Li, Zhenghong; Yu, Juan; Wang, Huang; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yao

    2018-05-01

    As an important component of water resources, groundwater plays a crucial role in water utilization in China and an irreplaceable role in supporting economic and social development, especially in the northern arid and semi-arid plains and basin areas, which are densely populated and relatively short of surface-water resources. This paper comprehensively reviews and discusses the regional hydrogeological conditions, the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater, the groundwater quality, and the actuality of groundwater exploitation and utilization in China. Meanwhile, aiming at the environmental problems induced by overexploitation to meet the sharply increasing water demand, this paper puts forward the major tasks for the next few years in terms of groundwater exploitation control, conservation and management.

  15. Environmentally related taxes in OECD countries: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Economic instruments, including environmentally related taxes, play an increasing role in the environmental policies of developed countries. This publication addresses the use of environmental taxes and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage. It finds these taxes are a powerful tool for implementing environmental strategy. It also describes obstacles to increased use of such taxes (e.g. concerns about competitiveness and distributional effects) and suggests ways to overcome such barriers. Particular attention is given to issues and options related to taxes on greenhouse gases. 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Keywords: Environment, Methods, Problems, and Waste Management. ... Solid waste management differs in developing countries like Nigeria, and in ..... References. Adegoke, O.S. ... Textbook of Public Health Medicine for the Tropics. 4th Ed.

  17. Centrifuge Modelling of Two Civil-Environmental Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Research Problem 1: Frost heave and thaw induced settlement in silt and silty clay developing over a year have been modelled correctly using a geotechnical centrifuge with tests requiring less than a day...

  18. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  19. Press problem related to nuclear energy news reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)

  20. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document the inte......Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document...... the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug......-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form, and tallied the number of patients they served on another form. Setting. One hundred and sixteen community pharmacies and 12 outpatient hospital pharmacies. Key findings. One problem or more was identified among 2.5 per cent...

  1. Applying real options in investment decisions relating to environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tyrone T. [Department of International Business, National Dong Hwa University, 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Road, Shou-Feng, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tjlin@mail.ndhu.edu.tw; Ko, C.-C. [Department of International Trade, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Yeh, H.-N. [Graduate School of Management, Ming Chuan University, Taiwan (China)

    2007-04-15

    This study focuses on how to assess the optimal environmental investment decisions under economic and ecological uncertainty, and establishes the continuous time model using the real option approach to optimize environmental pollution policy. Unlike traditional cost benefit analysis, this work extends the model of [Pindyck, R.S., 2002. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 26(9-10), 1677-1697], and attempts to identify the storage threshold of pollution stocks and the optimal timing for implementing environmental pollution decisions.

  2. Applying real options in investment decisions relating to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tyrone T.; Ko, C.-C.; Yeh, H.-N.

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how to assess the optimal environmental investment decisions under economic and ecological uncertainty, and establishes the continuous time model using the real option approach to optimize environmental pollution policy. Unlike traditional cost benefit analysis, this work extends the model of [Pindyck, R.S., 2002. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 26(9-10), 1677-1697], and attempts to identify the storage threshold of pollution stocks and the optimal timing for implementing environmental pollution decisions

  3. Plants and their microbial assistants: Nature's answer to Earth's environmental pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of higher plants and their associated microorganisms to solve environmental pollution problems on Earth and in future space applications is briefly reviewed. If man is sealed inside closed facilities, he becomes a polluter of the environment. It is also common knowledge to most people that man cannot survive on Earth without green photosynthesizing plants and microorganisms. Therefore, it is vitally important to have a better understanding of the interactions of man with plants and microorganisms. Biosphere 2 and other related studies presently being conducted or planned, hopefully, will supply data that will help save planet Earth from impending environmental disaster. The development of means to utilize both air and water pollution as a nutrient source for growing green plants is examined.

  4. Digital Libraries Creating Environmental Identity through Solving Geographical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Hedberg, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental identity, or how we orient ourselves to the natural world, leads us to personalise abstract global issues and take action (or not) according to our sense of who we are. For example, are we willing to give up our luxurious cars for more fuel-efficient models even though we know that the earth is warming? In an era where web-based…

  5. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes, Knowledge Levels and Sensitivities towards Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozkan

    2017-01-01

    "A people without children would face a hopeless future; a country without trees is almost as helpless" (Theodore Roosevelt). Humans both have been affected by environmental events and have affected their environments by a variety of activities since man has been on earth. However, because of the lack of population for a long time and…

  6. Special relativity. An introduction with 200 problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamparlis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity. (orig.)

  7. Special relativity. An introduction with 200 problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsamparlis, Michael [Athens Univ., Zografos (Greece). Dept. of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics

    2010-07-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity. (orig.)

  8. Special Relativity An Introduction with 200 Problems and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamparlis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity.

  9. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  10. The problem of non-discrimination in labor relations

    OpenAIRE

    Вишновецька, Світлана Василівна; Національний авіаційний університет; Пінчук, Ольга Борисівна; Національний авіаційний університет

    2015-01-01

    The problem of discrimination on the grounds of gender and age in the field of labor relations are investigated in the article. International and Ukrainian legal regulation of non-discrimination as a guarantee of the right to work was analyzed; solutions to the problem are proposed in the article. The different points of view on the concept of discrimination in labor relations were studied by the authors. It was founded that discrimination by age and gender are the most extended forms of disc...

  11. The application of nuclear science technology to understanding and solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants

  12. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  13. Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty.

  14. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, T.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  15. Health and environmental problems of using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1970's, a core of depleted uranium (DU) began to be introduced into the break through anti-tank munitions to enhance their effectiveness. The health and environmental threats of DU stem from the pyrophoric character of the core, burnt when penetrating armour to an aerosol of uranium oxides deposited in tissues after inhalation or ingestion. Their delayed effects are due to internal alpha irradiation by daughter products and toxicity of uranium. (authors)

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  17. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  18. Assessment of the environment-related problems and prospects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempted to assess the environment-related problems and prospects of vegetable production in peri – urban areas of Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) farmers were interviewed. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation ...

  19. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: The materials reviewed in this publication ...

  20. RUSSIAN CORPORATIONS: THE PROBLEM OF INTRACORPORATE RELATIONS AND INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Brizhak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article actualizes the problem of the study of intra-corporate relations and economic interests of the various economic actors involved in the corporate environment of the Russian economy. The author considers the specific conditions of socio-economic and innovative development of Russian big business.

  1. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  2. Drug-related problems in patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug-related problems are especially frequent among patients suffering from non-communicable diseases, like osteoporosis, leading to suboptimal treatment response. The aim of this study was to identify drug-related problems in patients with osteoporosis. Methods. This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in January 2014 on outpatients with osteoporosis from three health facilities in Belgrade, Serbia. The patients included in the study were older than 50 years, and they were offered an anonymous questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results. There were 355 study participants, 329 (92.7% females and 26 (7.3% males. The patients who experienced at least one osteoporotic fracture (n = 208 were significantly less adherent to the therapy, less engaged in sports and regular physical activities, and more prone to nutrition with inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D than patients without fractures (n = 147. Conclusion. The effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment is decreased by several drug-related problems encountered by both physicians and patients. However, the majority of the drug-related problems could be greatly influenced by appropriate educational programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175007

  3. Energy-momentum distribution: A crucial problem in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed to elaborate the problem of energy–momentum in general relativity. In this connection, we use the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau–Lifshitz, Papapetrou and Möller to compute the energy–momentum densities for two exact solutions of Einstein field equations. The space–times under

  4. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  5. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  6. The relation of eating problems and amenorrhea in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Warren, M P; Hamilton, L H

    1987-02-01

    Exercise-induced amenorrhea has received considerable attention in the medical literature. The combination of exercise and low body weight is thought to exert synergistic effects in the pathogenesis of amenorrhea, while the role of dieting and eating problems, another possible causative mechanism, has not been examined. A sample of 55 adult dancers in national and regional classical ballet companies was studied; their mean age was 24.7 yr. Fifty-six percent of the dancers had delayed menarche (age 14 or later) and 19% of the sample were currently amenorrheic (5 months or longer). One-third of the dancers reported having had an eating problem (self-reported anorexia nervosa or bulimia). Amenorrhea and reported eating problems were significantly related: 50% of amenorrheics reported anorexia nervosa while 13% of the normals did. In addition, prolonged amenorrhea was significantly related to dieting (as measured by EAT-26 scales, a measure of dieting behavior). As expected, leanness and absolute weight also were related to prolonged amenorrhea. Amenorrhea in this sample of adult dancers was not related to current activity level or age at which training began. Thus, eating problems may be one factor in the pathogenesis of prolonged amenorrhea in certain athletic groups.

  7. Pharmacists' Intervention to Reduce Drug Related Problems in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite advances in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV/AIDS, drug-related problems (DRPs) still remain an issue, particularly in developing countries. This study evaluated the incidence of DRPs among HIV/AIDS patients in a HIV/AIDS care centre in southern Nigeria and the ...

  8. Characteristics of potential drug-related problems among oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, Arjan; Imholz, Alex L. T.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Jansman, Frank G. A.

    Background Oncology patients are more at risk for drug related problems because of treatment with (combinations of) anticancer drugs, as they have a higher risk for organ failure or altered metabolism with progression of their disease. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and to

  9. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  10. Employers’ View on Problems Related to Workforce Skills and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimplová Lenka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study is to reveal employers’ views on problems related to workforce human capital (skills and qualification. Where do employers themselves view the core of difficulties with ensuring adequately skilled workforce? Do they assign them to technological and organizational changes (a functional concept of job-specific human capital obsolescence, or do they see these problems as a result of other circumstances, such as macro-structural conditions or institutional settings? To answer these questions selected employers in mechanical engineering and information technology sectors in the Czech Republic were interviewed. The results show that the employers see the problems: 1 on the side of workforce – insufficient abilities and skills, exaggerated demands and low motivation; 2 as inadequate capacities and capabilities of the organization itself; 3 at macro-level as institutional shortcomings in the initial educational system and social benefits system. The problems related to workforce skills and qualification cannot be, thus, interpreted only in the functionalist view as job-specific human capital obsolescence, but the formulation of the problems is significantly affected by the institutional framework.

  11. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  12. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sofany, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H 2 O and MeOH: H 2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  13. Anxiety and health problems related to air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, I B; Swanson, V; Power, K G; Raeside, F; Dempster, C

    1998-12-01

    A significant proportion of air travelers experience situational anxiety and physical health problems. Take-off and landing are assumed to be stressful, but anxiety related to other aspects of the air travel process, anxiety coping strategies, and in-flight health problems have not previously been investigated. We aimed to investigate frequency of perceived anxiety at procedural stages of air travel, individual strategies used to reduce such anxiety, and frequency of health problems on short-haul and long-haul flights. A questionnaire measuring the occurrence and frequency of the above was administered to two samples of intending travelers during a 3 month period to: (a) 138 travel agency clients, and (b) 100 individuals attending a hospital travel clinic. Of the 238 respondents, two thirds were women. Take-off and landing were a perceived source of anxiety for about 40% of respondents, flight delays for over 50%, and customs and baggage reclaim for a third of individuals. Most frequent anxiety-reduction methods included alcohol and cigarette use, and distraction or relaxation techniques. Physical health problems related to air travel were common, and there was a strong relationship between such problems and frequency of anxiety. Travel agency clients reported more anxiety but not more physical health symptoms overall than travel clinic clients. Women reported greater air-travel anxiety, and more somatic symptoms than men. Significant numbers of air travelers report perceived anxiety related to aspects of travel, and this is associated with health problems during flights. Airlines and travel companies could institute specific measures, including improved information and communication, to reassure clients and thereby diminish anxiety during stages of air-travel. Medical practitioners and travel agencies should also be aware of the potential stresses of air travel and the need for additional information and advice.

  14. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  15. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  16. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  17. 77 FR 51824 - Environmental and Related Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leader Jennifer Powell (202- 205-3450 or [email protected] ) or Deputy Project Leader Joann Peterson (202-205-3032 or [email protected] ) for... related services, that, to the extent practicable: Estimates the size of the U.S. and global markets for...

  18. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  19. Highlights of some environmental problems of geomedical significance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lar, U A; Tejan, A B

    2008-08-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the links between the geochemical composition of rocks and minerals and the geographical distribution of diseases in human beings in Nigeria. We know that the natural composition of elements in our environment (in the bedrock, soils, water, and vegetation) may be the major cause of enrichment or depletion in these elements and may become a direct risk to human health. Similarly, anthropogenic activities such as mining and mineral processes, industrial waste disposal, agriculture, etc., could distort the natural geochemical equilibrium of the environment. Thus, the enrichment or depletion of geochemical elements in the environment are controlled either by natural and/or anthropogenic processes. The increased ingestion of toxic trace elements such as As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and F, whether directly or indirectly, adversely affects human health. Of these, Cd has most dangerous long-term effect on human health. Environmental exposure to As and Hg is a causal factor in human carcinogenesis and numerous cancer health disorders. Available information on iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Nigeria indicates goiter prevalence rates of between 15% and 59% in several affected areas. There have been reported cases of dental fluorosis resulting from intake of water with fluoride content >1.5 ppm. Dental caries among children shows an overall prevalence rate of 39.9%. Within the Younger Granite province in central Nigeria, cases of cancer and miscarriages in pregnant women have been linked to natural radiation These examples and a number of others from the existing literature underscore the pressing need for the development of collaborative research to increase our understanding of the relationship between the geographical distribution of human and animal diseases in Nigeria and environmental factors. We submit that such knowledge is essential for the control and management of these diseases.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Costa Araujo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En la pasada década, el modelo de desarrollo brasileño fue caracterizado por el crecimiento económico a través de una fuerte industrialización. Una de las principales estrategias del gobierno en ese período, consistió en proveer la necesaria infraestructura a la actividad industrial, principalmente en los sectores del transporte, telecomunicaciones y energía. Los sistemas de transmisión tuvieron una parte fundamental en ese proceso, como elementos distribuidores de electricidad para la atención de necesidades de la industria y la urbanización. Atenuar los eventuales efectos medioambientales y sociales negativos de empresas del sector eléctrico, constituye ahora algo concerniente al gobierno, como lo indica la demanda legal de la evaluación del impacto medioambiental (EIM para el cumplimiento de este tipo de actividad.

    Abstract

    In the last decades, the model of brazilian development was characterized by the economic growth through a fast industrialization. One of the main government strategies, in that period, consisted on the supply of necessary infrastructure to the industrial activity, mainly in the transport sections, telecommunication and energy. The transmission systems had a fundamental part in that process, as elements distributors of electricity for the attending to the needs of the industry and the urbanization. The attenuation of the eventual environmental effects and social negatives of enterprises of the electric section are constituted, now, in a government concern, as it indicates the legal demand of the environmental impact assessment (EIA for the accomplishment of this type activity

  1. Some problems of solar-terrestrial energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevskij, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    Energy aspects of relations of phenomena occurring on the Sun, in the interplanetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere and on the Earth's surface are discussed. Particular attention is given to the energy radiated by the Sun (flares, coronal holes). The problems are considered of the energy transfer and transformation in high-velocity and flare flows of solar wind. Estimates are performed: of densities of various types of energy of the interplanetary space at the Earth's orbit level; energy fluxes incident on the magnetosphere; energy accumulated inside the magnetosphere; a series of energy parameters of magnetic storms. It is pointed out that nowadays one of the main problems of the magnetosphere physics is studying ways of the interplanatary space energy transfer into the magnetosphere. In this connection some problems are investigated: plasma penetration through the dayside magnetopause, solar wind plasma entry into the magnetotail, the electric field effect on transition region plasma penetration into the distant magnetotail

  2. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  3. Public acceptance and public relations. Communication approach to related pre-public relation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y [Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1977-07-01

    A set of problems are discussed, which must be studied before the public relations are dealt with. Firstly, the trade-off between energy and health must be considered. Although the probability of death caused by atomic accidents is very small (one three hundred millionth a year), many peoples hate atomic power and oppose to the construction of nuclear power plants. Four reasons for this are considered: (1) social diffusion of innovation, (2) nuclear allergy, (3) shortage of the conception of risk-benefit, and (4) heterogeneity of the public. According to the investigation of the relationship between electric power and livelihood, carried out by the policyand science research institute in Tokyo, the highly subjective decision for the acceptance of atomic power is independent of the objective knowledge on atomic power.

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs

  5. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  6. Odors problem in the national and international environmental legislation. Prescriptions, limits and guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littarru, P.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper expounds the main Italian laws and some international laws and guidelines on the problem of environmental impact of odours, with the attempt to arrive to an odours disturbing criterion as objective and applicable as possible [it

  7. Excel 2016 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Environmental Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand environmental science problems. Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapte...

  8. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M

    2009-02-01

    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  9. Survey of perception of the environmental problems in Arauca (Colombia): Tools for ecosystem assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Montano, Carolina; Garcia Conde, Mary Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of environmental goods and services is a useful tool for the conservation and appropriate ordination of natural resources of a region. Nevertheless, in developing countries, more susceptible to the illiteracy, it is fundamental that people have an appropriate knowledge about the environment to get a fair valuation. In Arauca (Colombia) we carried out a study of perception, in order to establish what people understand by the term environment, how they understand the environmental problems and how is possible to contribute to the solution of these problems. There were used surveys with questions that generate qualitative and quantitative information, comparing two populations by age: older adults and underage people. In total 398 people were surveyed and the results suggest that in general there is no significant difference between the perception of older adults and youth people, although the latter receive an important knowledge from basic training in schools. Population is concerned about the reduction in the quality of water and food, and considers the industry especially oil companies, are the major factors in the degradation of the environment. There is a requirement of educational effort, especially on issues such as fauna, flora and contamination, but there is a negative 49% to increase contributions to the state to improve the quality of the environment. Finally, the general perception is that agricultural and livestock activities do not relate significantly to the environment. We propose many actions previous to a contingent valuation study.

