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Sample records for environmental particulate engenders

  1. Can postpositivist research in environmental education engender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we contend that postpositivist research in environmental education can contribute towards promoting ethical activity within higher education. We argue that postpositivist inquiry breaks with utilitarian and uncritical assumptions about research in environmental education and also creates unconfined spaces for ...

  2. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that includes curriculum standards, assessments, and lesson rubrics. Sources of Particulate Matter (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information and activity on interpreting ... U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health U.S. Department ...

  3. En-Gendering the Material in Environmental Education Research: Reassembling Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to explore new and emerging possibilities for conceptualizing qualitative research that might be appropriate for questions those interested in gender issues in environmental education might have. Using two examples, I suggest the application of concepts, framed theoretically and methodologically. Concepts of…

  4. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  5. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  6. Engendering women's political recruitment and participation in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Engendering women's political recruitment and participation in Myanmar ... process and promote economic growth that benefits women and men of all ethnicities. ... under the call “Gender equality and decentralization”, launched in July 2017.

  7. Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFRs) - Ambient Air Particulates, Soils and Fate of Some Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnicki, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are relatively recently discovered species that are present on ambient air particulates. Their origin is typically associated with the combustion borne PM, where in the cool zone of the combustion process aromatic precursors react with the metal centers of particulates forming surface-organic complex with radical characteristics. EPFRs have been found to be sufficiently resistant to be emitted from the combustion sources and persist in the ambient air on particulates. Their inhalation has been associated with severe health effects, and potentially are one of the major agents contributing the epidemiological risks of PM exposure. Interestingly, EPFRs can be formed not only at the elevated temperatures but also in ambient conditions, where the contact of precursor molecules with transition metal (but not only) domains can result in adsorbate complexes. In fact, EPFRs have been detected in the contaminated soils, or during the oil spill incidents. It is very likely, that the interaction of some molecules released to the air can result in the formation of EPFRs on the ambient air particulates in atmospheric conditions. These species can be a natural degradation by-products that lead to the formation of oxygenated organics in ambient atmosphere.

  8. Effect of Particulate Matter Mineral Composition on Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFR) Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld-Cook, Elisabeth E; Bovenkamp-Langlois, Lisa; Lomnicki, Slawo M

    2017-09-19

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on particulate matter and combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. Human exposure to such particulates lead to translocation into the lungs and heart resulting in cardio-vascular and respiratory disease through the production of reactive oxygen species. Analysis of some waste incinerator fly ashes revealed a significant difference between their EPFR contents. Although EPFR formation occurs on the metal domains, these differences were correlated with the altering concentration of calcium and sulfur. To analyze these phenomena, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium, and sulfur. The results of this study led to the conclusion that the presence of sulfates limits formation of EPFRs due to inhibition or poisoning of the transition metal active sites necessary for their formation. These findings provide a pathway toward understanding differences in EPFR presence on particulate matter and uncover the possibility of remediating EPFRs from incineration and hazardous waste sites.

  9. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  10. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan Herbert

    2013-03-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC. We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice. These

  11. Watching Mobility Engendered by Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Ah-Young; Granick, Steve; Tlusty, Tsvi

    We have been investigating hydrodynamic flows engendered in molecular systems by active motion. In fact, active directed motion is ubiquitous as a transport mechanism within cells and other systems, sometimes by the action of molecular motors as they move along cytoskeletal filaments, sometimes by the polymerization and depolymerization of filament themselves. To probe this situation, we have employed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in the STED mode (stimulation emission-depletion), this super-resolution approach allowing us to investigate molecular mobility as averaged over a spectrum of space scales: from areas of the optical diffraction limit or larger, to regions as small as 30 40 nm. This comparison of FCS-STED measurements when the projected area investigated varies by a factor of >10, reveals remarkable scale dependence of the mobility that we infer.

  12. Human and Environmental Dangers Posed by Ongoing Global Tropospheric Aerosolized Particulates for Weather Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2016-01-01

    U.S. military perception of nuclear warfare led to countless unethical nuclear experiments performed on unsuspecting individuals without their informed consent. As evidenced here, subsequent perception of weather warfare has led to exposing millions of unsuspecting individuals to toxic coal fly ash with no public disclosure, no informed consent, and no health warnings. Three methods were used: (1) comparison of eight elements analyzed in rainwater samples, thought to have leached from aerosolized coal fly ash, with corresponding coal fly ash laboratory leachate; (2) comparison of 14 elements analyzed in air filter dust with corresponding elements in coal fly ash; and (3) comparison of 23 elements analyzed in fibrous mesh found after snow melted with corresponding elements in coal fly ash. The rainwater element ratios show that the aerial particulate matter has essentially the same water-leach characteristics as coal fly ash. The air filter dust element ratios occur in the same range of compositions as coal fly ash, as do element ratios in fibrous mesh found on grass after snow melted. The fibrous mesh provides an inferred direct connection with the aerosolizing jet aircraft via coal fly ash association with the jet combustion environment. Strong evidence for the correctness of the hypothesis: coal fly ash is likely the aerosolized particulate emplaced in the troposphere for geoengineering, weather modification, and/or climate alteration purposes. The documented public health associations for ≤2.5 μm particulate pollution are also applicable to aerosolized coal fly ash. The ability of coal fly ash to release aluminum in a chemically mobile form upon exposure to water or body moisture has potentially grave human and environmental consequences over a broad spectrum, including implications for neurological diseases and biota debilitation. The ability of coal fly ash to release heavy metals and radioactive elements upon exposure to body moisture has potentially

  13. Environmental pollution studies. Quantitative determination of elements in the air particulate matter by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Hidayat, Achmad; Muhayatun; Supriatna, Dadang

    2006-01-01

    Regarding to the 2002 PNCA Program for the Utilization of INAA in the Environmental Study, the elemental determination of air particulate matter have been done. Two sampling site were chosen to collect a PMs samples, i.e. Lembang and Bandung that represent the rural and the urban region respectively. The period of sampling was January 2002 to November 2002. Air sample was collect by GANT Stacked air sampler using 47 mm diameter cellulose filter which have a pore size of 0.45 μm and 8 μm for fine and coarse particle respectively. Quantitative elemental determination has been done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis based on a comparative method. The elemental distributions on fine and coarse fraction of air particulate matter have been analyzed for both sampling sites as well as the enrichment factor (EF) for all elements interest. The result shows that the average annual concentrations of fine and coarse PMs in the Lembang sampling site were 7.8 μg.m -3 and 1.6 μg.m -3 respectively. Meanwhile at Bandung sampling site, the PMs are higher than that a Lembang sampling site, i.e. 14.4 μg.m -3 and 22.5 μg.m -3 for fine and coarse PMs respectively. The fine fraction was higher than the coarse fraction at Lembang sampling site, but at Bandung sampling site the fine fraction was lower than the coarse fraction. Fifteen elements of Na, Al, V, Mn, Br, I, Cl, Sc, Co, Fe, Cr, Zn, La, Sb and Sm were analyzed for both sampling site. Among those elements concerned, Na, Al, Br, Cl and Fe were major constituent elements in all fractions that have a concentration more than 40 ng.cm -3 . Generally, the concentration of elements determined in the urban sampling site was higher than that in the rural site. Al, V, Mn, Sc, Co and Fe are relatively higher in concentration in coarse fraction of urban site. Br element concentration was not significantly different for both sampling site. The EF values of most elements concerned are generally also higher for the fine fraction

  14. Does education engender cultural values that matter for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete; Afaf H. Rahim; Precious Zikhali

    2009-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that cultural values matter for economic growth and has specifically identified the achievement motivation as an aspect of culture that engenders economic growth. If specific cultural values engender economic growth, how then can societies promote them? This paper attempts to answer this question using the 2005 wave of the World Values Survey data for 43 countries. We test the contention that education significantly impacts the relative importance an individual pl...

  15. Remote monitoring of environmental particulate pollution - A problem in inversion of first-kind integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of the microstructure, chemical nature, and dynamical evolution of scattering particulates in the atmosphere is considered. A description is given of indirect sampling techniques which can circumvent most of the difficulties associated with direct sampling techniques, taking into account methods based on scattering, extinction, and diffraction of an incident light beam. Approaches for reconstructing the particulate size distribution from the direct and the scattered radiation are discussed. A new method is proposed for determining the chemical composition of the particulates and attention is given to the relevance of methods of solution involving first kind Fredholm integral equations.

  16. Border tax adjustments for additional costs engendered by internal and EU environmental protection measures. Implementation options and WTO admissibility; Grenzsteuerausgleich fuer Mehrkosten infolge nationaler/europaeischer Umweltschutzinstrumente. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten und WTO-rechtliche Zulaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Jacqueline; Berg, Holger (comps.)

    2008-04-15

    At the end of the year 2006, France proposed the introduction of a 'climatic tariff' into the discussion of the international climatic protection. The 'climatic tariff' shall adjust extra costs, which result from the domestic production by means of environmental protection instruments and to which the import goods are not exposed, with import/export compensatory payments in the form of import duties and/or taxes on import goods. The introduction of an import/export compensatory payment system aims to load imported goods equivalent to domestic products in order to adjust competitive disadvantages. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on possibilities and problems of design for an import/export tax compensatory. The authors examine the validity of the measures of import/export compensation from legal view the World Trade Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

  17. Quantifying the environmental impact of particulate deposition from dry unpaved roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne dust is the air pollutant most frequently observed to exceed National Ambient Air Quality Standards in rural areas. This pollutant (also referred to as suspended particulates) may originate from point sources (e.g., large areas of bare soil or pollen-producing vegetation.) Most sources of atmospheric particulates, whether natural or anthropogenic, are difficult to quantify by means of a source strength (i.e., mass of particulates emitted per unit time). A numerical model was developed for calculating the source strength and quantifying the atmospheric transport and eposition of dust generated on unpaved roadways. This model satisfies the second-order differential equation for the diffusion process and also the equation of mass conservation. Input to the model includes meterological variables, surface roughness characteristics, and the size distribution and suspended particulate concentration of dust as sampled downwind of an unpaved roadway. By using predetermined tolerance levels of airborne concentrations or tolerance levels of deposition, maximum allowable vehicular traffic volume can be established. The model also may be used to estimate reduction in photosynthesis resulting from fugitive dust from point or line sources. The contribug ion to sedimentation in aquatic bodies, resulting from airborne particulates also may be assessed with this model.

  18. Engendering climate change-induced migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, Martina Angela; Miletto, Michela

    2017-04-01

    Climate change leads to increased climate variability, which is manifest in extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. These put at stake agricultural productivity, forestry, inland fisheries, aquaculture, water supply and sanitation which in turn hamper poorest householdś self-sufficiency and capability to cope with risks. Due to the risk of losing or the actual loss of livelihood, farmers in the Global South must look for alternative strategies to diversify risk. Migration is one of those strategies, which that can be seen either as an adaptive measure or an indicator of limits to adaptation to environmental stress. 60% of young migrants live in the Global South (UN, 2013). Many internally displaced people in the world are under the age of 18, some move with their families, other, mostly in South Asia and West Africa, migrate alone. Youth, as all migrants, are seeking better economic opportunities to support themselves and their families. Migration is a gendered process which plays out differently in diverse societies depending on local cultural norms that do not only affect and are affected by gender roles, but also by age, class and ethnicity. Threats to water availability, access and water hazards have diverse impacts on men and women. The link gender and climate-induced migration is still under investigation and few studies provide concrete country specific examples of this phenomenon. Our paper will present a state of the art literature review around climate-induced migration in the Global South from a gender perspective showing how meńs and womeńs migratory decisions, patterns and outcomes differ at the stage pre-during post migration.

  19. Engendering Curriculum History. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Petra

    2011-01-01

    How can curriculum history be re-envisioned from a feminist, poststructuralist perspective? "Engendering Curriculum History" disrupts dominant notions of history as linear, as inevitable progress, and as embedded in the individual. This conversation requires a history that seeks "rememberance" not representation, "reflexivity" not linearity, and…

  20. Environmentally persistent free radical-containing particulate matter competitively inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, James R., E-mail: rreed@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 533 Bolivar St., New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cruz, Albert Leo N. dela, E-mail: adelac2@tigers.lsu.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and LSU Superfund Research Center, Louisiana State University A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Lomnicki, Slawo M., E-mail: slomni1@lsu.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and LSU Superfund Research Center, Louisiana State University A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Backes, Wayne L., E-mail: wbacke@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 533 Bolivar St., New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Combustion processes generate different types of particulate matter (PM) that can have deleterious effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) represent a type of particulate matter that is generated after combustion of environmental wastes in the presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are membrane-bound enzymes that are essential for the phase I metabolism of most lipophilic xenobiotics. The EPFR formed by chemisorption of 2-monochlorophenol to silica containing 5% copper oxide (MCP230) has been shown to generally inhibit the activities of different forms of P450s without affecting those of cytochrome P450 reductase and heme oxygenase-1. The mechanism of inhibition of rat liver microsomal CYP2D2 and purified rabbit CYP2B4 by MCP230 has been shown previously to be noncompetitive with respect to substrate. In this study, MCP230 was shown to competitively inhibit metabolism of 7-benzyl-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin by the purified, reconstituted rabbit CYP1A2. MCP230 is at least 5- and 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP1A2 than silica containing 5% copper oxide and silica, respectively. Thus, even though PM generally inhibit multiple forms of P450, PM interacts differently with the forms of P450 resulting in different mechanisms of inhibition. P450s function as oligomeric complexes within the membrane. We also determined the mechanism by which PM inhibited metabolism by the mixed CYP1A2–CYP2B4 complex and found that the mechanism was purely competitive suggesting that the CYP2B4 is dramatically inhibited when bound to CYP1A2. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • Particulate matter (PM) competitively inhibited CYP1A2 activity. • EPFRs were much more potent CYP1A2 inhibitors than other types of PM. • PM interacts differently with different forms of P450. • PM

  1. Referential calculation of particulate matter in the air as a factor of environmental pollution in the urban area of the city of Pujilí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vallejo Choez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary investigation on the environmental quality of the city of Pujilí, made from the collection of samples of particulate matter and vehicular traffic counts on six points of the city. The methodology is based on the provisions of the Unified Text of Secondary Environmental Legislation for measuring atmospheric particulate matter, and the use of count tables for vehicle registration. The results reflect the impact of vehicular traffic, the characteristics of the rolling road layer, soil erosion, and climate on air pollution and its impact on the health of the population.

  2. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM10) by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM 10 ). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM 10 concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 μg.m -3 ) was observed. The PM 10 values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  3. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; juniorariston@gmail.com; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM{sub 10}). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM{sub 10} concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 {mu}g.m{sup -3}) was observed. The PM{sub 10} values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  4. En-gendering Memory through Holocaust Alimentary Life Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2015-01-01

    In her article "En-gendering Memory through Holocaust Alimentary Life Writing" Louise O. Vasvári aims to underline the cultural and gendered significance of the sharing of recipes as a survival tool by starving women in concentration camps during the Holocaust and the continuing role of food memories in the writing of Holocaust survivor women she considers a genealogy of intergenerational remembrance and transmission into the postmemory writing of their second generation daughters and occasio...

  5. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate matter (dust on hematological indices of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Ogugbuaja

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological indices of the exposed rats were examined on days 10, 20, 30, and 60 post administrations. White blood cell, red blood cell and hemoglobin counts peaked between days 20 and 30. This observation was markedly so for the higher doses, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, in contrast to the 500 mg/kg dose. The platelet count however indicated a gradual increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system.

  6. Electron spin resonance of particulate soot samples from automobiles to help environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Matsuda, T.; Ikeya, M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of electron spin resonance (ESR) was studied for diesel soot samples and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from automobile engines. Soot samples or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) were recovered at various points: in the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, at the dust sampler of a highway tunnel (standard DEP), on the soundproofing wall alongside a heavy traffic road, and on the filters of a dust sampler for SPM. The diesel soot samples apparently showed two ESR spectra: one was a broad spectrum at g=2.1 with a line width of ca. 80-120mT and the other was a sharp signal of a carbon radical at g=2.003 with a line width of 0.4mT. Annealing experiments with a DEP sample at 250 deg. C revealed drastic enhancement of the sharp ESR signal, which suggested a thermal process of carbonization of remnant organics. An oximetric study by ESR showed an enhancement of the broad signal in the diesel soot sample as well as in the sharp ESR signal. Therefore, the main part of the broad ESR signal would be attributed to carbon radicals, which form a different configuration, probably closely interacting aggregates. Enhancement of the sharp ESR signal was not observed in the standard DEP sample under vacuum condition, which suggested less adsorption sites on the surface of DEP samples

  7. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of environmental particulates on cultured human and bovine endothelium. Cellular injury via an oxidant-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.G.; Dodson, R.F.; Callahan, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of respirable environmental fibers on cultures of human umbilical vein and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were studied. Interaction among endothelial cell monolayers and amosite and chrysotile asbestos, attapulgite, fiberglass, or latex beads resulted in rapid phagocytosis of the particulates. A gradient of time-dependent and concentration-dependent endothelial cell injury (measured by specific 51Cr release) was observed with amosite and attapulgite being markedly toxic. Chrysotile and fiberglass were much less toxic, and latex beads were not significantly injurious at any time or dose examined. Responses of bovine pulmonary artery and human endothelial vein endothelial cells to fiber phagocytosis and fiber-induced injury were similar. In human umbilical cell monolayers, fiber-mediated stimulation of the arachidonate metabolite prostacyclin paralleled endothelial cell injury; i.e. amosite and attapulgite were stimulatory, whereas fiberglass (0-500 micrograms/ml) and latex beads (10(9) beads/ml) did not significantly increase prostacyclin generation. Although chrysotile was only weakly cytotoxic, significant stimulation of prostacyclin was observed at the highest dose tested (500 micrograms/ml). To investigate whether toxic oxygen species may be involved in fiber-induced cytotoxicity, oxidant scavengers or inhibitors were used in injury studies. Both superoxide dismutase (a scavenger of O2-) and catalase (an inhibitor of H2O2) produced significant protection against fiber-mediated endothelial cell injury. In addition, chelation by deferoxamine of elemental Fe present in the fiber preparations was also protective, suggesting Fe, via the modified Haber-Weiss reaction, may promote hydroxyl radical formation and contribute to endothelial cell injury induced by these particulates

  9. Influence of environmental factors on absorption characteristics of suspended particulate matter and CDOM in Liaohe River watershed, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tiantian; Zheng, Hui; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bai

    2017-08-01

    Absorption characteristics of optically active substances, including non-algal particles, phytoplankton, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), were measured in conjunction with environmental factors in five rivers within the Liaohe River watershed. Spectral absorption of non-algal particles [a NAP (λ)] was similar to that of total particles for most samples, suggesting that the absorption of the total particles [a p (λ)] was dominated by a NAP (λ). The CDOM absorption spectra [a CDOM (λ)] of West Liaohe and Taizihe rivers were easily distinguished from those of Hunhe, Liaohe, and East Liaohe rivers. Redundancy analysis indicated that absorption by optically active substances and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances probably resulted in the diversity of water quality parameters. The environmental variables including dissolved organic carbon, total alkalinity (TAlk), and total nitrogen (TN) had a significant correlation with CDOM absorption at 440 nm [a CDOM (440)]. There was almost no correlation between a p (λ) and chlorophyll a, TN, total phosphorus, and TAlk. Moreover, total copper ion concentration and mercury ion concentration had a strong correlation with a p (440), a p (675), a NAP (440), and a NAP (675). The concentration of total aluminum ions exhibited a positive correlation with a p (675) and a NAP (675) (p CDOM (440). Furthermore, the interaction between metal ions and optically active substances provided an insight into particulates and CDOM properties linked to water quality characteristics for rivers in semiarid areas.

  10. Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence indicates that toxicity of fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) differs by chemical component. Exposure to components may differ by population. Objectives: We investigated whether exposures to PM2.5 components differ by race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Long-term exposures (2000 through 2006) were estimated for 215 U.S. census tracts for PM2.5 and for 14 PM2.5 components. Population-weighted exposures were combined to generate overall estimated exposures by race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, employment, age, and earnings. We compared population characteristics for tracts with and without PM2.5 component monitors. Results: Larger disparities in estimated exposures were observed for components than for PM2.5 total mass. For race/ethnicity, whites generally had the lowest exposures. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher exposures than did whites for 13 of the 14 components. Hispanics generally had the highest exposures (e.g., 152% higher than whites for chlorine, 94% higher for aluminum). Young persons (0–19 years of age) had levels as high as or higher than other ages for all exposures except sulfate. Persons with lower SES had higher estimated exposures, with some exceptions. For example, a 10% increase in the proportion unemployed was associated with a 20.0% increase in vanadium and an 18.3% increase in elemental carbon. Census tracts with monitors had more non-Hispanic blacks, lower education and earnings, and higher unemployment and poverty than did tracts without monitors. Conclusions: Exposures to PM2.5 components differed by race/ethnicity, age, and SES. If some components are more toxic than others, certain populations are likely to suffer higher health burdens. Demographics differed between populations covered and not covered by monitors. PMID:22889745

  11. Environmental particulate (PM2.5 augments stiffness-induced alveolar epithelial cell mechanoactivation of transforming growth factor beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn M Dysart

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional pulmonary homeostasis and repair, including diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and tumorigenesis have been increasing over the past decade, a fact that heavily implicates environmental influences. Several investigations have suggested that in response to increased transforming growth factor--beta (TGFβ signaling, the alveolar type II (ATII epithelial cell undergoes phenotypic changes that may contribute to the complex pathobiology of PF. We have previously demonstrated that increased tissue stiffness associated with PF is a potent extracellular matrix (ECM signal for epithelial cell activation of TGFβ. The work reported here explores the relationship between tissue stiffness and exposure to environmental stimuli in the activation of TGFβ. We hypothesized that exposure of ATII cells to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 will result in enhanced cell contractility, TGFβ activation, and subsequent changes to ATII cell phenotype. ATII cells were cultured on increasingly stiff substrates with or without addition of PM2.5. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in increased activation of TGFβ, increased cell contractility, and elongation of ATII cells. Most notably, on 8 kPa substrates, a stiffness greater than normal but less than established fibrotic lung, addition of PM2.5 resulted in increased cortical cell stiffness, enhanced actin staining and cell elongation; a result not seen in the absence of PM2.5. Our work suggests that PM2.5 exposure additionally enhances the existing interaction between ECM stiffness and TGFβ that has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show that this additional enhancement is likely a consequence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS leading to increased TGFβ signaling events. These results highlight the importance of both the micromechanical and biochemical environment in lung disease initiation and suggest that individuals in early stages of lung

  12. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  13. Engendering Creative City Image by Using Information Communication Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Kumar Das

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Creativity has been a major key word in the city planning and urban marketing policies all over the world. Arguably, it ensures an image that can ensue marketable branding of a city. Thus, a creative city has major socio-economic implications. However, the question remains how a creative environment in a city can be engendered and an attractive image can be built. In the contemporary age, Information Communication Technology (ICT apparently has increasingly been influencing every sphere of the city functions, and it is hypothesized that it will assist in building a creative image of a city. Therefore, the objectives of the paper are (1 to map the theoretical insights on the concepts of creativity, city image building and branding; and (2 to explore the influence of ICT on developing image of a creative city. The investigation was conducted by using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. A stimulating mix of literature review and case study analyses were done to develop the concept of a creative city and image building. Besides, using a survey research method and by considering two cities (Bloemfontein from South Africa and Bhubaneswar from India two case studies were performed to examine how ICT can engender a creative image of a city in developing countries. Findings suggest that although urban creativity is not a revolutionary approach towards urban policies, and there are criticisms against such concept, economic variables, such as, business environment, entrepreneurship and innovation, availability of knowledge workers and ICT activities; socio-cultural variables, such as, art, culture, receptive attitude, safety and tolerance; and environmental variables, such as, cleanliness, greenery, quality public spaces and tourism enforce distinct images of cities. It is also revealed that ICT can play a catalytic role in the creative image building as it contributes extensively in the form of enabling better business environment

  14. Prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations using aerosol optical depth retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Lee, Hyung Joo; Kostinski, Alex; Kotlov, Tanya; Koutrakis, Petros

    2012-09-01

    Although ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm) monitoring sites provide accurate measurements, their spatial coverage within a given region is limited and thus often insufficient for exposure and epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate location- and/or subject-specific exposures to PM2.5. In this study, the authors apply a mixed-effects model approach to aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to predict PM2.5 concentrations within the New England area of the United States. With this approach, it is possible to control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles, and ground surface reflectance. The model-predicted PM2.5 mass concentration are highly correlated with the actual observations, R2 = 0.92. Therefore, adjustment for the daily variability in AOD-PM2.5 relationship allows obtaining spatially resolved PM2.5 concentration data that can be of great value to future exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. The authors demonstrated how AOD can be used reliably to predict daily PM2.5 mass concentrations, providing determination of their spatial and temporal variability. Promising results are found by adjusting for daily variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, without the need to account for a wide variety of individual additional parameters. This approach is of a great potential to investigate the associations between subject-specific exposures to PM2.5 and their health effects. Higher 4 x 4-km resolution GOES AOD retrievals comparing with the conventional MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 10-km product has the potential to capture PM2.5 variability within the urban domain.

  15. 3D Visualization of Engendering Collaborative Leadership in the Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini-Kristiina Jäppinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on collaborative leadership in education and how to illustrate its engendering process in a three-dimensional space. This complex and fluid process is examined as distributed and pedagogical within a Finnish vocational upper secondary educational organization. As a consequence, the notion of distributed pedagogical leadership is used when collaborative leadership in education is studied. Collaborative leadership is argued to consist of the innermost substance of a professional learning community, as attributes of a group of people working together for specific purposes. Therefore, collaborative leadership naturally involves actors, activities, and context. However, the innermost substance of the community is the crux of leadership. It is here presented in the form of ten "keys", as ten attributes with several operational nuances. The keys are highly interdependent and a movement in one of them has an effect both on every other key and the whole. Within this framework, the paper provides a presentation of selected study results by means of the 3D program Strata. The visualizations illustrate concrete examples of how the keys relate to the reality in the vocational education organization in question. For this, a novel analysis called Wave is used, based on natural laws and rules of physics.

  16. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  17. Engendering Development: Some Methodological Perspectives on Child Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Burman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I address when and why it is useful to focus on gender in the design and conceptualisation of developmental psychological research. Since methodological debates treated in the abstract tend to lack both the specificity and rigour that application to a particular context or topic imports, I take a particular focus for my discussion: child labour. In doing so I hope to highlight the analytical and practical gains of bringing gendered agendas alongside, and into, developmental research. While child labour may seem a rather curious topic for discussion of developmental psychological research practice, this article will show how it indicates with particular clarity issues that mainstream psychological research often occludes or forgets. In particular, I explore analytical and methodological benefits of exploring the diverse ways gender structures notions of childhood, alongside the developmental commonalities and asymmetries of gender and age as categories. I suggest that the usual assumed elision between women and children is often unhelpful for both women and children. Instead, an analytical attention to the shifting forms and relations of children's work facilitates more differentiated perspectives on how its meanings reflect economic and cultural (including gendered conditions, and so attends better to social inequalities. These inequalities also structure the methodological conditions and paradigms for research with children, and so the article finishes by elaborating from this discussion of child labour four key principles for engendering psychological research with and about children, which also have broader implications for conceptualisations of the relations between gender, childhood, culture and families. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060111

  18. Engendering development theory from the standpoint of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D H; Wickramasinghe, A

    1997-01-01

    Although the field of "women and development" emerged as an aftermath of the UN Decade for Women, development planners have treated gender and development as interrelated but analytically distinct by simply tacking the category "women" onto established frameworks or considering women the social "contexts" of development projects. This paper challenges this tendency with a consideration of how the global process of development is conditioned by and constitutive of gender roles and relations in specific cultural contexts. The paper presents a framework for a distinctly feminist political economy of development that moves development theory from its present impasse caused by challenges to the Marxism that has dominated critical development theory. This post-impasse framework poses Marx's theory of exploitation against the experiences of women garment workers in Free Trade Zones in Sri Lanka to illustrate how industrial development through free market channels is necessarily, not merely coincidentally, gendered. Therefore, the framework reveals the importance of engendering development theory itself. The paper opens with an introduction and continues with an exploration of the current theoretical impasse and post-impasse theory. The paper continues with a discussion of standpoint epistemology as the basis for women-centered research, a description of the research on the impact of factory employment on women from rural villages, a consideration of women's proletarianization in terms of the rise of the "new world order," a feminist reading of Marx's theory of exploitation from the standpoint of the garment workers, and an acknowledgement of the challenge posed by this application of standpoint methodology to the study of development to the current rejection by some Western feminists of universalizing categories such as "gender" and "women."

  19. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE PROPERTY TRANSFERRING OR ENGENDERING OF OBLIGATIONS CHARACTER OF THE SALES CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Victor OCHEA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I herein want to emphasize the main aspects regarding the property/real estate transferring or engendering of obligations character of the sales contract governed by the Romanian Civil Code of 2009.

  20. Environmental factors and human health: fibrous and particulate substance-induced immunological disorders and construction of a health-promoting living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takemi; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Yoshitome, Kei; Nishimura, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Among the various scientific fields covered in the area of hygiene such as environmental medicine, epidemiology, public health and preventive medicine, we are investigating the immunological effects of fibrous and particulate substances in the environment and work surroundings, such as asbestos fibers and silica particles. In addition to these studies, we have attempted to construct health-promoting living conditions. Thus, in this review we will summarize our investigations regarding the (1) immunological effects of asbestos fibers, (2) immunological effects of silica particles, and (3) construction of a health-promoting living environment. This review article summarizes the 2014 Japanese Society for Hygiene (JSH) Award Lecture of the 85th Annual Meeting of the JSH entitled "Environmental health effects: immunological effects of fibrous and particulate matter and establishment of health-promoting environments" presented by the first author of this manuscript, Prof. Otsuki, Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, the recipient of the 2014 JSH award. The results of our experiments can be summarized as follows: (1) asbestos fibers reduce anti-tumor immunity, (2) silica particles chronically activate responder and regulatory T cells causing an unbalance of these two populations of T helper cells, which may contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders frequently complicating silicosis, and (3) living conditions to enhance natural killer cell activity were developed, which may promote the prevention of cancers and diminish symptoms of virus infections.

  1. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  2. Technique for controllable vapor-phase deposition of 1-nitro(14C)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto environmental particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, S.V.; Lee, K.W.; Melton, C.W.; Lewtas, J.; Ball, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    To produce environmental particles fortified with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) for toxicology studies, an experimental apparatus was devised for deposition of the desired chemical species onto particles in a controlled and reproducible manner. The technique utilized consists of dispersion of the particles on a gaseous stream at a controlled rate, thermal vaporization of a solution of PAH, delivery of the vaporized PAH into the aerosol of particles at a controlled rate, subsequent condensation of the PAH onto the particles, and final recovery of the coated particles. The effectiveness of this approach was demonstrated by vapor-coating a 14 C-labeled PAH (1-nitro( 14 C)-pyrene) onto diesel engine exhaust particles that had previously been collected by tunnel dilution sampling techniques. Using the 14 C label as a tracer, the coated particles were characterized with respect to degree of coating, integrity of particle structure and absence of chemical decomposition of the coating substrate. The study demonstrates that the described method provides a controllable means for depositing a substance uniformly and with a high coating efficiency onto aerosolized particles. The technique was also used to vapor-coat benzo(a)pyrene onto diesel engine exhaust and urban ambient air particulate matter, and 2-nitrofluoranthene onto urban ambient air particulate matter. Coating efficiencies of about 400 micrograms/g particulate matter were routinely obtained on a single coating run, and up to 1200 micrograms/g (1200 ppm) were achieved after a second pass through the process. The coated particles were subsequently utilized in biological fate, distribution and metabolism studies

  3. Estimation of environmental mobility of heavy metals using a sequential leaching of particulate material emitted from an opencast chrome mine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeykioe, R. [Meri-Lappi Institute, Centre for Environmental Technology, University of Oulu, Kemi (Finland); Peraemaeki, P.; Kuokkanen, T. [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry, Oulu (Finland); Vaelimaeki, I. [Suomen Ympaeristoepalvelu Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    A four-stage sequential leaching procedure was applied to assess the bioavailability and environmental mobility of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cd) in total suspended particulate (TSP) material emitted from an opencast chrome mine complex (Kemi, Northern Finland). TSP material was collected on glass fibre filters by a high-volume sampler, and a sequential leaching procedure was used to determine the distribution of heavy metals between the water-soluble fraction (H{sub 2}O), environmentally mobile fraction (CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}), the fraction bound to carbonate and oxides (HONH{sub 3}Cl + CH{sub 3}COOH), and the fraction bound to silicates and organic matter, that is the environmentally immobile fraction (HNO{sub 3} + HF + HCl). The sequential leaching procedure was also applied to the certified reference materials VKI (QC Loam Soil A) and PACS-2 (Marine Sediment) to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the leaching procedure. The heavy metals were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentrations of metals in the water-soluble fraction (H{sub 2}O) decreased in the order Fe >Cu >Cr >Ni >Cd, and in the environmentally mobile fraction (CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}) in the order Cu >Fe >Ni >Cr >Cd. (orig.)

  4. Racial isolation and exposure to airborne particulate matter and ozone in understudied US populations: Environmental justice applications of downscaled numerical model output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Bell, Michelle L; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are increasingly focused on combined exposures to social and environmental stressors, especially given how often these stressors tend to co-locate. Such exposures are equally relevant in urban and rural areas and may accrue disproportionately to particular communities or specific subpopulations. To estimate relationships between racial isolation (RI), a measure of the extent to which minority racial/ethnic group members are exposed to only one another, and long-term particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of poverty. RI is associated with higher 5year estimated PM2.5 concentrations in urban, suburban, and rural census tracts, adding to evidence that segregation is broadly associated with disparate air pollution exposures. Disproportionate burdens to adverse exposures such as air pollution may be a pathway to racial/ethnic disparities in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributions of Heterocyst Glycolipids in Settling Particulate Matter Record Ecological and Environmental Parameters in a Tropical Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan Kumar, D.; Hopmans, E.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.; Bauersachs, T.; Werne, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is a critical component of paleoenvironmental reconstructions, yet it is notoriously difficult to measure in terrestrial archives. Presented here is an investigation of unique glycolipids produced by heterocystous cyanobacteria, so-called heterocyst glycolipids (HGs), in the water column of Lake Malawi (East Africa). The goal of the study is to evaluate the potential of HGs to function as a paleotemperature proxy in tropical lacustrine environments. HGs in Lake Malawi were extracted from settling particulate matter (SPM) collected at bi-monthly intervals from 2011 - 2013. Sediment traps were moored in the metalimnion of both the north and south basins of the lake in order to evaluate the spatial and the temporal trends in lipid production and export. This study is the first to analyze HGs in SPM and contains the longest time-series of HG production in a natural environment to date. HGs are consistently present throughout the three-year study period, but maximum fluxes occur annually in December, coincident with the timing of cyanobacterial blooms in the lake. HGs in SPM appear to be sourced from living cyanobacteria populations, indicating rapid export of the lipids through the water column. Temperatures reconstructed with published HG-based indices, which are derived from the relative abundances of HG diols and triols to HG keto-(di)ols, do not accurately reflect the seasonal variability in measured surface water temperatures. Rather, the production of C28 HG keto-ols appears to be related to the timing of heterocyst differentiation. Heterocystous cyanobacteria in Lake Malawi may instead respond to growth temperatures by elongating the alkyl side chain of HG diols, as indicated by increases in the abundance of the C28 HG diol relative to the C26 HG diol with warmer surface water temperatures. Distributions of HGs thus may indeed provide a novel tool for paleotemperature reconstructions in tropical lakes.

  7. Engendering Development

    OpenAIRE

    Monsod, Solita C.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the productive and reproductive roles Filipino women perform and assesses their contributions to human development. It also examines the reality of their marginalization from the country’s social, economic and political life. It then suggests on measures by which women can be empowered to achieve the goals of gender equality and equity.

  8. PIXE analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Yao Huiying; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Xu Huawei; Mi Yong; Shen Hao

    2001-01-01

    PIXE technique on the analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate is introduced. The clement composition and concentration of particulate are obtained. Some elements which are related to environmental pollution such as sulfur lead, silicon and manganese, were analyzed and discussed in detail by PIXE technique Nowadays although unleaded gasoline is widely used, the lead concentration is still very high in exhaust particulate. The concentrations of silicon and manganese in exhaust particulate from different model vehicles are also quite high from measurements. It shows that an evidence for exhaust pollution control could be provided from this work

  9. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  10. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  11. Particulate matter and carbon monoxide multiple regression models using environmental characteristics in a high diesel-use area of Baguio City, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Brandon E.; Naeher, Luke P. [The University of Georgia (UGA), College of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Science, Athens, Georgia, GA 30602-2102 (United States); Alabanza-Akers, Mary Anne [UGA, College of Environment and Design, Athens, Georgia (United States); Akers, Timothy A. [Kennesaw State University, WellStar College of Health and Human Services, Kennesaw, Georgia (United States); Hall, Daniel B. [UGA, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Statistics, Athens, Georgia (United States); Ryan, P. Barry [Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bayer, Charlene W. [Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2007-08-01

    In Baguio City, Philippines, a mountainous city of 252,386 people where 61% of motor vehicles use diesel fuel, ambient particulate matter < 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) in aerodynamic diameter and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at 30 street-level locations for 15 min apiece during the early morning (4:50-6:30 am), morning rush hour (6:30-9:10 am) and afternoon rush hour (3:40-5:40 pm) in December 2004. Environmental observations (e.g. traffic-related variables, building/roadway designs, wind speed and direction, etc.) at each location were noted during each monitoring event. Multiple regression models were formulated to determine which pollution sources and environmental factors significantly affect ground-level PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10} and CO concentrations. The models showed statistically significant relationships between traffic and early morning particulate air pollution [(PM{sub 2.5}p = 0.021) and PM{sub 10} (p = 0.048)], traffic and morning rush hour CO (p = 0.048), traffic and afternoon rush hour CO (p = 0.034) and wind and early morning CO (p 0.044). The mean early morning, street-level PM{sub 2.5} (110 {+-} 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; mean {+-} 1 standard error) was not significantly different (p-value > 0.05) from either rush hour PM{sub 2.5} concentration (morning = 98 {+-} 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; afternoon = 107 {+-} 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) due to nocturnal inversions in spite of a 100% increase in automotive density during rush hours. Early morning street-level CO (3.0 {+-} 1.7 ppm) differed from morning rush hour (4.1 {+-} 2.3 ppm) (p 0.039) and afternoon rush hour (4.5 {+-}2.2 ppm) (p = 0.007). Additionally, PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10}, CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and select volatile organic compounds were continuously measured at a downtown, third-story monitoring station along a busy roadway for 11 days. Twenty-four-hour average ambient concentrations were: PM{sub 2.5} = 72.9 {+-} 21 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; CO = 2.61 {+-} 0.6 ppm; NO{sub 2} = 27

  12. Particulate matter and carbon monoxide multiple regression models using environmental characteristics in a high diesel-use area of Baguio City, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, Brandon E.; Naeher, Luke P.; Alabanza-Akers, Mary Anne; Akers, Timothy A.; Hall, Daniel B.; Ryan, P. Barry; Bayer, Charlene W.

    2007-01-01

    In Baguio City, Philippines, a mountainous city of 252,386 people where 61% of motor vehicles use diesel fuel, ambient particulate matter 2.5 ) and 10 ) in aerodynamic diameter and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at 30 street-level locations for 15 min apiece during the early morning (4:50-6:30 am), morning rush hour (6:30-9:10 am) and afternoon rush hour (3:40-5:40 pm) in December 2004. Environmental observations (e.g. traffic-related variables, building/roadway designs, wind speed and direction, etc.) at each location were noted during each monitoring event. Multiple regression models were formulated to determine which pollution sources and environmental factors significantly affect ground-level PM 2.5 , PM 10 and CO concentrations. The models showed statistically significant relationships between traffic and early morning particulate air pollution [(PM 2.5 p = 0.021) and PM 10 (p = 0.048)], traffic and morning rush hour CO (p = 0.048), traffic and afternoon rush hour CO (p = 0.034) and wind and early morning CO (p 0.044). The mean early morning, street-level PM 2.5 (110 ± 8 μg/m 3 ; mean ± 1 standard error) was not significantly different (p-value > 0.05) from either rush hour PM 2.5 concentration (morning = 98 ± 7 μg/m 3 ; afternoon = 107 ± 5 μg/m 3 ) due to nocturnal inversions in spite of a 100% increase in automotive density during rush hours. Early morning street-level CO (3.0 ± 1.7 ppm) differed from morning rush hour (4.1 ± 2.3 ppm) (p 0.039) and afternoon rush hour (4.5 ±2.2 ppm) (p = 0.007). Additionally, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and select volatile organic compounds were continuously measured at a downtown, third-story monitoring station along a busy roadway for 11 days. Twenty-four-hour average ambient concentrations were: PM 2.5 = 72.9 ± 21 μg/m 3 ; CO = 2.61 ± 0.6 ppm; NO 2 = 27.7 ± 1.6 ppb; benzene = 8.4 ± 1.4 μg/m 3 ; ethylbenzene = 4.6 ± 2.0 μg/m 3 ; p-xylene = 4.4 ± 1.9 μg/m 3 ; m-xylene = 10.2 ± 4

  13. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  14. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  15. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  16. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  17. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  18. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  19. Do different welfare states engender different policy preferences?: opinions on pension reforms in Eastern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velladics, K.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; van Dalen, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the different welfare states of the European Union member states engender different policy preferences and attitudes among the population. More specifically, it investigates variations in attitudes towards population ageing and pension reforms, and variations in

  20. Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2013-12-24

    It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

  1. Engendering Organizational Commitment through “Non­‐financial” Rewards and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Sluhan, Anne

    In this paper, we present findings from the analysis of a qualitative case study exploring how a novel approach to a reward and incentive scheme was used engender organizational commitment in employees in a Danish Professional Service Firm (PSF) in the financial service sector. The firm’s efforts...... to align the reward and incentive scheme with employees’ values appeared to have a positive influence on employee turnover as well as other key performance measures. The findings from the paper have theoretical and practical implications in terms of how individual and organizational values can be aligned...

  2. Engendering organizational commitment through “non­‐financial” rewards and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Sluhan, Anne

    In this paper, we present findings from the analysis of a qualitative case study exploring how a novel approach to a reward and incentive scheme was used engender organizational commitment in employees in a Danish Professional Service Firm (PSF) in the financial service sector. The firm’s efforts...... to align the reward and incentive scheme with employees’ values appeared to have a positive influence on employee turnover as well as other key performance measures. The findings from the paper have theoretical and practical implications in terms of how individual and organizational values can be aligned...

  3. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4: a novel biomarker for environmental exposure to particulate air pollution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Yun Lee,1–3 Po-Hao Feng,1,2 Shu-Chuan Ho,4 Kai-Jen Chuang,5,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,3 Chien-Ling Su,2,4 Wen-Te Liu,2,4 Hsiao-Chi Chuang2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 5Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease that is correlated with environmental stress. Particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10 is considered to be a risk factor for COPD development; however, the effects of PM10 on the protein levels in COPD remain unclear. Fifty subjects with COPD and 15 healthy controls were recruited. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins identified immune system process and binding as the most important biological process and molecular function, respectively, in the responses of PM10-exposed patients with COPD. Biomarkers for PM10 in COPD were identified and compared with the same in healthy controls and included proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4, and apolipoprotein F (APOF. PRG4 and ITIH4 were associated with a past 3-year PM10 exposure level. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that ITIH4 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for PM10 exposure (area under the curve [AUC] =0.690, P=0.015 compared with PRG4 (AUC =0.636, P=0.083, APOF (AUC =0.523, P=0.766, 8-isoprostane (AUC =0.563, P=0.405, and C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC =0.634, P=0.086. ITIH4 levels were correlated with CRP (r=0

  4. Indoor exposure to environmental cigarette smoke, but not other inhaled particulates associates with respiratory symptoms and diminished lung function in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor sources of PM. We investigated the associations between self-reported exposure to indoor sources of PM and lower airway sympto...

  5. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  6. Kuwaiti oil fires—Particulate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Amin, Mohamed B.

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) matters using a high-volume sampler and inhalable particulate matters using PM-10 samplers were collected at various locations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during and after the Kuwaiti oil fires. The collected samples were analysed for toxic metals and oil hydrocarbon concentrations including some carcinogenic organic compounds in addition to gravimetric analysis. The concentration values of particulate matters were determined on a daily basis at Dhahran. Abqaiq, Rahima, Tanajib and Jubail locations. The analyses of the filters show a high concentration of the inhalable particulate at various locations, especially when north or northwest winds were blowing. It was found that the inhalable particulate concentration exceeded the Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA) permissible limit of 340 μg m- 3 at most of these locations during May-October 1991. A trend between the total suspended particulate and inhalable particulate measured concurrently at the same locations was observed and a regression equation was developed to correlate PM-10 data with the total suspended particulate data.

  7. Externality costs by emission. E. Particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fossil-fuel-fired electricity generating systems, particularly coal and oil-fired facilities, are significant emitters of particulate matter. The major components of particulate emissions from a power plant include ash, which is made up of heavy metals, radioactive isotopes and hydrocarbons, and sulfates (SO 4 ) and nitrates (NO 3 ), which are formed by reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the atmosphere. The smallest ash particulates (including sulfates and nitrates) cause human respiratory effects and impaired visibility. Other effects may include materials damage due to soiling and possibly corrosion, damage to domestic and wild flora through deposition of particulates on foliage, and possible health effects on domestic animals and wild fauna. Several studies focus on the direct effects of high ambient levels of small particulates. This chapter reviews the available literature on the effects of particulate emissions on humans and their environment, and attempts to assign a cost figure to the environmental effects and human health impairments associated with particulate matter emissions. Specifically, this report focuses on the effects of particulates related to human health, visibility, flora, fauna and materials

  8. Civic Engagement in Adolescents: Engendering Civic Awareness Through a University Youth Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A weeklong residential Youth Leadership Institute Project was conducted at USC Upstate to promote essential skills deemed necessary for future civic engagement and political identity. The program and curriculum followed a framework that suggests that underlying civic skills are necessary to foster civic engagement among youth. Building on this theory, this reported study illustrates that civic engagement requires a developmental and educational process. Adolescence is a primary time for identity exploration and formation, which makes this stage an optimal time to engender civic awareness. A diverse group of 49 youth ranging in age from 14 to 17 participated. Results from the project demonstrate that when evaluating the significance and success of youth civic engagement programs, an account must be made for both the developmental and educational capacities. In pursuing projects such as ours on university campuses and beyond, psychologists and political scientists should work together to measure their outcomes in terms of these variables.

  9. Characterization of traffic-related ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in an Asian city: Environmental and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Khlystov, Andrey; Norford, Leslie K.; Tan, Zhen-Kang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular traffic emission is an important source of particulate pollution in most urban areas. The detailed chemical speciation of traffic-related PM2.5 (fine particles) is relatively sparse in the literature, especially in Asian cities. To fill this knowledge gap, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore from November 2015 to February 2016. PM2.5 samples were collected concurrently at a typical roadside microenvironment and at an urban background site. A detailed chemical speciation of PM2.5 samples was conducted to gain insights into the emission characteristics of traffic-related fine aerosols. Analyses of diagnostic ratios and molecular markers of selected chemical species were explored for source attribution of different classes of chemical constituents in traffic-related PM2.5. The human health risk due to inhalation of the particulate-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and toxic trace elements was estimated for both adults and children. The overall results of the study indicate that gasoline-powered vehicles make a higher contribution to traffic-related fine aerosol components such as organic carbon (OC), particle-bound PAHs and particulate ammonium than that of diesel-powered vehicles. However, both types of vehicles contribute to traffic-related EC emissions significantly. The combustion of petroleum fuels and lubricating oil make significant contributions to the emission of n-alkanes and hopanes into the urban atmosphere, respectively. The study further reveals that some toxic trace elements are emitted from non-exhaust sources and that aromatic acids represent an important component of secondary organic aerosols. The emission of toxic trace elements from non-exhaust sources is of particular concern as they could pose a higher carcinogenic risk to both adults and children than other chemical species.

  10. Environmental Public Health Surveillance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice; Crosson, William

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELiX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM2.5 concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. While use of the Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 data alone could meet HELIX-Atlanta specifications, there are only five AQS sites in the Atlanta area, thus the spatial coverage is not ideal. We are using NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for estimating daily ground level PM2.5 at 10 km resolution over the metropolitan Atlanta area supplementing the AQS ground observations and filling their spatial and temporal gaps.

  11. Does changing social influence engender changes in alcohol intake? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Turgut, Liz

    2016-10-01

    Past research has suggested that social influences on drinking can be manipulated with subsequent reductions in alcohol intake. However, the experimental evidence for this and the best strategies to positively change these social influences have not been meta-analyzed. This research addressed these gaps. Randomized controlled trials testing social influence-based interventions on adults' drinking were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The behavior change techniques used in each study were coded and the effect sizes showing the impact of each intervention on (a) social influence and (b) alcohol intake were calculated. Metaregressions identified the association between these effect sizes, as well as the effect of specific behavior change techniques on social influences. Forty-one studies comprising 17,445 participants were included. Changes in social influences were significantly associated with changes in alcohol intake. However, even moderate-to-large changes in social influences corresponded with only a small change in drinking behavior and changing social influences did not reduce alcohol-related problems. Providing normative information about others' behavior and experiences was the most effective technique to change social influences. Social influences and normative beliefs can be changed in drinkers, particularly by providing normative information about how much others' drink. However, even generating large changes in these constructs are likely to engender only small changes in alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias toward negative feedback to undermine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, a situational pressure individuals experience when they fear confirming a negative group stereotype, engenders a cascade of physiological stress responses, negative appraisals, and performance monitoring processes that tax working memory resources necessary for optimal performance. Less is known, however, about how stereotype threat biases attentional processing in response to performance feedback, and how such attentional biases may undermine performance. Women received feedback on math problems in stereotype threatening compared to stereotype-neutral contexts while continuous EEG activity was recorded. Findings revealed that stereotype threatened women elicited larger midline P100 ERPs, increased phase locking between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (two regions integral for attentional processes), and increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback compared to positive feedback and women in stereotype-neutral contexts. Increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback predicted underperformance on the math task among stereotype threatened women only. Women in stereotype-neutral contexts exhibited the opposite trend. Findings suggest that in stereotype threatening contexts, neural networks integral for attention and working memory are biased toward negative, stereotype confirming feedback at very early speeds of information processing. This bias, in turn, plays a role in undermining performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise [San Diego, CA; Castro, Alonso [Santa Fe, NM; Gray, Perry Clayton [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES--PUREM NORTH AMERICA LLC, PMF GREENTEC 1004205.00.0 DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to provide high quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those involved in the design, distribution, financing, permitting, purchase, and use of environmental technologies. The Air Po...