  10. The carbon dioxide problem - a challenge to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.; Spalthoff, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Over the last century, man's activities on earth have sent off trace gases into the planet's atmosphere that have been concentrating to a level posing a threat to the global climate. Since scientists particularly spotted carbon dioxide as the main contributor to what we now call the greenhouse effect, there is urgent need for measures reducing carbon dioxide emission worldwide, may be on the basis of a global convention to be signed by both the industrialised and the developing countries. The industrialised countries, which certainly are the main pollutors, also will have the technological and financial resources to respond to the challenge of global warning more directly and faster than the developing countries. The power industry's management in the FRG is taking the problem seriously and has already come out with strategies for curbing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power plant. (orig.) [de

  11. Developing a system dynamics model to analyse environmental problem in construction site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Fatin Fasehah; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to develop a system dynamics model at a construction site to analyse the impact of environmental problem. Construction sites may cause damages to the environment, and interference in the daily lives of residents. A proper environmental management system must be used to reduce pollution, enhance bio-diversity, conserve water, respect people and their local environment, measure performance and set targets for the environment and sustainability. This study investigates the damaging impact normally occur during the construction stage. Environmental problem will cause costly mistake in project implementation, either because of the environmental damages that are likely to arise during project implementation, or because of modification that may be required subsequently in order to make the action environmentally acceptable. Thus, findings from this study has helped in significantly reducing the damaging impact towards environment, and improve the environmental management system performance at construction site.

  12. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    -coverage expression profiling) developed in NIRS gives gamma-ray responding multiple genes of a springtail and fresh water algae. The project STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) started from this year in Europe is worth to watch. In Japan, ERP issues will be more eagerly discussed hereafter in relation to working of a large scale fuel reprocessing facility, region of deep geological repository of radioactive wastes and current problems in Fukushima Power Station. (T.T.)

  13. The problem of time quantum mechanics versus general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon ...

  14. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and…

  15. BIO-REMEDIATED SOIL TECHNIQUES: SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of ureolysis increases the surrounding pH of the environment due to the production of ammonia and bicarbonate. The result of this alkaline environment may change the relative abundance of members in the population, for example, by favoring the growth of alkalinop...

  16. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... Results: Three thousand and twenty-one children were seen during the study period. Out of these, 248 children (8.2%) pre- sented with ear-related problems. Chronic otitis media (30.5%), acute otitis media (29.9%), cerumen auris (11.3%), otitis ex- terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body ...

  17. Leveraging educational, human resources, and organizational infrastructure to provide solutions to environmental remediation work force problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, G.B.; Kinsel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering and environmental science is so new that many colleges and universities have only begun the process of bringing academic program, into their areas. Many professional personnel don't need full degree programs but may need only certain courses to enhance their skills in the environmental area. This article discusses the partnership between the Hanford contractors, DOE-RL, and Washington State University in an innovative way in solving a portion of the remediation work force problems

  18. Some problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references

  19. Problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references, 1 figure

  20. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerup, Lars; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 μg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 μg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  1. The environmental problems must be seen in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seip, Hans Martin; Aunan, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    The problems caused by emissions of greenhouse gases and various pollutions are largely connected. The article draws a dividing line between climate effects that are global, regional effects over hundreds of km, and local effects that are significant only some ten kilometres from the point of emission. Carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas, has a long residential time in the atmosphere and affects the earth's heat budget without directly affecting local and regional conditions. Methane, another important greenhouse gas, in addition affects the formation of tropospheric (ground-near) ozone, which may be harmful to health, vegetation and materials. Other substances may have local, regional and global effects. This is the case for nitrous oxides. NOx do not absorb thermal radiation from the ground, but NOx affect chemical reactions in the atmosphere so as to change the concentration of greenhouse gases. Sulfur dioxide causes damage to health, materials and nature environments and is transformed in the atmosphere to small particles that may have quite a long lifetime

  2. Problem solving of student with visual impairment related to mathematical literacy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, A. R.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Riyadi

    2018-04-01

    The student with visual impairment, total blind category depends on the sense of touch and hearing in obtaining information. In fact, the two senses can receive information less than 20%. Thus, students with visual impairment of the total blind categories in the learning process must have difficulty, including learning mathematics. This study aims to describe the problem-solving process of the student with visual impairment, total blind category on mathematical literacy issues based on Polya phase. This research using test method similar problems mathematical literacy in PISA and in-depth interviews. The subject of this study was a student with visual impairment, total blind category. Based on the result of the research, problem-solving related to mathematical literacy based on Polya phase is quite good. In the phase of understanding the problem, the student read about twice by brushing the text and assisted with information through hearing three times. The student with visual impairment in problem-solving based on the Polya phase, devising a plan by summoning knowledge and experience gained previously. At the phase of carrying out the plan, students with visual impairment implement the plan in accordance with pre-made. In the looking back phase, students with visual impairment need to check the answers three times but have not been able to find a way.

  3. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fixing or Transferring Environmental Problems in the Transport Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walnum, Hans Jakob

    Transport accounts for 25 percent of global energy related greenhouse gas emissions and over half of the world’s oil consumption. The energy consumption is growing at a rate higher than any other sector. The thesis addresses some of the shortcomings with current policy strategies for reducing...... give an improved foundation for policy makers to find strategies and actions to limit such effects and their consequences....

  5. The Fertility Problem Inventory: measuring perceived infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C R; Sherrard, W; Glavac, I

    1999-07-01

    To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress. Prospective study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment. None. Participants' infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined. Women described greater global stress than men and higher specific stress in terms of social concerns, sexual concerns, and need for parenthood. Both men and women facing male infertility reported higher global stress and more social and sexual concerns than men and women experiencing female infertility. Social, sexual, and relationship concerns related to infertility were more effective predictors of depression and marital dissatisfaction than expressed needs for parenthood or attitudes toward child-free living. The Fertility Problem Inventory provides a reliable measure of perceived infertility-related stress and specific information on five separate domains of patient concern. Patterns of infertility-related stress differed depending on gender, fertility history, and infertility diagnosis. Among patients receiving treatment, social, sexual, and relationship concerns appear central to current distress. Counseling interventions that target these domains appear likely to offer maximal therapeutic benefit.

  6. Environmental problems associated with Arctic development especially in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G. C.

    1976-10-01

    Exploration and extraction of mineral and petroleum resources in the arctic tundra and subarctic taiga regions of the world has potential impacts on the environment, wildlife, and human health and safety. Transportation, especially over low wet-tundra in summer, causes long-term changes in vegetation by reducing insulation to the underlying permafrost. Gravel laid directly on the tundra mat, makes the most suitable permanent road-bed. However this causes problems such as spreading of dust, impoundment of water, behavioral barricading of animals, alteration of river channels, and siltation of streams. Anadromous fishes are a major food alteration of stream channels or siltation of rivers can affect their movement and reproduction. Oil-spills in aquatic systems are harder to control and clean up than terrestrial ones, and recovery of ponds takes several years. The oil-rich outer-continental shelves in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas, now under exploration for oil, are especially sensitive. They contain unique populations of marine mammals and birds. Human habitation of the Arctic requires transport of food, fuel, and construction materials, and disposal of refuse and wastes which, due to the permafrost-underlain vegetative mat, is difficult. Heating by fossil fuels results in ice-fogs in winter and accumulation of atmospheric pollutants at ground-level during thermal inversions at all seasons. Perhaps the greatest impact is the increased intervention of the human population. Where native people were previously only sparsely settled or nomadic in the tundra, and on coasts where they congregated, now the economic need for resources has resulted in increased pressure overall which will result in fewer habitats for wildlife, destruction of wilderness, and increased access to humans for further exploration and recreation.

  7. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  8. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  9. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  10. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  11. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  12. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  13. Transport of radioactive sources-an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckaert, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The transport of dangerous goods is submitted to various regulations. These can be international, national or regional and they can differ from country to country. The basis for the regulations for dangerous goods can be found in the recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods, issued by the United Nations committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods (orange book). For radioactive material the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are applied. The UN recommendations provide for 9 classes of dangerous goods. With regard to class 7, specifically related to the transport of radioactive material special recommendation relating to class 70, the IAEA regulations are referred to. These IAEA regulations for their part provide for 13 schedules, varying between weakly and highly radioactive. The radioactive sources which are used for non-destructive testing or for medical purposes are mostly sealed sources, i.e. the radioactive material is contained in a metallic shell. According to the nature of the isotope and their activity, the sources are transported either in industrial packagings, type A or type B packagings. According to the mode of transport, either air, sea, rail or road, various specific rules are applied, which however, are fortunately nearly completely harmonized. Special attention is paid to radiation protection, heat removal and the testing and fabrication of packagings. As a general rule, the safety of transport is based on the safety of the packagings, i.e. their ability to maintain, even in accident conditions, their capacity of tightness, shielding against radiation and removing the heat generated by the transported material

  14. Environmental impact assessment of projects in the People's Republic of China: new law, old problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Morgan, Richard K.; Cashmore, Mat

    2003-01-01

    After more than 20 years of experience with environmental impact assessment (EIA), the government of the People's Republic of China is set to introduce a new EIA Law, in September 2003, in which strategic environmental assessment (SEA) complements the current project-oriented EIA process. In general, the new law does not attempt to modify the existing EIA system in any radical ways, suggesting that the government consider current practices satisfactory. In order to assess the likely prospects of the new EIA Law for project-level EIA, this paper presents an evaluation of the current EIA process in China, first, establishing the historical context of the current process and, second, considering the main issues and concerns relating to the institutional and procedural arrangements, and practical implementation of the process. The main problems highlighted are as follows: the narrow historic focus on pollution of air, water and soil, at the expense of the consideration of wider environmental, social and health impacts; environmental protection agencies being funded by development-oriented local government administrations; the lack of consideration of alternatives in EIA processes; and the lack of effective public participation. More specific procedural issues are also discussed. On the basis of this analysis, we make recommendations for improving the effectiveness of EIA at the project level. The introduction of SEA in the new law marks a real step forward for EIA in China, although it appears to exclude central government policies, and there are improved provisions for public participation. However, the prospects for EIA in China will remain mixed as long as the new law leaves project-level EIA largely unchanged

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH THERMAL CONVERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Overview of the most common technological and environmental problems connected with thermal conversion of sewage sludge was presented in the article. Such issues as the influence of content of moisture and mineral matter on fuel properties of sludge, problem of emission of pollutants, problem of management of solid residue, risk of corrosion, were described. Besides, consolidated characteristic of the most important methods of thermal conversion of sewage sludge, with their advantages and disadvantages, was presented in the paper.

  16. 1992 yearbook of environmental and technology-related law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 and sixth edition of this yearbook contains papers on environmental and technology-related law in the European Communities and the Federal Republic of Germany including among other things information on the latest jurisdiction by the European Court of Justice; insurability of environmental damage; scientific aspects of limit values. There are also treatises on non-German and comparative as well as international environmental and technology- related law which deal among other things with atomic and immission protection law and on harmonization and codification from a general point of view. Finally, some papers report on developments of national and European environmental and technology-related law. Three of the fifteen contributions have been abstracted separately. (HSCH) [de

  17. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  18. What causes addiction problems? Environmental, biological and constitutional explanations in press portrayals from four European welfare societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Matilda; Majamäki, Maija; Rolando, Sara; Bujalski, Michał; Lemmens, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Press items (N = 1327) about addiction related problems were collected from politically independent daily newspapers in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Poland from 1991, 1998, and 2011. A synchronized qualitative coding was performed for discerning the descriptions of the genesis to the problems in terms of described causes to and reasons for why they occur. Environmental explanations were by far the most common and they varied most between the materials. The analysis documents how the portrayals include traces of their contextual origin, relating to different media tasks and welfare cultural traditions. Meaning-based differences were also assigned to the kind of problems that held the most salience in the press reporting. A general worry over societal change is tied into the explanations of accumulating addiction problems and underpins the press reporting in all countries.

  19. Current problems arising from the new law relating to franchise duties; Aktuelle Probleme des neuen Konzessionsabgabenrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution examines the advantages and drawbacks of the new ordinance in German law relating to payment of franchise duties. The ordinance may bring about new problems if abused as a means of bringing pressure to bear in negotiations for takeover of existing electric or gas supply systems by local governments. The author analyses the legitimation of such exploitation of the franchise duty and in this context the general legal framework. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag untersucht Vor- und Nachteile der neuen Verordnung im Konzessionsabgabenrecht, die im Hinblick auf Auseinandersetzungen um die ``Ubernahme von Strom- oder Gasversorgungssystemen durch Gemeinden neue Probleme mit sich bringen koennte, wenn Konzessionsabgaben als Druckmittel eingesetzt werden. Der Autor analysiert die Zulaessigkeit eines derartigen Einsatzes und in diesem Zusammenhang auch die rechtliche Basis der Konzessionsabgaben. (orig./CB)

  20. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-01

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  1. Cognitive constraints on high school students' representations of real environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ervin Kenneth

    One class of juniors and seniors was studied through one semester in the investigation of how students think about, learn from, and solve real environmental problems. The intention was to listen to student voices while researching the features of their representations of these problems, the beliefs they held (tenets), the cognitive processes they employed, and the principles of science, ecology, problem solving, and ethics they held as tenets. The focus was upon two self-selected groups as they perceived, engaged, analyzed, and proposed solutions for problems. Analysis of the student representations involved interpretation of the features to include both the perspective tenets and the envisioning processes. These processes included the intentive and attentive constraints as tenet acquisition and volitive and agential constraints as tenet affirmation. The perspective tenets included a variety of conceptual (basic science, ecological, ethical, and problem-solving) constraints as well as ontological, epistemological, and other cultural (role, status, power, and community) constraints. The perspective tenets were interpreted thematically including the ways populations of people cause and care about environmental problems, the magnitude of environmental problems and the science involved, the expectations and limitations students perceive for themselves, and the importance of community awareness and cooperation to addressing these problems. Some of these tenets were interpreted to be principles in that they were rules that were accepted by some people as true. The perspective tenets, along with the envisioning processes, were perceived to be the constraints that determined the environmental problems and limited the solution possibilities. The students thought about environmental problems in mature and principled ways using a repertoire of cognitive processes. They learned from them as they acquired and affirmed tenets. They solved them through personal choices and

  2. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies. (author) [fr

  3. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies

  4. Contributions of a sociology of public problems to Environmental Justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Berger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The political struggles against the environmental, health, social, and economic impacts of neo-developmentalism and neo-extractivism in Latin America have been theoretically fertile. From the diversity of perspectives, we recover the contributions of a sociology of public problems for the struggles for Environmental Justice, basically because it promotes the practice of research as a reflexive and democratic form of cooperation between those directly environmentally affected and all those subject to a structure of environmental injustice. First, we present the epistemological, ethical and political dimension, defined by the active formation of a public. Secondly, we focus on the conceptual, strategic and institutional creativity of the public, with examples of the problems caused by the environmental and health impacts of the massive use of agrotoxics in gmo agriculture. Finally, we establish a bridge between the contributions of a sociology of public problems and Environmental Justice, the latter considered as a field of thought and action with competence in environmentalist discourses, meaning that the concept of justice is not reduced to state administration. Instead it refers to the diversity of practices in the public sphere, claiming and criticizing the unequal distribution of environmental risk and harm. At the same time, these practices creatively promote institutional reforms and transformations toward the full enforcement of rights and guarantees to life, health and the environment. A sociology of public problems aims to provide an understanding of the struggle for rights and recognition of forms of life, social and environmental equity and the right to democratic participation and the broad exercise of self-determination in building a society with environmental justice.

  5. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are

  6. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabrielle Martins-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI, mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  7. A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, I employ a complex moral assessment measure that provides a way to talk about harms that affect the public.

  8. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  9. [Environmental and genetic variables related with alterations in language acquisition in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano-Gutierrez, A; Colomer-Revuelta, J; Sanjuan, J; Carot-Sierra, J M

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has addressed problems in the correct acquisition of language, but with few overall conclusions. The reasons for this lie in the individual variability, the existence of different measures for assessing language and the fact that a complex network of genetic and environmental factors are involved in its development. To review the environmental and genetic variables that have been studied to date, in order to gain a better under-standing of the causes of specific language impairment and create new evidence that can help in the development of screening systems for the early detection of these disorders. The environmental variables related with poorer early child language development include male gender, low level of education of the mother, familial history of problems with language or psychiatric problems, perinatal problems and health problems in early childhood. Bilingualism seems to be a protective factor. Temperament and language are related. Within the genetic factors there are several specific genes associated with language, two of which have a greater influence on its physiological acquisition: FOXP2 and CNTNAP2. The other genes that are most related with specific language disorders are ATP2C2, CMIP, ROBO2, ZNF277 and NOP9. The key to comprehending the development of specific language disorders lies in reaching an understanding of the true role played by genes in the ontogenesis, in the regulation of the different developmental processes, and how this role is modulated by the environment.