  15. Engendering independence while living with purpose: women's lives after leaving abusive intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Penelope W; Dickerson, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common meanings a history of violence has for women out of abusive and violent relationships with an intimate male partner for 5 or more years. To describe the common meanings and shared practices of women who left violent and abusive heterosexual intimate relationships 5 or more years ago, the challenges they face in their current lives, and the resources they use to meet those challenges. An additional aim is to elucidate practical advice they have for others who want to be supportive of the efforts of women recovering from intimate partner violence. An interpretive phenomenological approach using Heideggerian hermeneutics was utilized. Approval of the University Social Sciences Institutional Review Board was obtained. Participants were recruited by means of fliers distributed through a domestic violence listserv and through postings in health clinics in western New York. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A hermeneutic team approach was used for analysis and interpretation of texts. Twenty-one women of various ages, ethnicities, and backgrounds, who self-identified as being out of abusive relationships for 5 or more years, were interviewed. Six themes were identified: developing and maintaining self reliance; negotiating relationships; creating a safe and supportive environment; challenging societal roles and expectations; nurturing the self; and protecting the children. Engendering independence while living with purpose was the constitutive pattern that unified the themes. Women can successfully establish productive, meaningful lives after violence and will fiercely protect and maintain their independence as they negotiate relationships and developmental challenges throughout their lives. A need for control of their lives and difficulty trusting others remain a lasting legacy of living with a history of violence. This is the first study that examines women's lives 5 or more years after leaving violent and

  16. Particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Shukla, Pravesh C.; Dhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical and chemical characterization of biodiesel particulates. • Toxicity of biodiesel particulate due to EC/OC, PAHs and BTEX. • Trace metals and unregulated emissions from biodiesel fuelled diesel engines. • Influence of aftertreatment devices and injection strategy on biodiesel particulates. • Characterization of biodiesel particulate size-number distribution. - Abstract: Compression ignition (CI) engines are the most popular prime-movers for transportation sector as well as for stationary applications. Petroleum reserves are rapidly and continuously depleting at an alarming pace and there is an urgent need to find alternative energy resources to control both, the global warming and the air pollution, which is primarily attributed to combustion of fossil fuels. In last couple of decades, biodiesel has emerged as the most important alternative fuel candidate to mineral diesel. Numerous experimental investigations have confirmed that biodiesel results in improved engine performance, lower emissions, particularly lower particulate mass emissions vis-à-vis mineral diesel and is therefore relatively more environment friendly fuel, being renewable in nature. Environmental and health effects of particulates are not simply dependent on the particulate mass emissions but these change depending upon varying physical and chemical characteristics of particulates. Particulate characteristics are dependent on largely unpredictable interactions between engine technology, after-treatment technology, engine operating conditions as well as fuel and lubricating oil properties. This review paper presents an exhaustive summary of literature on the effect of biodiesel and its blends on exhaust particulate’s physical characteristics (such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, particle surface area-size distribution, surface morphology) and chemical characteristics (such as elemental and organic carbon content, speciation of polyaromatic

  17. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  18. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  19. Atmospheric oxidative chemistry of organic particulate emissions from fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    "Construction and characterization of the University of Vermont Environmental Chamber (UVMEC) : were completed in this last phase of the project. The primary function of the UVMEC is to enable : tropospheric particulate formation and aging studies to...

  20. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  1. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  2. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  4. Duration and mutual entrainment of changes in parenting practices engendered by behavioral parent training targeting recently separated mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Andrea; Snyder, James; Staats, Sarah; Forgatch, Marion S; Degarmo, David S; Patterson, Gerald R; Low, Sabina; Sinclair, Ryan; Schmidt, Nicole

    2013-06-01

    Parent management training (PMT) has beneficial effects on child and parent adjustment that last for 5 to 10 years. Short-term changes in parenting practices have been shown to mediate these effects, but the manner in which changes in specific components of parenting are sequenced and become reciprocally reinforcing (or mutually entrained) to engender and sustain the cascade of long-term beneficial effects resulting from PMT has received modest empirical attention. Long-term changes in parenting resulting from the Oregon model of PMT (PMTO) over a 2-year period were examined using data from the Oregon Divorce Study-II in which 238 recently separated mothers and their 6- to 10-year-old sons were randomly assigned to PMTO or a no treatment control (NTC) group. Multiple indicators of observed parenting practices were used to define constructs for positive parenting, monitoring and discipline at baseline, and at 6-, 12-, 18- and 30-months postbaseline. PMTO relative to NTC resulted in increased positive parenting and prevented deterioration in discipline and monitoring over the 30-month period. There were reliable sequential, transactional relationships among parenting practices; positive parenting supported better subsequent monitoring, and positive parenting and better monitoring supported subsequent effective discipline. Small improvements in parenting resulting from PMTO and small deteriorations in parenting in the NTC group may be sustained and amplified by mutually entrained relationships among parenting practices. These data about the change processes engendered by PMTO may provide information needed to enhance the power, effectiveness, and efficiency of behavioral parent training interventions.

  5. Media art and the urban environment engendering public engagement with urban ecology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This illuminating text formally appraises the innovative ways new media artists engage urban ecology. Highlighting the role of artists as agents of technological change, the work reviews new modes of seeing, representing, and connecting within the urban setting. Across fourteen chapters, the book describes how state-of-the-art technology can be exploited in order to create artworks that transcend the technology’s original purpose, thus expanding the language of environmental engagement whilst also demonstrating a clear understanding of the societal issues and values being addressed. Topics and features: Explores urban ecology and its engagement, surveying a diverse range of artists, artworks and performances Assesses how data from smart cities may be used to create artworks that can recast residents’ understanding of urban space Examines dynamic transformations of urban space through the reimagining of urban information Discusses the engagement of urban residents with street art, including collaborative c...

  6. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  7. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  8. "Engendering" Agenda 21: gender equality and water resource management: five years after Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan-andersson, C

    1997-01-01

    Agenda 21 acknowledges women's role in natural resources management at the local level and emphasizes the need for more women in senior positions to contribute positively to the implementation of environmental policy. This article assesses Agenda 21's approach to gender equality and its achievements. A few explicit references to women and water resource management (WRM) without consideration on the gender implications of the WRM policies and strategies were noted. The macro-oriented, technology-focused and supply-oriented approach of Agenda 21 on WRM hinders the inclusion of a gender perspective. There are two levels of implications of gender-blind intervention in relation to WRM: the issue of social justice and rights, and the negative impact of the neglect of gender inequality on overall planning and success of interventions. The inclusion of a gender perspective at policy and planning levels to facilitate the resolution of inconsistencies, as well as the importance of water sources and patterns of use knowledge for adequate policy development and planning was suggested. It is important that the WRM principle application utilize a sociocultural and gender perspective at both community and household levels before decisions are made on WRM interventions.

  9. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  10. Crossing the invisible line: De-differentiation of wake, sleep and dreaming may engender both creative insight and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Writing about dreaming, the poet Raymond Carver said "I feel as if I've crossed some kind of invisible line". In creative people, the "line" between wake, dreaming and psychopathology may be porous, engendering a de-differentiated, super-critical, hybrid state. Evidence exists for a relationship between creativity and psychopathology but its nature has been elusive. De-differentiation between wake, sleep and dreaming may be the common substrate, as dream-like cognition pervades wake and wake-like neurophysiology suffuses sleep. Chaos theory posits brain states as inherently labile, transient and dynamically unstable. Over and above transient dissociations, an enduring and, sometimes, progressive, de-differentiation may be possible. Evidence indicates that sleep and dreaming facilitate creative insight. In consequence, a mild to moderate form of de-differentiation may enhance creativity but if wake-like neurobiology permeates sleep this may disrupt sleep-dependent memory processing and emotional regulation. If de-differentiation is progressive and enduring, various forms of psychopathology may result. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The eight EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone Traffic Proximity...

  12. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  13. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  14. Bio-derived fuels may ease the regeneration of diesel particulate traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Coda Zabetta; M. Hupa; S. Niemi [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Particulate is the most problematic emission from diesel engines. To comply with environmental regulations, these engines are often equipped with particulate traps, which must be regenerated frequently for the sake of efficiency. The regeneration is commonly achieved by rising the temperature in the trap till the particulate self-ignites. However, this method implies energy losses and thermal shocks in the trap. Alternatively, catalysts and additives have been recently considered for reducing the ignition temperature of particulate, but these techniques suffer from poisoning and undesirable byproducts. The present experimental study shows that the ignition temperature of particulate from seed-derived oils (SO) and from blends of SO with diesel fuel oil (DO) can be lower than that of particulate from neat DO. If substantiated by more extensive studies, such finding could have noteworthy implications on the future of fuels and traps. Short communication. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  16. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  17. (En)gendering Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2011-01-01

    Heteroseksuel kærlighed, ægteskab og reproduktion har altid optaget en ambivalent sted i nybygger kolonier som Australien. Mens gengivelse af de 'rigtige' slags nybyggere er bydende nødvendigt at den numeriske stigning i koloniserende befolkning, indfødte folks reproduktion er mere problematisk, ...

  18. Overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as fine particulate matter and arsenic in drinking water. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental Qualit...

  19. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  20. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  2. A critical review of the literature: engendering the discourse of masculinities matter for parenting African refugee men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nombasa

    2011-03-01

    According to the literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parenting, refugee parenting practices and styles that are normative in countries of origin may not be sanctioned in Australia. In the case of refugee parenting, beliefs, practices, and values may be decentered in pre-resettlement contexts where survival becomes the primary concern. Engendering the discourse of masculinities to reflect a relationship between child protection and the experience of refugee parenting for African men in both pre- and post-resettlement contexts will inform culturally competent practice, intervention, and community development that is inclusive of their gender-specific needs. This article brings an expanded masculinities perspective to the ecology of refugee parenting for resettled African men resulting from larger research findings with focus group participants. Incorporating notions of masculinity into the child protection discourse is an attempt not only to reduce existing gender under- and misrepresentation among South Australian refugees but also to ensure greater visibility and increase the role of refugee men in the process of developing culturally relevant and appropriate policies, practices, and services to assist successful resettlement transitions while strengthening family well-being. The concept of masculinities, this article argues, must be treated as integral to any approach to working with refugees, particularly in areas that penetrate and may define the quality of their life experiences, expectations, and aspirations. Masculinities matter. Exploring refugee male perceptions, interpretations, and enactment of masculinity may unmask the differential experiences of refugee women from men and ensure the integration and operationalization of these differences into child protection services and practice. © The Author(s) 2011

  3. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive ...

  4. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  5. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favez, O.

    2008-02-01

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  6. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  7. Particulate carbon in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surakka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted to the atmosphere in combustion processes. Carbon particles are very small and have a long residence time in the air. Black Carbon, a type of carbon aerosol, is a good label when transport of combustion emissions in the atmosphere is studied. It is also useful tool in air quality studies. Carbon particles absorb light 6.5 to 8 times stronger than any other particulate matter in the air. Their effect on decreasing visibility is about 50 %. Weather disturbances are also caused by carbon emissions e.g. in Kuwait. Carbon particles have big absorption surface and capacity to catalyze different heterogenous reactions in air. Due to their special chemical and physical properties particulate carbon is a significant air pollution specie, especially in urban air. Average particulate carbon concentration of 5.7 μg/m 2 have been measured in winter months in Helsinki

  8. Atmospheric particulate pollution in Kenitra (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, Mustapha; Noack, Yves; Boukla, Moussa; Benyaich, Fouad

    2009-01-01

    Cities of Morocco are exposed to a high atmospheric particulate pollution due to automobile traffic, industrialization, but also to soil dusts (in relation with aridity and desert proximity). Monitoring networks and data about air pollution still rare. The present study is a preliminary work about particulate and heavy metals pollution in Kenitra city. Aerosols had been collected with a PM10 sampler (Partisol), a dichotomous sampler (P M2.5 and P M2.5-10 fractions) and stacked filter unit (Gent type) with a fine fraction (below 2.5 um) and a coarse fraction. In summer, the average PM10 concentration is near 80 u g/N m 3 , above the EEC rule and OMS recommendations, but similar to some other african towns. The ratio P M2.5/PM 10 is low (below 0.5), with seasonal variation in relation with meteorology. The lead and nickel concentrations are also very low, in relation with the use of leaded gasoline and the oldness of many vehicles. This preliminary work reveals high levels of pollution (especially PM10, Pb and Ni) in the town of Kenitra. The major sources are traffic, soil dusts and resuspension of deposited particles. It is necessary to develop monitoring network and sanitary and and environmental impact studies in these cities [fr

  9. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  10. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  11. Characterization of particulate emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: Toward improved emission estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Claire; Rutherford, Shannon; Agranovski, Igor

    2018-06-01

    Given the significance of mining as a source of particulates, accurate characterization of emissions is important for the development of appropriate emission estimation techniques for use in modeling predictions and to inform regulatory decisions. The currently available emission estimation methods for Australian open-cut coal mines relate primarily to total suspended particulates and PM 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter available relating to the PM 2.5 (currently available emission estimation techniques, this paper presents results of sampling completed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia. The monitoring data demonstrate that the particulate size fraction varies for different mining activities, and that the region in which the mine is located influences the characteristics of the particulates emitted to the atmosphere. The proportion of fine particulates in the sample increased with distance from the source, with the coarse fraction being a more significant proportion of total suspended particulates close to the source of emissions. In terms of particulate composition, the results demonstrate that the particulate emissions are predominantly sourced from naturally occurring geological material, and coal comprises less than 13% of the overall emissions. The size fractionation exhibited by the sampling data sets is similar to that adopted in current Australian emission estimation methods but differs from the size fractionation presented in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for use in modeling predictions. Development of region-specific emission estimation techniques for PM 10 and PM 2.5 from open-cut coal mines is necessary to allow accurate prediction of particulate emissions to inform regulatory decisions and for

  12. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  13. Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, C.; Wagstrom, K.

    2017-12-01

    As our global society develops and grows it is necessary to better understand the impacts and nuances of atmospheric chemistry, in particular those associated with atmospheric particulate matter. We have developed a source apportionment scheme for the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model. While these approaches have existed for several years in regional chemical transport models, the Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (GPSAT) represents the first incorporation into a global chemical transport model. GPSAT runs in parallel to a standard GEOS-Chem run. GPSAT uses the fact that all molecules of a given species have the same probability of undergoing any given process as a core principle. This allows GPSAT to track many different species using only the flux information provided by GEOS-Chem's many processes. GPSAT accounts for the change in source specific concentrations as a result of aqueous and gas-phase chemistry, horizontal and vertical transport, condensation and evaporation on particulate matter, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. By using fluxes, GPSAT minimizes computational cost by circumventing the computationally costly chemistry and transport solvers. GPSAT will allow researchers to address many pertinent research questions about global particulate matter including the global impact of emissions from different source regions and the climate impacts from different source types and regions. For this first application of GPSAT, we investigate the contribution of the twenty largest urban areas worldwide to global particulate matter concentrations. The species investigated include: ammonium, nitrates, sulfates, and the secondary organic aerosols formed by the oxidation of benzene, isoprene, and terpenes. While GPSAT is not yet publically available, we will incorporate it into a future standard release of GEOS-Chem so that all GEOS-Chem users will have access to this new tool.

  14. The UK market for dust and particulate removal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The report has a market overview of dust and particulate removal equipment, 1995-1999 and has specific market reports, by value, of fabric, ceramic and sintered filters, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers (venturi, plate and others) and cyclones. It gives environmental expenditure by UK industry and discusses factors affecting supply, demand and success in the market. An overview is given of the industry structure and profiles are presented of 15 companies. Lists of contracts, trade associations and relevant journals are included. 33 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. DIII-D dust particulate characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmack, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, the authors present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divert or tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented

  17. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  18. NAAQS Designated Area Polygons - Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5), Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for Particulate Matter < 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  19. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  20. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  1. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  2. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberger, Steven R.; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  3. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  4. Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Gayle S. W.

    Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is of special concern for its ability to penetrate the human respiratory system and threaten cardiopulmonary health. A second major impact area is climate, with particulate matter altering Earth's radiative balance through scattering and absorbing solar radiation, modifying cloud properties, and reducing surface reflectivity after deposition in snow-covered regions. While atmospheric particulate matter has been generally well-characterized in populated areas of developed countries, particulate pollution in developing nations and remote regions is relatively unexplored. This thesis characterizes atmospheric particulate matter in locations that represent the extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of air pollution-the rapidly-developing and heavily populated Pearl River Delta Region of China, the pristine and climate-sensitive Greenland Ice Sheet, and a remote site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In China, fine particles were studied through a year-long field campaign at seven sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta. Fine particulate matter was analyzed for chemical composition, regional variation, and meteorological impacts. On the Greenland Ice Sheet and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the carbonaceous fraction (organic and elemental carbon) of particulate matter was studied in the atmosphere and snow pack. Analyses included quantifying particulate chemical and optical properties, assessing atmospheric transport, and evaluating post-depositional processing of carbonaceous species in snow.

  5. Investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region for seven years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harasawa, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    Activities of the workshops for the investigation of environmental materials by NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) methods during 1992 to 1997 held in Jakarta are briefly reported. Detail of selection of the theme (investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region by NAA), the results of the inter-comparison for the analysis using NIES No. 8 reference standard samples (vehicle exhaust particulate) are presented. In conclusion, systematically accumulated data on the environmental substances and their time variations measured and analyzed by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method give useful information on pollution problems and air movement in the Asia region. (S. Ohno)

  6. Investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region for seven years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harasawa, Susumu [Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Activities of the workshops for the investigation of environmental materials by NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) methods during 1992 to 1997 held in Jakarta are briefly reported. Detail of selection of the theme (investigation of the suspended particulate matter in the Asian region by NAA), the results of the inter-comparison for the analysis using NIES No. 8 reference standard samples (vehicle exhaust particulate) are presented. In conclusion, systematically accumulated data on the environmental substances and their time variations measured and analyzed by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) method give useful information on pollution problems and air movement in the Asia region. (S. Ohno)

  7. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  8. Dans le tourbillon des particules

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Accélérateurs géants, détecteurs complexes, particules énigmatiques... La physique subatomique peut sembler bien intimidante pour le novice. Et pourtant, qui n a jamais entendu parler du boson de Higgs et du CERN, le laboratoire européen où il a été découvert en 2012 ? Nul besoin d être un spécialiste pour comprendre de quoi il s agit. Aujourd hui, une théorie extraordinairement élégante, le Modèle Standard, décrit tous les résultats des expériences dans le domaine. Trente-sept particules élémentaires et quatre forces fondamentales : c est tout ce dont nous avons besoin pour expliquer la matière et l Univers ! Ce livre, destiné à un large public, raconte sans équations le long parcours qui a abouti au Modèle Standard. Ce parcours, parfois sinueux, a été entamé lorsque les Grecs anciens, et peut-être d autres avant eux, ont imaginé que la matière est composée de petites « billes ». Il faudra attendre plusieurs siècles pour qu on réalise que la matière, à l échelle micros...

  9. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  10. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boilerhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which supplies the fuel to generate over 78% of Poland's primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low-capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy. It utilizes a highly efficient collector, which functions on the principle of inertial separation. The system is able to control fine particulate matter, as in the PMIO regulations, which limit the emission of dust particles below 10 microns in diameter. Its dust removal performance has been shown to be comparable to that of a medium-efficiency electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Yet, its cost is substantially lower than that of either an ESP or fabric filter. While the Core Separator achieves high efficiency, its power consumption is just slightly higher than that of a cyclone. It functions dry and without the aid of energy-consuming enhancements. It is simple, reliable, and unlike the ESP and fabric filter, easy to maintain. This combination of features make it ideal for the small boiler market in the City of Krakow. A highly qualified team has been assembled to execute this project. LSR Technologies, Inc., a technology-based company located in Acton, Massachusetts, is the developer of the Core Separator and holder of its patent rights. LSR has sold several of these

  11. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  12. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  13. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  14. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  15. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  16. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  17. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  18. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  19. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  20. Particulate filtration in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The removal of particulate radioactive material from exhaust air or gases is an essential feature of virtually all nuclear facilities. Recent IAEA publications have covered the broad designs of off-gas and air cleaning systems for the range of nuclear power plants and other facilities. This report is a complementary guidebook that examines in detail the latest developments in the design, operation, maintenance and testing of fibrous air filters. The original draft of the report was prepared by three consultants, M.W. First, of the School of Public Health, Harvard University, United States of America, K.S. Robinson, from the UKAEA Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, and H.G. Dillmann, of the Kernforschungzentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM), at which the report was reviewed and much additional information contributed, was attended by 11 experts and was held in Vienna, from 30 May to 3 June 1988. 64 refs, 41 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  2. Roles of adjuvant and route of vaccination in antibody response and protection engendered by a synthetic matrix protein 2-based influenza A virus vaccine in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudic Mare

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M2 ectodomain (M2e of influenza A virus (IAV strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs are capable of restricting IAV replication in vivo but are present only at minimal concentration in human sera, efforts are being made to develop a M2e-specific vaccine. We are exploring a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine and here report on the role of adjuvants (cholera toxin and immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide and route of immunization on Ab response and strength of protection. Results Independent of adjuvants and immunization route, on average 87% of the M2e-MAP-induced Abs were specific for M2e peptide and a variable fraction of these M2e(pep-specific Abs (average 15% cross-reacted with presumably native M2e expressed by M2-transfected cells. The titer of these cross-reactive M2e(pep-nat-specific Abs in sera of parenterally immunized mice displayed a sigmoidal relation to level of protection, with EC50 of ~20 μg Ab/ml serum, though experiments with passive M2e(pep-nat Abs indicated that serum Abs did not fully account for protection in parenterally vaccinated mice, particularly in upper airways. Intranasal vaccination engendered stronger protection and a higher proportion of G2a Abs than parenteral vaccination, and the strength of protection failed to correlate with M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Ab titers, suggesting a role of airway-associated immunity in protection of intranasally vaccinated mice. Intranasal administration of M2e-MAP without adjuvant engendered no response but coadministration with infectious IAV slightly enhanced the M2e(pep-nat Ab response and protection compared to vaccination with IAV or adjuvanted M2e-MAP alone. Conclusion M2e-MAP is an effective immunogen as ~15% of the total M2e-MAP-induced Ab response is of desired specificity. While M2e(pep-nat-specific serum Abs have an important

  3. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.W.; Gallegos, G.M.; Surano, K.A.; Lamson, K.C.; Tate, P.J.; Balke, B.K.; Biermann, A.H.; Hoppes, W.G.; Fields, B.C.; Gouveia, F.J.; Berger, R.L.; Miller, F.S.; Rueppel, D.W.; Sims, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    The primary tasks of the environmental monitoring section (EMS) Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are: effluent monitoring of air, sewer, and NPDES water. Surveillance monitoring of soil, vegetation and foodstuff, water, air particulate, and air tritium. Radiation monitoring, dose assessment, emergency response, quality assurance, and reporting. This report describes LLNL and the monitoring plan

  5. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different

  6. Evaluation of particulate filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.

    2009-10-01

    In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.

  7. Determination of lead associated with airborne particulate matter by flame atomic absorption and wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The lead content of airborne particulate matter was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestion with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and also by wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The extraction procedure was checked by analyzing a standard reference material of airborne particulate matter (NIST, SRM -1648). It was concluded that lead can quantitatively (98%) be extracted from airborne particulate matter by the leaching process. A five-stage sequential extraction was performed to assess the potential mobility of lead associated with airborne particulate matter. Comparison of the airborne particulate lead measured by WDXRF to that measured by FAAS showed good agreement. The WDXRF method requires no time-consuming sample preparation or use of environmentally unfriendly solvents. The technique is suggested for direct determination of lead in airborne particulate matter in air pollution studies. (author)

  8. Can hydroreservoirs in tropical moist forest be made environmentally acceptable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodland, R.; Juras, A.; Pachauri, R.; International Power Engineering Society)

    1992-01-01

    Today's polarization of society for and against big hydroprojects relates to environmental costs, particularly borne by vulnerable ethnic minorities and the poor; such costs include species extinctions and tropical deforestation. This counterproductive polarization can be reconciled by transparency of planning, pluralism involving the society and especially all affected people, and by engendering national consensus on the best project. Detailed criteria for consensus are discussed. These include promotion of energy efficiency and convservation, ranking of alternatives to the next hydroproject, and environmental ranking of potential sites. Environmentally well designed hydro can be preferable to alternatives (coal, nuclear), and most environmental costs can be prevented, thus making hydro renewable and sustainable. (author)

  9. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... otherwise protected. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

  10. Global Guidance On LCIA Indicators: Impacts Of Particulate Matter And Of Land Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving life cycle impact assessment models is crucial. The flagship project of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative provides global guidance and consensus on environmental LCIA indicators for climate change, particulate matter impacts, land use impact on biodiversity, water scarcity and water ...

  11. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  12. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure t...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

  14. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  15. Removal of particulates from nuclear offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate removal from nuclear offgases can be broken down into three parts: pretreatment, prefiltration, and absolute filtration. Pretreatment, using conventional air cleaning devices in most cases, is sometimes required to temper the gases and remove heavy concentrations of particulate matter. Prefiltration, if required, serves primarily to protect the final filter stages from heavy dust loadings in order to extend their life. HEPA filters are the most commonly used ''absolute'' filtration devices and are always required for removal of submicrometer particulates that cannot be removed effectively by other devices

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  17. Modelling airborne dispersion of coarse particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of modelling the airborne dispersion and deposition of coarse particulates are presented, with the emphasis on the heavy particles identified as possible constituents of releases from damaged AGR fuel. The first part of this report establishes the physical characteristics of the irradiated particulate in airborne emissions from AGR stations. The second part is less specific and describes procedures for extending current dispersion/deposition models to incorporate a coarse particulate component: the adjustment to plume spread parameters, dispersion from elevated sources and dispersion in conjunction with building effects and plume rise. (author)

  18. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  19. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  20. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  1. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  2. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  3. Contacting particulate solids with liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for contacting particulate solids with a fluid. The particular applications described are 1) an acid dissolver for dissolving plutonium from plutonium contaminated ash produced by the incineration of waste such as rubber gloves, tissue paper etc. and 2) apparatus for dissolving gel spheres of nuclear fuel material. The liquid, e.g. acid for use in a leaching process flows through a vertical conduit and past a series of baffles spaced along the axis of the conduit. Each baffle defines a mixing chamber and provides a small gap around its perimeter between the baffle and the wall of the conduit. The baffles are provided with sloping top surfaces for preventing solid particles from settling on the baffles and sloping undersurfaces to improve mixing of the liquid and the solid particles. The liquid flows upwards in the conduit but solid particles may be fed from the top or from the bottom of the conduit to mix with the liquid. Gas may be introduced to promote improved flow conditions. (U.K.)