  10. Optimizing Green Computing Awareness for Environmental Sustainability and Economic Security as a Stochastic Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Okewu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of automation in sustainable development is not in doubt. Computerization in particular has permeated every facet of human endeavour, enhancing the provision of information for decision-making that reduces cost of operation, promotes productivity and socioeconomic prosperity and cohesion. Hence, a new field called information and communication technology for development (ICT4D has emerged. Nonetheless, the need to ensure environmentally friendly computing has led to this research study with particular focus on green computing in Africa. This is against the backdrop that the continent is feared to suffer most from the vulnerability of climate change and the impact of environmental risk. Using Nigeria as a test case, this paper gauges the green computing awareness level of Africans via sample survey. It also attempts to institutionalize green computing maturity model with a view to optimizing the level of citizens awareness amid inherent uncertainties like low bandwidth, poor network and erratic power in an emerging African market. Consequently, we classified the problem as a stochastic optimization problem and applied metaheuristic search algorithm to determine the best sensitization strategy. Although there are alternative ways of promoting green computing education, the metaheuristic search we conducted indicated that an online real-time solution that not only drives but preserves timely conversations on electronic waste (e-waste management and energy saving techniques among the citizenry is cutting edge. The authors therefore reviewed literature, gathered requirements, modelled the proposed solution using Universal Modelling Language (UML and developed a prototype. The proposed solution is a web-based multi-tier e-Green computing system that educates computer users on innovative techniques of managing computers and accessories in an environmentally friendly way. We found out that such a real-time web-based interactive forum does not

  11. Sakharov readings 2015: environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 15 international scientific conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznyak, S.S.; Lysukho, N.A.

    2015-05-01

    The proceeding includes materials of reports of 15-th international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2015: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 21-22 of May 2015 in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Belarus). The proceeding continues abstracts about philosophical, social-ecological nd bioethical and problems of modernity; education for sustainable development; medical ecology; biological ecology; radiobiology; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology and medicine; regional environmental problems; ecological monitoring and management; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges. (authors)

  12. Sakharov readings 2016: environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 16 international scientific conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskevich, S.A.; Poznyak, S.S.; Lysukho, N.A.

    2016-05-01

    The proceeding includes materials of reports of 16-th international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2016: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 19-20 of May 2015 in the International A. Sakharov Environmental Institute at the Belarus State University (Minsk, Belarus). The proceeding continues abstracts about philosophical, social-ecological and bioethical problems of modernity; education for sustainable development; medical ecology; biological ecology; radiobiology; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology and medicine; regional environmental problems; ecological monitoring and management; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. In the framework of conference a discussion 'Ethical aspects of biomedicine, genetics, nanomedical technologies and human ecology' was conducted. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges. (authors)

  13. A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daryl

    After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big

  14. USER principle as relating the human environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernakis

    2005-01-01

    The environmental variable can be understood as the resulting biosphere space that has suffered the occurrence of pre-biotic, biotic and anthropic processes. This necessary expansion of the environmental frontier allows understand clearly the magnitude the great complexity of the process immersed in the current environmental problematic. This, taking into account the analysis of the reference systems used by the different species to face their interaction with the nature. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the human referential process of reality, as a responsible specie of the derange shown by the Environmental Mother Eve. The latest hominid development of an Artificial Reference System (ARS) (linguistic symbols), points to the constitution of the casual factor that triggers such an environmental problematic. The expansive dynamics accomplished by the ARS has not always made reference to the natural ambience that created them. The formulation of the Unprivilegeness of Symbolic Endogenous Referents (USER) Principle (Kernakis 1986, 1997), as a necessary epistemological consequence of the Special Relativity from Einstein, entails to the reversion of the local privileges created by the ARS, stating a referential crisis as alternative to a potential environmental collapse. AII these could lead to the most intra-specific understanding with the nature, antonomastical fragmented by the privileges of the ARS. Such integration species-nature would allow to make possible an spontaneous natural-cultural arranging of the environmental balance

  15. Problems of environmental pollution in a modern society. I problemi dell'inquinamento nella societa moderna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchera, G C

    1983-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of environmental deterioration in Italy and of systematic acquisition of data on the state of environment. Manners in which some countries are tackling the problems of regulating air pollution control are analysed and compared. Then, attention is given to farming practices which made agriculture notoriously exposed to pollution caused by other human activities, becoming itself a significant source of adverse ecological effects. Possible directions for recovering, recycling and utilizing wastes of urban, agrozootechnical and industrial origin are discussed. Finally, some suggestions are made for the improvement of environmental risk management in Italy.

  16. Toward a mathematical theory of environmental monitoring: the infrequent sampling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, K.D.

    1975-06-01

    Optimal monitoring of pollutants in diffusive environmental media was studied in the contexts of the subproblems of the optimal design and management of environmental monitors for bounds on maximum allowable errors in the estimate of the monitor state or output variables. Concise problem statements were made. Continuous-time finite-dimensional normal mode models for distributed stochastic diffusive pollutant transport were developed. The resultant set of state equations was discretized in time for implementation in the Kalman Filter in the problem of optimal state estimation. The main results of this thesis concern the special class of optimal monitoring problem called the infrequent sampling problem. Extensions to systems including pollutant scavenging and systems with emission or radiation boundary conditions were made. (U.S.)

  17. Alpha decay and various problems related to it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    On the proton-excessive nucleus side of lanthanide and actinide, alpha decay is the main decay mode. In lanthanide region, alpha decay has been measured to the drip line for most even-even nuclei. In the measurement of alpha decay, emitted energy and life are measured, but the measurement of converted alpha width remains in the limited range. In order to obtain the converted alpha width of high accuracy, the nucleus formation in larger quantity on the drip line and the simultaneous measurement with a multiple detector system including gamma ray and beta ray are required. In this paper, three topics related to alpha cluster and alpha decay and the problems that confront at present are discussed. The continuation to exist of alpha cluster structure to heavy nuclei, the analysis of lanthanide nucleus region by the alpha giant resonance model, and the new data on the alpha ray decaying from the mass of 175, 176 and 177 are reported. In lanthanide nucleus region, remarkable interference was not observed between beta-2 and beta-3 modes in the converted alpha width measured between the ground states. The present problems in alpha decay are enumerated. (K.I.)

  18. The principle of relativity and the problem of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    This book can be considered as an introduction to some issues on the border between philosophy and science. It is intended for an audience interested in the problems that arise in scientific knowledge about the so-called post-modern era, and willing to study in some detail and depth the physical and mathematical foundations of the theory of relativity, and some of applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It assumes familiarity with the epistemology and other branches of philosophy. The philosophical content, including epistemological, are introduced as needed, starting with the first chapter is intended entirely to them, culminating in the fourteenth chapter, which discusses the structure of the theory of relativity, the theory general physics and cosmology from that point of view. In his chapters describes: the development of ideas in the Newtonian mechanics of particles and the classical theory of fields, including electromagnetism, the crisis in the foundations of nineteenth-century physics, the foundations, limitations and some applications of restricted theory, knowledge of mathematics, calculus of variations, foundations of general relativity theory, applications Schwartzschild solution, applications in astronomy and cosmology, relativistic physics issues and finally, aspects of scientific research work from the point of psychological and sociological

  19. Problems Related to the Translation of Political Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárosi-Márdirosz Krisztina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the problems related to the translation of political texts in the theoretical framework elaborated by the researchers working in the field of translation studies and reflects on the terminological peculiarities of the special language used for this text type. Consideration of the theoretical framework is followed by the analysis of a specific text spoken then written in English and translated into Hungarian and Romanian. The conclusions are intended to highlight the fact that there are no recipes for translating a political speech, because translation is not only a technical process that uses translation procedures and applies transfer operations, but also a matter of understanding cultural, historical and political situations and their significance.

  20. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  1. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  2. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  3. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  5. Social inequalities and gender differences in the experience of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals' education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.

  6. The relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to determine the relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental factors to urban flooding in Awka urban area of Anambra State. Towards achieving this aim, 10 year (2000-2009) meteorological data of temperature and rainfall of the study area were collected from synoptic ...

  7. 78 FR 20074 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FHWA-2013-0007] FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction The correction that appeared on page 15925, Wednesday, March 13...

  8. 78 FR 15925 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. FHWA-2012-2013] FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction In proposed rule document 2013-4678 beginning on page 13609 in...

  9. Intercultural communication problems relating to translation from English into Sesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastacia Sara Motsei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, certain translative communication problems associated with the linguistic and stylistic differences between English and Sesotho are identified and discussed. With a view to help improve translation between the two languages where inaccurate and stilted communication frequently occurs, issues of equivalence, fidelity/faithfulness and the purpose of translation are delved into. It is furthermore argued that in South African multilingual contexts, like legal courts, criminal cases/hearings and hospitals clinics and similar health establishments, inaccurate translation and/or misinterpreting can lead to serious miscarriages of justice and poor service delivery. The reasons for such unfortunate eventualities sometimes relate to the translator-interpreter’s poor understanding of the cultural factors behind the English or Sesotho message. As such, emphasis is lain on the need for a translator-interpreter’s cultural understanding of the source language/text (SL/T and target language/text (TL/T to deliver an accurate version (in the target language or text – TL/T of the original message. It is furthermore shown that one cause of social and legal injustice is closely related to the translator- interpreter’s insufficient knowledge of both the English and Sesotho culture as it exists in grammatical forms, idiomatic structures, collocation patterns and stylistic patterns of the SL/T and the TL/T.

  10. Survey report in fiscal 1999 on investigations for the current status in energy and environmental problems in Japan and the U.S.A., and investigations on technological development related to energies; 1999 nendo Nichibei ni okeru energy kankyo mondai no genjo chosa oyobi energy ni kakawaru gijutsu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the surveys in fiscal 1999 on energy and developmental problems in Japan and the U.S.A. New and complex environmental problems are rising to the surface, such as global warming, ozone layer destruction, and chemical harms. It is necessary to deepen quickly scientific understanding of the problems, and identify accurately their impacts on human bodies and ecological systems. Within the limitation of the scientific understanding, political decisions on economy and environmental risks are also important and difficult questions, with the environmental hormones being the typical examples. Establishing chemical substance verification systems is important, whereas joint researches by Japan and the U.S.A. are desired. Policy decisions on handling the researches must also be made jointly, and acceptance by citizens must be asked for at international workshops. While energies are the base of economic activities, and the sustained development thereof is indispensable, how to take balance with health and environment in the global scale is a large assignment. Joint Japan-U.S. discussions are required on technological innovation, such as for regenerative energies, energy conservation, safety of and wastes from nuclear reactors, clean use of fossil fuels, and fuel cells. International cooperation, including that from developing countries, is also important. (NEDO)

  11. Pediatrician-parent-child communication: problem-related or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Pediatricians are generally confronted with a variety of health problems. Each of these problems may benefit from another pattern of healthcare communication. It is unknown whether the communication process during pediatric visits actually differs by the nature of the child's problem. This study

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: 1994 AND 1999 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two national conferences, held in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1994 and 1999, addressed the area of environmental problem solving with Geographic Information Systems. This CD-ROM is a compilation of the proceedings in PDF format. The emphasis of the conference presentations were on ...

  13. Some applications of fractal mathematics in the evaluation of environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H. F.; Poon, D. C.; McCormack, M.

    1997-11-01

    Application of fractal mathematics to commonly occurring environmental problems in the petroleum industry is discussed. Examples are provided to illustrate application of the technique. The specific examples cited involve the interpretation of mercury contamination data at a gas plant and the determination of the optimal volume of soil excavation at a contaminated site. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Case Studies in Critical Ecoliteracy: A Curriculum for Analyzing the Social Foundations of Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rita; Donnelly, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the features and application of a set of model curriculum materials that utilize eco-democratic principles and humanities-based content to cultivate critical analysis of the cultural foundations of socio-environmental problems. We first describe the goals and components of the materials, then discuss results of their use in…

  15. Diagnostic reframing of intractable environmental problems: Case of a contested multiparty public land-use conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Keith Wendt; Kristen C. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Intractable conflicts are omnipresent in environmental management. These conflicts do not necessarily resist resolution but need to be fundamentally transformed in order to reach agreement. Reframing, a process that allows disputants to create new alternative understandings of the problem, is one way of transforming these conflicts. Cognitive and interactional...

  16. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  17. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.

    1994-01-01

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  18. Green open location-routing problem considering economic and environmental costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bi-objective vehicle routing problem that integrates the Open Location Routing Problem (OLRP, recently presented in the literature, coupled with the growing need for fuel consumption minimization, named Green OLRP (G-OLRP. Open routing problems (ORP are known to be NP-hard problems, in which vehicles start from the set of existing depots and are not required to return to the starting depot after completing their service. The OLRP is a strategic-level problem involving the selection of one or many depots from a set of candidate locations and the planning of delivery radial routes from the selected depots to a set of customers. The concept of radial paths allows us to use a set of constraints focused on maintaining the radiality condition of the paths, which significantly simplifies the set of constraints associated with the connectivity and capacity requirements and provides a suitable alternative when compared with the elimination problem of sub-tours traditionally addressed in the literature. The emphasis in the paper will be placed on modeling rather than solution methods. The model proposed is formulated as a bi-objective problem, considering the minimization of operational costs and the minimization of environmental effects, and it is solved by using the epsilon constraint technique. The results illustrate that the proposed model is able to generate a set of trade-off solutions leading to interesting conclusions about the relationship between operational costs and environmental impact.

  19. Non-Conformitity in raw material: Quality problems and environmental impacts in a dairy processor in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ruelis Fabbro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been discussed by researchers and practitioners along recent years. Relations between quality and environmental issues have been treated, since quality problems interfere on environmental impacts. In dairy system, according to a report on dairy cleaner production by FIESP (2008, processors are concerned especially with rational use of water, energy saving techniques and equipment, use of less toxic raw materials, recycling, water and effluent treatment. Some studies have highlighted the importance of agriculture (milk producers when it comes to environmental problems along the chain, giving less relevance to dairy processing, packaging, consume phase and waste management. Thus, milk reception control in dairy companies is an important stage for environmental management. Considering the importance of coordination among agents, the aim of this paper was to analyze processor conduct concerning raw material non-conformity, linking quality and environmental issues. This qualitative research was accomplished through a study in a dairy plant in Paraná, which processes200,000 liters of milk per day and sells products nationally. The company works with 1,500 milk suppliers on average. Legal requirements are followed along the process, and ISO 1400 implementation in the company is in progress. According to interviews with quality supervisor and industrial manager, one of the most important critical point is milk reception, and a number of non-conformities are controlled. The presence of antibiotics is the most relevant of them, since it results in material rejection. Other problems, such as acidity and cryoscopy, are less critical, since it is possible to direct input to co-products. Interviewees informed that a low amount of milk is contaminated with antibiotics (about 1% of total input. Concerning antibiotic contamination, intensive training and constant visits have been developed with producers, especially to inform them

  20. Sakharov readings 2011: environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of 11 international scientific conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2011-05-01

    The proceeding includes materials of reports of 11-th international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2011: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 19-20 of May 2011 in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University. The proceeding continues abstracts about social-ecological, ecology-ethical and pedagogical problems in light of the Sakharov' ideas; medical ecology; biological ecology; biomonitoring, bioindication and bioremediation; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology and medicine; ecological monitoring, management and audit; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency; climate change and sustainable development; regional ecological problems. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges.

  1. Sakharov readings 2009: Environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 9 scientific conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2009-05-01

    Proceeding includes materials of reports of 9-ts international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2009: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 21-22 of May 2009 in the International Sakharov Environmental University. Represented materials were integrated to next parts: social-ecological and ecology-ethical problems; medical ecology; bio ecology; bio monitoring, bio indication and bioremediation; radioecology and radiation security; ecological informational systems and technologies; ecological monitoring, management and audit; resumption sources of energy and energy-saving technologies; problems of ecological education. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges. (authors)

  2. Sakharov readings 2013: environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of the 13 international scientific conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Poznyak, S.S.; Lysukho, N.A.

    2013-05-01

    The proceeding includes materials of reports of 13-th international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2013: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 16-17 of May 2013 in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Belarus). The proceeding continues abstracts about social-ecological and ecology-ethical problems of modern times; education for sustainable development; medical ecology; biological ecology; radiobiology; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology and medicine; regional ecological problems; ecological monitoring and management; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges.

  3. Sakharov readings 2012: environmental problems of the XXI century. Proceedings of 12 international scientific conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.P.; Poznyak, S.S.

    2012-05-01

    The proceeding includes materials of reports of 12-th international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2012: Environmental problems of XXI century', which took place 17-18 of May 2012 in the International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Belarus). The proceeding continues abstracts about social-ecological, ecology-ethical and pedagogical problems in light of the Sakharov' ideas; medical ecology; biological ecology; biomonitoring, bioindication and bioremediation; radioecology and radiation protection; information systems and technologies in ecology and medicine; ecological monitoring, management and audit; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency; climate change and sustainable development; regional ecological problems. Materials of the conference intend on wide area of the specialists in ecology and adjacent sciences, teachers, post-graduate students and students of universities and colleges.

  4. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

  5. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department's environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department's environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C

  6. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  7. Recommendations related to the strategic environmental assessment. Methodological note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, Charlotte; Brivadier, Isabelle; Fournie, Sebastien; Godart, Angelique; Hubert, Severine; Ille, Yann-Mikiel; Le Mitouard, Eric; Phelep, Michele; Delduc, Paul; Poitevin, Florent; Lemaitre, Valery; Bataille, Tristan; Noulin, Alice; Fevre, Cecile; Kervella, Frederic; Orefici, Christine; Rambaud, Lucile; Antoine, Stephanie; Wormser, Veronique; Garrigou, Olivier; Vinay, Catherine; Cretin, Benedicte; Le Saout, Michaele; Pagnucco, Fabrice; Meinier, Yves; Nicolas, Veronique; Thiolliere, Blandine; Guilbert, Sebastien; Billant, Claude; Saingenest, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    This methodological note aims at giving commissioners and project managers of plans, schemes and programmes or other planning documents related to strategic environmental assessment a comprehensive vision of the approach to be adopted, as well as useful advices and operational recommendations. The first part recalls the main principles of environmental assessment, addresses general issues of organisation of the approach, and clarifies its articulation with the plan/scheme/programme elaboration or other approaches such as the assessment of incidences on the Natura 2000 network. The second part addresses the different chapters which are foreseen by the regulation for the environmental report. Some sheets are proposed on SDAGEs (Water Development and Management Master Plans) and PGIRs (flood risk management plans), on SRCs (quarry regional plan) and SAGEs (Water Development and Management Scheme)

  8. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  9. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  10. [Stomatological problems related to pregnancy. A statistical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoni, S; Panattoni, E; Rolla, P; Rossi, M; Giuca, M R; Gabriele, M

    1991-12-01

    Pregnancy is related to particular dental issues, such as the increased incidence of diseases( gingivitis, caries, epulis), the fluoride supplementation, and the limits of diagnostics and therapy. Moreover, the mysterious halo surrounding pregnancy often makes the dentist uneasy. In order to objectively evaluate the implications of pregnancy in dentistry, we distributed a form to 100 pregnant women. The results of the form showed that 53 of them had gingival bleeding, 22 had toothache, 19 had caries but that just 12 of them had gone to the dentist because of dental troubles while 54 had not gone at all. Among the pluri-gravidae, all the women with dental diseases in their previous pregnancies had them again in their current pregnancy but nonetheless only some had undergone a dental check-up. The dentists did not show any uneasiness, as they performed tooth extractions in 5 women, endodontics in 2 women and fillings in 11 women. Just 4 out of 100 women had taken a fluoride supplementation. We deem advisable a stronger collaboration between physician, gynecologist and dentist in order to resolve specialist problems and to make pregnant women more aware of the need for dental follow-ups and fluoride supplementations.

  11. Are maternal fertility problems related to childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensel-Moll, H.A. van; Valkenburg, H.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Zanen, G.E. van

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Netherlands, from a nationwide register of childhood leukaemia (1973-1980). Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex and place of residence. Information about exposures of the mother to potential risk factors in the year before and during pregnancy was collected via mailed questionnaires. Analyses concerned data on 519 patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia and 507 controls. An association between maternal subfertility and childhood leukaemia might be suggested by several findings. A history of two or more miscarriages (OR 1.6; 95% Cl 1.0-2.7) and fertility problems (OR 6.0; 95% Cl 0.9-38.2) were more frequently reported among mothers of cases. Use of oral contraceptives (OC) was significantly higher (OR 1.3; 95% Cl 1.0-1.8) and the duration between discontinuation of OC and the relevant pregnancy was significantly longer. The OR for threatened abortion during the relevant pregnancy was 1.6 (95% Cl 1.0-2.6) and the related use of 'drugs to maintain pregnancy' was 1.9; 95% Cl 1.0-3.5. Among known risk factors, an increased OR for diagnostic irradiation was confirmed (OR 2.2; 95% Cl 1.2-3.8). No association between childhood leukaemia and prenatal viral infections, smoking and alcohol was found. (author)

  12. Energy use and related risk management problems in CEE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the 'Old Europe'. The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc.. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use. (Authors)

  13. Some problems relating to application of safeguards in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolchenkov, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    By the end of this century there will have been a considerable increase in the amount of nuclear material and the number of facilities subject to IAEA safeguards. The IAEA will therefore be faced with problems due to the increased volume of safeguards activity, the application of safeguards to new types of facility and to large facilities, the optimization of the existing IAEA safeguards system and so on. The authors analyse the potential growth in the IAEA's safeguards activities up to the year 2000 and consider how to optimize methods for the application of safeguards, taking into account a number of factors relating to a State's nuclear activity, the application of full-scope IAEA safeguards etc. On the basis of a hypothetical model of the nuclear fuel cycle that allows for the factors considered as part of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), the authors assess the possible risk of diversion as a function of a full-scope safeguards effort. They also examine possible conceptual approaches to safeguarding large-scale facilities such as fuel reprocessing and uranium enrichment plants. (author)

  14. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  15. Mercury exposure of workers and health problems related with small-scale gold panning and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Shah, M.T.; Din, I.U.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate mercury (Hg) exposure and health problems related to small-scale gold panning and extraction (GPE) in the northern Pakistan. Urine and blood samples of occupational and non-occupational persons were analyzed for total Hg, while blood's fractions including red blood cells and plasma were analyzed for total Hg and its inorganic and organic species. The concentrations of Hg in urine and blood samples were significantly (P<0.01) higher in occupational persons as compared to non-occupational and exceeded the permissible limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) and United State Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). Furthermore, the data indicated that numerous health problems were present in occupational persons involved in GPE. (author)

  16. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athayde Costa e Silva, Marsil de; Klein, Carlos Eduardo; Mariani, Viviana Cocco; Santos Coelho, Leandro dos

    2013-01-01

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  17. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  18. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-01-01

    The public's perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company's community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance

  19. Integrated Use of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS Technology for Monitoring the Environmental Problem of Shyamnagar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M. S.; Sarker, M. H.; Sattar, M. A.; Sarwar, G. M.; Rahman, S. M. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Khan, Z. U.

    2017-05-01

    Cultivation of shrimp mostly in unplanned way has been considered as one of the major environmental disasters of Shamnagar. Villagers surrounding the rivers are mainly involved with fish (shrimp) cultivation. So, fertile agriculture land has been converted to shrimp cultivation. Conversion of agriculture land to other usage is a common but acute problem for land resources of the country like Bangladesh. Conventional methods for collecting this information are relatively costly and time consuming. Contrarily, Remote Sensing satellite observation with its unique capability to provide cost-effective support in compiling the latest information about the natural resource. Remote sensing, in conjunction with GIS, has been widely applied and been recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use and land cover changes. RapidEye, Landsat8 images were used to identify land use and land cover of the area during the period 2008 and 2015. Google images were used to identify the micro-level land use features of the same period. Multi-spectral classifications using unsupervised and supervised classification were done and results have been compared based on the field investigation. The study reveals that during the period 2008 to 2015 agricultural practice has been reduced from 35 % to 21 % and shrimp cultivation area increased from 38 % to 50 %. Due to the impact of high salinity and salt water intrusion caused by natural disaster, agricultural activities is reduced and farmers have been converted to other practices, as a result shrimp farming is gaining popularity in the area.

  20. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  1. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  2. Health-related disparities: influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L

    2005-07-01

    populations, but their frequency can vary substantially,rendering individuals or groups more or less susceptible to particular environmental exposures. Such findings are consistent with the highly publicized analogy, "genetics loads the gun, but the environment pulls the trigger." That is, one can inherit the genetic predisposition to develop a disease but will do so only if or when exposed to the environmental trigger. Poor people have approximately the same genetic makeup as everyone else,but they have the unfortunate experience of living and working in environments containing multiple and high levels of carcinogens or other toxicants capable of interacting with susceptibility genes to cause disease.Furthermore, certain disadvantaged ethnic groups may have a higher incidence of certain susceptible genes that render them more vulnerable to adverse effects of the environments they inhabit. For both of these reasons,much of the nation's disease burden could likely be reduced through better environmental protection practices, especially in low-income and minority communities. Of the many implications of polymorphisms and frequency variations for public health and the practice of medicine, however, none is more urgent than the choice of drugs in therapy. Using such knowledge,randomized trials have identified race-specific drug response differences between blacks and whites [42].To date, most knowledge of the health effects of environmental factors is derived from studies of single agents. The reality, though, is that environmental contributions to health disparities are mostly from multiple agents. These simultaneous exposures to multiple risk factors, which may accumulate or interact synergistically, remain to be fully explained and defined.Finally, health disparity is a significant public health problem that cannot be solved using "business as usual" approaches for funding and priority setting. The current emphasis on basic and clinical research at the exclusion of public

  3. Community mobilization and the framing of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  4. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Herd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  5. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  6. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: A female twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765

  8. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... (EA) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under 23 CFR part 771, the repair or reconstruction of... unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on environmental... the action normally has significant environmental impacts either individually or cumulatively and may...

  9. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  10. The environmental management problem of Pohorje, Slovenia: A new group approach within ANP - SWOT framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grošelj, Petra; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija

    2015-09-15

    Environmental management problems can be dealt with by combining participatory methods, which make it possible to include various stakeholders in a decision-making process, and multi-criteria methods, which offer a formal model for structuring and solving a problem. This paper proposes a three-phase decision making approach based on the analytic network process and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. The approach enables inclusion of various stakeholders or groups of stakeholders in particular stages of decision making. The structure of the proposed approach is composed of a network consisting of an objective cluster, a cluster of strategic goals, a cluster of SWOT factors and a cluster of alternatives. The application of the suggested approach is applied to a management problem of Pohorje, a mountainous area in Slovenia. Stakeholders from sectors that are important for Pohorje (forestry, agriculture, tourism and nature protection agencies) who can offer a wide range of expert knowledge were included in the decision-making process. The results identify the alternative of "sustainable development" as the most appropriate for development of Pohorje. The application in the paper offers an example of employing the new approach to an environmental management problem. This can also be applied to decision-making problems in various other fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural problems of public participation in large-scale projects with environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.

    1989-01-01

    Four items are discussed showing that the problems involved through participation of the public in large-scale projects with environmental impact cannot be solved satisfactorily without suitable modification of the existing legal framework. The problematic items are: the status of the electric utilities as a quasi public enterprise; informal preliminary negotiations; the penetration of scientific argumentation into administrative decisions; the procedural concept. The paper discusses the fundamental issue of the problem-adequate design of the procedure and develops suggestions for a cooperative participation design. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Macroalgae - an environmental problem or a resource from an eMergy perspective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    Eutrophication is an environmental problem in a majority of shallow water basins all over the world. The flow of nutrients into the water basin leads to an undesired flowering of macroalgae and their decomposition decreases dissolved oxygen which hampers heterothrophic organisms from breathing....... Could the macroalgae biomass be harvested and used for biofuels in a sustainable way? Two case studies are analyzed: Orbetello Lagoon, Italy, and Køge bay, Denmark. Today, macroalgae are collected and stored in landfills to limit the problem. This study models a scenario where the macroalgae are used...

  13. Exact methods for time constrained routing and related scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    1995-01-01

    of customers. In the VRPTW customers must be serviced within a given time period - a so called time window. The objective can be to minimize operating costs (e.g. distance travelled), fixed costs (e.g. the number of vehicles needed) or a combination of these component costs. During the last decade optimization......This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set...... of J?rnsten, Madsen and S?rensen (1986), which has been tested computationally by Halse (1992). Both methods decompose the problem into a series of time and capacity constrained shotest path problems. This yields a tight lower bound on the optimal objective, and the dual gap can often be closed...

  14. Environmental flow assessments in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. F.; Sun, T.; Zhao, R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach to assess environmental flows in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton considering the complex relationship between hydrological modification and biomass in ecosystems. As a first step, a relationship was established between biomass requirements for organisms of primary and higher nutritional levels based on the principle of nutritional energy flow of ecosystem. Then, diagnostic pigments were employed to represent phytoplankton community biomass, which indicated competition between two groups of phytoplankton in the biochemistry process. Considering empirical relationships between diagnostic pigments and critical environmental factors, responses of biomass to river discharges were established based on a convection-diffusion model by simulating distributions of critical environmental factors under action of river discharges and tide currents. Consequently, environmental flows could be recommended for different requirements of fish biomass. In the case study in the Yellow River estuary, May and October were identified as critical months for fish reproduction and growth during dry years. Artificial hydrological regulation strategies should carefully consider the temporal variations of natural flow regime, especially for a high-amplitude flood pulse, which may cause negative effects on phytoplankton groups and higher organism biomass.

  15. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost-effective and simple solutions for environmental pollution problems by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem and has increased significantly with industrialization, urbanization and population growth and is effecting quality of our air, land and water resources. Pollutants include heavy metals, organic toxic and reactive compounds and toxic gases. Major problems in environmental pollution are monitoring and remediation. Now pollutants include such wide range of elements, compounds and gases and normally one needs a whole range of costly analytical techniques to analyse all the pollutants which only very few institutes can afford to purchased. Equipment for electro analytical techniques are much cheaper than most of the other analytical techniques and are also sensitive and accurate for the analysis of nearly the whole range of pollutants including heavy metal. organic reactive compounds, inorganic elements and compounds and toxic gases. application of electrochemical methods for the analysis of different pollutants are reviewed. after monitoring, remediation in the most important aspect of environmental pollution control. Best way could be to treat the pollutants from different industries in such a way that either these are removed from the waste or converted in to non-toxic compounds before their release into the environment. Among all the other treatment methods, electrochemical methods of utilizing the electron as a clean chemical regent are very attractive. Electrodes in electrochemical reactors are abundantly use for the removal and recycling of toxic metals like Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn from the industrial waste after electrodeposition. Electrochemical reactors are also being used for electro oxidation of cyanides and other toxic organic compounds into non-toxic species. Such reactors can, in principal, be applied to any environmental pollution problem where the pollutant can either be electro-reduced or oxidized. Different types of electrochemical reactors are discussed, with a view, of their envisaged used for

  17. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  18. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    OpenAIRE

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  19. Environmental protection problems from the standpoint of regeneration of fast neutron reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.; Lazarev, L.N.; Suprunenko, A.N.

    The discussion of the problem of environmental protection is based on two principles: a strict observance of legislatively established standards for permissible concentrations of radionuclides in objects of the environment and for dose loads for the population; all possible steps to reduce the contamination to a level justified in practice. Environmental protection steps are considered from the points of view of a systematic analysis. A survey of the environmental protection system near sources of radioactive discharges is given. The basic interactions and feedbacks are indicated. Characteristics differentiating the discharges of the fuel cycle of fast neutron breeder reactors from discharges of the slow neutron cycle are discussed. It is shown that it is necessary to study the overall regional and global interactions of discharges of the atomic power industry. The characteristics of situations at nuclear fuel cycle facilities of fast neutron reactors are discussed. The necessity of additional technical steps to prevent accidents and eliminate their effects if they take place is emphasized

  20. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF URBAN MANAGEMENT IN PALMAS (TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Muller Gonçalves Moura

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to meet the urban environmental management in Palmas and establish consistency with the socio-environmental problems and needs and their efficiency in monitoring and controlling the environment. Palmas, the newest planned city in Brazil is facing conflicts that urban planning could not prevent the peripheral expansion and separation of social classes determined the absence or little coverage of basic infrastructure services like water supply, sewerage, collection and disposal of garbage and the deficiency in the management and maintenance of green areas. From this backdrop, we carried out analysis on the institutions and the environmental reality of the city and proposed a model for the municipal environment, based on the Statute of the city, and also suggestions to formulate public policies and proposals for immediate action, aimed at improve the quality of life of Palmas.

  1. Excel 2010 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach environmental sciences statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental sciences problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2010 for Environmental Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Eac...

  2. Developing Environmentally Responsible Behaviours Through the Implementation of Argumentation- and Problem-Based Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlıoğlu, Pınar; Aydoğdu, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using argumentation and problem-based learning approaches on the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers. Experimental activities were implemented for 14 weeks for 52 class hours in an environmental education class within a science teaching department. A mixed method was used as a research design; particularly, a special type of Concurrent Nested Strategy was applied. The quantitative portion was based on the one-group pre-test and post-test models, and the qualitative portion was based on the holistic multiple-case study method. The quantitative portion of the research was conducted with 34 third-year pre-service science teachers studying at a state university. The qualitative portion of the study was conducted with six pre-service science teachers selected among the 34 pre-service science teachers based on the pre-test results obtained from an environmentally responsible behaviour scale. t tests for dependent groups were used to analyse quantitative data. Both descriptive and content analyses of the qualitative data were performed. The results of the study showed that the use of the argumentation and problem-based learning approaches significantly contributed to the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers.