  4. Homogenized thermal conduction model for particulate foods

    OpenAIRE

    Chinesta , Francisco; Torres , Rafael; Ramón , Antonio; Rodrigo , Mari Carmen; Rodrigo , Miguel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition of an equivalent thermal conductivity for particulate foods. An homogenized thermal model is used to asses the effect of particulate spatial distribution and differences in thermal conductivities. We prove that the spatial average of the conductivity can be used in an homogenized heat transfer model if the conductivity differences among the food components are not very large, usually the highest conductivity ratio between the foods ...

  5. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  6. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy and Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid(trademark) filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  7. Elemental analysis of air particulate samples in Jakarta area by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumiarti; Yusuf, M.; Mellawati, June; Menry, Yulizon; Surtipanti S

    1998-01-01

    Determination of elements in air particulate samples collected from Jakarta, especially from industrial area Pulo Gadung, also from residence, office, and recreation sites had been carried out. The samples collected periodically from August through December 1996. The elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using QXAS AXIL (Quantitative X-ray Analysis System of x-ray Spectra by Iterative Least squares fitting) and QAES (Quantitative Analyses of Environmental Samples) package program. Results of the analyses showed that the content of heavy metal elements in air particulate samples from all areas studied were still below the maximum permissible concentration. (authors)

  8. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  9. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  10. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  11. Engendering macroeconomic policies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... But conventional thinking is being challenged. ... In macroeconomics, there is an idealized notion of a “rational economic human being” — a “rational economic man,” actually. ... We promote pro-poor fiscal policy as well as gender-sensitive ... efforts to learn, to earn, and to take part in local decision-making.

  12. Engendering Economic Policy in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); A. Oduro (Amo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDespite Africa's relatively commendable growth performance since 2000, growth has not been accompanied by structural transformations. First, there has been little diversification from agriculture into industry, particularly manufacturing. Second, the poverty headcount and inequality

  13. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    ... these and other issues at the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians. Situating their work within the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range fr...

  14. Reduced left ventricular dimension and function following early life stress: A thrifty phenotype hypothesis engendering risk for mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Coplan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early life stress (ELS in macaques in the form of insecure maternal attachment putatively induces epigenetic adaptations resulting in a “thrifty phenotype” throughout the life cycle. For instance, ELS induces persistent increases in insulin resistance, hippocampal and corpus callosum atrophy and reduced “behavioral plasticity”, which, taken together, engenders an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders in humans but also a putative sparing of calories. Herein, we test the hypothesis whether a thrifty phenotype induced by ELS is peripherally evident as hypotrophy of cardiac structure and function, raising the possibility that certain mood disorders may represent maladaptive physiological and central thrift adaptations. Methods: 14 adult bonnet macaques (6 males exposed to the maternal variable foraging demand (VFD model of ELS were compared to 20 non-VFD adult subjects (6 males. Left ventricle end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD, Left ventricle end-systolic dimension (LVESD and stroke volume (SV were calculated using echocardiography. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured only in females. Previously obtained neurobehavioral correlates available only in males were analyzed in the context of cardiac parameters. Results: Reduced LVESD (p < 0.05 was observed when controlled for age, sex, body weight and crown-rump length whereas ejection fraction (EF (p = 0.037 was greater in VFD-reared versus non-VFD subjects. Pulse pressure was lower in VFD versus non-VFD females (p < 0.05. Male timidity in response to a human intruder was associated with reduced LVEDD (p < 0.05. Conclusions: ELS is associated with both structural and functional reductions of left ventricular measures, potentially implying a body-wide thrifty phenotype. Parallel “thrift” adaptations may occur in key brain areas following ELS and may play an unexplored role in mood and anxiety disorder susceptibility.

  15. Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambra-Lopez, Maria; Aarnink, Andre J.A.; Zhao Yang; Calvet, Salvador; Torres, Antonio G.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock housing is an important source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM can threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter in livestock houses is mainly coarse, primary in origin, and organic; it can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect. Levels of PM in livestock houses are high, influenced by kind of housing and feeding, animal type, and environmental factors. Improved knowledge on particle morphology, primarily size, composition, levels, and the factors influencing these can be useful to identify and quantify sources of PM more accurately, to evaluate their effects, and to propose adequate abatement strategies in livestock houses. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PM in and from livestock production systems. Future research to characterize and control PM in livestock houses is discussed. - Control of particulate matter emissions, a major challenge to modern livestock production.

  16. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  17. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  18. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  19. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  20. Health and Environmental Effects of Particulate Matter (PM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter pose the greatest problems, because they can get deep into your lungs, and some may even get into your bloodstream. Fine particles (PM2.5) are the main cause of reduced visibility (haze).

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  2. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container (∼100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide range of stress

  3. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  4. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  5. 1986 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltenberger, R.P.; Royce, B.A.; Naidu, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1986 are summarized in this report. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates and halogens; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the organics, radioactivity, and water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; and the concentrations of organics, radioactivity, and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory. In 1986, the results of the surveillance program demonstrated that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards

  6. Migration of particulates in permeable rock columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The migration of radioactive material through soil and permeable rock formations have become a major topic of concern due to the interest in the licensing of new radioactive waste disposal sites. Previously, research has been conducted in relation to deep repositories; however, similar situations arise in the vadose zone, where there is a higher probability of naturally-occurring particulates of organic nature and for the incursion of water. Test data has provided information which suggests that particulates will travel through porous media subject to various delay mechnisms and must be included in any consideration of waste migration. Data concerning particulate migration must and should be considered in the future when radioactive waste disposal sites are licensed

  7. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  8. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  9. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroin, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  10. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  11. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  12. Particulate Study on NeoProfen, a Neonatal Injectable Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Aravind; Rice, Michael; Kester, Tom; Waters, Michael; Wilson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    NeoProfen or sterile ibuprofen L-lysine at 10 mg/mL ibuprofen, in 2 mL single-use Type I glass vials is often a first choice medication used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in neonatal patients from 500 to 1500 g body weight. Visible particulate matter was found in vials that were placed on a commercial stability program prior to the approved expiration date of 2 years. A combination of instrumental techniques including inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Raman and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy was used to evaluate stability, pilot batch and packaging samples in a root cause investigation. The particulate matter was shown to consist largely of ibuprofen aluminum salts of various stoichiometries. It developed over time by a substitution mechanism, in which the ibuprofen anion in solution reacts with the aluminum oxide network of the borosilicate glass giving the ibuprofen aluminum salt with =Al-OH remaining in the network. For corrective action an alternate Type I borosilicate glass vial with interior coating, not found in the original vial, was chosen for the product to prevent this occurrence. NeoProfen (sterile preservative-free ibuprofin L-lysine at 17 mg/mL in a single-use glass vial) is used to close a clinically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants no more than 32 weeks gestational age. The neonatal population is especially sensitive to outside chemical, physical and environmental conditions because of incompletely developed organ systems, low birth weight and other underlying conditions. Two batches of this product were voluntarily recalled by the manufacturer, Lundbeck, and investigated for the source of particulate matter observed during a commercial stability testing program. This was found to result from an interaction between the product and the Type I borosilicate glass vial where ibuprofen

  13. Evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in some urban and industrial cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, M.A.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental studies are very important as the living beings depend greatly on the conditions of the environment. Air is an important component of the environment, which greatly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Environmental problems in Pakistan are growing with the rise in total sectorial growth in population, economy and industrialization. In connection with atmospheric pollution, measurement of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Wah Cantt. and Khanispur (background area) has been carried out and compared to that of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards. (author)

  14. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C D [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  15. Aerotrace. Measurement of particulates from an engine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, C.D. [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of gas turbine operating conditions, inlet temperature, pressure and overall air fuel ratio, on particulate number density has been measured. Particulate number density was found to be proportional to combustor inlet pressure and decrease with increasing combustor inlet temperature. The relationship with air fuel ratio is more complex. The mechanism of particulate loss down sample lines has been elucidated and equations are presented to predict particulate losses for stainless steel and PTFE sample lines. (author) 3 refs.

  16. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  17. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor environment of five households in the community. The quantification of the trace metals was done using Atomic Absorption spectrometry method, employing HNO based wet digestion. High baseline concentration of SPMwere obtained ...

  18. Effect of condensable species on particulate fouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, K.K.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Malayeri, M.R.; Muller-Steinhagen, H.; Watkinson, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The flue gases emanating from the combustion of fuels or gasification process invariably comprises particulate matter and many chemical species in vapor form. The temperature of the flue gases gradually reduces when passing through different sections of heat exchanger like superheater, evaporator

  19. Effect of condensable species on particulate fouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathyanarayanarao Subbarao, K.K.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The flue gases emanating from the combustion of fuels or gasification process invariably comprise particulate matter and many chemical species in vapor form. The temperature of the flue gases gradually reduces when passing through different sections of heat exchanger, such as the superheater,

  20. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  1. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al 2 O 3 , or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na + ions. The loading of SiC or Al 2 O 3 particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  2. Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2012-01-01

    Glints are bright light spots created by particulate media like cirrus clouds, glaciers, and wavy water surfaces. They are seen around the specular reflection angle. In this paper, the glints from such scattering/reflecting media are described in a unified manner through the probability density for facet tilts. Various kinds of these probability densities for wavy surfaces are defined and classified. The concept of the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for rough surfaces instead of the conventional bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is introduced for characterization of the glints. The simple equations connecting the DSCS and the probability densities for facet tilts are derived. It is shown that the glints from particulate media and wavy surface are very similar at small incidence angles and they are significantly different at slant incidence. -- Highlights: ► Differential scattering cross section unifies particulate media and wavy surfaces. ► The glint pattern is a mapping of the probability density function for facet tilts. ► Shadowing is a crucial aspect of glint pattern formation. ► Glint patterns discriminate between the particulate media and wavy surfaces.

  3. High-Latitude Wintertime Urban Pollution: Particulate Matter Composition and Temporal Trends in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Nattinger, K.; Hooper, M.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude cities often experience severe pollution episodes during wintertime exacerbated by thermal inversion trapping of pollutant emissions. Fairbanks, Alaska is an extreme example of this problem, currently being classified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a "serious" non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). For this reason, we have studied the chemical composition of PM2.5 at multiple EPA monitoring sites in the non-attainment area from 2006 to the present. The chemical composition is dominated by organic carbon with lesser amounts of black carbon and inorganic ionic species such as ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate. We find large spatial differences in composition and amount of PM2.5 that indicate a different mix of sources in residential areas as compared to the city center. Specifically, the difference in composition is consistent with increased wood smoke source in the residential areas. The extent to which organic matter could be secondary (formed through conversion of emitted gases) is also an area needing study. Ammonium sulfate is responsible for about a fifth to a quarter of the particles mass during the darkest months, possibly indicating a non-photochemical source of sulfate, but the chemical mechanism for this possible transformation is unclear. Therefore, we quantified the relationship between particulate sulfate concentrations and gas-phase sulfur dioxide concentrations along with particulate metals and inferred particulate acidity with the hopes that these data can assist in elucidation of the mechanism of particulate sulfate formation. We also analyze temporal trends in PM2.5 composition in an attempt to understand how the problem is changing over time and find most trends are small despite regulatory changes. Improving mechanistic understanding of particulate formation under cold and dark conditions could assist in reducing air-quality-related health effects.

  4. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Kheireddine, Malika; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non

  5. Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Julia; Bendels, Michael H K; Braun, Markus; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Mueller, Ruth

    2018-01-09

    Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of nonsmokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ), ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic, and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content was analyzed. ETS was generated in a standardized way using an automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE), followed by laser aerosol spectrometry. This analysis shows that the tested cigarette brands, despite having different menthol concentrations, do not show differences with regard to PM emissions, with the exception of Reyno Classic, which shows an increased emission, although the menthol level ranged in the midfield. More than 90% of the emitted particles had a size smaller than or equal to 1 µm. Regardless of the menthol level, the count median diameter (CMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) were found to be 0.3 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. These results point out that there is no effect of menthol on PM emission and that other additives might influence the increased PM emission of Reyno Classic. Particulate matter (PM) in ETS endangers the health of nonsmokers and smokers. This study considers the effect of menthol, an additive in cigarettes, on PM emissions. Does menthol increase the amount of PM? Due to the exposure to secondhand smoke nearly 900,000 people die each year worldwide. The aim of the study is to measure the particle concentration (L -1 ), mass concentration (µg m -3 ), and dust mass fractions shown as PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 of five different cigarette brands, including four with different menthol concentrations and one menthol-free reference cigarette, in a well-established standardized system.

  6. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  7. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  8. Impact of fugitive sources and meteorological parameters on vertical distribution of particulate matter over the industrial agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbová, Kristína; Raclavská, Helena; Bílek, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize vertical distribution of particulate matter, in an area well known by highest air pollution levels in Europe. A balloon filled with helium with measuring instrumentation was used for vertical observation of air pollution over the fugitive sources in Moravian-Silesian metropolitan area during spring and summer. Synchronously, selected meteorological parameters were recorded together with particulate matter for exploration its relationship with particulate matter. Concentrations of particulate matter in the vertical profile were significantly higher in the spring than in the summer. Significant effect of fugitive sources was observed up to the altitude ∼255 m (∼45 m above ground) in both seasons. The presence of inversion layer was observed at the altitude ∼350 m (120-135 m above ground) at locations with major source traffic load. Both particulate matter concentrations and number of particles for the selected particle sizes decreased with increasing height. Strong correlation of particulate matter with meteorological parameters was not observed. The study represents the first attempt to assess the vertical profile over the fugitive emission sources - old environmental burdens in industrial region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhang, Yanlin; Bozzetti, Carlo; Ho, Kin-Fai; Cao, Jun-Ji; Han, Yongming; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Slowik, Jay G.; Platt, Stephen M.; Canonaco, Francesco; Zotter, Peter; Wolf, Robert; Pieber, Simone M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Crippa, Monica; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Schwikowski, Margit; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; An, Zhisheng; Szidat, Sönke; Baltensperger, Urs; Haddad, Imad El; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. In response to the extremely severe and persistent haze pollution experienced by about 800 million people during the first quarter of 2013 (refs 4, 5), the Chinese State Council announced its aim to reduce concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres) by up to 25 per cent relative to 2012 levels by 2017 (ref. 6). Such efforts however require elucidation of the factors governing the abundance and composition of PM2.5, which remain poorly constrained in China. Here we combine a comprehensive set of novel and state-of-the-art offline analytical approaches and statistical techniques to investigate the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Xi'an during January 2013. We find that the severe haze pollution event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation, which contributed 30-77 per cent and 44-71 per cent (average for all four cities) of PM2.5 and of organic aerosol, respectively. On average, the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) are found to be of similar importance (SOA/SIA ratios range from 0.6 to 1.4). Our results suggest that, in addition to mitigating primary particulate emissions, reducing the emissions of secondary aerosol precursors from, for example, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is likely to be important for controlling China's PM2.5 levels and for reducing the environmental, economic and health impacts resulting from particulate pollution.

  10. Relationship between Particulate matter less than 10 microns exposures and health effects on humans in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Particulate matters less than 10 microns can absorb into your lungs and reacting with the moisture and enter the circulatory system directly through the airways. The aim of this study is to assess Behavior PM 10 data in different seasons and Determination effects on human health in Ahvaz city during 2013. Materials & Methods: Data Particulate matters less than 10 microns were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment and Meteorological Organization. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in 4 stations. Method of sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. Processing data include the instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering. Finally, health-effects of Particulate matters less than 10 exposures were calculated with impact of meteorological parameters and converted as input file to the Air Q model. Results: PM 10 concentration in winter season was maximum amount in the year 2013. According to the research findings, highest and the lowest Particulate matters less than 10 microns concentrations during 2013 had the Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and Head office of ADoE “Mohitzist”. Sum of total numbers of cardiovascular death and hospitals admission to respiratory diseases attributed to Particulate matters less than 10 microns were 923 and 2342 cases in 2013. Conclusions: Particulate matter emissions are highly regulated in most industrialized countries. Due to environmental concerns, most industries and dust storm phenomena are required to decrease in source produce particle mater and kind of dust collection system to control particulate emissions. Pollution prevention and control measures that reduce Particulate matters less than 10 microns can very useful for expected to reduce people’s exposures to Sulfur dioxide.

  11. Evaluation of Pollution of Soils and Particulate Matter Around Metal Recycling Factories in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akinade S. Olatunji; Tesleem O. Kolawole; Moroof Oloruntola; Christina Günter

    2018-01-01

    Background. Metal recycling factories (MRFs) have developed rapidly in Nigeria as recycling policies have been increasingly embraced. These MRFs are point sources for introducing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into environmental media. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the constituents (elemental and mineralogy) of the wastes (slag and particulate matter, (PM)) and soils around the MRFs and to determine the level of pollution within the area. Methods. Sixty samples (...

  12. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: SYNTECH PRODUCTS CORPORATION'S PETROTAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: SYNTECH PRODUCTS CORPORATION'S TECHSUPPRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  15. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  16. Nonseparable dynamic nearest neighbor Gaussian process models for large spatio-temporal data with an application to particulate matter analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, A.; Banerjee, S.; Finley, A.O.; Hamm, N.A.S.; Schaap, M.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a class of malicious environmental pollutants known to be detrimental to human health. Regulatory efforts aimed at curbing PM levels in different countries often require high resolution space–time maps that can identify red-flag regions exceeding statutory concentration

  17. Health effects of fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment: findings from the Basel Guidance Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Evans, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered to be one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the global human disease burden. However, due to the lack of broad consensus and harmonization in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, there is no clear guidance on ho...

  18. Chemical Composition of Diesel/Biodiesel Particulate Exhaust by FTIR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Fuel and Driving Cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovicheva, O.B.; Irimiea, C.; Carpentier, Y.; Ortega, I.K.; Kireeva, E.D.; Shonija, N.K.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Fosca, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2017), s. 1717-1734 ISSN 1680-8584 Grant - others:MHER(FR) ANR-11-LABX-0005 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : diesel engine * particulate emission * environmental pollution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2016

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  20. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains a...

  1. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidy, M. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  2. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  3. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  5. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007, concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August and warm (September to February seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41% than in the warm season (44 ± 18%. On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3 for fine particulate matter.

  6. Carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G E; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002-2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m(3)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m(3)) for fine particulate matter.

  7. Transboundary environmental problems in international politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerrissen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Transboundary environmental problems with their far-reaching consequences impinge on vital interests of the affected countries. As states interdepend not only ecologically but also, or even primarily, economically, environmental problems usually engender a clash between ecological and economic interests. Although economic power is central to getting one's way, economically powerful states by no means always succeed in realising their aims. This topical monograph deals with the subject of regional and global debates and conflicts about transboundary environmental problems. The author points out the prerequisites for realising ecological interests in conditions of complex interdependence, illustrating his findings with two case studies. One is about the establishment of a regime for climate protection, while the other concerns the new ruling on transalpine commercial road transport. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Establishing aeolian particulate 'fingerprints' in an airport environment using magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sue; Hoon, Stephen R.; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of particulate matter (PM) from aviation activity on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment, in particular, may be derived from a wide range of potential sources including aircraft; vehicles; ground support equipment and buildings. In order to investigate and remediate potential problem sources, it is important to be able to identify characteristic particulate 'fingerprints' which would allow source attribution, particularly respirable particulates. To date the identification of such 'fingerprints' has remained elusive but remains a key research priority for the aviation industry (Webb et al, 2008). In previous PM studies, environmental magnetism has been used as a successful technique for discriminating between different emission types and particulate sources in both urban and industrial environments (e.g. Hunt et al 1984; Lecoanet et al 2003, Jones et al 2015). Environmental magnetism is a non-destructive and relatively rapid technique involving the use of non-directional, rock magnetic measurements to characterise the mineral magnetic properties of natural and anthropogenic materials. In other studies scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been used as an effective characterisation technique for the investigation of grain size and morphology of PM derived from vehicle emissions (e.g. Bucko et al 2010) and fossil fuel combustion sources (Kim et al 2009). In this study, environmental magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX have been used to characterise dusts from specific aircraft sources including engines, brakes and tyres. Furthermore, these methods have also been applied to runway (both hard and grass covered surfaces), taxiway and apron dusts collected during extensive environmental sampling at Manchester International Airport, UK in order to

  9. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  10. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  11. DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peciar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  12. Vertical hydraulic transport of particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restini, C.V.; Massarani, G.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of particulate solid vertical transport is formulated using the conservation equations of Continuum Mechanics. It is shown that the constitutive equation for solid-fluid interaction term in the equations of motion may be determined by rather simple experiments of homogeneous fluidization. The predicted fluid pressure drop and solid concentration are in satisfacting agreement with past experiments and with data obtained in this work. (Author) [pt

  13. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particulate Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, J.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF), whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  14. POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF, whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  15. L'univers des particules une introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Diu, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Au début du XXe siècle, les scientifiques imaginaient que l'ensemble du monde était construit à partir de trois "particules élémentaires" (électron, proton, photon). Depuis, nous avons appris que notre univers contient un nombre considérable de particules - soit des corps individualisés d'extension réduite - de natures et de caractéristiques très diverses, qu'il serait illusoire de chercher à énumérer de manière formelle et systématique. C'est pourquoi le propos de ce livre suit une stratégie fondamentalement différente. Il s'organise autour de certaines propriétés générales que laissent apparaître l'observation et l'étude des particules dans leur existence et leur conduite primaire. Aussi, chacune des parties de cet ouvrage rassemble plusieurs chapitres de thèmes voisins, mais un sujet donné peut également être traité en divers endroits et, de ce fait, être abordé sous différents angles de manière complémentaire. De telles compositions et décompositions d'éléments proche...

  16. Sampling/classification of gasifier particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, J.

    1984-01-01

    A high temperature and pressure real time extractive sampling probe for particulate monitoring was built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and tested on Morgantown Energy Technology Center's 42 inch fixed bed gasifier. The probe was specifically designed for the conditions of highly loaded particulate and condensable streams, that exist at the outlet of a fixed bed gasifier. Some of the salient features of the probe are: porous tube gas injection, aerodynamic particle classification in the presence of condensable vapors, β gauge particle detection, and micro processor control. Three of the key design problems were the separation of the particles from the vapor without promoting condensation, the prevention of plugging, and real time monitoring. Some plugging did occur over the seven day sampling period, but by over pressurizing and back purging the clog was blown back into the process stream. The tests validate the proof of concept of the sampling probe and indicated that the particulate output from the bed came in the form of bursts (several minutes in duration) rather than in the form of a steady stream

  17. Considerations for modeling small-particulate impacts from surface coal-mining operations based on wind-tunnel simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, S.G.; Petersen, W.B. [Air Resources Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Thompson, R.S. [Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 provide for a reexamination of the current Environmental Protection Agency`s (USEPA) methods for modeling fugitive particulate (PM10) from open-pit, surface coal mines. The Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST2) is specifically named as the method that needs further study. Title II, Part B, Section 234 of the Amendments states that {open_quotes}...the Administrator shall analyze the accuracy of such model and emission factors and make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-predictions of air quality effect of fugitive particulate emissions from such sources.{close_quotes}

  18. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  19. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  20. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change ...

  1. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium in leatherback sea turtle lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rachel M; Wise, Catherine F; Young, Jamie L; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Martin Bras, Mark; Barandiaran, Mike; Bermúdez, Erick; Márquez-D'Acunti, Lirio; Wise, John Pierce

    2018-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate and soluble Cr(VI) in leatherback sea turtle lung cells. Both particulate and soluble Cr(VI) induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. Next, using a chromosome aberration assay, we assessed the genotoxic effects of Cr(VI) in leatherback sea turtle lung cells. Particulate and soluble Cr(VI) induced a concentration-dependent increase in clastogenicity in leatherback sea turtle lung cells. These data indicate that Cr(VI) may be a health concern for leatherback sea turtles and other long-lived marine species. Additionally, these data provide foundational support to use leatherback sea turtles as a valuable model species for monitoring the health effects of Cr(VI) in the environment and possibly as an indicator species to assess environmental human exposures and effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An approach towards risk assessment for the use of a synergistic metallic diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. L.; Richards, P. J.

    The motivations for legislation to set diesel emissions limits requiring the use of diesel particulate filters (DPF) are summarised. If the DPF is to be used, demonstration of regeneration (combustion of collected carbonaceous material) without additional emission problems is important. Potential metal emissions resulting from use of a synergistic Fe/Sr fuel-borne DPF regeneration catalyst are evaluated. Measurements over legislated drive cycle estimate the metals to comprise 1-2% of the solid material emitted, and the DPF to collect >99% of such material. Diesel particulate matter is used as a marker, and from existing air quality and emission inventory measurements, maximum conceivable increases of diet. In the context of reductions of other metals, particulate matter and pollutant emissions, the overall assessment is that the use of these metals to enable use of a DPF allows significant net environmental benefit to be obtained.

  3. Particulate versus non-particulate corticosteroids for transforaminal nerve root blocks. Comparison of outcomes in 494 patients with lumbar radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2018-03-15

    We set out to compare outcomes in CT-guided lumbar transforaminal nerve root block patients receiving either particulate or non-particulate corticosteroids. This was a retrospective comparative effectiveness outcomes study on two cohorts of lumbar radiculopathy patients. 321 received particulate and 173 non-particulate corticosteroids at CT-guided transforaminal lumbar nerve root injections. The particulate steroid was used from October 2009 until May 2014 and the non-particulate steroid was used from May 2014. Pain levels were collected at baseline using an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. Overall 'improvement' was assessed using the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at these same time points (primary outcome). The proportions of patients 'improved' were compared between the two groups using the Chi-square test. The NRS change scores were compared using the unpaired t-test. A significantly higher proportion of patients treated with particulate steroids were improved at 1 week (43.2 % vs. 27.7 %, p = 0.001) and at 1 month (44.3 % vs. 33.1 %, p = 0.019). Patients receiving particulate steroids also had significantly higher NRS change scores at 1 week (p = 0.02) and 1 month (p = 0.007). Particulate corticosteroids have significantly better outcomes than non-particulate corticosteroids. (orig.)