  3. Environmental problems of construction wastes: State of the art. Legislation; Problematica medioambiental de los residuos de construccion. Situacion actual. Legislacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    1999-07-01

    In spite of their nature of inert, the Residuals of Construction and Demolition expounds grave environmental problems. It also represents an squander of reusable materials. This article tries to give a global vision of the environmental problem of the administration of these residuals, as well as the juridical instruments that exist in the material in Spain. (Author)

  4. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program. Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. High out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 - Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department's 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research

  5. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournebize, Frederic; Bordet, Didier; Charlety, Philippe; Gore, Thierry; Estrade, Jerome; Lemaire, Hermine; Ginet, Annick; Fabrier, Lionel; Evrard, Lydie; Furois, Timothee; Butez, Marc; Dutzer, Michel; Faure, Vincent; Billarand, Yann; Menuet, Lise; Lahaye, Thierry; Pin, Alain; Mougnard, Philippe; Charavy, Sylvain; Poncet, Philippe; Moggia, Fabrice; Dochy, Arnaud; Benjamin, Patrick; Poncet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beneteau, Yannick; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Pellenz, Gilles; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Gerard, Stephane; Denissen, Luc; Davain, Henri; Duveau, Florent; Guyot, Jean-Luc; Ardellier, Luc

    2012-11-01

    The oldest French nuclear facilities, built for some of them in the 1950's for research or power generation purposes, have reached more or less the end of their life. More than 30 facilities have entered the shutdown or dismantling phase, among which 8 reactors of the very first generations of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. The aim of this two-days conference is to take stock of the present day status and perspectives of the dismantling activity, to approach the question of the management of the wastes produced, and to share experience about large scale operations already carried out. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - the 'Passage' project (F. Tournebize); 2 - CEA-Grenoble: from Louis Neel to key enabling technologies (D. Bordet); 3 - Dismantling actions in France (L. Evrard); 4 - Securing control of long-term charges funding (T. Furois); 5 - Waste disposal projects and their contribution to the management of dismantling wastes (M. Butez); 6 - Specificities linked with dismantling activities (Y. Billarand); 7 - Dismantling safety: the ASN's point of view (L. Evrad); 8 - Labor Ministry viewpoint about the dismantling related questions (T. Lahaye); 9 - Consideration of organizational and human factors in dismantling operations: a new deal in the operators-service providers relation (L. Menuet); 10 - Diploma and training experience (A. Pin); 11 - Glove-boxes dismantling at La Hague plant - status and experience feedback (P. Mougnard); 12 - Dismantling of Siloe reactor (CEA-Grenoble): application of the ALARA approach (P. Charlety); 13 - BR3 - a complex dismantling: the neutron shield tank (NST) in remote operation and indirect vision (L. Denissen); 14 - Cleansing and dismantling of the Phebus PF containment (S. Charavy); 15 - Integration of dismantling at the design and exploitation stages of nuclear facilities (P. Poncet); 16 - Consideration during the design and exploitation stages of dispositions aiming at

  6. Perceptions of general environmental problems, willingness to expend federal funds on these problems, and concerns regarding the Los Alamos national laboratory: Hispanics are more concerned than Whites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Myers, O.; Boring, C.S.; Dixon, C.; Lord, C.; Ramos, R.; Shukla, S.; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Perceptions about general environmental problems, governmental spending for these problems, and major concerns about the US Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were examined by interviewing 356 people attending a gun show in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis that there are differences in these three areas as a function of ethnicity was examined. We predicted that if differences existed, they would exist for all three evaluations (general environmental problems, government spending, and environmental concerns about LANL). However, this was not the case; there were fewer ethnic differences concerning LANL. Hispanics rated most general environmental problems higher than Whites and rated their willingness to expend federal funds higher than Whites, although all groups gave a lower score on willingness than on concern. Further, the congruence between these two types of ratings was higher for Hispanics than for others. In general, the concerns expressed by subjects about LANL showed few ethnic differences, and everyone was most concerned about contamination. These data indicate that Hispanics attending a gun show are equally or more concerned than others about environmental problems generally but are not more concerned about LANL. The data can be useful for developing future research and stewardship plans and for understanding general environmental problems and their relationship to concerns about LANL. More generally, they indicate that the attitudes and perceptions of Hispanics deserve increased study in a general population

  7. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  8. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem

  9. Industrialization of western region of ukraine: problems of environmental consequences management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Malyarchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the consequences of industrialization of the western region of the Ukrainian SSR – large-scale construction industry provided jobs for the active population of the region, led to the expansion of infrastructure of settlements and towns, strengthened social sphere and became a positive factor for the development of the western regions of Ukraine. However, due to the increased production capacity natural resources got depleted. The ability of ecosystems to self-healing and self-cleaning was not taken into account, which caused devastating impact on nature and human health. Uncontrolled industrial pollution of air, water and land resources became a common phenomenon for the urbanized western region. Promoting environmental knowledge and declaration of achievement of significant progress in official documents gave no mechanisms to solve environmental problems. Overcoming the difficulties of the past is connected with the Ukraine had been being a part of the USSR. The leading place took environmental issues. Poor environmental condition of the whole country was not only caused by the world’s largest man-made disaster on the Chernobyl nuclear plant in April 1986, but also intensive industrialization and collectivization. Full conversion of the economy and agriculture in the middle of the last century led to the growth of anthropogenic impact on the environment. A radical break steady of socio-political and socio-economic life took place in western Ukraine in the second half of the twentieth century. Party-Soviet government in a short time made a «socialist transformation» and social progress was considered only as a means to achieve this goal. A number of issues concerning environmental protection, safety of life, were ignored. Environmental protection, regulation of environmental and economic activities, guaranteeing rights of Ukrainian citizens to environmental safety is currently among the national priorities of the

  10. Dispositional and Environmental Predictors of the Development of Internalizing Problems in Childhood: Testing a Multilevel Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Helm, Jonathan; Mills, Rosemary S L; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation evaluated a multilevel model of dispositional and environmental factors contributing to the development of internalizing problems from preschool-age to school-age. In a sample of 375 families (185 daughters, 190 sons) drawn from three independent samples, preschoolers' behavioral inhibition, cortisol and gender were examined as moderators of the links between mothers' negative parenting behavior, negative emotional characteristics, and socioeconomic status when children were 3.95 years, and their internalizing problems when they were 8.34 years. Children's dispositional characteristics moderated all associations between these environmental factors and mother-reported internalizing problems in patterns that were consistent with either diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of individual-environment interaction, and with gender models of developmental psychopathology. Greater inhibition and lower socioeconomic status were directly predictive of more teacher reported internalizing problems. These findings highlight the importance of using multilevel models within a bioecological framework to understand the complex pathways through which internalizing difficulties develop.

  11. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  12. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  13. Priorities in the field of international cooperation with the aim of solving global environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrat' ev, K.YA.

    1993-08-01

    Considerations on priorities are presented in connection with the broad development of bilateral and multilateral international cooperation to solve global environmental problems. Emphasis is placed on the problem of global climate change, on optimizing the global climate observation system, and on substantiating the (1) inadequacy of the 'greenhouse' stereotype of global climate warming which has long predominated in Russian cooperation programs, and (2) the need to realize real climatic prorities (the role of biosphere dynamics, the interaction of atmosphere and ocean, cloud cover and radiation, the colloidal nature of the atmosphere, etc.). The thermal balance of the earth and the dynamics of the biosphere are considered as the key problems of global ecodynamics. Particular attention is given to socio-economic aspects of ecology. 62 refs.

  14. Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling

  15. Delayed Stochastic Linear-Quadratic Control Problem and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs with Itô’s stochastic delay equations as forward equations and anticipated backward stochastic differential equations as backward equations. Especially, we present the optimal feedback regulator for the time delay system via a new type of Riccati equations and also apply to a population optimal control problem.

  16. Income inequality, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason

    2013-04-01

    We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.

  17. Computer Use and Vision‑Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adjusted OR was calculated using the multiple logistic regression. Results: The ... Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache ... procedure (non-probability sampling) recruiting 250 .... Table 1: Percentage distribution of visual problems among different genders and ethnic groups.

  18. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador. Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants’ mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  19. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Claudia; Otero, Patricia; Bustamante, Byron; Blanco, Vanessa; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2017-05-15

    Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years) were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador). Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants' mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  20. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  1. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Nilsson, Mans; Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-01-01

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors

  2. Using Interactive Case Studies to Support Students Understandings of Local Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents designed and refined an interactive-enhanced curriculum module for 9th grade secondary school students in Bulgaria, based on environmental case studies. In the module activities students from two schools studied the local environments, performed observations and experiments, collected and analyzed data, prepared and presented posters and role plays, made connections between scientific processes and socio-scientific issues and drew conclusions about the global effects of locally created environmental problems. The students’ critical observations of the quality of their surroundings helped them to make a list of local environmental problems, to apply interactive strategies in studying them and to propose rational scientifically based solutions. In the study the attention was directed to the advantages and disadvantages of poster presentations and role playing and to the specific learning difficulties that students had to overcome. Students’ achievements from the two experimental schools were assessed independently in order to give us insights into the details of learning using different interactive strategies and into the acquired performance skills, dependant on students’ interests and personal abilities. The three versions of the module (traditional, dominated by teacher presentation; poster preparation and presentation in which students imitate scientific team research; and role playing in which students not only study the local environmental problems but assume social roles to cope with them demonstrate three levels of students learning independence. Specific assessment tests and check lists were developed for analyzing, evaluating and comparing students’ achievements in each version of the module and in each school. Ecological knowledge assessment tests were based on Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Poster and role playing preparations and presentations were assessed by specific criteria, shown in the

  3. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INTEGRATED USE OF REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR MONITORING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM OF SHYAMNAGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Akbar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of shrimp mostly in unplanned way has been considered as one of the major environmental disasters of Shamnagar. Villagers surrounding the rivers are mainly involved with fish (shrimp cultivation. So, fertile agriculture land has been converted to shrimp cultivation. Conversion of agriculture land to other usage is a common but acute problem for land resources of the country like Bangladesh. Conventional methods for collecting this information are relatively costly and time consuming. Contrarily, Remote Sensing satellite observation with its unique capability to provide cost-effective support in compiling the latest information about the natural resource. Remote sensing, in conjunction with GIS, has been widely applied and been recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use and land cover changes. RapidEye, Landsat8 images were used to identify land use and land cover of the area during the period 2008 and 2015. Google images were used to identify the micro-level land use features of the same period. Multi-spectral classifications using unsupervised and supervised classification were done and results have been compared based on the field investigation. The study reveals that during the period 2008 to 2015 agricultural practice has been reduced from 35 % to 21 % and shrimp cultivation area increased from 38 % to 50 %. Due to the impact of high salinity and salt water intrusion caused by natural disaster, agricultural activities is reduced and farmers have been converted to other practices, as a result shrimp farming is gaining popularity in the area.

  5. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  6. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  7. Emergence of collective action and environmental networking in relation to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the national environmental movement and nuclear technology in relation to a local emergent group. The historical development of nuclear technology in this conutry has followed a path leading to continued fear and mistrust of waste management by a portion of the population. At the forefront of opposition to nuclear technology are people and groups endorsing environmental values. Because of the antinuclear attitudes of environmentalists and the value orientation of appropriate technologists in the national environmental movement, it seems appropriate for local groups to call on these national groups for assistance regarding nuclear-related issues. A case study is used to illustrate how a local action group, once integrated into a national environmental network, can become an effective, legitimate participant in social change. The formation, emergence, mobilization, and networking of a local group opposed to a specific federal radioactive waste management plan is described based on organizational literature. However, inherent contradictions in defining the local versus national benefits plus inherent problems within the environmental movement could be acting to limit the effectiveness of such networks. 49 refs

  8. The problem of using trade secrets in economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Олефір

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In a market economy and increased competition between enterprises become increasingly important concepts such as business information, trade secrets, know-how, confidential information, the information with restricted access. Given the fact that only one patent protection is unable to meet the needs of researchers, in addition to formal public protection and secured legal means we would like to pay attention at private legal measures, particular, the mode of trade secrets. Recent research and publications analysis. Different aspects of the protection of trade secrets were investigated by specialists such as G. Androschuk, J. Berzhye, I. Davydov, O. Davydyuk, D. Zadyhaylo, P. Kraynov, G. Nikiforov, S. Nikiforov, V. Rubanov, E. Solovyov, L. Hoffman, V. Chaplygin, A. Cherniavsky and others. However, at present there is a lack of comprehensive research of this legal phenomenon, equally useful for innovators and businesses that actively protect corporate security. Paper objective. This article is planned to determine the legal characteristics, structural elements and mechanisms by which the use of trade secrets in business have a positive impact on innovation development and corporate security entities. Paper main body. On the basis of requirements of Art. 505 Civil Code of Ukraine and art. 39 of the TRIPS Agreement we formulated commercial information signs under which it receives legal protection as an object of intellectual property: (1 privacy (real or potential in the sense that it is as a whole or in a precise combination of aggregate and its components are not generally known or available to persons in the circles that normally deal with such information; (2 commercial value (not purely industrial or industrial, due to its secrecy; this information is unknown to others, which is a commercial interest; (3 the lawful holder of the information provides active special measures (technical, organizational, legal to preserve secrecy

  9. Open Problems Related to the Hurwitz Stability of Polynomials Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Aguirre-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of robust stability analysis of linear systems, the development of techniques and methods that help to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions to determine stability of convex combinations of polynomials is paramount. In this paper, knowing that Hurwitz polynomials set is not a convex set, a brief overview of some results and open problems concerning the stability of the convex combinations of Hurwitz polynomials is then provided.

  10. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  11. Methods for the integral assessment of energy-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Suter, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper presents a number of methods for a comprehensive assessment of energy systems, discusses their merits and limitations, and provides some result examples. The areas addressed include environmental impacts, risks and economic aspects. Three step Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) has been used to analyse environmental impacts. Transparent and consistent inventories were developed for electricity generation (nine fuel cycles) and for heating systems. The results, which include gaseous and liquid emissions as well as non-energetic resources such as land depreciation, cover average, currently operating systems in the UCPTE network and in Switzerland. Examples of comparisons of heating systems and electricity generation systems, with respect to their contributions to such impact classes as greenhouse effect, acidification and photosmog, are provided. Major gaps exist with respect to the assessment of the severe accidents potential within the different energy systems. When analysing the objective risks due to severe accidents two approaches are employed, i.e. direct use of past experience and applications of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Progress with respect to extended knowledge about accidents that occurred in the past and in the context of uses of PSA for external costs calculations is reported. Limitations of historical data and modelling issues are discussed along with the role of risk aversion and current attempts to account for it. (author) 10 figs., 1 tab

  12. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  13. Excel 2013 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach environmentall sciences statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental science problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2013 for Environmental Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chap...

  14. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  15. A Relational Database Model and Tools for Environmental Sound Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Arslan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sound recognition (ESR has become a hot topic in recent years. ESR is mainly based on machine learning (ML and ML algorithms require first a training database. This database must comprise the sounds to be recognized and other related sounds. An ESR system needs the database during training, testing and in the production stage. In this paper, we present the design and pilot establishment of a database which will assists all researchers who want to establish an ESR system. This database employs relational database model which is not used for this task before. We explain in this paper design and implementation details of the database, data collection and load process. Besides we explain the tools and developed graphical user interface for a desktop application and for the WEB.

  16. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  17. Deep ecology: A movement and a new approach to solving environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Milan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial society, nature is conceived as a resource for unlimited exploitation, and the entropic effects of its pollution and depletion can be effectively controlled and resolved. Non-human entities are viewed as raw materials for technical manipulation and the increase in the standard of living for consumers in mass societies. Contrary to such utilitarian pragmatism, some new views on the relationship of man, society and nature are appearing, as well as different concepts of environmentally balanced development. According to these views, the transition to ecological society and ecological culture will not be possible without replacing the current anthropocentric ethics with the ecocentric or environmental ethics. Deep ecology arises in the spectrum of environmental ethics theories. It is considered as a movement and a new approach to solving environmental problems. Deep ecology is a type of ecosophy formed by Arne Nes, and it focuses on wisdom and ecological balance. It is based on ecological science, but it asks deeper questions about the causes of the ecological crisis and corresponds to the general discourse on sustainable development. The article discusses the platform of deep ecology movement and gives the basic principles of deep ecology. It gives explanations of the two basic norms of deep ecology (self-understanding and biospheric egalitarianism and criticism of these concepts.

  18. Actual problems of accession in relation with library statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Poličnik-Čermelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accession is the process of recording bibliographic units in an accession register. Typically,library materials are acquired by purchase, exchange, gift or legal deposit. How-ever, COBISS (Cooperative Online Bibliographic System and Services Holdings software module includes some additional methods of acquisition which causes problems in gathering and presenting statistical data on local holdings. The article explains how to record holdings of different types of library materials and how to record retrospective collections. It describes necessary procedures in case the codes that define the publication pattern of the holdings are changed with special attention to integrating resources. Procedures of accession and circulation of bound materials, supplementary materials, teaching sets, multi parts, multimedia and collection level catalogue records are described. The attention is given to errors in recording lost item replacements and to the problems of circulation of certain types of library materials. The author also suggests how to record remote electronic resources. It is recommended to verify holdings data before the accession register is generated. The relevant and credible statistical data on collection development can only be created by librarians with sufficient acquisition and cataloguing skills.

  19. Coal and nuclear wastes: both potential contributors to environmental and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, asked GAO to answer eight questions regarding waste produced by coal and nuclear fuels during the generation of electricity. This report primarily discusses the first two items in the Chairman's request: what are the types and quantities of wastes generated at each step of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. What are the health and environmental problems associated with these wastes. Based on a comprehensive literature search GAO found that wastes produced by both the coal and nuclear fuel cycles present the potential for significant environmental and health hazards. Because the waste types present different types of hazards, however, it is not possible to determine if either waste type is more of a hazard than the other. Nonetheless, most of the hazards from both fuel cycles can be lessened, or in some cases eliminated, if properly controlled and regulated

  20. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... bounty of material good, but also of intellectual and cultural capital, an .... of market, increased investment and development of other sectors of the .... battered public image that has had an impinging effect on external relations.

  1. Bibliography on the stochastic processes in plasma and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polovin, R.V.

    1976-01-01

    Stochastic processes in plasma and related matters. The bibliography contains 500 references and was compiled from the open literature only. Some references are annotated or completed with short abstracts. There are subject and authors indexes

  2. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Mena, Filipe C., E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-07-10

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback–Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  3. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie LeBlanc

    Full Text Available With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15 using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5. Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask, with and without space limitations (obstacles and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both

  4. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  5. Some aspects to GIS modeling of environmental problems caused by mining - with special reference to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some major points in modeling the environmental problems caused by ground surface subsidence due to mining in a geographic information system (GIS). Special attention has been paid in the paper to the management of the ground subsidence and deformation data in a GIS. The method taken in this paper is through Digital Terrain Model (DTM). With a special reference to China, the method to evaluate the damage of the buildings and pipelines using the analysis tools of a GIS is discussed. Furthermore, the possibilities of the application of GIS to land reclamation planning in the mining influenced areas are studied. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  7. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees

  8. A RELATIONAL DATABASE APPROACH TO THE JOB SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lindeque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper will attempt to illuminate the advantages of an approach to the job shop scheduling problem using priority based search algorithms and database technology. It will use as basis a system developed for and implemented at a large manufacturing plant. The paper will also attempt to make some predictions as to future developments in these techniques and look at the possibility of including new technologies such as expert systems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die voordele en toepaslikheid van prioriteits-gebaseerde soek-algoritmes en databasisstelsels op die taakwerkswinkelprobleem sal in hierdie artikel uitgelig word. 'n Stelsel wat by 'n groot vervaardigingsonderneming geimplementeer is, sal as uitgangspunt gebruik word. Toekomstige ontwikkelings in bogenoemde tegnieke en die moontlike insluiting van ekspertstelsels sal ook ondersoek word.

  9. Closed orbit related problems: Correction, feedback, and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Orbit correction - moving the orbit to a desired orbit, orbit stability - keeping the orbit on the desired orbit using feedback to filter out unwanted noise, and orbit analysis - to learn more about the model of the machine, are strongly interrelated. They are the three facets of the same problem. The better one knows the model of the machine, the better the predictions that can be made on the behavior of the machine (inverse modeling) and the more accurately one can control the machine. On the other hand, one of the tools to learn more about the machine (modeling) is to study and analyze the orbit response to open-quotes kicks.close quotes

  10. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. A Nationwide View of Undergraduates' Interest in Earth-related Careers and Motivation to Tackle Environmental Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Mara, V.; Turrin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The InTeGrate Attitudinal Instrument (IAI) is an on-line survey that probes students' interest in Earth-related careers, their concern about environmental issues, and their motivation to tackle grand challenges of environmental sustainability and resource limitations. The survey has been taken by several thousand students, at the beginning and end of more than a hundred different undergraduate courses throughout the United States. All courses include some Earth/environmental content, but not all in are geoscience departments. Although results vary somewhat between subpopulations, taken in the aggregate the data paint a nation-wide picture of the state of undergraduates' environmental interests and concerns. Regardless of intended career path, respondents place a high value on working for an organization that is committed to environmentally sustainable practices. Respondents consistently indicate that developments such as global climate change, loss of biodiversity, and water resource limitations are a problem; however, these same students are much less consistent when it comes to engaging in personal behaviors that would help mitigate environmental problems, such as washing clothes in cold water or using recyclable bags when shopping. When asked what factors or sources of information influence their decisions to engage in the specified environmentally sustainable behaviors, the factor most often cited, by a wide margin, is "desire to save money," followed by "concern about pollution." A final open-ended question asked students if they can envision using what they have learned in this course to help society overcome problems of environmental degradation, natural resources limitations, or other environmental issues; if yes, how, and if no, why not. Strong majorities said yes. Among the minority who said no, commonly cited reasons include lack of empowerment (I'm only one person, the problems are too big); course was too general and didn't address solutions; and

  12. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  13. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  14. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person

  15. Environmental restoration in regions of uranium mining and milling in Ukraine: Progress, problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium exploration activities in Ukraine were initiated in 1946. So far 21 uranium reserves have been identified in the Southern regions of Ukraine. Industrial scale mining has been undertaken in two main areas -ZhovtiVody (Dnipropetrovsk region) and more recently - near the city of Kirovograd. Uranium milling capabilities were created in ZhovtiVody and Dniprodzerzhinsk. At Dniprodzerzhinsk Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant uranium milling started in the late 40's, initially using ores from the countries of Central Europe. Lack of relevant environmental standards and appropriate technologies for uranium extraction contributed to contamination of both industrial and residential areas. As a result, about 1340 ha of industrial areas were contaminated and ecologically affected. Extensive utilization of waste rock pile for road and building construction in the 50's and 60's resulted in contamination of residential areas in the region. To provide a comprehensive solution to the radioecological problems of the ZhovtiVody area a State Programme of Actions up to the year 2005 was adopted by the Ukrainian government in 1995. A timely methodological and information support for national activities on environmental restoration in Ukraine was provided by IAEA regional project RER/9/022. In April 1996 under the framework of the RER/9/022 project, seminar on environmental restoration in regions of uranium mining and milling took place in the town of Zhovti Vody, that allowed involvement of local experts and organizations into the project activities directly. The proposed paper is based on the vast amount of data accumulated in Ukraine during RER/9/022 covering the period 1993-1996. Severe lack of finance adversely affected all activities within the nuclear sector, environmental restoration implementation being the most affected. In such circumstances RER/9/022 remained as one of the most valuable contributing factors in the development of regulations, guidance and practices in the

  16. Hacia Una Pedagogia de Solucion de Problemas en La Educacion Ambiental. Serie Educacion Ambiental 15 (Pedagogy of Solutions and Problems in Environmental Education. Environmental Education Series 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document discusses the teaching of problem solving in environmental education. From an interdisciplinary viewpoint, this study describes some strategies for teaching that can favor the practice of educational activities oriented toward solving the concrete problems of the surrounding environment. The volume is divided into seven chapters. The…

  17. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  18. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the Environmental...

  19. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  20. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  1. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  2. [Behavioural problems and personality change related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) belongs to the group of amyloidoses that are characterized by the deposition of insoluble and tissue-damaging amyloid proteins. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the common clinical presentation of CAA resulting from the degenerative effect of beta amyloid on the cerebral vascular system. Though CAA is rather a neurological disease psychiatric symptoms can occur and even dominate the clinical picture. A case report is presented in order to illustrate the association between CAA and psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient with radiologic references to a probable CAA and mild cognitive impairment who developed behavioural difficulties and personality change that necessitated a psychiatric treatment. Psychiatric symptoms were most likely due to CAA. CAA can be associated with psychiatric symptoms and hence should be considered in the treatment of elderly patients with behavioural problems or personality changes. Diagnostic neuroimaging and examination of cerebrospinal fluid is recommended. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Problems of causality in environmental penal law. The relevance of causality problems on the environmental sector from the view of penal law. Kausalitaetsprobleme im Umweltstrafrecht. Die strafrechtliche Relevanz der Schwierigkeiten naturwissenschaftlicher Kausalfeststellung im Umweltbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine-Cosack, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 'classic' elements of an offence against human health or property are not applicable in environmental law, owing to problems of causality. The new environmental penal law therefore focuses on the 'capability' of any act to damage human health, animal health, vegetation, water, air, or soil. It remarks doubtful whether this approach is more efficient. Further, there is still the problem of assessing damage. The book discusses causality problems in environmental penal law. Causality in a given case is discussed from the view of general causality laws and problems of proof. Other possible causes of damage must be excluded. The author discusses: Interdependences between scientific and penal causality, the problems of successful and potential offences, the relationship between individual and universal objects of legal protection, and procedural issues (e.g. the binding effect of experts' opinions on a given subject). (orig./HSCH).

  4. Experiments related to marine environmental science using a tandem Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, A.; Hamamoto, S.; Ohtani, Y.; Furuyama, Y.; Taniike, A.; Kubota, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Mimura, H.

    2003-01-01

    Activities related to marine environmental science, which have been made in our laboratory using a 1.7MV Pelletron 5SDH2 accelerator, are reviewed. One is successful application of proton beams to radiation-induced graft polymerization for making amidoxime-type adsorbents that are very effective for collecting doubly charged ions of metal elements, such as uranium and vanadium, abundantly dissolved in seawater. The other is effective application of accelerator analyses to investigation of interaction of tributyltin (TBT) chloride, which had been used in self-polishing antifouling paints and are endocrine disrupter having mutagenicity, with a TBT resistant marine microorganism newly isolated from sediment of a ship's ballast water tank. (author)

  5. Some foundational problems in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Attention is drawn to some of the issues of the foundations of special relativity with the aim of contributing possibly to their clarification. Roemer's determination of the velocity of light is reviewed and important issues on the historical development of the theory outlined. The group-theoretical and light-geometrical approaches are discussed and the nature of length contraction considered. (Auth./C.F.)

  6. Assessment of elements in coal related to environmental concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini

    2010-01-01

    National energy consumption increases rapidly in line with the economic growth and population. Indonesian government plans to develop electrical power plant 10 000 MW program to anticipate this matter, first step of which is focused on coal power plant. In this study, coal combustion was assessed on its environmental impact. Determination of trace and toxic elements was applied by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples were irradiated in Rabbit System at GA Siwabessy, Serpong, in reactor with neutron flux ~10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then counted using HPGe detector. The method was validated by analysis of standard reference material NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash. The results showed that Al and Cr concentrations were 2.1 0±0.80 and 7.63±1.45 mg/kg, respectively, and other elements such as Al, Co, Cs, Ce, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti, and V were still in the range of those in other world coals. Comparison the elements in coal with the elements in fly ash and bottom ash for relative enrichment index, mass balance calculation and mass flow estimation using assumption was also carried out to estimate the total emission estimation related the environmental concerned elements. The total emission of As, Co and Cr were in the range of 0.84-2.28 kg/day or equivalent to 0.49-1.23 % of total elemental mass content in coal. This also indicated that these elements were captured 98-99 % before released to the environment. (author)

  7. On a covariant 2+2 formulation of the initial value problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.

    1980-03-01

    The initial value problems in general relativity are considered from a geometrical standpoint with especial reference to the development of a covariant 2+2 formalism in which space-time is foliated by space-like 2-surfaces under the headings; the Cauchy problem in general relativity, the covariant 3+1 formulation of the Cauchy problem, characteristic and mixed initial value problems, on locally imbedding a family of null hypersurfaces, the 2+2 formalism, the 2+2 formulation of the Cauchy problem, the 2+2 formulation of the characteristic and mixed initial value problems, and a covariant Lagrangian 2+2 formulation. (U.K.)

  8. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  9. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C.; Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D.

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated

  10. Application of chaos-based chaotic invasive weed optimization techniques for environmental OPF problems in the power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Ghavidel, Sahand; Aghaei, Jamshid; Gitizadeh, Mohsen; Falah, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaotic invasive weed optimization techniques based on chaos. • Nonlinear environmental OPF problem considering non-smooth fuel cost curves. • A comparative study of CIWO techniques for environmental OPF problem. - Abstract: This paper presents efficient chaotic invasive weed optimization (CIWO) techniques based on chaos for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problems with non-smooth generator fuel cost functions (non-smooth OPF) with the minimum pollution level (environmental OPF) in electric power systems. OPF problem is used for developing corrective strategies and to perform least cost dispatches. However, cost based OPF problem solutions usually result in unattractive system gaze emission issue (environmental OPF). In the present paper, the OPF problem is formulated by considering the emission issue. The total emission can be expressed as a non-linear function of power generation, as a multi-objective optimization problem, where optimal control settings for simultaneous minimization of fuel cost and gaze emission issue are obtained. The IEEE 30-bus test power system is presented to illustrate the application of the environmental OPF problem using CIWO techniques. Our experimental results suggest that CIWO techniques hold immense promise to appear as efficient and powerful algorithm for optimization in the power systems

  11. Optimal improvement of graphs related to nuclear safeguards problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, S.E.

    1977-08-01

    This report develops the methodology for optimally improving graphs related to nuclear safeguards issues. In particular, given a fixed number of dollars, the report provides a method for optimally allocating such dollars over the arcs of a weighted graph (the weights vary as a function of dollars spent on arcs) so as to improve the system effectiveness measure which is the shortest of all shortest paths to several targets. Arc weights can be either clock times or detection probabilities and the algorithm does not explicitly consider all paths to the targets

  12. [Trampoline-related injuries in children: an increasing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königshausen, M; Gothner, M; Kruppa, C; Dudda, M; Godry, H; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2014-06-01

    The sales of recreational trampolines have increased during the past few years. Severe injuries are associated in part with trampoline sport in the domestic setting. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis of an increase in trampoline-related injuries in conjunction with the increasing sales of recreational trampolines and to find out what kind of injuries are most frequent in this context. Between 01/1999 and 09/2013 all trampoline-related injuries of children (0-16 years of age) were assessed retrospectively. Only those cases were evaluated which described with certainty a trampoline-associated trauma. The fractures were considered separately and assigned to specific localisations. Additionally, accidents at home were differentiated from institutional accidents. Within the past 13 years and 9 months trampoline-related injuries were seen in 195 infants. Fractures were present in 83 cases (42 %). The average age was 10 ± 3.4 years (range: 2-16 years). Within first half of the observed time period (7½ years; 01/1999 to 06/2006) 73 cases were detected with a significantly increasing number of injuries up to 122 cases between 07/2006 and 09/2013 (7 years, 3 months), which corresponds to an increase of 67 % (p = 0,028). The vast majority of these injuries happened in the domestic setting (90 %, n = 175), whereas only 10 % (n = 20) of the traumas occurred in public institutions. In 102 children (52 %) the lower extremity was affected and in 51 patients (26 %) the upper extremity was involved (head/spine/pelvis: n = 42, 22 %). The upper extremity was primarily affected by fractures and dislocations (n = 38, 76 %). At the upper extremity there were more injuries requiring surgery in contrast to the lower extremity (n = 11) or cervical spine (n = 1). The underlying data show a significant increase of trampoline-related injuries within the past years. The upper extremity is the second most affected

  13. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also seek... kinds of projects and activities described in this paragraph and the environmental impacts of such...

  14. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-01-01

     The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris') problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a va...

  15. Some problems of evaluating environmental impacts of nuclear power installation building and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of the construction and operation of a nuclear power installation on the natural environment is discussed, namely on changes in the landscape profile, in the structure of settlement and large-scale agricultural production, the requisition of agricultural land, changes in transport systems, etc., as well as approaches to the evaluation of these environmental impacts with the aim of preserving the optimal state of inter-relations between man and the natural environment. (author)

  16. Rehabilitation of Problem Soils Through Environmental Friendly Technologies-I: Effect of Sabins and Farmyard Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Mirza B.; Ziaeldin, Mohammad S.; Mahler, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental problem due to land degradation in the developing countries have been a matter of great cocern for the decades. The rehabilitation of problem land has been through many chemical means and engineering approaches, that have resulted in enhancing the gravity and the magnitude of problems. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of environmental friendly practices to address the salinity issue. the effect of organic manuring (green manure and farmyard manure) or rice was investigated in a field study on a saline-sodic soil of the Saline Agriculture Research Station, Sadhuke, Pakistan. Sesbania was grown as a green manuring crop for two months and then incorporated into soil. farmyard manure (FYM) was applied at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20/ha before the sowing of Sesbania. Rice,Cv. Basmati 385 was used as the indicator/test crop. Results revealed that both paddy and straw yields were significantly improved by the application of sesbina and FYM. Green manure with sesbina improved the paddy and straw yields by 15.4% and 14.5% respectively. Productive tillers were also increased by the application of FYM but difference were not significant between 10 and 20ha/ of FYM application. FYM application also improved the paddy and straw yield significantly. The incrase in paddy yield due to application of 5, 10 and 20/ha of FYM were 6.8%, 24.4% and 37.6% over control, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphprus utilizationn by rice were also significantly improved with the application of green manure. Nitrogen uptake by rice was incresed by 17.8% and that of phosphorus by 21.9% with the green manuring. Nitrogen uptake was significantlty increased by the application of different rates of FYM. Also phosphorus uptake was increased significantly with the application of FYM. (author)

  17. The environmental zero-point problem in evolutionary reaction norm modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergon, Rolf

    2018-04-01

    There is a potential problem in present quantitative genetics evolutionary modeling based on reaction norms. Such models are state-space models, where the multivariate breeder's equation in some form is used as the state equation that propagates the population state forward in time. These models use the implicit assumption of a constant reference environment, in many cases set to zero. This zero-point is often the environment a population is adapted to, that is, where the expected geometric mean fitness is maximized. Such environmental reference values follow from the state of the population system, and they are thus population properties. The environment the population is adapted to, is, in other words, an internal population property, independent of the external environment. It is only when the external environment coincides with the internal reference environment, or vice versa, that the population is adapted to the current environment. This is formally a result of state-space modeling theory, which is an important theoretical basis for evolutionary modeling. The potential zero-point problem is present in all types of reaction norm models, parametrized as well as function-valued, and the problem does not disappear when the reference environment is set to zero. As the environmental reference values are population characteristics, they ought to be modeled as such. Whether such characteristics are evolvable is an open question, but considering the complexity of evolutionary processes, such evolvability cannot be excluded without good arguments. As a straightforward solution, I propose to model the reference values as evolvable mean traits in their own right, in addition to other reaction norm traits. However, solutions based on an evolvable G matrix are also possible.