  4. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi-Canister Overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage

  5. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage

  6. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  7. Particulate Filtration from Emissions of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Reactor Using Regenerable Porous Metal Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Abney, Morgan; Greenwood, Zachary; West, Philip; Mitchell, Karen; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-based plasma pyrolysis technology is being studied as a means of supporting oxygen recovery in future spacecraft life support systems. The process involves the conversion of methane produced from a Sabatier reactor to acetylene and hydrogen, with a small amount of solid carbon particulates generated as a side product. The particles must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on porous metal media filters for removing the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream and to provide in situ media regeneration capability. Because of the high temperatures involved in oxidizing the deposited carbon during regeneration, there was particular focus in this development on the materials that could be used, the housing design, and heating methods. This paper describes the design and operation of the filter and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Monitoring Devices for Particulate Content in Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The installation and operation of continuous particulate emission monitors in industrial processes has become well developed and common practice in industrial stacks and ducts over the past 30 years, reflecting regulatory monitoring requirements. Continuous emissions monitoring equipment is installed not only for regulatory compliance, but also for the monitoring of plant performance, calculation of emissions inventories and compilation of environmental impact assessments. Particulate matter (PM entrained in flue gases is produced by the combustion of fuels or wastes. The size and quantity of particles released depends on the type of fuel and the design of the plant. The present work provides an overview of the main industrial emission sources, a description of the main types of monitoring systems offered by manufacturers and a comparative analysis of the currently available technologies for measuring dust releases to atmosphere.

  9. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  10. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  11. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  12. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental performance, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Report describes Ontario Hydro's environmental objectives, results, and initiatives during the year. It attempts to measure how far the corporation has advanced in its understanding and mitigation of environmental concerns. The report should be placed against the backdrop of the transition occurring at Hydro as the corporation moves toward sustainable energy development (SED) practices. The report discusses corporate restructuring, the regulatory framework, and environmental spending. Then it looks at environmental initiatives (SED; environmental management system; environmental audits; environmental assessment process; emissions trading; toxic substance elimination); environmental approvals (demand-supply plan; assessments and approvals; environmental effects monitoring); energy management; non-utility generation; alternative energy technologies (solar; wind energy; fuel cells); international activities; material and waste management (solid non-hazardous wastes, reduction, recycling, reuse; hazardous materials, chemical, oils, and liquid waste, polychlorinated biphenyls -- PCBs, and wood pole preservatives); fossil combustion by-products, coal ash or oil ash, flue gas desulfurization by-product gypsum; mercury in the environment; radioactive materials and wastes, radioactive liquid chemical waste, low and intermediate-level radioactive solid waste, nuclear used fuel, tritiated heavy water; ozone-depleting substances; spills management; water management (chemical emissions, MISA; fish management; radioactive effluents; thermal effluents; zebra mussels); air management (acid gas management; greenhouse gas reductions; chemical emissions to air; ground-level ozone, NO x /VOC emissions; noise and odor complaints; particulate emissions; radioactive emissions; integrated air management); land management; and social, economic, and cultural environment

  14. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  15. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Finney, Charles E.A.; Daw, C. Stuart; Foster, Dave; Rutland, Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  16. Particulate characterization by PIXE multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Grant, Patrick G.; Kotula, Paul G.; Doyle, Barney L.; Richardson, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining particulate compositional maps from scanned PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) measurements is extremely difficult due to the complexity of analyzing spectroscopic data collected with low signal-to-noise at each scan point (pixel). Multivariate spectral analysis has the potential to analyze such data sets by reducing the PIXE data to a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (that include both spectral and image information). We have adapted the AXSIA (automated expert spectral image analysis) program, originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories to quantify electron-excited X-ray spectroscopy data, for this purpose. Samples consisting of particulates with known compositions and sizes were loaded onto Mylar and paper filter substrates and analyzed by scanned micro-PIXE. The data sets were processed by AXSIA and the associated principal component spectral data were quantified by converting the weighting images into concentration maps. The results indicate automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis is useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of compositional components needed for locating individual particles-of-interest on large area collection media

  17. Vale nails down reduction of diesel particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-09-01

    This article discussed innovations for reducing emissions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from light-duty underground vehicles. DPM is a byproduct of diesel-powered equipment. Controlling these emissions at the source of generation is necessary for a healthy work environment and more cost effective than fresh air ventilation to reduce contaminant concentrations. Previous diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems required extensive human intervention, but this was deemed too inefficient. A DPF system that does not require human intervention was developed and proved successful in filter regeneration, longevity, and reliability. This DPF system uses a sintered metal filter element, a base metal, fuel-borne catalyst with an on-board dosing system, an electric heater that uses on-board power, and a sensor-based control unit. Software in the control unit adjusts fuel dosing rates and heater timing to ensure filter regeneration for different engines and operating scenarios. The new filter system is robust, and it has a compact design and long service-intervals. The product is still being tested to determine the costs and service life of the filter. More testing on fuel additives was deemed to be warranted, as was designing filter elements for larger engines used in heavy-duty vehicles.

  18. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  19. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the positive... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample and...

  20. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a ''wavy film,'' while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs

  1. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-2007 Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation...

  3. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  4. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  5. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  6. Detachment of particulate iron sulfide during shale-water interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Kreisserman, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, a commonly used technique to extract oil and gas from shales, is controversial in part because of the threat it poses to water resources. The technique involves the injection into the subsurface of large amounts of fluid, which can become contaminated by fluid-rock interaction. The dissolution of pyrite is thought to be a primary pathway for the contamination of fracturing fluids with toxic elements, such as arsenic and lead. In this study, we use direct observations with atomic force microscopy to show that the dissolution of carbonate minerals in Eagle Ford shale leads to the physical detachment of embedded pyrite grains. To simulate the way fluid interacts with a fractured shale surface, we also reacted rock samples in a flow-through cell, and used environmental scanning electron microscopy to compare the surfaces before and after interaction with water. Crucially, our results show that the flux of particulate iron sulfide into the fluid may be orders of magnitude higher than the flux of pyrite from chemical dissolution. This result suggests that mechanical detachment of pyrite grains could be the dominant mode by which arsenic and other inorganic elements are mobilized in the subsurface. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing operations and in groundwater systems containing pyrite, the transport of many toxic species may be controlled by the transport of colloidal iron sulfide particles.

  7. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  8. Biomass Burning Smoke Climatology of the United States: Implications for Particulate Matter Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Jaffe, Daniel; Christopher, Sundar A; Goodrick, Scott

    2017-10-17

    We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season. A substantial portion (20%) of the 24 h federal standard for particulate pollution exceedance events in the CONUS region occur when smoke is present. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to reduce anthropogenic emissions, wildland fire emissions will become the major contributor to particulate pollution and exceedance events. In this context, we show that HMS smoke product is a valuable tool for analysis of exceptional events caused by wildland fires and our results indicate that these tools can be valuable for policy and decision makers.

  9. Nanosilver and the microbiological activity of the particulate solids versus the leached soluble silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Merisa B; Amal, Rose; Marquis, Christopher P; Harry, Elizabeth J; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Rice, Scott A; Gunawan, Cindy

    2018-04-01

    Nanosilver (Ag NPs) is currently one of the most commercialized antimicrobial nanoparticles with as yet, still unresolved cytotoxicity origins. To date, research efforts have mostly described the antimicrobial contribution from the leaching of soluble silver, while the undissolved solid Ag particulates are often considered as being microbiologically inert, serving only as source of the cytotoxic Ag ions. Here, we show the rapid stimulation of lethal cellular oxidative stress in bacteria by the presence of the undissolved Ag particulates. The cytotoxicity characteristics are distinct from those arising from the leached soluble Ag, the latter being locked in organic complexes. The work also highlights the unique oxidative stress-independent bacterial toxicity of silver salt. Taken together, the findings advocate that future enquiries on the antimicrobial potency and also importantly, the environmental and clinical impact of Ag NPs use, should pay attention to the potential bacterial toxicological responses to the undissolved Ag particulates, rather than just to the leaching of soluble silver. The findings also put into question the common use of silver salt as model material for evaluating bacterial toxicity of Ag NPs.

  10. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M.; Scenna, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 μm is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM 2.5 -PM 10 ).

  11. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  12. The distribution of radionuclides between the dissolved and particulate phases of a contaminated freshwater stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, R.N.; Johnson, M.S.; Hemingway, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Streamwater concentrations of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 241 Am and 239,240 Pu from a contaminated freshwater stream showed significant relationships between total concentration and flow rate. When total concentrations were divided into their dissolved and particulate components 239,240 Pu was shown to exist mainly (>80%) in the solute phase ( 137 Cs and 241 Am were distributed equally between the two phases. 137 Cs was most likely present either as the dissolved ion or as the specifically adsorbed ion on particulate sediments. Particle-associated 241 Am and the small particulate component of 239,240 Pu, were believed to be bound to sediment surface coatings, such as organic or oxide/hydroxides, rather than the truly adsorbed ion. Solute phase 239,240 Pu was most likely associated with colloidal organic carbon species (such as humic or fulvic acids). This was also apparent, but to a lesser extent, for 241 Am. Distribution coefficients were determined for a number of discrete sites and environmental conditions. The response of the stream to removal of its source of radioactivity (via a re-routing scheme) was both significant and rapid. (author)

  13. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  14. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  15. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  16. Is there a difference in treatment outcomes between epidural injections with particulate versus non-particulate steroids?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the outcomes of patients after interlaminar computed tomography (CT)-guided epidural injections of the lumbar spine with particulate vs. non-particulate steroids. 531 consecutive patients were treated with CT-guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with steroids and local anaesthetics. 411 patients received a particulate steroid and 120 patients received a non-particulate steroid. Pain levels were assessed using the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and overall reported 'improvement' was assessed using the Patients Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post-injection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Patients receiving particulate steroids had statistically significantly higher NRS change scores (p = 0.0001 at 1 week; p = 0.0001 at 1 month). A significantly higher proportion of patients receiving particulate steroids reported relevant improvement (PGIC) at both 1 week and 1 month post injection (p = 0.0001) and they were significantly less likely to report worsening at 1 week (p = 0.0001) and 1 month (p = 0.017). Patients treated with particulate steroids had significantly greater pain relief and were much more likely to report clinically relevant overall 'improvement' at 1 week and 1 month compared to the patients treated with non-particulate steroids. (orig.)

  17. Is there a difference in treatment outcomes between epidural injections with particulate versus non-particulate steroids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensler, Susanne; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of patients after interlaminar computed tomography (CT)-guided epidural injections of the lumbar spine with particulate vs. non-particulate steroids. 531 consecutive patients were treated with CT-guided lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with steroids and local anaesthetics. 411 patients received a particulate steroid and 120 patients received a non-particulate steroid. Pain levels were assessed using the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) and overall reported 'improvement' was assessed using the Patients Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post-injection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Patients receiving particulate steroids had statistically significantly higher NRS change scores (p = 0.0001 at 1 week; p = 0.0001 at 1 month). A significantly higher proportion of patients receiving particulate steroids reported relevant improvement (PGIC) at both 1 week and 1 month post injection (p = 0.0001) and they were significantly less likely to report worsening at 1 week (p = 0.0001) and 1 month (p = 0.017). Patients treated with particulate steroids had significantly greater pain relief and were much more likely to report clinically relevant overall 'improvement' at 1 week and 1 month compared to the patients treated with non-particulate steroids. (orig.)

  18. Ultra fine particulates. Small particulates with large consequences?; Ultrafijn stof. Kleine deeltjes met grote gevolgen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensema, A.; Keuken, M.; Kooter, I.; Verbeek, R.; Van Vugt, M. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations of ultra fine particles (and elementary carbon) have increased significantly near traffic routes. The amount of ultra fine particles (and the chemical composition of particulate matter) are related to traffic emissions and are therefore relevant to the established health effects. Better insight in the effectiveness of particulate matter policy requires more attention for ultra fine particles than just maintaining the standards for PM2,5 and PM10. [mk]. [Dutch] De concentraties van ultrafijne deeltjes (en elementair koolstof) zijn fors verhoogd in de buurt van verkeerswegen. Het aantal ultrafijne deeltjes (en de chemische samenstelling van fijnstof) gerelateerd aan verkeersemissies lijkt daarom relevant voor de vastgestelde gezondheidseffecten. Voor een beter inzicht in de effectiviteit van het fijnstofbeleid is meer aandacht nodig voor ultrafijne deeltjes dan alleen handhaving van de normen voor PM2,5 en PM10.

  19. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  20. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  1. Particulates in Europe; Fijn stof in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeftens, M.; Brunekreef, B. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Although the same air quality standards apply across Europe, there are large differences in concentration within, but also between countries. There are also differences between the methods that these countries use for regular monitoring networks, which makes a direct comparison of concentrations difficult. The ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) mapped the differences in the European particulate concentrations using one unified measuring method [Dutch] Hoewel voor heel Europa dezelfde luchtkwaliteitsnormen gelden, bestaan er grote concentratieverschillen binnen, maar ook tussen landen. Ook zijn er verschillen tussen de meetmethoden die deze landen binnen reguliere meetnetten hanteren, wat een directe vergelijking van concentraties vaak moeilijk maakt. Het ESCAPE-project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) bracht de Europese fijnstofcontrasten in kaart met behulp van 1 identieke meetmethode.

  2. Recent observations of particulates in Nitinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalovskaya, S.; Anderegg, J.; Humbeeck, J. van

    2008-01-01

    In spite of 40 years of history of Nitinol, the issues regarding its inclusions have been poorly explored. In our brief studies, conducted within the projects on surface design using Auger, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electrons microscopy, we discovered that particulates in NiTi medical alloys were always based on Ti: either ∼Ti 2 NiO oxide, titanium dioxide, titanium carbide or oxidized titanium carbide. Nonmetallic particles were rather brittle, had various shapes and sizes, and revealed different solubility in chemical solutions. The matrix material surrounding inclusions showed a tendency to localized corrosion. It was hypothesized that release of inclusion debris in the human body due to corrosion might compromise biocompatibility of Nitinol

  3. Method for identifying particulate fluoride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufts, B J

    1960-01-01

    A method is described for identifying particulates containing fluorides and other complex fluorine compounds such as fluorosilicate in samples collected on membrane filters. The filter is treated with lead chloride to precipitate lead chlorofluoride at each fluoride-containing spot. This microspot is identified by examination in a light microscope. Sulfate and phosphate, which also precipitate if present, can be distinguished and do not interfere. Calibrations are given for the fluorides and the more insoluble salts, relating the original particle size to the reaction site size. Thus, the mass of the particles can be calculated. Results of some field tests in an area of fluoride pollution are given, and compared with standard testing procedures.

  4. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  5. Production, handling and characterization of particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Meesters, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume presents most techniques and methods that have been developed by material scientists, chemists, chemical engineers and physicists for the commercial production of particulate materials, ranging from the millimeter to the nanometer scale.  The scope includes the physical and chemical background, experimental optimization of equipment and procedures, as well as an outlook on future methods. The books addresses  issues of industrial importance such as specifications, control parameter(s), control strategy, process models, energy consumption and discusses the various techniques in relation to potential applications. In addition to the production processes, all major unit operations and characterization methods are described in this book. It differs from other books which are devoted to a single technique or a single material. Contributors to this book are acknowledged experts in their field. The aim of the book is to facilitate comparison of the different unit operations leading to optimum...

  6. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m -3 ) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m -3 ) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol -1  at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol -1  K -1 ) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of testing methods for particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.; Przyborowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four testing methods for particulate filters were compared by using the test rigs of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection: 1) Measurement of filter penetration P as a function of particle size d by using a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol and a scintillation particle counter; 2) Modified sodium flame test for measurement of total filter penetration P for various polydisperse NaC1 test aerosols; 3) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol labelled with short-lived radon daughter products; 4) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a special paraffin oil test aerosol (oil fog test used in FRG according DIN 24 184, test aerosol A). The investigations were carried out on sheets of glass fibre paper (five grades of paper). Detailed information about the four testing methods and the used particle size distributions is given. The different results of the various methods are the base for the discussion of the most important parameters which influence the filter penetration P. The course of the function P=f(d) shows the great influence of the particle size. As expected there was also found a great dependence both from the test aerosol as well as from the principle and the measuring range of the aerosol-measuring device. The differences between the results of the various test methods are greater the lower the penetration. The use of NaCl test aerosol with various particle size distributions gives great differences for the respective penetration values. On the basis of these results and the values given by Dorman conclusions are made about the investigation of particulate filters both for the determination of filter penetration P as well as for the leak test of installed filters

  8. Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2018-03-16

    This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non-algal particles (aNAP) to the total particulate absorption coefficients are determined using a numerical decomposition method (NDM). The NDM is validated by comparing the NDM derived values of aph and aNAP with simulated values of aph and aNAP are found to be in excellent agreement for the selected wavelengths (i.e., 443, 490, 555, and 676nm) with high correlation coefficient (R2), low root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (MRE), and with a slope close to unity. Further analyses showed that the total particulate absorption coefficients (i.e., ap(443)average = 0.01995m−1) were dominated by phytoplankton absorption (i.e., aph(443)average = 0.01743m−1) with a smaller contribution by non-algal particles absorption (i.e., aNAP(443)average = 0.002524m−1). The chlorophyll a is computed using the absorption based Line Height Method (LHM). The derived chlorophyll-specific absorption ((a⁎ph = aph(λ)/ChlLH)) showed more variability in the blue part of spectrum as compared to the red part of spectrum representative of the package effect and changes in pigment composition. A new parametrization proposed also enabled the reconstruction of a⁎ph(λ) for the Red Sea. Comparison of derived spectral constants with the spectral constants of existing models showed that our study A(λ) values are consistent with the existing values, despite there is a divergence with the B(λ) values. This study provides valuable information derived from the particulate absorption properties and its spectral variability and this would help us to determine the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption coefficients and chlorophyll a and its host of variables for the Red Sea.

  9. 1985 environmental monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R. (eds.)

    1986-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program is designed to determine that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. The data were evaluated using the appropriate environmental regulatory criteria. The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1985 are summarized in this report. Detailed data are not included in the main body of the report, but are tabulated and presented in Appendix D. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratoy; concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory; and the 1984 strontium-90 data which was not available for inclusion in the 1984 Environmental Monitoring Report. In 1985, the results of the surveillance program demonstraed that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards.

  10. Waste Gas And Particulate Control Measures For Laser Cutters In The Automotive Cloth Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R. D.; Kulik, B. F.; Stoncel, R. J.; Tan, S. L.

    1986-11-01

    Demands for greater flexibility and accuracy in the manufacture of automobile trim parts has made single-ply laser cutting an attractive proposition. Lasers are able to cut a large variety of cloth types, from vinyls to velours. Unlike mechanically cut parts, which in the case of velours produce rough edges and dust problems, laster cutting of parts produces smooth edges, fumes and fine particulate. A detailed study of the nature of the laser effluent from a cross section of typical synthetic cloth found in an automotive trim plant was undertaken. Most samples were cut by a fast axial flow, 500 Watt, continuous wave CO2 laser. A 254 mm (10-inch) focussing optics package was used. The width of the kerf varied with the material, and values were determined at between 0.2 and 0.7 mm. Particle size distribution analysis and rates of particulate emission for each cloth were determined. Gases were collected in gas sample bags and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Low boiling point organics were collected on activated charcoal tubes, identified on a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and quantified on a gas chromatograph. Inorganic contaminants were collected on filter paper and analysed on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. A number of different effluent control systems were evaluated. Due to the very fine and sticky nature of the particulate, filters capable of removing particulate sizes in the 10 μm or lower range, tend to clog rapidly. Laboratory scale models of wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators were built and tested. The most effective dust and effluent gas control was given by a wet electrostatic precipitator. This system, in conjunction with a scrubber, should maintain emission levels within environmental standards.

  11. Source apportionment of carbonaceous particulate matter during haze days in Shanghai based on the radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannan Wei; Jialiang Feng; Detao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the sources of carbonaceous particulate matter, "1"4C and biomass-burning marker (levoglucosan) were measured in the form of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM_2_._5 that was collected in five different functional districts of Shanghai during winter 2013. Spatial variations of the contemporary proportion among different districts were evident. The results of levoglucosan in Xujiahui (XH) and Chongming (CM) agreed well with those of "1"4C. The results indicate that environmental protection policies should vary for functional districts within the same city to account for their different sources of emissions. (author)

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  13. Health impact caused by exposure to particulate matter in the air of Tehran in the past decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution, especially the phenomenon of dust and particulate matter can cause mortality of many civilians, and causes various diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. One of the major pollutants in the air is particulate matter that concentration has increased over recent years. So, present study with aim of Quantification Health Endpoints Attributed to particulate matter in Tehran, Capital of Iran during the past decade (2005-2014 by AirQ software, version 2.2.3 (WHO European Centre for Environment and Health was performed. Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic investigation. The process of performance this study lasted 12 months. Subject of this the study and research was in Environmental Health Engineering Department of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Exact data of every hour pollutants were taken from Department of environmental (DOE Islamic Republic Iran and Air Quality Control Company of Tehran. Then validated according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines and Statistical parameters for quantifying health effects were calculated in excel software. Finally, assessment of cases total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality and cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, with AirQ software was performed. Results: The results of this study showed that the number of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality caused by exposure to Particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10 in the past decade is 11776, 12121 and 33066 cases respectively. Also the total number of hospital admission due to cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease in the past decade is 20990 and 54352 cases in 2005-2014 years. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, during the last decade the level of air pollution and Concentration of pollutants in Tehran Increased. Effects and health consequences due to exposure to Particulate matter smaller than 10

  14. Quality and Reputation: The Indirect Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Health through Individuals' Life-style

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzia Di Novi

    2011-01-01

    Limited literature has been published on the association between environmental health indicators, life-style habits and ambient air pollution. We have examined the association of asthma prevalence and the amount of health investment with daily mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM 2.5 ) in 16 metropolitan areas in U.S. using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2001) data in conjunction with the Air Quality Syste...

  15. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) wit...

  16. [Distribution and source of particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen in the Yangtze River Estuary in summer 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian-Wei; Xian, Wei-Wei; Sheng, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-07-01

    Based on the data from the cruise carried out in August 2012 in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters, spatial distributions of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and their relationships with environmental factors were studied, and the source of POC and the contribution of phytoplankton to POC were analyzed combined with n (C)/n (N) ratio and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the Yangtze River Estuary in summer 2012. The results showed that the concentrations of POC in the Yangtze River Estuary ranged from 0.68 mg x L(-1) to 34.80 mg x L(-1) in summer and the average content was 3.74 mg x L(-1), and PN contents varied between 0.03 mg x L(-1) and 9.13 mg x L(-1) with an average value of 0.57 mg x L(-1). Both of them presented that the concentrations in bottom layers were higher than those in the surface. POC and PN as well as total suspended matter (TSM) showed a extremel similar horizontal distribution trend that the highest values appeared in the near of the mouth and southwest of the survey waters, and decreased rapidly as toward the open seas, both of them showed higher contents in coastal zones and lower in outer sea. There was a fairly good positive linear relationship between POC and PN, which indicated that they had the same source. POC and PN expressed significantly positive correlations with TSM and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but showed relatively weak correlations with salinit and chlorophyll a, which demonstrated that terrestrial inputs had a strong influence on the distribution of POC and PN, and phytoplankton production was not the major source of organic matters in the Yangtze River Estuary. Both the n (C)/n (N) ratio and POC/Chl a analysis showed that the main source of POC was terrestrial inputs, and organic debris was the main existence form of POC. Quantitative analysis showed the biomass of phytoplankton only made an average of 2.54% contribution to POC in the Yangtze Rive Estuary in summer and non-living POC

  17. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (PCompressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Particulate and soluble 210Pd activities in the deep sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayajulu, B.L.K.; Craig, H.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate and soluble, 210 Pb activities have been measured by filtration of large-volume water samples at two stations in the South Atlantic. Particulate phase 210 Pb (caught by a 0.4-μm filter) varies from 0.3% of total 210 Pb in equatorial surface water to 15% in the bottom water. The 'absolute activity' of 210 Pb per unit mass of particulate matter is about 10 7 times the activity of soluble 210 Pb per unit mass of water, but because the mass ratio of particulate matter to water is about 10 -8 , the particulate phase carries only about 10% of the total activity. In Antarctic surface water the particulate phase carries 40% of the total 210 Pb activity; the absolute activity of this material is about the same as in other water masses and the higher fraction is due to the much larger concentration of suspended matter in surface water in this region. In the equatorial Atlantic the particulate phase 210 Pb activity increases with depth, by a factor of 40 from surface to bottom, and by a factor of 4 from the Antarctic Intermediate water core to the Antarctic Bottom Water. (Auth.)