  18. Innovative Technologies for the Solution of Environmental Problems in the World Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of the article is the disclosure of environmental problems and prospects commercialization of intellectual property within development of innovative information technologies in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy, identification of opportunities of forming, organization, financing, management, ownership, commercialization and protection of innovative technologies and intellectual property. Relevance of the chosen subject is caused by the current state of ecology and problems of commercialization of intellectual property in development of innovative information technologies within the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. The existing changes of the current legislation and tendencies of development of the industry of innovative information technologies in field of ecology in the Russian Federation require cardinal review because of its low competitiveness. Ensuring sustainable development of the country directly depends on implementation of innovative information technologies, not only within the sphere of ecology, but also in all industries of the national economy of Russia. Especially important direction of development of innovations is the field of information technologies with its further implementation in innovative productions and provision of services with a focus on protection of ecology and healthcare. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Results: in the process of researching the direction of solving environmental problems, the author studied foreign and Russian programs based on innovative technologies in this field and identified current proposals regarding the practical implementation of partnerships in the form of Public Private Partnerships PPPs

  19. Love and the commitment problem in romantic relations and friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, G C; Keltner, D; Londahl, E A; Smith, M D

    2001-08-01

    On the basis of the proposition that love promotes commitment, the authors predicted that love would motivate approach, have a distinct signal, and correlate with commitment-enhancing processes when relationships are threatened. The authors studied romantic partners and adolescent opposite-sex friends during interactions that elicited love and threatened the bond. As expected, the experience of love correlated with approach-related states (desire, sympathy). Providing evidence for a nonverbal display of love, four affiliation cues (head nods, Duchenne smiles, gesticulation, forward leans) correlated with self-reports and partner estimates of love. Finally, the experience and display of love correlated with commitment-enhancing processes (e.g., constructive conflict resolution, perceived trust) when the relationship was threatened. Discussion focused on love, positive emotion, and relationships.

  20. Firework-related childhood injuries in Greece: a national problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilia, Konte; Eleni, Petridou; Dimitrios, Trichopoulos

    2004-03-01

    During a 5-year period, out of 110066 children with injuries recorded in the Greek Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS), 91 had firework-related injuries. Descriptive analyses and the Barrell matrix were used to determine risk factors and extrapolated national firework childhood injury figures were calculated. The estimated annual incidence of childhood firework injuries treated in the emergency departments of hospitals countrywide, was 7 per 100000 children years. Seventy percent of injuries concerned older children (10-14 years), mostly boys with self-inflicted injuries, whereas girls suffered injuries as bystanders. A sharp peak in spring was noted, when the Greek Orthodox Easter is celebrated. Illicitly sold fireworks caused most injuries, but in eight instances homemade firecrackers were responsible.

  1. Normative Beliefs, Expectancies, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students; Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnow-Kenny, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Hansen, William B.; Dyreg, Doug; Beau, Dan B.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation (1) examined interrelations among normative beliefs, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related problems, and (2) investigated whether alcohol-related expectancies mediate associations between normative beliefs and alcohol-related problems. Analyses revealed that alcohol expectancies mediate the relationship between normative beliefs…

  2. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of

  3. Problems posed by non-targeted radiation effects for development of environmental regulatory policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to regulate exposure to any toxic substance it is necessary to decide on a safe or acceptable dose and it is necessary to be able to determine harm. Radiation protection has defined harm for practical purposes as excess cancers in humans. The dose is set at a level well below where such excess cancers can be detected above the background. Chemical (environmental) protection uses a different approach and defines a NOEL (No Observable Effect Level) and a LOEL (Lowest Observable Effect Level) for toxic or suspect chemicals. Since 'harm' may be to an ecosystem or population or individual, it is a loose term usually equating with mutation, breeding problems, numerical decline or sex ratio shift. Recently, ICRP has shifted position from one which assumed that protection of Man protected all biota, to a position which recognizes that in certain circumstances, different parameters may be important for protection of biota. In parallel with this shift, has been a paradigm shift in the science of radiation biology and a recognition that a simple dose response relationship for radiation induced DNA damage (mutation or carcinogenesis) may not in fact exist or may not be the dominant effect at low environmentally relevant doses. Thus both pillars of radiation protection have changed position. Harm cannot be defined solely on the basis of human epidemiological data because the endpoint of cancer in humans does not address the type of harm of concern in the environment because of the different mechanisms operating at low chronic doses (see associated abstract). Further, the human data may not be relevant at the doses of concern This paper considers the implications of moving to a radiation protection system based more on the environmental protection model and applies experimental radiobiological data obtained in the laboratory in an environmental risk assessment framework. (author)

  4. Using a Scientific Paper Format to Foster Problem-Based, Cohort-Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Sanford, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Science at the University of Southern Maine implemented a problem-based, cohort-learning curriculum for undergraduate environmental science majors. The curriculum was based on a five-course sequence patterned after the outline of a scientific paper. Under faculty guidance, students select local environmental…

  5. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental...... in the selection and application of environmental performance indicators - a more structured approach is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made to identify and systematize existing leading product-related environmental performance indicators, based on a systematic literature review, and to develop...

  6. Emotional pain: surviving mental health problems related to childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, A L; Bégat, I; Severinsson, E

    2009-09-01

    Emotional pain is described as intense by women who suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a high prevalence of reported childhood abuse was found in the literature and in research. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women suffering from BPD with focus on emotional pain related to childhood. An explorative design was used. Data were collected from in-depth interviews consisting of women suffering from BPD (n = 13) and an interpretive content analysis was used to analyse the text. The findings revealed two main themes: 'Power' and 'Assessment of vulnerability'. The main theme 'Power' resulted in two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being forced' and 'Surviving the feeling of having to assume responsibility'. The other main theme 'Assessment of vulnerability' had two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being victimized' and 'Surviving the feeling of not being loved'. The findings suggest that nursing care need to develop an understanding of how these women endure their emotional pain, and try to survive as fighting spirits and how struggling became their way of life.

  7. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  8. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  9. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons

  10. A study of selected problems related to accidental process fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drange, Leiv Anfin

    2011-01-15

    predicted a correct flame length, but estimated a slightly shorter lift-off distance; the end part of the KFX-flame was more influenced by buoyancy and deviated some from that of the experiment; the measurements showed more irregular shaped temperature fields compared to the simulated; the measurements showed larger fluctuations in the temperature fields compared to the simulated; the maximum measured radiative heat flux inside the flame was 185kW/m2. The maximum simulated radiative heat flux was 193kW/m2, representing a deviation of 4.3%; the maximum measured total heat flux was 256kW/m2. A steel cylinder of radius 160mm was placed at various positions in the jet, and the relative heat transfer was assessed by means of thermocouples placed radially inside the cylinder. This work showed that: convection is the major contributor to the total heat transfer from a turbulent jet flame to a steel cylinder impinged by the flame; the largest rate of heat transfer is at the side facing the flame, i.e no high levels of turbulence induced thermal loading could be detected at the back; the heat transfer coefficient, h, is a function of the velocity of the gas flow relative to the impinged object The stability of ignited propane gas jets, discharged from circular cross section outlets of varying diameters and inclinations were examined. This resulted in: a model, with an accuracy of 0.89, that predicts the upper and lower blowout limits for propane in gas phase, as well as a critical outlet diameter of 14mm; no observations were made indicating that the outlet inclination has any effect on the blowout limits The heat attenuation in water spray in a full scale offshore flare situation was examined by applying a known model for calculations and comparing with measurements. The result of this work was: the model predictions slightly under estimated the capacity of the water curtain. There were, however, uncertainties regarding the water curtain properties, and more detailed measurements

  11. Assessment of computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaheen Akhtar; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students and to develop a Self Instructional Module for prevention of computer-related health problems in a selected university situated in Delhi. A descriptive survey with co-relational design was adopted. A total of 97 samples were selected from different faculties of Jamia Hamdard by multi stage sampling with systematic random sampling technique. Among post-graduate students, majority of sample subjects had average compliance with computer-related ergonomics principles. As regards computer related health problems, majority of post graduate students had moderate computer-related health problems, Self Instructional Module developed for prevention of computer-related health problems was found to be acceptable by the post-graduate students.

  12. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  13. Human Performance on the Traveling Salesman and Related Problems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.; Chu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on human performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and related combinatorial optimization problems. We discuss what combinatorial optimization problems are, why they are important, and why they may be of interest to cognitive scientists. We next describe the main characteristics of human…

  14. Environmental accounts. Environmentally related taxes, subsidies and emission permits; Miljoerelaterade skatter, subventioner och utslaeppsraetter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Maja; Brolinson, Hanna; Palm, Viveka

    2010-12-15

    Environmental Economic instruments is seen as an important component towards a sustainable society. In Prop. (proposition) 2009/10:155 'Swedish environmental objectives - for a more effective environmental' the Ministry of the Environment says that 'We must therefore work to improve the price signals by internalising external environmental costs and increase the use of economic instruments in environmental policy.' Statistics Sweden have now for the first time quantified the environmental economic instruments, both individually and together. In addition, the results are broken down by industry and for most time series can be presented. The result of this work is presented in this report

  15. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Comiford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. METHODS: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues of intimate partner problem-related suicides. RESULTS: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems.

  16. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  17. The Relation of Environmental Quality and Fishery Sector in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavilia, Shanty; Habibah Yusfi, Reikha; Firmansyah; Sugiyanto, FX

    2018-02-01

    The condition of fishery sector is currently stagnating, even tending to decline, which is indicated by the decrease of production in some areas in Indonesia. Environmental degradation in marine waters is due to global climate change and uncontrolled fish exploitation impact on the decline of marine fisheries production. While in aquaculture, the environmental quality is also indicated to influence the production. Nevertheless, the increase of production of both marine and terrestrial fisheries has an effect on the quality of the environment. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the influence of environmental quality on the production of fishery sub-sector and the influence of fishery subsector production on environmental quality. This research employs environmental quality data and output of fishery of 34 provinces in Indonesia during 2011-2015. The study finds that output of fishery sector affects the environmental quality, which proves the Environment Kuznets Curve in the fishery sector in Indonesia. Since a certain threshold is achieved, the increase in revenue followed by the increase in environmental quality. The study also finds that the environmental quality has a positive effect on the production of fishery. Implication of the study is the increase of income of fishery households can be encouraged the ability of the community to protect the environment and increases the willingness of households to sacrifice other goods to environmental protection.

  18. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA, there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  19. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  20. The problem related to the development of the Senegal river after the construction of the Diama and Manantali dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, N.D.; Ribeiro, J.; Rousselle, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two dams are operated on the Senegal river to prevent salt water from going upstream, to regularize the river flow and to make possible permanent navigation on the river, and to undertake irrigation and hydroelectric energy production projects. A few years after the filling of the last dam, the environmental and health consequences proved not to be as beneficial as expected. Problems emerged in four areas: (1) irrigated agriculture was not as popular as forecast, (2) tenure problems became widespread, (3) health problems related to various kinds of bilharziosis were noticed, and (4) environmental problems related to the lower salinity of the water, and water pollution due to the use of fertilizers occurred. Ecological changes along the river were also significant. Water management proposals and other corrective measures that should be taken to preserve the river as a source of life-sustaining water, and to avoid social and economic disaster for the riparian countries of Mauritania, Mali and Senegal, were described. 14 refs., 1 fig

  1. Mercury from bioenergy. Environmental problem or phobia?; Kwik uit bio-energie. Milieuprobleem of fobie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, W.C. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    An overview is given of the consequences of mercury emission from bioenergy projects, based on several environmental effect reports (so-called Mer or 'Milieueffectrapportages' in Dutch). It is concluded that in the Netherlands there is no atmospheric mercury problem. [Dutch] De gevolgen van de kwikemissies bij bioenergieprojecten worden beschreven op basis van diverse uitgevoerde Milieu-effectrapportages. Daarbij wordt ingegaan op de bezwaren ten aanzien van deze emissies die onder andere door milieugroepen worden ingebracht en de verpande emissie-eisen die vergunningverleners menen te moeten opleggen. De auteur beargumenteert dat er geen atmosferisch kwikprobleem is in Nederland en ten gevolge van de bio-energieprojecten ook niet is te verwachten. Alleen een Europese aanpak van grootschalige luchtverontreiniging is effectief. De Nederlandse kwikemissie is verhoudingsgewijs al zeer laag. Op basis hiervan zijn er volgens de auteur geen goede redenen om in Nederland strengere kwikeisen op te leggen dan elders in Europa.

  2. Ideological Paradigms and Their Impact on Environmental Problems Solutions in Coal Mining Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Vladimir; Zolotukhina, Natalia; Yazevich, Maria; Rodionov, Alexey; Kozyreva, Marina

    2017-11-01

    The work presents the analysis of the influence of the ideological paradigms of technology in solving environmental problems in the conditions of modernization of production, where a significant role is given to the protection and preservation of the natural environment and the protection of the rights of a citizen to a favourable environment. The attention is focused on the fact that in a civilized society, the needs of the individual and society are formed within the right social and cultural fields. The main importance of the regulation of everyday reality allotted to the phenomenon of law as a certain ideological paradigm. Stressed that at different stages in the coexistence of ideology and power detected General forms and principles of their influence on social practices, and on consciousness. The article substantiates the position that any interaction of subjects of economic activities leads to the existence of "constructive tension".

  3. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  4. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  5. A synoptic summary approach to better understanding groundwater contamination problems and evaluating long-term environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    A summary approach has been developed within groundwater hydrology to communicate with a broad audience and more completely evaluate the long-term impacts of subsurface contamination problems. This synoptic approach both highlights the dominant features occurring in subsurface contamination problems and emphasizes the information required to determine the long-term environmental impacts. The special merit of a summary approach is in providing a better understanding of subsurface contamination problems to adjoining technical disciplines, public decision makers, and private citizens. 14 refs

  6. Health impact assessment in environmental impact assessment in China: Status, practice and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I-Shin; Yilihamu, Qimanguli; Wu, Jing; Wu, Huilei; Nan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    In China, the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system has gradually developed into an integrated evaluation system, owing to continuous improvement on institutional framework, system infrastructure, technical methods and professionals training, since EIA was first introduced in 1979. Though health impact assessment (HIA) is a part of the EIA system, the development of HIA is so slow as to remain at the early developing stage. This research aims to understand the extent and main issues concerning “health considerations” under the context of EIA, in China. Through case study on 42 environmental impact statements, the results demonstrate that HIA was not implemented in most of the cases, and health issues were not even mentioned in more than half of these cases. Where HIA was implemented, various problems were revealed through this study, including lacks of systematic approaching tools, insufficient supporting data on health effects, ineffective public participation, limited health considerations on biophysics, and so forth. Nevertheless, these problems can be attributed to lacks of legal supports, systematic evaluation methods, knowledge on evaluation technologies, and professional training institutions for HIA in China. In order to improve HIA methodologies, technologies, and management, to perfect HIA evaluation system, and to enhance public participation system within HIA, some recommendations from institutional, technical, administrative, and managerial aspects were then proposed in this study. - Highlights: •The status and deficiencies of HIA in EIA in China were identified and evaluated. •There were great industrial differences for the implementation of HIA in EIA. •Public participation was not well executed within HIA in EIA.

  7. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: The number and nature of drug-related problems identified in pharmacist-conducted medication reviews. RESULTS: There were 1,038 drug-related problems identified in 234 medication reviews (mean 4.6 (+/-2.2) problems per review). The number of problems was higher (4.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 2...

  8. Indirect radiation effects related to the environmental structure of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is supposed, that in biological systems there are direct as well as indirect radiation effects. Their contributions to lethal effects depend mainly on two different kinds of structures within irradiated systems: the microscopic energy deposition patterns of radiation and the environmental structures of targets. The approach to determine these contributions of the lethal action of ionizing radiation in yeast cells was, to use chemical compounds, which specifically change the radical spectrum of water radiolysis. The efficiency of such chemical compounds in scavenging specifically water radicals was tested in aqueous solutions of thymine molecules, in which indirect radiation effects occur exclusively. The main result is, that the OH'-radical is by far the most effective radical to destroy thymine molecules. The relative contributions of direct and indirect radiation effects to lethal actions of ionizing radiation was investigated in yeast cells. The radical spectrum of water radiolysis was changed by bubbling the cell suspensions with different gases. The main result is, that there are no lethal radiation effects du to the action of water radicals

  9. Training hydrologists to be ecohydrologists and play a leading role in environmental problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, M. E.; Chicharo, L.; Fohrer, N.; Gaviño Novillo, Marcelo; Windhorst, W.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecohydrology is a relatively new and rapidly growing subject area in the hydrology curriculum. It is a trans-disciplinary science derived from the larger earth systems science movement and examining mutual interactions of the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. It is also an applied science focused on problem solving and providing sound guidance to catchment-scale integrated land and water resources management. The principle spheres of ecohydrology include (i) climate-soil-vegetation-groundwat...

  10. Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car battery ... the use of personal protective devices and safety measures should be promoted. Keywords: Prevalence, work-related, battery chargers, occupational health, Nigeria ...

  11. Environmental problems in Germany after the integration. Umweltprobleme im zusammengewachsenen Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1990-11-01

    The festival lecture by Professor Toepfer, Federal Environment Minister, at the DELIWA main congress in September 1990 addresses all environmental problems. He particularly advocates continuity in environmental policy, expresses his intention to put an end to the mistaken practice of dividing work into production, sale and waste disposal and establish a cooperation with the rural economy for the protection of the groundwater, deals with the Law on Plant Protectants, the Law on Charges for the Emission of Liquid Waste into Surface Waters, the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe from Pollution and calls for the establishment of a drinking water cadastre with the support of the associations. We now need better views over the environment in the GDR for what went wrong during the fourty years of 'real socialism' cannot be swept away in fourthy weeks in a social, ecologically oriented market economy. We must proceed according to priorities and they are determined by the burden on human health. (orig./HSCH).

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Musayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to assess the environmental problems in the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation. Methods. An analysis of the literature and own research at a high anthropogenic pressure on agricultural land through the development of more stringent criteria for assessing the already degraded areas. Results. In the Stavropol region, Andropov district is in the most catastrophic state: of eight ratings five have the highest (fifth catastrophic degree degree of degradation; two the first (low and one rating has the second (middle. On the territory of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the highest degree of degradation of agricultural land is assigned to rocky ground, where it has a catastrophic rate of 9.76 points. For agricultural workers on steppe plains, the priority is to fight against deflation, as there is also a high degradation level 6.67 (above catastrophic. Conclusion. It was established that in the North Caucasus Federal District the system of rational use of land should be of environmental and resource-conserving nature and provide for the preservation of the soil, limiting the impact on flora and fauna, geological formations, and other components of the environment.

  13. LOUISIANA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING SYSTEM FOR HYPOXIA RELATED ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An environmental assessment tool to evaluate the impacts of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants discharged from Mississippi River basins into the Gulf of Mexico and to assess their effects on receiving water quality will be described. This system (Louisiana Environmental Modeling S...

  14. A gender perspective on environmentally related family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Ølander, Folke

    2007-01-01

    Studies of 'green' consumer behavior have often reported differences in male and female environmental concern and participation. This paper looks into the nature of such differences within the family. Husband-wife differences with regard to family participation in a number of environmentally...... for this could be discerned. Most notably, the division of household and consumption roles within families often made sub-activities of pro-environmental practices the prime responsibility of either one of the partners. Thus, a gender-based inside-outside division of household responsibilities with regard to pro......-environmental practices could be noted. It is suggested that the processes whereby environmentally oriented consumer practices are adopted and transmitted among family members receive closer research attention....

  15. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthichaimethee Pruethsan; Sawangdee Yothin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying cap...

  16. Problems of Development of the Turkish-Iranian Relations after Islamic Revolution of 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Suleymanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems of development of the Turkish-Iranian relations after Islamic revolution of 1979 are considered in the article. Based on comparative, historical and system methods, the author analyzes in details ideological and political problems of mutual relations of the subsequent periods, their characteristic and distinctive features.

  17. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  18. Parenting and Children's Adjustment Problems: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Nicos A.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental and personal characteristics on children's internalizing/externalizing problems. Further, this study aimed to examine personal characteristics (self-esteem, peer relations) as mediators in the relation between parenting and internalizing/externalizing problems. In order to address…

  19. Dam construction as an engineering solution for water supply problem : environmental thrusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2004-09-01

    Water supply management and the potential impacts associated with engineering practices in water supply systems were examined. Global aspects of increasing water demand were presented and compared with populations, urbanization and water demand. Engineering practices in waterworks developments such as dam construction, river intakes, infiltration galleries, wells, boreholes and adits were also discussed. Construction of large dams and the problems associated with damming the rivers were studied as large dams generally have substantial impacts on rivers, watersheds and aquatic ecosystems, leading to the irreversible loss of species populations and ecosystems. These problems include negative impacts on the terrestrial ecosystem, greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs due to decaying vegetation and carbon inflows from the catchment, changes in flow regimes, trapping of sediments and nutrients behind a dam, blocking migration of aquatic organisms, as well as negative impacts on flood plain ecosystems and fisheries. In addition, a case study, on the environmental impacts associated with damming in Three Gorges Valley in China was presented. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Application of adenylate energy charge to problems of environmental impact assessment in aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovici, A. M.

    1980-03-01

    Various physiological and biochemical methods have been proposed for assessing the effects of environmental perturbation on aquatic organisms. The success of these methods as diagnostic tools has, however, been limited. This paper proposes that adenylate energy charge overcomes some of these limitations. The adenylate energy charge (AEC) is calculated from concentrations of adenine nucleotides ([ATP+½ADP]/[ATP+ADP+AMP]), and is a reflection of metabolic potential available to an organism. Several features of this method are: correlation of specific values with physiological condition or growth state, a defined range of values, fast response times and high precision. Several examples from laboratory and field experiments are given to demonstrate these features. The test organisms used (mollusc species) were exposed to a variety of environmental perturbations, including salinity reduction, hydrocarbons and low doses of heavy metal. The studies performed indicate that the energy charge may be a useful measure in the assessment of environmental impact. Its use is restricted, however, as several limitations exist which need to be fully evaluated. Further work relating values to population characteristics of multicellular organisms needs to be completed before the method can become a predictive tool for management.

  1. Externalizing problems in childhood and adolescence predict subsequent educational achievement but for different genetic and environmental reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on parental ratings of behavior problems across childhood (age 4) and adolescence (ages 12 and 16) as predictors of educational achievement at age 16 using a longitudinal classical twin design. Shared-environmental influences on anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Genetic influences on the externalizing behaviors of conduct problems and hyperactivity at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Moreover, novel genetic and (to a lesser extent) nonshared-environmental influences acting on conduct problems and hyperactivity emerged at ages 12 and 16, adding to the genetic prediction from age 4. These findings demonstrate that genetic and shared-environmental factors underpinning behavior problems in early childhood predict educational achievement in midadolescence. These findings are consistent with the notion that early-childhood behavior problems reflect the initiation of a life-course persistent trajectory with concomitant implications for social attainment. However, we also find evidence that genetic and nonshared-environment innovations acting on behavior problems have implications for subsequent educational achievement, consistent with recent work arguing that adolescence represents a sensitive period for socioaffective development. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. The environmental problems in urban communities and the protection of the environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I K

    1994-07-01

    Korea's urban environmental problems, specifically air and water pollution, government environmental policies, and the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in protecting the environment are described and discussed. Korea's rapid industrialization and urbanization between 1961 and 1985 led to an increased volume of waste and air pollution. Automobiles increased in number from 29,234 in 1961 to 1,113,430 in 1985. In the same period, the number of factories with at least five employees rose from 15,204 to 44,037. The volume of chemical materials and agricultural chemicals dramatically increased. Household wastes in urban areas increased from 26,831 tons per day in 1978 to 61,072 tons per day in 1985. Industrial waste rose from 13,130 to 33,349 tons per day in 1985. Respiratory diseases are precipitated by exposure to sulphur dioxide, which is produced during cooking and heating with coal briquets; to nitrogen dioxide from automobile exhaust; and to carbon monoxide from coal briquets. Indoor air pollution from particles such as radon, asbestos, cigarette smoke, fungus, and bacteria also impacts on health. Tolerance limits have been reached or surpassed in many cities, particularly in Seoul. Air pollution is worse during the winter. The poor are particularly affected because of the continued use of coal briquets for heating. Industry contributes to water pollution. The volume of industrial waste water quadrupled between 1980 and 1990. In Seoul, however, population size directly contributes to 64.3% of water pollution, and the remaining 35.2% is from factories. Although livestock contributes to only 0.5% of water pollution, livestock drainage contributes to 36.3% of chemical materials in polluted water. Biological oxygen demand has also exceeded tolerance limits. Water reservoirs contain toxic chemicals such as lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, phenol, phosphorus, and nitrogen, which take a longer time to affect health. The Anti-Pollution Law of 1963 and the

  3. Regional monitoring of environmental physics climate related anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, Hesham

    2004-11-01

    Scientific communities have been working in creating and enhancing scientific research programs in which in situ and satellite data as well as remote sensing (RS) technologies are being applied to regional environmental issues. These issues include the effects of climate change on regional flooding, droughts and the impact of human activities as they relate to feedbacks on the global climate. More specifically, one needs to evaluate the potential impact of climatological variability on social, economic, and human activities. In addition, the study of their effects on agriculture, forests, local natural ecosystems and water climate-related resources, is most important. Finally, dust storms and other natural events such as droughts can have great local impacts. Approximately half of the dust in today's atmosphere may be the result of changes to the environment caused by human activities, including agriculture, overgrazing, and deforestation. Climate variability may lead to the occurrence of some severe environmental phenomena like dust storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and droughts. Under normal conditions we can detect different dust effects associated with the movement of storms as well as different rain patterns that do not affect much of the surrounding environment either at regional or global scales. On the other hand, under abnormal climatological conditions, high anomalies of precipitation might occur due to the presence of hurricanes or other events, leading to severe flooding events. In this dissertation, we apply time series analysis techniques to remote sensing and in situ data to detect precipitation and dust storm anomalies and study their behavior on regional scales. The first application is the detection and monitoring of dust storms events over parts of the Middle East and Asia. Dust storms cause health and economic hazards. In this thesis dust storms development is examined based on using remote sensing. It utilizes a combination of optical

  4. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthichaimethee Pruethsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  5. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthichaimethee, Pruethsan; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  6. The relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEJUP

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... environmental factors to urban flooding in Awka urban area of Anambra State. Towards ... city, while Geoffrey (2001) employed time series analysis ..... Street Flooding in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State in Bisong.

  7. The Relationship between Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Values and Asthma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — No data generated. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: There was no new data generated. It can be accessed through the following means: None available....

  8. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: j.a.sorialara@uva.nl; Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl; Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  9. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes

  10. Transport-related lifestyle and environmentally-friendly travel mode choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    . Finally, a multivariate GLM analysis reveals that three behavioral tendencies of importance for transport-related environmental impacts vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments: vehicle ownership, everyday travel-mode choice and environmentally-friendly transport innovativeness...

  11. The relation between product innovation and strategic environmental goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Pedrosa, Alex; Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2017-01-01

    Innovation management in manufacturing firms including its environmental dimension is currently on top of the political agenda of the European Union. Existing studies only provide limited findings in this research field. By using cross-sectional data, this study investigates firms’ internal capab...... Policies (IPPs). IPPs combine the support of product innovations in general and environmental innovations in particular. Future research could apply mixed-method studies in single or multiple countries which combine different types of data....

  12. Cannabis-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Mediational Role of Post-Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2018-01-02

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Post-event processing (PEP, i.e., cognitively reviewing past social interactions/performances) is a social anxiety-related phenomenon that may be one such mechanism. The current study sought to test PEP as a mediator of the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems, adjusting for cannabis use frequency. Cannabis-using (past 3-month) undergraduate students recruited in 2015 (N = 244; 76.2% female; 74.2% Non-Hispanic Caucasian) completed an online survey of cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, social anxiety, and PEP. Bootstrap estimate of the indirect effect of social anxiety through PEP was significant, suggesting PEP is a mediator of the social anxiety-cannabis-related problems relationship. Conclusions/Importance: Treatment and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting PEP among individuals with elevated social anxiety and cannabis-related problems.

  13. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  14. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  15. Geology environmental problems caused by municipal waste in China and the control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Wang Xiuyan; Zhang Yun; Hou Hongbing; Song Chao; Jiang Jianmei; Fei Lixin; Yang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Improper disposal of municipal waste can cause many environmental problems. Lateral migration distance in sandy soil of waste pollutants such as COD, Cl - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 , is about 15 m, while it is 120 m/a in groundwater. High single pollution index of these pollutants to groundwater may reach more than 340 times which 100 times higher than three standard of groundwater and less comprehensive pollution index is 60, high index reaches 170. These pollutions' influence distance in surface water can reach more than 200 m, vertical migration distance in clay soil is less than 3 m generally. Their high single pollution index to surface water reaches more than 100 times which shows exponential function decaying in static surface water. Comprehensive index of Cd, Hg, As, F, Pb etc in sorghum of nearby landfill can reach 192 to 238 which is 650 times more than National food hygiene standards, in watermelon and muskmelon, these ions exceed standards less several times and high 100 or more than 300 times. The annual emission of methane in landfill in our Country is 14 million tons which accounts for 4.49% of the total global methane emissions. The survey of 1105 landfills of 132 prefecture level cities and above in our Country showed that almost all dumps contaminated or damaged environment and the total economic loss caused by it is more than 900 billion, the potential economic loss is more than 780 billion. Method of risk zoning of groundwater pollution combined with urban land use planning can be used to control groundwater contamination caused by refuse. In accordance with difference of geological environment and climate condition, we can research landfill closing cover material which is inexpensive, easy to get, easy to use, effective and environmentally friendly to enhance methane oxidation and reduce methane emission of landfill. (authors)

  16. The main environmental and social problems in China's large coal mine construction and the countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Hai-qing [State Environmental Protection Administration, Beijing (China). Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering

    2008-05-15

    Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, the number of China's large proposed coal mines has increased very quickly in recent years. 144 environmental impact assessment reports were submitted to SEPA during 2001 2006, so the problem of reconciling coal exploitation with the environmental and social impacts has become urgent in China's sustainable development strategy. Based on analysis of data on coal mine exploitation, it is pointed out that there are four main problems in the management of the coal sector: the SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) lags behind the practical needs; the policy is not clear; migration is neglected; and an ecological compensatory mechanism is absent. Four countermeasures are recommended: accelerating the execution of SEA; compartmentalizing typical zones for environmental management; improving the organisation of resettlement in the coal district; and installing an ecological compensatory mechanism in the coal mining industry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  18. Drug related problems with Antiparkinsonian agents: consumer Internet reports versus published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sabrina; Zöllner, York Francis; Schaefer, Marion

    2007-10-01

    There is currently a lack of detailed information concerning drug related problems in the outpatient treatment of Parkinson's disease. Problems associated with drug treatment communicated anonymously in Parkinson's disease online forums were therefore retrospectively searched and documented for 1 year. Based on postings concerning 12 drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, a total of 238 drug related problems were identified and categorised using the Problem Intervention Documentation (PI-Doc). Of these, 153 were adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions associated with the skin were relatively common, but central effects such as cognitive or psychiatric changes, effects on the sleep/waking system and other problems like headache and dizziness accounted for the highest percentage of adverse events. A comparison with data from scientific literature revealed a number of differences. This means that an analysis of online forums detected a number of drug related problems that were otherwise largely invisible. These were mainly associated with the qualitative aspects of treatment such as medication handling, dosage and individual problems concerning adverse events. In addition, the described method of identifying and classifying drug related problems in Internet forums may also be seen as a contribution to the international discussion about consumer reports and pharmacovigilance. The information about adverse drug reactions given by Internet users can be seen as a valuable adjunct to clinical trial data and as being very timely with regard to the event itself. Online forums may be considered as a suitable source of observational information to complement data from randomised clinical trials.

  19. Change detection with remote sensing : relating NOAA-AVHRR to environmental impact of agriculture in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural production in the European Union sharply rose during the second half of the 20 thcentury. As a side-effect environmental impact increased as well, and resulted in widespread environmental problems, which policymakers now seek to reduce. Therefore,

  20. Environmental isotope studies on groundwater problems in the Thar Desert, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the groundwater problems encountered in arid areas like the Thar Desert in Rajasthan is to know whether the shallow groundwater is being actively recharged. Environmental isotopes particularly tritium are very useful in providing evidence of recent recharge. In the Barmer area, the shallow groundwaters have tritium levels generally in the range 3-6 TU showing modern recharge. Most of the recharge possibly occurs by direct infiltration of precipitation. Indirect recharge through wadis (river channels) could sometimes be an important mechanism of groundwater recharge. Environmental isotope study in Jalore area showed that the shallow groundwaters near the Sukri river course had δ 2 H and δ 18 O are depleted compared to present day precipitation but not as depleted as the present day Himalayan rivers. Carbon-24 values of some of these groundwaters are in the range of 54-58 pMC showing that they possibly represent old river with headwater connection outside the desert. In the Thar, the deep groundwaters which sometimes form the bulk of water supply are generally paleowaters as sown by environmental δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. For example in the Barmer area, deep groundwaters (depth > 150m) have depleted δ 2 H and δ 18 O compared to the shallow groundwaters and present day precipitation. They have negligible 3 H and 14 C model ages ranging from 4000 to 9500 BP. Hence the isotope data of the deep groundwaters indicate they are paleowaters recharged during humid periods in the Holocene. Over-exploitation of deep groundwaters could lead to mixing of shallow and deep groundwaters or influx of waters from adjoining aquifers. In the Bikaner area similar δ 2 H and δ 18 O of the shallow and deep wells and young waters encountered in some of the deep wells indicated mixing between the two aquifers due to heavy exploitation of groundwaters in the area. In a limestone belt of Jodhpur-Nagaur district heavy exploitation of groundwaters is taking place in the southern