  19. Interaction of PM2.5 airborne particulates with ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles and their effect on bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Saygin, Hasan; Ustabasi, Gul Sirin

    2017-12-21

    A significant knowledge gap in nanotechnology is the absence of standardized protocols for examining and comparison the effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on different environment media. Despite the large number of studies on ecotoxicity of nanoparticles, most of them disregard the particles physicochemical transformation under real exposure conditions and interaction with different environmental components like air, soil, water, etc. While one of the main exposure ways is inhalation and/or atmosphere for human and environment, there is no investigation between airborne particulates and nanoparticles. In this study, some metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO and TiO 2 ) transformation and behavior in PM2.5 air particulate media were examined and evaluated by the influence on nanoparticle physicochemical properties (size, surface charge, surface functionalization) and on bacterium (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus/Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria) by testing in various concentrations of PM2.5 airborne particulate media to contribute to their environmental hazard and risk assessment in atmosphere. PM2.5 airborne particulate media affected their toxicity and physicochemical properties when compared the results obtained in controlled conditions. ZnO and TiO 2 surfaces were functionalized mainly with sulfoxide groups in PM2.5 air particulates. In addition, tested particles were not observed to be toxic in controlled conditions. However, these were observed inhibition in PM2.5 airborne particulates media by the exposure concentration. These observations and dependence of the bacteria viability ratio explain the importance of particulate matter-nanoparticle interaction.

  20. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  1. Aerosol measurement: the use of optical light scattering for the determination of particulate size distribution, and particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Hans; Eatough, Delbert J

    2009-01-01

    The GRIMM model 1.107 monitor is designed to measure particle size distribution and particulate mass based on a light scattering measurement of individual particles in the sampled air. The design and operation of the instrument are described. Protocols used to convert the measured size number distribution to a mass concentration consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocols for measuring particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microm (PM10) and less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter are described. The performance of the resulting continuous monitor has been evaluated by comparing GRIMM monitor PM2.5 measurements with results obtained by the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co. (R&P) filter dynamic measurement system (FDMS). Data were obtained during month-long studies in Rubidoux, CA, in July 2003 and in Fresno, CA, in December 2003. The results indicate that the GRIMM monitor does respond to total PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile components, giving results comparable to the FDMS. The data also indicate that the monitor can be used to estimate water content of the fine particles. However, if the inlet to the monitor is heated, then the instrument measures only the nonvolatile material, more comparable to results obtained with a conventional heated filter tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor. A recent modification of the model 180, with a Nafion dryer at the inlet, measures total PM2.5 including the nonvolatile and semi-volatile components, but excluding fine particulate water. Model 180 was in agreement with FDMS data obtained in Lindon, UT, during January through February 2007.

  2. A laser particulate spectrometer for a space simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Richmond, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate contaminants. Detection of the particulates is achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meters/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high-vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  3. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  5. Report on fine particulates and ozone in Quebec in connection with the Canada Wide Standard : 2009 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busque, D.; Bisson, M.; Paradis, J.; Proulx, M.; Guay, M.

    2010-05-01

    In June 2000, the federal and provincial governments, with the exception of Quebec, adopted a Canada Wide Standard (CWS) for particulates and ozone and set out to reduce these pollutants by 2010. Although Quebec was not a signatory to the CWS, it acts in coherence with the other governments regarding these air quality standards. Ozone and particulates are the main precursors to smog and are known to cause health and environmental problems. Ozone forms when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) chemically react, particularly during hot sunny days. The CWS is a strategy to reduce the risk of these pollutants to public health and the environment. In order to apply this standard, Quebec must verify conformity for regions with a population of more than 100,000, which includes 6 regions, notably Montreal, Quebec City, Gatineau, the Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Trois Rivieres. Results of a 2008 study showed that air quality in Gatineau and 3 subregions of Montreal exceeded the allow limit of 65 ppb for ozone. However, ozone concentrations in Quebec City, the Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Trois Rivieres were under the allowable limits. Results of the 2008 study showed that particulate concentration in all regions were blow the allowable limits. This document revealed that there has been an improvement in air quality in terms of ozone and particulates since 2005. Most regions in Quebec were under the allowable limits projected for 2010. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs., 6 appendices.

  6. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  7. Unlawfulness of environmental zones; Rechtswidrigkeit von Umweltzonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbach, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The author examines the new findings on the effectiveness of the environmental zones and, in this context, questions their legitimacy. In addition, the efforts of the European and German legislators are analyzed in order to reduce the particulate matter pollution. In addition, legal protection against the exceeding of limits for particulate matter is critically appreciated. [German] Der Autor beleuchtet die neuen Erkenntnisse zur Wirksamkeit der Umweltzonen und hinterfragt vor diesem Hintergrund deren Rechtmaessigkeit. Darueber hinaus werden die Bemuehungen des europaeischen und deutschen Gesetzgebers analysiert, um die Feinstaubbelastung zu senken. Zudem wird der Rechtsschutz gegen die Ueberschreitung von Feinstaubgrenzwerten kritisch gewuerdigt.

  8. 1977 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1977 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  9. 1979 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1979 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  10. 1981 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Olmer, L.L.

    1982-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1981 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. 28 references, 9 figures, 20 tables

  11. 1980 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Olmer, L.L.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1980 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  12. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    1994-06-01

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Observations on particulate organic nitrates and unidentified components of NOy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Egeløv, A.H.; Granby, K.

    1995-01-01

    A method to determine the total content of particulate organic nitrates (PON) has been developed and ambient air measurements of PON, NO, NO2, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), gas NOy and particulate inorganic nitrate have been performed in the spring and early...... summer al an agricultural site in Denmark and compared with measurements of ozone, H2O2, SO2, formic acid, acetic acid and methane sulphonic acid. The gas NOy detector determines the sum NO + NO2 + HNO2 + HNO3 + PAN + PPN + gas phase organic nitrates + 2 x N2O5 + NO3. The content of residual gas NOy...... = gas NOy + particulate inorganic nitrate). Residual gas NOy was much higher than the particulate fraction of organic nitrates (PON). PON was only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of concentrations of photochemical oxidants in connection with high-pressure systems suggesting atmospheric processes being the major source...

  14. Life Support Systems: Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control task: Work in the area of trace contamination and...

  15. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  16. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  17. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  18. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  19. Dynamics of Charged Particulate Systems Modeling, Theory and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this monograph is to provide a concise introduction to the dynamics of systems comprised of charged small-scale particles. Flowing, small-scale, particles ("particulates'') are ubiquitous in industrial processes and in the natural sciences. Applications include electrostatic copiers, inkjet printers, powder coating machines, etc., and a variety of manufacturing processes. Due to their small-scale size, external electromagnetic fields can be utilized to manipulate and control charged particulates in industrial processes in order to achieve results that are not possible by purely mechanical means alone. A unique feature of small-scale particulate flows is that they exhibit a strong sensitivity to interparticle near-field forces, leading to nonstandard particulate dynamics, agglomeration and cluster formation, which can strongly affect manufactured product quality. This monograph also provides an introduction to the mathematically-related topic of the dynamics of swarms of interacting objects, ...

  20. Ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Delu; Wang, Tianyu; Mao, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    A method for ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite was demonstrated. The effects of the CALIOP receiver's transient response on the attenuated backscatter profile were first removed. The two-way transmittance of the overlying atmosphere was then estimated as the ratio of the measured ocean surface attenuated backscatter to the theoretical value computed from wind driven wave slope variance. Finally, particulate backscatter was estimated from the depolarization ratio as the ratio of the column-integrated cross-polarized and co-polarized channels. Statistical results show that the derived particulate backscatter by the method based on CALIOP data agree reasonably well with chlorophyll-a concentration using MODIS data. It indicates a potential use of space-borne lidar to estimate global primary productivity and particulate carbon stock.

  1. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  2. AIRWAY EPITHELIAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS: ROLE OF METAL INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations with particulate matter (PM) air pollution and daily respiratory morbidity - including exacerbations of asthma. Data are needed to elucidate which PM subcomponents may be mediating disease exacerbation in ind...

  3. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, C [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Nervegna, G; Cecinato, A [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Atmospheric Pollution (CNR-IIA), Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

    2009-05-08

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol ({Delta}{sup 9}-THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm{sup -3} of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  4. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  5. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  6. Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, C.; Nervegna, G.; Cecinato, A.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), cannabidiol (CND) and cannabinol (CNB), primary active components in cannabis preparation, was carried out on airborne particulates by applying a specific procedure consisting of soot extraction by ultrasonic bath, purification by solvent partitioning, derivatization with N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide, and separation/detection through gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure was found suitable for measuring the three psychotropic substances at concentrations ranging from ca. 0.001 to ca. 5.0 ng cm -3 of air, with recoveries always higher than 82%, accuracy >7.3% and precision >90%. Application of the procedure performed on field in Rome and Bari, Italy, demonstrated that all three compounds contaminate the air in Italian cities whereas in Algiers, Algeria, only cannabinol, the most stable in the atmosphere, exceeded the limit of quantification of the method. The relative percentages of the three cannabinoids in general reproduced those typical of the Cannabis sativa plant and were very different from those found in human blood, urine and sweat.

  7. Particulate Emissions and Biodiesel: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Angelovič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current mode of transport using fuel it cannot be characterized as harmless to human health or as sustainable. The whole process of extracting, processing and using of petroleum products can be seen as the raw material cycle in nature. This cycle also cause serious damage to the environment and human health. Many studies on air pollutant emissions with biodiesel have been carried out worldwide. Studies have shown that diesel-powered vehicles are the major contributors of PM emissions. PM particulates are especially important in regard to adverse health outcomes, such as increased cardiovascular, respiratory morbidity and mortality rates, due to their larger active surface and the higher likelihood of deposition in the alveolar region of the lungs. Hence, it is overwhelming argument that the use of biodiesel instead of diesel causes reduce of PM emissions. Of course, this reduction will become smaller with the reduction of biodiesel proportion in the blended fuel. The trend with which PM emissions of biodiesel will be reduced, is due to lower aromatic and sulfur compounds and higher cetane number for biodiesel, but the more important factor is the higher oxygen content.

  8. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM 10 ) and 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM 2.5 (Ppollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  10. Inventory of primary particulates emissions; Inventaire des emissions de particules primaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    CITEPA carried out a national inventory on particulate emissions. This report presents the results of this study for a great number of sectors and it covers a larger number of sources than the previous CITEPA inventories on particles and some other inventories carried out by International organisms (TNO, IIASA). In particular, at the present time, fugitive dust emissions for some sources are rarely taken into account in inventories because of poor knowledge and they are still the subject of researches in order to validate the emission results. (author)

  11. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  12. Large impact of small particulates; Grote invloed van klein fijnstof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemstra-Holtkamp, I.V.L. [Astma Fonds, Leusden (Netherlands)

    2006-06-15

    PM2.5 particulates are responsible for a large part of thousands of people that die of air pollution. The Asthma Fund in the Netherlands wants the Dutch government to take specific action and measures for those small particulates. [Dutch] PM2.5 is verantwoordelijk voor een groot deel van de 1000-en mensen die elk jaar sterven door luchtverontreiniging. Het Astma Fonds wil dat de overheid aparte maatregelen neemt voor PM2.5.

  13. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  14. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  15. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-01-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 , airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 15 ) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study

  16. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  17. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  18. Potential hazards of particulate noble metal emissions from car exhaust catalysts. Gefaehrdungspotential von partikulaeren Edelmetallemissionen aus Automobilabgas-Katalysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeber, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present bibliographical study is to investigate into the possibility of health impairment by emissions of eroded and particulate precious metals of catalytic converters for motor-car exhaust gas. Connected therewith is a survey of environmental pollution so far caused by platinum metals and of their biological impact. The risk estimation relates solely to the data on emission obtained during normal operation; research work is still needed with respect to the chemical composition, the size distribution and the particle forms of the precious metals emitted. Besides, only limited data are available as to the environmental behaviour of the precious metals.

  19. Impacts of Particulate Matter on Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Rohli, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the relationship between tropical cyclones of the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic basin and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The daily mean PM2.5 concentration values were collected from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tropical cyclone data were collected from Tropical Prediction Center Best Track Reanalysis in Unisys Weather®. The GRIdded Binary (GRIB-formatted) data were downloaded from the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Through ArcGIS®, the tropical cyclone tracks were compared with the interpolated daily mean PM2.5 concentration value. Results suggest that the tracks tend to avoid areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations, and the intensity was weakened significantly after passing the PM2.5-rich area. Through simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the pressure and vertical structure of Hurricane Lili were weakened after passing the most PM2.5-rich area in Louisiana. Also, little evidence is found for the possibility of precipitation generated by the approaching tropical cyclone to cleanse the atmosphere of PM2.5 before storm passage. These results have important implications for tropical cyclone prediction as storms approach polluted areas or other places where PM2.5 particles are abundant, not only including urban environments but also in coastal areas where proscribed burns take place during tropical cyclone season, such as during sugarcane harvesting in southern Louisiana.

  20. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Freitas, M.C.; Alves, L.C.; Reis, M.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.; Moniz, D.; Monteiro, P.; Alvarez, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological and environmental monitoring was carried out at a steel processing sector of a steel plant in Portugal. Approximately 70 workers were surveyed for their respiratory function and blood elemental contents as indicators for a long-term exposure. The characterisation of chemical elements in air at the workplace was also evaluated taking in account the separation of particles by their aerodynamic diameter. Two fractions were collected, a coarse fraction for particles below 10 μm and above 2 μm, and a fine fraction for particles below 2 μm. PIXE and INAA analytical techniques were used for the determination of blood and aerosol elemental concentrations. Up to 12 elements (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb) were determined in blood and so far, up to 18 elements for aerosols (e.g., Na, Al Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb). The concentrations of the essential elements in blood (e.g., Fe, Zn and Se) were found to be altered relative to a reference Portuguese group constituted by non-exposed persons. Relative to the blood average elemental contents for As, Sb, Hg and Pb, the levels determined were below maximum permissible concentrations or reference values, except for Pb. Nevertheless, concentrations above maximum limit values were determined for some of the surveyed subjects. There are evidences that the levels of Se, Cu, and Sb in blood are influenced by exposure. Also, living habits (smoking and other activities) and pulmonary affections may modulate As, Pb and Zn concentrations in blood. For all the chemical elements identified in the particulate matter of the working atmosphere the limit values indicated in the Portuguese regulation were not exceeded, except for Fe. (author)

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  2. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  3. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  4. Method and apparatus for removing volatile hydrocarbons from particulate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for heating solid particulate mineral compositions. It comprises: a counterflow ratable drum having a first end and an opposite second end, a first portion of the drum extending from the first end for a first length and having a first diameter along the first length, and a second portion of the drum secured to and extending from the first portion to the second end for a second length and having a second diameter along the second length, the second diameter being less than the first diameter, a burner adjacent the first end for introducing and directing hot gases of combustion into the first portion of the drum toward the second end, means for introducing particulate composition into the drum at the second end, means for directing the particulate composition along the drum from the second end toward the first end, and means for recovering composition at the first end, means for removing a gaseous mixture of organic volatiles, gases of combustion and fine particles of the particulate composition adjacent the second drum end, means for separating fine particles of the particulate composition from the gaseous mixture, and means for returning the separated fine particulate composition particles to the first portion of the drum

  5. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  6. Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Tanque, Eiichiro

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 34 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional stability constant is 10 6.6 L/mol. The Th adsorption ability is present even in 6.9 mol/L HCl solution although the amount of Th adsorption decreases with increasing acidity in the solution. Interferences to Th adsorption by Fe(III) suggests that other metals cannot react with PM in more than 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions when concentrations of other metals are the same level of Th. The competitive reaction between Th and Fe(III) occurs in higher Fe concentrations, which means that the organic binding site is nonspecific for Th. A vertical profile of Th complexing capacity of PM in the western North Pacific is characterized; that is, the Th complexing capacity shows a surface maximum and decreases rapidly with depth

  7. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, P. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Nano indentation of particulate and polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Aisha

    2001-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the formation and rupture mechanisms of agglomerates is essential when seeking to model equipment designed to produce and process such agglomerated particulate solids. In the work to be described the nano-indentation of two-dimensional agglomerate films was carried out in order to establish a means of identifying the generic breakage mechanisms of agglomerated systems. Data analysis techniques are developed that enable the individual inter-particle junction strengths to be calculated for a model system consisting of rather mono-dispersed colloidal silica particles (20-24 nm diameter) bound with a poly(methyl methacrylate). Applied load and penetration depth data in the range (10 mN and 500 nm respectively) are provided as a function of loading time during a continuous loading. It is argued that these data enable the sequence of the discrete binder bridge failures to be observed thus giving a quantitative indication of the breakage mechanism of this agglomerate system as well as reflect the agglomerate structure. The secondary objective of this work was to produce a range of agglomerates with different mechanical properties, without changing the type and amount of binder or prime particles used in the system. This was achieved by altering the mechanical properties of the binder, poly(methyl methacrylate), by the use of a variety of solvents. From data obtained using nano-indentation on thin films of the treated polymer, brittle and ductile forms of poly(methyl methacrylate) could be distinguished. These trends are reflected, to some degree, in the mechanical response of the agglomerated layers. (author)

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  10. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, P.; Spiers, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  12. Environmental study of nylon flocking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J; Piacitelli, C; Schwegler-Berry, D; Jones, W

    1999-05-14

    Environmental measurements for a variety of gas, particulate, and microbiological agents have been made in order to characterize exposures associated with the nylon flocking process. Of all agents measured, particulate is the predominant exposure. Levels of total particulate ranged from O.1 to 240 mg/m3 (x = 11.4 mg/m3). Average respirable particulate was 2.2 mg/m3, ranging from 0.5 to 39.9 mg/m3. Highest levels of particulates were found in the flocking room, and direct reading dust measurements indicate that the highest peak exposures are associated with "blowdown" (a cleaning procedure used between flocking runs). The nature of the airborne particles was investigated using polarized light and scanning electron microscopy. Air samples were found to contain flock particles (fibers nominally 10-15 microm in diameter by about 1000 microm in length) and a variety of respirable particles types, several of which were linked directly to the process. Of special interest were elongated respirable particles, which by microscopic analysis, complemented with melting-point determination, were found to be shreds of nylon.

  13. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohddin, S A; Aminuddin, N M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m 3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m 3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m 3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM 2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  14. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  15. Reorienting development: towards and engendered employment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim Jahan

    2005-01-01

    Development strategies, in the name of gender-neutral, are gender-blind. The gender blindness of development strategies are derived from the gender-insensitiveness of dominant development paradigms, which, in the name of work, do not make any distinction between productive and reproductive work and does not differentiate, in the name of household, the asymmetries faced by its different members on the basis of sex. Given the nature of gender blindness of development strategies, it is clear tha...

  16. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concluding that Africa's poor organisational performances are attributable to some inadequacies in the cultural foundations of countries and organisations, this paper argues for internal branding as the way forward for African organisations. Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and ...

  17. Prerna: Engendering Empowerment through Girl Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shipra; Singh, Smita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quality education can be provided to underprivileged section in developing economies by the collaborative effort of private-paid schools. The purpose of this paper is to explore and highlight the model which can be adopted by a private school in imparting education to girls coming from lower income strata. It also highlights how synergies…

  18. Mineralogical and particulate morphological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six representative geophagic clayey soils from Botswana were mineralogically characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), optical microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results of identified mineral phases revealed quartz (SiO2) as the most dominant in all samples constituting ...

  19. Emission of particulates from the Dutch coal-fired power plants. Trend of the last 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meij, R.; Te Winkel, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Stricter boundary values in the European Union for particulates (PM 10 /PM 2,5 ) in the ambient air initiated a discussion. Within the framework of the 6th Environmental Action Programme (MAP) of the European Commission the programme Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) started in 2001. The aim of CAFE is to improve the air quality. In 2004 the final programme was published, recommending emission values not only for PM 10 , but also for PM 2,5 and to determine a so-called National Emission Ceiling (NEC). The question is how much the electric power sector contributes to the total emission of fine particulates. In this article an overview is given of the emissions in the last fifty years as well as for the present situation [nl

  20. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  1. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  2. On-road particulate emission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  3. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartan Ayfer; Kucukali Serhat; Ar Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly as...

  4. The effects of using concept mapping as an artifact to engender metacognitive thinking in first-year medical students' problem-based learning discussions: A mixed-methods investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Glenda Hostetter

    Attention in medical education is turning toward instruction that not only focuses on knowledge acquisition, but on developing the medical students' clinical problem-solving skills, and their ability to critically think through complex diseases. Metacognition is regarded as an important consideration in how we teach medical students these higher-order, critical thinking skills. This study used a mixed-methods research design to investigate if concept mapping as an artifact may engender metacognitive thinking in the medical student population. Specifically the purpose of the study is twofold: (1) to determine if concept mapping, functioning as an artifact during problem-based learning, improves learning as measured by scores on test questions; and (2) to explore if the process of concept mapping alters the problem-based learning intragroup discussion in ways that show medical students are engaged in metacognitive thinking. The results showed that students in the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups used more metacognitive thinking patterns than those in the problem-based learning discussion-only group, particularly in the monitoring component. These groups also engaged in a higher level of cognitive thinking associated with reasoning through mechanisms-of-action and breaking down complex biochemical and physiologic principals. The students disclosed in focus-group interviews that concept mapping was beneficial to help them understand how discrete pieces of information fit together in a bigger structure of knowledge. They also stated that concept mapping gave them some time to think through these concepts in a larger conceptual framework. There was no significant difference in the exam-question scores between the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups and the problem-based learning discussion-only group.

  5. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  6. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  7. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  8. Evaluation of airborne particulates and fungi during hospital renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberger, P A; Wadowsky, R M; Schaper, M M

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted over 30 weeks on a hospital floor undergoing partial renovation. Some patients housed on the floor were immunosuppressed, including bone marrow transplant recipients. The construction zone was placed under negative pressure and was separated from patient rooms by existing hospital walls and via erection of a temporary barrier. Other control measures minimized patient exposure to airborne materials. Air sampling was done for 3 weeks prior to construction, 24 weeks during construction, and 3 weeks after renovation was completed. Airborne particulate concentrations, total spore counts, particle size, and fungal species were assessed. At the beginning of the renovation there were increases in airborne particulates (from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/m3) and fungal spores (from 3.5 to 350 colony forming units (CFU/m3), but only in the construction zone. Throughout the remainder of the renovation, particulate and fungal spore levels fluctuated inside the construction zone but remained close to baseline values in the patient area. When renovation was completed, particulates and spore counts inside the construction zone decreased to preconstruction levels. The primary fungus isolated from air samples was Penicillium. This study demonstrated that control measures were effective in reducing exposures of hospitalized patients to airborne particulates and spores and in reducing the increased risk of aspergillosis and other fungal infections associated with hospital construction projects. The data from this study may be useful in establishing exposure guidelines for other health care settings.

  9. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  10. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Scenna, N.J. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); INGAR - Instituto de Desarrollo y Diseno (Fundacion ARCIEN - CONICET), Avellaneda 3657, S3002 GJC Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: nscenna@santafe-conicet.gov.ar

    2009-10-15

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM{sub 2.5}-PM{sub 10})

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity properties of particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełcik, Maciej K.; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    In the ambient is more than 2,000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for more than 3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro- and amino derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge. Air pollutions, including particulate matter are one of the biggest problem in Polish cities. World Health Organization in report published in May 2016 set many of Polish cities on the top of the list most polluted in European Union. The article presents results of mutagenicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity researches conducted on a particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm collected during all year long in Wroclaw agglomeration. The material were collected on filters using high-flow air aspirator and extracted using dichloromethane. Additionally it was fractionated into 2 parts containing: all pollutants and only polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dry residue of this fractions were dissolving in DMSO and tested using biological methods. Biological methods include mutagenicity properties which are investigated by Salmonella assay (Ames assay). Other biological method was comet assay and 4 parameter cytotoxicity test PAN-I assay. Results of the conducted experiments shows differences in mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties between seasons of collection and between volume of dust pollutions fractions. The worst properties shows particles collected in autumn and winter season and this containing only polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons. Results showed also some correlations in results obtained during different methods and properties.

  12. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  13. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysk, S.R.; Surowka, J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy

  14. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, S.R. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Surowka, J. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-11-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy.

  15. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  16. Generalized Effective Medium Theory for Particulate Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usama Siddiqui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites is strongly dependent on the size, shape, orientation and dispersion uniformity of the inclusions. To correctly estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite, all these factors should be included in the prediction model. In this paper, the formulation of a generalized effective medium theory for the determination of the effective thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites with multiple inclusions is presented. The formulated methodology takes into account all the factors mentioned above and can be used to model nanocomposites with multiple inclusions that are randomly oriented or aligned in a particular direction. The effect of inclusion dispersion non-uniformity is modeled using a two-scale approach. The applications of the formulated effective medium theory are demonstrated using previously published experimental and numerical results for several particulate nanocomposites.

  17. The electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churches, D.K.

    1999-10-01

    The research work explores the Electromagnetic and Acoustic Properties of Smoke Particulates from real fires, and the initial development of an alternative method of smoke detection based on the study work. The research was entirely self-funded including the purchase of the experimental apparatus, test equipment and calibration to international standards. The study includes the properties of solid and liquid post combustion particulates in air suspension forming smoke plumes, and the associated fluid flow dynamics. As part of the study the electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates, a somewhat unique detection method described as the ''Double Matrix Board System'' was developed and used. It was initially developed to assist in the electromagnetic study work, and was later modified to examine the acoustic properties. The published results of the research on the ''Double Matrix Board System'' and the details of the patent application for the device are included in the Appendices to the Thesis document. (author)

  18. Electrification of particulates in industrial and natural multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Zhaolin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces comprehensive fundamentals, numerical simulations and experimental methods of electrification of particulates entrained multiphase flows. The electrifications of two particulate forms, liquid droplets and solid particles, are firstly described together. Liquid droplets can be charged under preset or associated electric fields, while solid particles can be charged through contact. Different charging ways in gas (liquid)-liquid or gas-solid multiphase flows are summarized, including ones that are beneficial to industrial processes, such as electrostatic precipitation, electrostatic spraying, and electrostatic separation, etc., ones harmful for shipping and powder industry, and ones occurring in natural phenomenon, such as wind-blown sand and thunderstorm. This book offers theoretical references to the control and utilization of the charging or charged particulates in multiphase flows as well.

  19. Gaseous and particulate air pollutants in the Northeastern Mediterranean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soner Erduran, M.; Tuncel, Semra G.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ) and particulate matter were measured for a 6-month period and the concentration of gas phase nitric acid (HNO 3 ) was measured for a 1-month period in the North-eastern Mediterranean atmosphere (Kuecuek Calticak, Antalya) using a 'filter pack' system that was developed and optimised in our laboratory. Among all the gas phase pollutants, HNO 3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 μg m -3 ) followed by ammonia. Most of the measured parameters showed variation in time depending on strengths of source regions and meteorological conditions. Nitric acid is found mostly in particulate form, but gas to particulate partitioning of SO 2 shows seasonal variation. Wind trajectory analyses indicate that the major contribution to the observed concentrations come mostly from Eastern Europe and Blacksea regions as well as the southern sector

  20. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements and monitoring of the environmental radiation levels, as well as radioactivity of the various environmental samples were carried out three times a month in the on-site and the off-site around the KAERI site. Measurements were made for both gross alpha and beta radioactivity of all environmental samples. Gross beta measurements were made for radioactivity of the fallout, airborne particulates and precipitations which were collected on a daily basis on the roof of the main building. Measurements of the accumulated doses were also carried out at 10 posts on a bimonthly basis by employing thermoluminescent dosimeters

  2. Chemical-morphological analysis and evaluation of the distribution of particulate matter in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.; Sandoval P, A.; Morelos M, J.; Reyes G, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    The breathable fraction of the suspended particles is the main pollutant in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (ZMVT), to have the bigger number of days outside of standard, especially during the winter and low water time, its registered maximum value is of 367 IMECA points in 2004. The particles present a potential risk for the lungs, its increase the chemical reactions in the atmosphere; its reduce the visibility; its increase the possibility of the precipitation, the fog and the clouds; its reduce the solar radiation, with the changes in the environmental temperature and in the biological growth rates of those plants; and it dirties the soil matters. For that reason it is very important to characterize physicochemical and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy the particulate material of the Toluca Valley, to determine to that type of particles is potentially exposed the population before drastic scenarios of air pollution of the Toluca Valley, as well as to evaluate the distribution of the one particulate material in the ZMVT. (Author)

  3. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulates by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Sam; Jung, Yung Joo; Jung, Eui Sik; Cho, Seung Yun

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in airborne particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) under the optimum analytical condition. Neutron irradiation for sample was done at the irradiation hole(neutron flux, 1 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s) of TRIGA MARK-III research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. For the verification of the analytical method, NIST SRM-1648 and NIES CRM No.8 were chosen and analyzed. The accuracy and precision of the analysis of 40 and 24 trace elements in the samples were compared with the certified and reported values, respectively. The analytical method was found to be reliable enough when the analytical data of NIES sample were compared with those of different countries. In the analytical result of two or both of standard reference materials, relative standard deviation was within the 15% except a few elements and the relative error was within the 10%. We used this method to analyze 30 trace elements in airborne particulates collected with the high volume air sampler(PM-10) at two different locations and also confirmed the possibility to use this method as a routine monitoring tool to find out environmental pollution sources. 3 figs., 8 tabs., 19 refs. (Author)

  4. In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Zozulya, Alex A.

    2000-01-01

    We report an in-line digital holographic sensor (DHS) for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates. This system images individual particles over a deep depth of field (>25 cm) with a resolution of 5 μm. The DHS projects a collimated beam through the water column and onto a lensless CCD array. Some light is diffracted by particulates and forms an object beam; the undeflected remainder constitutes the reference beam. The two beams combine at the CCD array and create an in-line hologram, which is then numerically reconstructed. The DHS eliminates many problems traditionally associated with holography. The CCD recording material considerably lowers the exposure time and eliminates most vibration problems. The laser power needs are low; the DHS uses a small 10-mW diode laser. Rapid numerical reconstruction eliminates photographic processing and optical reconstruction. We successfully operated the DHS underwater on a remotely operated vehicle; our test results include tracing a single particle from one hologram to the next, thus deriving a velocity vector for marine mass transport. We outline our digital holographic reconstruction procedure, and present our graphical user interface and user software tools. The DHS is particularly useful for providing in situ ground-truth measurements for environmental remote sensing. (c) 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  5. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  6. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  7. [Distribution of airborne fungi, particulate matter and carbon dioxide in Seoul metropolitan subway stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Park, Jae Beom; Kim, Chi Nyon; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2006-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (psubway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.

  8. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  9. Formation of Particulate Matter from the Oxidation of Evaporated Wastewater from Hydraulic Fracturing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Bean, J. K.; Bilotto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing for production of petroleum and natural gas has increased dramatically in the last decade, but the environmental impacts of this technology remain unclear. Experiments were conducted to quantify airborne emissions from twelve samples of hydraulic fracturing flowback wastewater collected in the Permian Basin, as well as the photochemical processing of these emissions leading to the formation of particulate matter. The concentration of total volatile carbon (TVC, hydrocarbons evaporating at room temperature) averaged 29 milligrams of carbon per liter (mgC/L) and the TVC evaporation rate averaged 1357 mgC/L-m2-min. After photochemical oxidation under high NOx conditions the amount of organic particulate matter formed per milliliter of wastewater evaporated averaged 24 micrograms (µg); the amount of ammonium nitrate formed averaged 262 µg. In the state of Texas, the potential formation of PM from evaporated flowback wastewater is similar to the estimated PM emissions from diesel engines used in oil rigs, emphasizing the need to quantify wastewater evaporation and atmospheric processing of these emissions.

  10. Partition of pollution between dissolved and particulate phases: what about emerging substances in urban stormwater catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Sally; Moilleron, Régis; Saad, Mohamed; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results about the occurrence, the concentrations of urban priority substances on both the dissolved and the particulate phases in stormwater. Samples were collected at the outlet of a dense urban catchment in Paris suburb (2.30 km(2)). 13 chemical groups were investigated including 88 individual substances. Results showed that stormwater discharges contained 45 substances among them some metals, organotins, PAHs, PCBs, alkylphenols, pesticides, phthalates, cholorophenols and one volatile organic compound, i.e. methylene chloride. With respect to the European Water Framework Directive, these substances included 47% of the priority hazardous substances (n = 8), 38% of the priority substances (n = 10). The remaining substances (n = 27) belong to a list of others specific urban substances not included in the Water Framework Directive but monitored during this work. Finally, stormwater quality was evaluated by comparing the substance concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQS) and the particulate content to Canadian sediment quality guidelines. This showed that stormwater was highly contaminated and should be treated before being discharged to receiving waters in order to avoid any adverse impact on the river quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and Environmental Protection Division 1975 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Ash, J.A.

    1976-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other environmental pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory during 1975 are summarized in this report. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in precipitation; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk, grass and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  12. Particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from small scale firewood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the serious adverse effects of residential firewood use is the deterioration in air quality caused by wood-smoke. Low combustion zone temperatures, flame quenching, poor gas mixing, and lack of oxygen all contribute to relatively high emissions of particulates and CO. Average emission rates for particulates of 11 g/h for modern woodheaters can certainly be improved upon. More research effort is needed to reduce emissions from cooking stoves used in developing countries and more public information on correct heater use is needed in the developed countries. (author)

  13. Particulate air pollution, with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    constitute each about 5 wt-% of the collected suspended particulate matter in inner city air. The particle size distribution shows that 92 % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 µm. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about 1 µm for the bitumen particles...... % of this concentration derives from adsorbed particles on both leaf sides. The remainder is either respired through stomata or incorporated in the epicuticular wax layer. The fact that a substantial amount of the airborne tire and bitumen particles occur in the submicron range permits long range transportation...

  14. Role of oxidative damage in toxicity of particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Folkmann, Janne K

    2010-01-01

    composition play important roles in the oxidative potential of particulates. Studies in animal models indicate that particles from combustion processes (generated by combustion of wood or diesel oil), silicate, titanium dioxide and nanoparticles (C60 fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) produce elevated levels......Particulates are small particles of solid or liquid suspended in liquid or air. In vitro studies show that particles generate reactive oxygen species, deplete endogenous antioxidants, alter mitochondrial function and produce oxidative damage to lipids and DNA. Surface area, reactivity and chemical...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  16. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  17. Distribution and seasonal variation of concentrations of particulate carbohydrates and uronic acids in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Fernandes, L.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Bhosle, N.B.; Fernandes, V.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO), total particulate uronic acid (TPURA) and total particulate neutral carbohydrate (TPNCHO) concentrations and composition. Strong spatial, temporal and depth related variations were evident in the distribution...

  18. The measurement of the charging properties of fine particulate materials in pneumatic suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Chelu, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This document describes a programme of work that was designed to develop an improved understanding of the electrostatic charging properties of particulate materials with a view to applying this knowledge to the measurement of particulate concentrations in air-solid suspensions. An extensive literature review has been carried out. Some eighty published works were found and these concentrated on indirect charge measurement, the measurement of the two-phase pipe flow parameters, and on finding suitable models to explain tile work function given to insulators during metal to insulator contact. These areas are covered well in the field of electrostatics but data currently available in the area of programme of work being described here is very, limited, and so it is proposed that this research project will aim to improve such understanding. A test facility was developed to provide information from the flow of a particulate material under known conditions (particle velocity, suspension density). This test facility utilised three sensing probes, each with discrete charge amplifier units, at specific locations: one at the beginning and two further down the pipeline being utilised. Hence, the charging tendencies of any material were observed using this facility. The results obtained from this facility show the charging tendency of three particulate materials under various flow conditions. Signal processing techniques were developed to infer the suspension density for each flow condition and to estimate average particle velocity. Further analysis of the data resulted in tile derivation of a power spectral estimate for some of the flow conditions. This estimate was considered with the particle size distribution, as well as the estimate of tile average particle velocity, and there is a linkage. The main material selected for this programme was aluminium hydroxide. This was tested at environmental temperatures of 19 and 30 deg. C with relative humidity (RH) levels of 35, 45, and

  19. Sensitive determination of total particulate phosphorus and particulate inorganic phosphorus in seawater using liquid waveguide spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehama, Makoto; Hashihama, Fuminori; Kinouchi, Shinko; Kanda, Jota; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Determining the total particulate phosphorus (TPP) and particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) in oligotrophic oceanic water generally requires the filtration of a large amount of water sample. This paper describes methods that require small filtration volumes for determining the TPP and PIP concentrations. The methods were devised by validating or improving conventional sample processing and by applying highly sensitive liquid waveguide spectrophotometry to the measurements of oxidized or acid-extracted phosphate from TPP and PIP, respectively. The oxidation of TPP was performed by a chemical wet oxidation method using 3% potassium persulfate. The acid extraction of PIP was initially carried out based on the conventional extraction methodology, which requires 1M HCl, followed by the procedure for decreasing acidity. While the conventional procedure for acid removal requires a ten-fold dilution of the 1M HCl extract with purified water, the improved procedure proposed in this study uses 8M NaOH solution for neutralizing 1M HCl extract in order to reduce the dilution effect. An experiment for comparing the absorbances of the phosphate standard dissolved in 0.1M HCl and of that dissolved in a neutralized solution [1M HCl: 8M NaOH=8:1 (v:v)] exhibited a higher absorbance in the neutralized solution. This indicated that the improved procedure completely removed the acid effect, which reduces the sensitivity of the phosphate measurement. Application to an ultraoligotrophic water sample showed that the TPP concentration in a 1075mL-filtered sample was 8.4nM with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% and the PIP concentration in a 2300mL-filtered sample was 1.3nM with a CV of 6.1%. Based on the detection limit (3nM) of the sensitive phosphate measurement and the ambient TPP and PIP concentrations of the ultraoligotrophic water, the minimum filtration volumes required for the detection of TPP and PIP were estimated to be 15 and 52mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016

  20. Daily variability of suspended particulate concentrations and yields and their effect on river particulates chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meybeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily total suspended solids concentrations (TSS, mg L-1, yields (Y, kg day-1 km-2 and runoff (q, L s-1 km-2 in world rivers are described by the median (C50, the upper percentile (C99, the discharge-weighted average concentrations (C*, and by their corresponding yields (Y50, Y99, Y* and runoff (q*, q50, q99. These intra-station descriptors range over two to six orders of magnitude at a given station. Inter-station variability is considered through three sets of dimensionless metrics: (i q*/q50, C*/C50 and Y*/Y50, defining the general temporal variability indicators, and q99/q50, C99/C50 and Y99/Y50, defining the extreme variability indicators; (ii river flow duration (W2 and flux duration (M2 in 2% of time; and (iii the truncated rating curve exponent (b50sup of the C vs q relationship for the upper flows. The TSS and Y variability, measured on US, French and world rivers, are first explained by hydrological variability through the b50sup metric, the variability amplifier, then by basin size, erodibility, relief and lake occurrence. Yield variability is the product of runoff variability × TSS variability. All metrics are considerably modified after river damming. The control of river particulate matter (RPM composition by TSS or yields depends on the targeted component. For major elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K, the average RPM chemistry is not dependent on C* and Y* in most world hydroregions, except in the tropical hydrobelt where it is controlled by basin relief. By contrast, the particulate organic carbon content (POC, as a percentage of RPM is inversely correlated to TSS concentrations for (i intra-station measurements in any hydroregion, and (ii inter-station average POC and TSS figures in world rivers. TSS controls heavy metal content (ppm in highly contaminated basins (e.g. Cd in the Seine vs the Rhone, and total metal concentration (ng/L in all cases. Relations between RPM composition and TSS should be taken into account

  1. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  2. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  3. Characteristics of Airborne Particulates Containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Monazite Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Go, A Ra; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The properties included particulate size distribution, concentration, shape, density, and radioactivity concentration. Monazite is one of the minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Therefore, external and internal exposure can be occurred to the workers in monazite industry. The major exposure pathway of the workers is internal exposure due to inhalation of airborne particulates. According to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation dose due to inhaled particulates containing NORM depends on particulate properties. Therefore, ICRP recommended the internal dose assessment using measured physicochemical properties of the airborne particulates. In the absence of specific information, ICRP provided default reference values. In this study, we characterized physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The databases of particulate information can be used for accurate internal dose assessment of worker.

  4. COPPER-DEPENDENT INFLAMMATION AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-KB ACTIVATION BY PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in ...

  5. Just who is at risk? The ethics of environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ted

    2011-08-01

    The willingness to view risk as part of daily life has vanished. A risk-averse mindset among environmental regulators engenders confusion between the ethics of intention and the ethics of consequence, leading to the elevation of the precautionary principle with unintended and often unfortunate outcomes. Environmental risk assessment is conservative, but the actual level of conservatism cannot be determined. High-end exposure assumptions and current toxicity criteria from the USEPA, based on linear extrapolation for carcinogens and default uncertainty factors for systemic toxicants, obscure the degree of conservatism in risk assessments. Ideally, one could choose a percentile of the target population to include within environmental standards, but this choice is complicated by the food, pharmaceutical and advertising industries, whose activities, inadvertent or not, often promote maladaptive and unhealthy lifestyle choices. There has lately been much discussion about background exposures and disease processes and their potential to increase the risk from environmental chemicals. Should these background exposures or disease processes, especially those associated with maladaptive individual choices, be included as part of a regulatory risk evaluation? A significant ethical question is whether environmental regulation should protect those pursuing a self-destructive lifestyle that may add to or synergize with otherwise innocuous environmental exposures. Choosing a target percentile of protection would provide an increased level of transparency and the flexibility to choose a higher or lower percentile if such a choice is warranted. Transparency and flexibility will lead to more responsive environmental regulation that balances protection of public health and the stewardship of societal resources.

  6. Comparative Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Particulate and Soluble Hexavalent Chromium in Human and Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Skin Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Chen, Tânia; LaCerte, Carolyne; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie; Martino, Julieta; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W. Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a global marine pollutant, present in marine mammal tissues. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known human carcinogen. In this study we compare the cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of Cr(VI) in human (Homo sapiens) and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skin fibroblasts. Our data show that increasing concentrations of both particulate and soluble Cr(VI) induce increasing amounts of cytotoxicity and clastogenicity in human and sperm whale skin cells. Furthermore, the data show that sperm whale cells are resistant to these effects exhibiting less cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than the human cells. Differences in Cr uptake accounted for some but not all of the differences in particulate and soluble Cr(VI) genotoxicity, although it did explain the differences in particulate Cr(VI) cytotoxicity. Altogether the data indicate that Cr(VI) is a genotoxic threat to whales, but also suggest that whales have evolved cellular mechanisms to protect them against the genotoxicity of environmental agents such as Cr(VI). PMID:21466859

  7. The Shared Pathoetiological Effects of Particulate Air Pollution and the Social Environment on Fetal-Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors are shown to be independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, their confounding relationship is an epidemiological challenge that requires understanding of their shared etiologic pathways affecting fetal-placental development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the etiological mechanisms associated with exposure to particulate air pollution in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and how these mechanisms intersect with those related to socioeconomic status. Here we review the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and endocrine modification in the pathoetiology of deficient deep placentation and detail how the physical and social environments can act alone and collectively to mediate the established pathology linked to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We review the experimental and epidemiological literature showing that diet/nutrition, smoking, and psychosocial stress share similar pathways with that of particulate air pollution exposure to potentially exasperate the negative effects of either insult alone. Therefore, socially patterned risk factors often treated as nuisance parameters should be explored as potential effect modifiers that may operate at multiple levels of social geography. The degree to which deleterious exposures can be ameliorated or exacerbated via community-level social and environmental characteristics needs further exploration. PMID:25574176

  8. Risk of human health by particulate matter as a source of air pollution--comparison with tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Makoto; Tierney, William J; Nozaki, Kohsuke

    2008-08-01

    Increased air pollution, containing carcinogenic particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)), has gained particular attention in recent years as a causative factor in the increased incidence of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. Extensive carcinogenicity studies conducted recently under Good Laboratory Practice conditions by National Toxicology Program in the USA, Ramazzini Foundation in Italy or Contract Research Organizations on numerous chemical compounds have demonstrated the importance of considering dose levels, times and duration of exposure in the safety evaluation of carcinogenic as well as classical toxic agents. Data on exposure levels to chemical carcinogens that produce tumor development have contributed to the evaluation of human carcinogens from extrapolation of animal data. A popular held misconception is that the risk from smoking is the result of inhaling assorted particulate matter and by products from burning tobacco rather than the very low ng levels of carcinogens present in smoke. Consider the fact that a piece of toasted bread contains ng levels of the carcinogen urethane (ethyl carbamate). Yet, no one has considered toast to be a human carcinogen. Future human carcinogenic risk assessment should emphasize consideration of inhalation exposure to higher levels of benzo (a) pyrene and other possible carcinogens and particulate matter present in polluted air derived from automobile exhaust, pitch and coal tar on paved roads and asbestos, in addition to other environmental contaminant exposure via the food and drinking water.

  9. The evaluation of a ceramic diesel particulate filter in an underground mine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.H.; Bucheger, D.; Patton, M.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper details the collection of diesel exhaust particulate from the instrumented Wagner ST5A load-haul-dump vehicle during a simulated ore loading and hauling operation. An evaluation of the exhaust included measurements to determine the effect of the Corning diesel particulate filter (DPF) on air quality, and the effect of operating variables and fuel additives on DPF regeneration. The results demonstrate the important effects of other mine particulate sources on the particulate collection efficiency

  10. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  11. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  12. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...... per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building......-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier...

  13. Radiation dose estimates due to air particulate emissions from selected phosphate industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Horton, T.R.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Boysen, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs has conducted a series of studies to determine the radiological impact of the phosphate mining and milling industry. This report describes the efforts to estimate the radiation doses due to airborne emissions of particulates from selected phosphate milling operations in Florida. Two wet process phosphoric acid plants and one ore drying facility were selected for this study. The 1976 Annual Operations/Emissions Report, submitted by each facility to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and a field survey trip by EPA personnel to each facility were used to develop data for dose calculations. The field survey trip included sampling for stack emissions and ambient air samples collected in the general vicinity of each plant. Population and individual radiation dose estimates are made based on these sources of data

  14. Secondary ion mass spectrometry: The application in the analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Di; Hua, Xin; Xiu, Guang-Li; Zheng, Yong-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Long, Yi-Tao

    2017-10-01

    Currently, considerable attention has been paid to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) investigation due to its importance in human health and global climate change. Surface characterization of PM is important since the chemical heterogeneity between the surface and bulk may vary its impact on the environment and human being. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface technique with high surface sensitivity, capable of high spatial chemical imaging and depth profiling. Recent research shows that SIMS holds great potential in analyzing both surface and bulk chemical information of PM. In this review, we presented the working principal of SIMS in PM characterization, summarized recent applications in PM analysis from different sources, discussed its advantages and limitations, and proposed the future development of this technique with a perspective in environmental sciences.

  15. An economic passive sampling method to detect particulate pollutants using magnetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Hu, Shouyun; Ma, Mingming

    2015-10-01

    Identifying particulate matter (PM) emitted from industrial processes into the atmosphere is an important issue in environmental research. This paper presents a passive sampling method using simple artificial samplers that maintains the advantage of bio-monitoring, but overcomes some of its disadvantages. The samplers were tested in a heavily polluted area (Linfen, China) and compared to results from leaf samples. Spatial variations of magnetic susceptibility from artificial passive samplers and leaf samples show very similar patterns. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that the collected PM are mostly in the range of 2-25 μm; frequent occurrence of spherical shape indicates industrial combustion dominates PM emission. Magnetic properties around power plants show different features than other plants. This sampling method provides a suitable and economic tool for semi-quantifying temporal and spatial distribution of air quality; they can be installed in a regular grid and calibrate the weight of PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  17. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  18. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  19. Effect of Particulates Generated from Asphalt Production on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    in air, including dust, soot, dirt, smoke and liquid droplets. Particulate matter is of localized importance near roads, cement works, and other industrial areas. Apart from screening out sunlight, dust on leaf blocks stomata and lowers their conductants to Carbon iv oxide (Jitin and Manish, 2014). Asphalt, which is also referred ...

  20. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  1. Diesel particulate emission in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, WCA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available measurements was confirmed by comparison of duplicate samples with analyses conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in the UK. Furthermore, good agreement in readings was obtained between the Horiba instrument and the R&P direct-reading analyser... ......................................................................................................3 2.2 Characteristics and biological significance of particulates.................................................... 3 2.3 Animal studies...

  2. 40 CFR 86.145-82 - Calculations; particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = 0.43(Mp1 + Mp2)/(Dct + Ds) + 0.57(Mp3 + Mp2)/(Dht = Ds) where: (1) Mp1 = Mass of particulate... the cold start test, in miles. (6) Dht = The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase of...

  3. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013) ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  4. Distribution spatiale intra-urbaine des particules fines : monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2014 ... En outre, l'accumulation des particules fines est faible pendant un mois pluvieux par rapport à un mois sec ..... benjamina, et la structure (tige, branches) des arborées ... par Zhang et al., (2006) sur des feuilles de Pinus pumila.

  5. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  6. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  7. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  8. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsuruho, K. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Tamura, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Mie University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry for Materials; Kuroda, K. [Osaka City University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous particulates in indoor and outdoor air at roadside private households were measured in Osaka, Japan. The particulate samples were collected on filters using a portable AND sampler capable of separating particles into three different size ranges: over 10 {mu}m, 2-10 {mu}m (coarse) and below 2 {mu}m (fine) in aerodynamic diameter. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal oxidation using a CHN CORDER. The results showed that indoor fine PM concentration is considerably affected by fine EC and the fine EC in indoor air is significantly correlated to that in outdoor air, r = 0.86 (n = 30, p < 0.001). A simple estimation from EC content ratio in diesel exhaust particles indicated that about 30% of indoor particulates of less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) were contributed from diesel exhaust. Additionally, the size characteristics of outdoor PM at roadside and background sites were examined using Andersen Cascade Impactors. (author)

  9. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  10. Characteristics, Causes, and Evaluation of Helicopter Particulate Visual Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    future full-scale testing. The thrust sources examined were a 1 in. diameter nozzle , a 4 in. diameter nozzle , and a 16 in. ducted fan. The sources...Hiller also evaluated inclining the thrust vector , and determined there was little reduction in dynamic pressure at the point of ground interaction...CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSES, AND EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER PARTICULATE VISUAL OBSTRUCTION THESIS

  11. Membrane Characteristics for Removing Particulates in PFC Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    Pc (Per fluorocarbon) decontamination process is one of best methods to remove hot particulate adhered at inside surface of hot cell and surface of equipment in hot cell. It was necessary to develop a particulate filtration equipment to reuse Pc solution used on Pc decontamination due to its high cost and to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contamination characteristics of hot particulate were investigated and then a filtration process was presented to remove hot particulate in Pc solution generated through Pc decontamination process. The removal efficiency of Pvdf (Poly vinylidene fluoride), Pp (Polypropylene), Ceramic (Al 2 O 3 ) filter showed more than 95%. The removal efficiency of Pvdf filter was a little lower than those of other kiters at same pressure (3 psi). A ceramic filter showed a higher removal efficiency with other filters, while a little lower flux rate than other filters. Due to inorganic composition, a ceramic filter was highly stable against radio nuclides in comparison with Pvdf and Pp membrane, which generate H 2 gas in α-radioactivity atmosphere. Therefore, the adoption of ceramic filter is estimated to be suitable for the real nitration process.

  12. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particulate nitrogen (PN)and AS concentrations and composition.The AS varied between 0.4 and 17.5 nmol/l.Concentrations were high in the surface waters and generally decreased with increasing depth.AS concentration decreased from the south to ...

  13. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the three sites; it accounts for a mean of 61% ±20 in Ramisi, 97% ±0.7 in Shirazi and 65% ±29 in Mtwapa. These high detritus levels are expected because of the allochthonous supply of particulate material by the river in Ramisi and the contribution from mangroves, which fringe the banks of the estuary and the creeks.

  15. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  16. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  17. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  18. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method detection limit was also low (0.2 to 1 μg/L) for most metals, and 50% and less standard deviation to mean ratios were obtained for Ni and Pb. Key words: Toxic metals, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry, particulate matter, ...

  19. Determination of trace elements in urban airborne particulates (PM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the air quality in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK was performed by determining the trace element content in airborne particulates (PM10). Samples were collected over a 12 month period (March 2011 to April 2012) using two high volume air sampler provided with a PM10 size selective inlet. The concentrations of ...

  20. Characterization of biological particulate loads in metropolitan air

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Snow; R. D. Schein; W. J. Moroz

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric particulate load includes a wide range of naturally occurring particles of biological origin that serve as a reservoir of allergenic agents in respiratory disease. Improved knowledge of potential aeroallergens is needed by medical clinicians. Aims are to better characterize air spora, qualitatively and quantitatively, and determine daily (by hour)...

  1. An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate Sources In Lagos, Nigeria. FS Olise, OK Owoade, HB Olaniyi. Abstract. There have been no clear demarcations between industrial and residential areas of Lagos with focus on industry as the major source. There is need to identify potential source types in ...

  2. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  3. High efficiency particulate air filter experience survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Causes and magnitude of HEPA filter changeouts and failures at DOE sites for the years 1977 to 1979 were evaluated. Conclusions inferred from the data follow: HEPA filters have been generally performing the task they were designed for; most changeouts have been made because of filter plugging, preventive maintenance, or precautionary reasons rather than evidence of filter failure; where failures have been experienced, records generally have not been adequate to determine the cause of failure; where cause of failure has been determined, damage attributed to personnel handling and installation has been substantially more prevalent than that from filter environmental exposure. The need for improved personnel training in handling and installation was stressed. Some reduction in filter failure frequency can be achieved by improving the acid and moisture resistance of filters, and providing adequate pretreatment of air prior to HEPA filtration

  4. Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garshick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3, but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3. It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM.

  5. 1976 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1977-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other environmental pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory during 1976 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in precipitation; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk, grass, and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory. The external radiation level for 1976 at the north boundary of the Laboratory attributable to an ecology forest irradiation source was 74.4 mrem, or 14 percent of the applicable Radiation Protection Standard

  6. Urbanization and Environmental Quality in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Ekpeno

    2016-01-01

    Africa’s rapid urbanization pose challenges for her sustainable development. This paper investigates the environmental impact of urbanization for 49 African countries from 1990 to 2010. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, a recently developed semi-parametric panel fixed-effects regression technique, and two atmospheric air pollutants, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) and ambient particulate matter PM10 emissions, the evidenc...

  7. Distribution of magnetic particulates in a roadside snowpack based on magnetic, microstructural and mineralogical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bućko, Michał S.; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Chrobak, Artur; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Johanson, Bo; Čuda, Jan; Filip, Jan; Zbořil, Radek; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Leppäranta, Matti

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic parameters are successfully applied in environmental studies to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron-bearing minerals. A general aim of this research was to investigate the magnetic, microstructural and mineralogical properties of dust extracted from the roadside snowpack accumulated on the side of an urban highway, northern Helsinki. Vertical snow profiles were taken at different distances (5, 10 and 15 m) from the road edge, during winter season 2010-2011. The temporal distribution of mass magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the road dust shows that the concentration of magnetic particles increases in the snowpack during winter. Roadside snowpack preserves a large fraction of the magnetic particulate until the late stages of melting and this could be considered as one of the main factors responsible for the resuspension phenomenon observed in Nordic countries. The vertical distribution of χ and SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization)/χ ratio may indicate the migration of magnetic particles down in the snowpack during melting conditions. Ultrafine to coarse-grained (superparamagnetic to multidomain) magnetite was identified as the primary magnetic mineral in all the studied road dust samples. The examined road dust contains significant amount of dia/paramagnetic minerals (e.g. quartz, albite, biotite) and the content of magnetite is relatively low (below 1 weight percent, wt%). The roadside snowpack is enriched in anthropogenic particles such as angular and spherical iron-oxides, tungsten-rich particles and sodium chloride. This study demonstrates the suitability of snow as an efficient collecting medium of magnetic particulates generated by anthropogenic activities.

  8. Seasonal changes in suspended particulate component in Bombay High oil field (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, K.L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Venkat, K.

    of phytoplankton biomass. Ratio of silicate and nitrate to phosphate was 16:16:1 for monsoon and postmonsoon periods. Annual values of particulate carbohydrates, particulate proteins and particulate lipids in surface waters ranged from 40 to 265 mu g l sup(-1), 21...

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  10. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  11. 30 CFR 7.89 - Test to determine the particulate index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine the particulate index. 7.89... Use in Underground Coal Mines § 7.89 Test to determine the particulate index. The test shall be... measured and recorded at each test mode. (ii) The data required for use in the particulate index...

  12. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  13. The geocentric particulate distribution: Cometary, asteroidal, or space debris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Ratcliff, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Definition of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) particulate environment has been refined considerably with the analysis of data from NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Measurements of the impact rates from particulates ranging from sub-micron to millimetres in dimension and, especially, information on their directionality has permitted new scrunity of the sources of the particulates. Modelling of the dynamics of both bound (Earth orbital) and unbound (hyperbolic interplanetary) particulates intercepting LDEF's faces leads to the conclusion that the source is dominantly interplanetary for particle dimensions of greater than some 5 microns diameter; however the anisotropy below this dimension demands lower velocities and is compatible with an orbital component. Characteristics of the LDEF interplanetary component are compatible with familiar meteoroid sources and deep space measurements. Understanding of the orbital component which exceeds the interplanetary flux by a factor of 4 is less clear; although the very small particulates in orbit have been associated with space debris (Lawrance and Brownlee, 1986) this data conflicts with other measurements (McDonnell, Carey and Dixon, 1984) at the same epoch. By analysis of trajectories approaching the Earth and its atmosphere, we have shown that a significant contribution could be captured by aerocapture, i.e., atmospheric drag, from either asteroidal or cometary sources; such enhancement is unlikely however to provide the temporal and spatial fluctuations observed by the LDEF Interplanetary Dust Experiment (Mullholland et al. 1992). A further new mechanism is also examined, that of aerofragmentation capture, where an atmospheric grazing trajectory, which would not normally lead to capture, leads to fragmentation by thermal or mechanical shock; the microparticulates thus created can be injected in large numbers, but only into short-lifetime orbits. The concentration in one particular orbit plane, could explain the

  14. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  15. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  16. HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

  17. BAYESIAN ENTROPY FOR SPATIAL SAMPLING DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate Matter (PM) has been linked to widespread public health effects, including a range of serious respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and to reduced visibility in may parts of the United States, see the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (2004) and relevant...

  18. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in occupational vs. urban environmental air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branisteanu, R.; Aiking, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the balance between occupational and environmental exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), comparison measurements were performed in a coal-fired power plant and the urban atmosphere from the town nearby. Methods: The

  20. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Hongyi; Tesfa, Teklu; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Zhang, Xuesong; Lu, Hui; Hartmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1,081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km2), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  1. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hongyi [Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Tesfa, Teklu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Vanmaercke, Matthias [Département de Géographie, Université de Liège, Liege Belgium; Poesen, Jean [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division of Geography, KU Leuven, Leuven Belgium; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Hartmann, Jens [Institute for Geology, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg Germany

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km27 ), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  2. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Characteristics of thin and coarse particulates of urban and natural brazilian aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, C.Q.; Tabacnics, M.H.; Artaxo, P.; Andrade, M.F.; Kerr, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin and coarse particulate were sampled during the period 1982-1985 in a natural coastal forest (Jureia), and five urban-industrial regions (Vitoria, Salvador, Porto Alegre, Sao Paulo and Belo Horizonte). The time variation of the concentration in the air, and the relative elementary composition of the thin and coarse particulate, sampled by thin and Coarse Particulate Sampler (AFG), were determined by gravimetric method and PIXE analysis respectively. The results demonstrated that the ground dust and salt from the sea are unequivocally one of the largest sources of coarse particulate, and also the ground is a significant thin particulate source. 25 refs, 22 figs, 28 tabs. (L.C.J.A.)

  4. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  5. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-03-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uranium and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The {gamma}-radionuclides such as natural radionuclides 40K or 7Be were detected in pine needle and food. The nuclear radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs or 131I were temporarily detected in the samples of air particulate and rain in April and of fall out in 2nd quarter from the effect of Fukusima accident.

  7. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-05-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uraniu and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The radioactivities of most {gamma}-radionuclides in air particulate, surface water and ground water were less than MDA except {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be which are natural radionuclides. However, not only {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be but also {sup 137}Cs were detected at the background level in surface soil, discharge sediment and fallout or pine needle.

  8. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  9. Pollution level and distribution of PCDD/PCDF congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase in winter air of Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Songtao; Song, Yu; Xu, Qian; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Xueping; Mu, Jim; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2011-06-01

    In December 2009, ambient air was sampled with active high-volume air samplers at two sites: on the roof of the No. l building of Dalian Jiaotong University and on the roof of the building of Dalian Meteorological Observatory. The concentrations and the congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the air were measured. Sample analysis results showed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in particulate phase was higher than that in gaseous phase. The ratio of PCDD to PCDF in gaseous phase and particulate phase was lower than 0.4 in all samples. The total I-TEQ value in gaseous phase and particulate phase was 5.5 and 453.8 fg/m(3) at Dalian Jiaotong University, 16.6 and 462.1 fg/m(3) at Dalian Meteorological Observatory, respectively. The I-TEQ value of Dalian atmosphere was 5.5-462.1 fg/m(3) which was lower than international standard, the atmospheric quality in Dalian is better. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Particulate Air Pollution, Exceptional Aging, and Rates of Centenarians: A Nationwide Analysis of the United States, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hales, Nick; Burnett, Richard T; Jerrett, Michael; Mix, Carter; Dockery, Douglas W; Pope, C Arden

    2016-11-01

    Exceptional aging, defined as reaching age 85 years, shows geographic inequalities that may depend on local environmental conditions. Links between particulate pollution-a well-recognized environmental risk factor-and exceptional aging have not been investigated. We conducted a nationwide analysis of ~28 million adults in 3,034 United States counties to determine whether local PM2.5 levels (particulate matter migration variables. On average, 2,295 and 71.4 per 10,000 of the 55- to 64- and 70- to 74-year-olds in 1980, respectively, remained in the 85- to 94- and 100- to 104-year-old population in 2010. An interquartile range (4.19 μg/m3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with 93.7 fewer 85- to 94-year-olds (p national standard. Exceptional aging was strongly associated with smoking, with an interquartile range (4.77%) increase in population who smoked associated with 181.9 fewer 85- to 94-year-olds (p income. Communities with the most exceptional aging have low ambient air pollution and low rates of smoking, poverty, and obesity. Improvements in these determinants may contribute to increasing exceptional aging. Citation: Baccarelli AA, Hales N, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Mix C, Dockery DW, Pope CA III. 2016. Particulate air pollution, exceptional aging, and rates of centenarians: a nationwide analysis of the United States, 1980-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1744-1750; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP197.

  11. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piniero, T.; Cerqueira Alves, L.; Reis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Recent developments in particulate control with low-rank fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.J.; Laudal, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations appear to be focusing on fine particle emissions rather than total mass particulate emissions. There is concern that electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) may not be able to meet potentially stricter finer particle emission standards. A new development in the area of fabric filtration is the use of flue gas-conditioning agents to reduce particulate emissions and pressure drop. Theoretical analysis of the factors that control the size of a baghouse indicates that pulse-jet baghouses can be designed to operate at much higher air-to-cloth ratios than is currently employed. To help optimize performance of both ESPs and baghouses, quantitative characterization of the cohesive properties of fly ash is necessary. Appropriate methods are determination of aerated and packed porosity and measurement of tensile strength as a function of porosity

  13. Les Particules élémentaires: Self–portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Prince

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps no French novel in the past fifteen years has received more critical attention than Michel Houellebecq’s Les Particules élémentaires and perhaps none has evoked stronger reactions with regard to the (literary values it espouses and represents. This (self-portrait, like any portrait, accents certain features more than others. It concentrates on refuting charges of nihilism, reactionaryism, sexism, and racism; it stresses Houellebecq’s novel’s attention to form and its thematic clarity as well as its determination to say something rather than nothing; and, through a consideration of its references to various media, arts, and texts, of its pet peeves and true delights, it specifies the nature and ambition of Les Particules élémentaires , the kind of text it is or aspires to be.

  14. Biological mechanisms and translocation kinetics of particulate plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dissolution and elimination of particulate 239 Pu from its initial sites of deposition in phagocytic organs (the liver, spleen, and lung), as well as its translocation and redeposition in soft tissue organs and skeleton have been investigated. Beagles were injected intravenously with particulate Pu and sacrificed sequentially at times ranging from 33 to 830 days after injection. Equations that describe the overall retention of Pu in liver, spleen, lung, and bone were calculated. Plutonium mobilized from these organs either re-entered the blood stream and redeposited in the skeleton and liver parenchyma or was excreted. The protracted translocation of Pu to bone surfaces potentially exposes all cells involved in osteogenesis to continuous α-radiation, a situation that could enhance the hazard of developing osteosarcoma. A kinetic model that describes the translocation of Pu from the phagocytic compartments to blood and its subsequent redistribution to bone, liver, and other organs was formulated

  15. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-04

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  16. Bioengineering towards self-assembly of particulate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Bernd H A

    2017-12-01

    There is an unmet demand for safe and efficient vaccines for prevention of various infectious diseases. Subunit vaccines comprise selected pathogen specific antigens are a safe alternative to whole organism vaccines. However they often lack immunogenicity. Natural and synthetic self-assembling polymers and proteins will be reviewed in view their use to encapsulate and/or display antigens to serve as immunogenic antigen carriers for induction of protective immunity. Recent advances made in in vivo assembly of antigen-displaying polyester inclusions will be a focus. Particulate vaccines are inherently immunogenic due to enhanced uptake by antigen presenting cells which process antigens mediating adaptive immune responses. Bioengineering approaches enable the design of tailor-made particulate vaccines to fine tune immune responses towards protective immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rechargeable particulate filter for radioactive contaminated gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    A system is disclosed which includes a closed housing having a plurality of rectangularly configured beds with perforated sidewalls longitudinally disposed in housing in laterally spaced disposition with each other. Alternate spaces at inlet end are closed and alternate spaces opposite the open ends are closed at exit end whereby contaminated gas is laterally squeezed through the beds filled with particulate adsorbent. The lower portions of the beds funnel into longitudinally extending discharge chutes enclosed within respective wells, the lower edges of the chutes rising at a constant angle above the well floor. An evacuation system coupled to the wells suctions the pile of particulate from the most remote portion of the chutes first. 3 claims, 7 drawing figures

  18. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  19. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  1. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  2. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control

  3. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry of particulate fractions using polyvinyl chloride microculture wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, B E; Sealock, R

    1984-10-01

    A method is described for immunoelectron microscopy of particulate subcellular fractions using polyvinyl chloride (soft) microculture wells as mechanical supports and reaction vessels. Appropriate quantities of particles are centrifuged onto the well bottoms, fixed and permeabilized if necessary, then labeled by standard procedures, fixed in glutaraldehyde and tannic acid, and prepared for thin section electron microscopy. The centrifugation, the fixations, and the embedment in Epon are discussed in detail.

  4. Removal of both dissolved and particulate iron from groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    H. van Dijk; H. Leijssen; L. Rietveld; A. Abrahamse; K. Teunissen

    2008-01-01

    Iron is the primary source for discolouration problems in the drinking water distribution system. The removal of iron from groundwater is a common treatment step in the production of drinking water. Even when clear water meets the drinking water standards, the water quality in the distribution system can deteriorate due to settling of iron (hydroxide) particles or post-treatment flocculation of dissolved iron. Therefore it is important to remove dissolved and particulate iron to a large exten...

  5. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitr...

  6. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  7. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  8. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  9. Source apportionment of airborne particulates through receptor modeling: Indian scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirthankar; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Raju, M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particulate chemistry mostly governed by associated sources and apportionment of specific sources is extremely essential to delineate explicit control strategies. The present submission initially deals with the publications (1980s-2010s) of Indian origin which report regional heterogeneities of particulate concentrations with reference to associated species. Such meta-analyses clearly indicate the presence of reservoir of both primary and secondary aerosols in different geographical regions. Further, identification of specific signatory molecules for individual source category was also evaluated in terms of their scientific merit and repeatability. Source signatures mostly resemble international profile while, in selected cases lack appropriateness. In India, source apportionment (SA) of airborne particulates was initiated way back in 1985 through factor analysis, however, principal component analysis (PCA) shares a major proportion of applications (34%) followed by enrichment factor (EF, 27%), chemical mass balance (CMB, 15%) and positive matrix factorization (PMF, 9%). Mainstream SA analyses identify earth crust and road dust resuspensions (traced by Al, Ca, Fe, Na and Mg) as a principal source (6-73%) followed by vehicular emissions (traced by Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Ba and Zn; 5-65%), industrial emissions (traced by Co, Cr, Zn, V, Ni, Mn, Cd; 0-60%), fuel combustion (traced by K, NH4+, SO4-, As, Te, S, Mn; 4-42%), marine aerosols (traced by Na, Mg, K; 0-15%) and biomass/refuse burning (traced by Cd, V, K, Cr, As, TC, Na, K, NH4+, NO3-, OC; 1-42%). In most of the cases, temporal variations of individual source contribution for a specific geographic region exhibit radical heterogeneity possibly due to unscientific orientation of individual tracers for specific source and well exaggerated by methodological weakness, inappropriate sample size, implications of secondary aerosols and inadequate emission inventories. Conclusively, a number of challenging

  10. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  11. Controlling exposure to DPM : diesel particulate filters vs. biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugarski, A.D.; Shi, X.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to comply with Mine Safety and Health Administration regulations, mining companies are required to reduce miners exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) to 160 μg/m 3 of total carbon. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, disposable filter elements (DFEs), and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are among the most effective strategies and technologies for curtailing DPM at its source. Substituting diesel fuel with biodiesel blends is also considered to be a plausible solution by many underground mine operators. Studies were conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Diesel Laboratory at Lake Lynn Experimental Mine to evaluate various control technologies and strategies available to the underground mining industry to reduce exposure to DPM. The physical, chemical and toxicological properties of diesel aerosols (DPM) emitted by engines in an underground mine were also evaluated. The DPF and DFE systems were found to be highly effective in reducing total particulate and elemental carbon mass concentrations, total aerosol surface concentrations and, in most cases, concentrations of diesel aerosols in occupational settings such as underground mines. Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuels had the potential to reduce the mine air concentrations of total DPM, although the rate of reduction varied depending on engine operating conditions. The disadvantage of using biodiesel fuels was an increase in the fraction of particle-bound volatile organics and concentration of aerosols for light-load engine operating conditions.

  12. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J

    1991-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased mortality during episodes of high pollution concentrations. The relationship at lower concentrations has been more controversial, as has the relative role of particles and sulfur dioxide. Replication has been difficult because suspended particle concentrations are usually measured only every sixth day in the U.S. This study used concurrent measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP) and airport visibility from every sixth day sampling for 10 years to fit a predictive model for TSP. Predicted daily TSP concentrations were then correlated with daily mortality counts in Poisson regression models controlling for season, weather, time trends, overdispersion, and serial correlation. A significant correlation (P less than 0.0001) was found between predicted TSP and daily mortality. This correlation was independent of sulfur dioxide, but not vice versa. The magnitude of the effect was very similar to results recently reported from Steubenville, Ohio (using actual TSP measurements), with each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in TSP resulting in a 6% increase in mortality. Graphical analysis indicated a dose-response relationship with no evidence of a threshold down to concentrations below half of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter.

  13. Subsurface migration of radioactive waste materials by particulate transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Craft, T.F.; Powell, G.F.; Wahlig, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    The role of suspended particles as carriers of dissolved nuclides from high-level radioactive waste repositories has been investigated. Depending on the concentrations of suspended particles and the nature of the invading water, it has been found that cationic nuclides may be competitively adsorbed on suspended clay particles, the partitioning being largely determined by pH, temperature, and comparative surface areas of particulates and surrounding rocks. Column tests with activated particles have been conducted and showed that the clay particles pass readily through porous mineral columns and are increasingly retained if salinity is increased. Retention in basalt columns is stronger in the presence of high concentrations of sodium and calcium ions and has been explained in terms of van der Waals forces. The range of particulate migration then depends on the condition of the rock surfaces, the persistence of a clay coating, and the total dissolved ion concentration. For adsorbable waste ions, this may represent a pathway comparable in significance to ion-exchange-controlled migration. For some bed materials, the particulate movement displayed a prompt and a delayed component; the nature of the delay mechanism is not fully understood at present

  14. An overview of particulate emissions from residential biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, E. D.; Alves, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Residential biomass burning has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of fine particles in the global troposphere with serious impacts on air quality, climate and human health. Quantitative estimations of the contribution of this source to the atmospheric particulate matter levels are hard to obtain, because emission factors vary greatly with wood type, combustion equipment and operating conditions. Updated information should improve not only regional and global biomass burning emission inventories, but also the input for atmospheric models. In this work, an extensive tabulation of particulate matter emission factors obtained worldwide is presented and critically evaluated. Existing quantifications and the suitability of specific organic markers to assign the input of residential biomass combustion to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol are also discussed. Based on these organic markers or other tracers, estimates of the contribution of this sector to observed particulate levels by receptor models for different regions around the world are compiled. Key areas requiring future research are highlighted and briefly discussed.

  15. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging applied to complex particulate solids systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is based on the utilization of an integrated hardware and software (HW&SW) platform embedding conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although HSI was originally developed for remote sensing, it has recently emerged as a powerful process analytical tool, for non-destructive analysis, in many research and industrial sectors. The possibility to apply on-line HSI based techniques in order to identify and quantify specific particulate solid systems characteristics is presented and critically evaluated. The originally developed HSI based logics can be profitably applied in order to develop fast, reliable and lowcost strategies for: i) quality control of particulate products that must comply with specific chemical, physical and biological constraints, ii) performance evaluation of manufacturing strategies related to processing chains and/or realtime tuning of operative variables and iii) classification-sorting actions addressed to recognize and separate different particulate solid products. Case studies, related to recent advances in the application of HSI to different industrial sectors, as agriculture, food, pharmaceuticals, solid waste handling and recycling, etc. and addressed to specific goals as contaminant detection, defect identification, constituent analysis and quality evaluation are described, according to authors' originally developed application.

  17. Particulate emissions from new heavy duty vehicles (Euro IV and V); Partikeludslip fra nye tunge koeretoejer (Euronorm IV og V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.; Ohm, A.; Willumsen, E. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2008-07-01

    The new Danish act on environmental zones allows local authorities to define zones where EURO III or older heavy duty vehicles should be equipped with a particulate filter. The introduction of EURO IV and V has reduced particulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles by approximately 80 % based on the mass of particles. There is, however, substantial uncertainty about the impact on the number of ultrafine particles, since they are not covered by Euronorm standards. When passing the bill, the Danish Minister for the Environment of the time stated that all relevant knowledge about particle emission from heavy duty vehicles needed to be collected for subsequent publication. To this end, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned a literature survey. The purpose of the survey is to provide an overview of the latest knowledge in the field of particle emissions from heavy duty vehicles, with special focus on the average size of the particle emissions. Another objective of the study is to analyse the direct emissions of NO{sub 2} from heavy duty vehicles classified under EURO IV and V. (au)

  18. Characterisation of airborne particulate pollution in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, South Ural Mountains of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B J; Udachin, V; Purvis, O W; Spiro, B; Cressey, G; Jones, G C

    2004-11-01

    Airborne total suspended particulates (TSP), dusts from smelter blast furnace and converter stacks, and filtrates of snow melt waters have been characterised in the Cu smelter and former mining town of Karabash, Russia. TSP was collected at sites up- and downwind of the smelter and large waste and tailings dumps (Oct. 2000 and July 2001). Methods for particle size, mineralogical and elemental determinations have been tested and described, and a new PSD-MicroSOURCE XRD technique developed for the mineralogical analysis of microsamples on filter substrates. TSP in downwind samples has a mean equivalent spherical diameter of 0.5 microm (s.d. = 0.2) and was found to be 100% respirable. The main element of human health/environmental concern, above Russian maximum permitted levels (1 microg m(-3), average over any time period), was Pb which was measured at 16-30 microg m(-3) in downwind samples. Individual particulates mainly consisted of complex mixtures of anglesite (PbSO4), Zn2SnO4 and poorly ordered Zn sulphates. From experimental and theoretical considerations, a high proportion of contained Pb, Zn, Cd and As in this material is considered to be in a readily bioavailable form. Chemical and mineralogical differences between the TSP, stack dusts and snow samples are discussed, as well as the implications for human and regional environmental health.

  19. A critical review of nuclear activation techniques for the determination of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols, particulates and sludge samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.

    1992-01-01

    Activation analysis is one of the major techniques for the determination of many minor and trace elements in a large variety of solid environmental and pollution samples, such as atmospheric aerosols, particulate emissions, fly ash, coal, incineration ash and sewage sludge, etc. Neutron activation analysis of total, inhalable or respirable airborne particulate matter collected on a filter or in a cascade impactor on some substrate, is very popular. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) up to 45 elements can be determined. The irradiation and counting procedures can be adapted to optimize the sensitivity for particular elements. The precision is largely governed by counting statistics and a high accuracy can be obtained after calibration with multi-elemental standards. Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is applied only when extremely low limits of determination are required. Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis (IPAA) is complementary to INAA, since some elements of environmental interest can be determined which do not produce appropriate radionuclides by neutron irradiation. Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) is used in particular circumstances such as for certification purposes or coupled to radiochemical separations for extremely low concentrations. (author)

  20. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China