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Sample records for environmental load reduction

  1. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  2. Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-12-07

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  3. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  4. Study of the effect of political measures on the citizen participation rate in recycling and on the environmental load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Masaru; Ohsako, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining the cooperation of citizens to participate in separate waste collection is essential to create a recycling-oriented society. In this research, the degree of change in the citizen participation rate, which occurs when the contents of political measures such as the raising of awareness, provision of information, and the conditions of collection services were changed, was estimated together with the effect on the reduction in environmental load. A questionnaire survey was conducted, targeted at residents of Itabashi Ward, while logistic regression analyses were also conducted to create predictive models for recycling behavior, and sensitivity analyses of the models were carried out to estimate the increase in citizen participation rate achievable through the implementation of various political measures. It was found that the effect of 'thorough perception of information' was the largest, followed by 'minimization of evaluation of trouble' and 'thorough perception of efficacy of measures.' The effect of the improvement in the citizen participation rate on the reduction in environmental load was also evaluated quantitatively by life cycle inventory analyses. It was indicated that 'maximization of perception of information' had the greatest effect. However, the reduction effect with 'paper packs' and 'PET bottles' was relatively small compared with that of 'bottles/cans.'

  5. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO 2 emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO 2 emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production

  6. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  7. Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-09-09

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  8. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibin Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  9. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  10. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  11. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...... turbine structure. Results presented shows fatigue reductions of up to 40% and ultimate load reduction of up to 19%. The ultimate load reduction increases even more when the over load protection system in the hydraulic soft yaw system is introduced and results show how the exact extreme load cut off...... operates. Further it is analyzed how the soft yaw system influence the power production of the turbine. It is shown that the influence is minimal, but at larger yaw errors the effect is possitive. Due to the implemeted functions in the hydraulic soft yaw system such as even load distribution on the pinions...

  12. Mean and peak wind load reduction on heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, L.; Bienkiewcz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated both mean and peak forces, and moments. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved. In addition, a preliminary review of wind loads on parabolic dish collectors was conducted, resulting in a recommended research program for these type collectors. 42 refs., 38 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  14. Thermal Load Reduction System Development in a Hyundai Sonata PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J.; Rugh, John; Tomerlin, Jeff

    2017-03-28

    Increased market penetration of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) requires overcoming a number of hurdles, including limited vehicle range and the elevated cost in comparison to conventional vehicles. Climate control loads have a significant impact on range, cutting it by over 50% in both cooling and heating conditions. To minimize the impact of climate control on EDV range, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has partnered with Hyundai America and key industry partners to quantify the performance of thermal load reduction technologies on a Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Technologies that impact vehicle cabin heating in cold weather conditions and cabin cooling in warm weather conditions were evaluated. Tests included thermal transient and steady-state periods for all technologies, including the development of a new test methodology to evaluate the performance of occupant thermal conditioning. Heated surfaces demonstrated significant reductions in energy use from steady-state heating, including a 29%-59% reduction from heated surfaces. Solar control glass packages demonstrated significant reductions in energy use for both transient and steady-state cooling, with up to a 42% reduction in transient and 12.8% reduction in steady-state energy use for the packages evaluated. Technologies that demonstrated significant climate control load reduction were selected for incorporation into a complete thermal load reduction package. The complete package is set to be evaluated in the second phase of the ongoing project.

  15. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  16. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    In situ reduction of an industrial NiO powder is performed under 1.3 mbar of H2 (2 mlN/min) in a differentially pumped FEI Titan 80-300 environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structura...

  17. Minimum load reduction for once-through boiler power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Godina, G.; Manganelli, R.

    2001-01-01

    In Italy the liberalization process of energy market is giving particular importance to the optimization of power plants performances; especially for those that will be called to satisfy grid peak demands. On those plants some techniques have been experimented for the reduction of minimum load; these techniques, investigated and tested by an engineering dynamic simulator, have been sequentially tested on plant. The minimum load for up 320 MW of Tavazzano power plants has been diminished from 140 down to 80 MW without plant modification [it

  18. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  19. Reduction of Dynamic Loads in Mine Lifting Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Eliseev, S. V.; Perelygina, A. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Article is devoted to a problem of decrease in the dynamic loadings arising in transitional operating modes of the mine lifting installations leading to heavy oscillating motions of lifting vessels and decrease in efficiency and reliability of work. The known methods and means of decrease in dynamic loadings and oscillating motions of the similar equipment are analysed. It is shown that an approach based on the concept of the inverse problems of dynamics can be effective method of the solution of this problem. The article describes the design model of a one-ended lifting installation in the form of a two-mass oscillation system, in which the inertial elements are the mass of the lifting vessel and the reduced mass of the engine, reducer, drum and pulley. The simplified mathematical model of this system and results of an efficiency research of an active way of reduction of dynamic loadings of lifting installation on the basis of the concept of the inverse problems of dynamics are given.

  20. Reduction of repository heat load using advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Jeff; Miller, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    With the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain already nearing capacity full before opening, advanced fuel cycles that introduce reprocessing, fast reactors, and temporary storage sites have the potential to allow the repository to support the current reactor fleet and future expansion. An uncertainty analysis methodology that combines Monte Carlo distribution sampling, reactor physics data simulation, and neural network interpolation methods enable investigation into the factor reduction of heat capacity by using the hybrid fuel cycle. Using a Super PRISM fast reactor with a conversion ratio of 0.75, burn ups reach up to 200 MWd/t that decrease the plutonium inventory by about 5 metric tons every 12 years. Using the long burn up allows the footprint of 1 single core loading of FR fuel to have an integral decay heat of about 2.5x10 5 MW*yr over a 1500 year period that replaces the footprint of about 6 full core loadings of LWR fuel for the number of years required to fuel the FR, which have an integral decay heat of about.3 MW*yr for the same time integral. This results in an increase of a factor of 4 in repository support capacity from implementing a single fast reactor in an equilibrium cycle. (authors)

  1. INCA Modelling of the Lee System: strategies for the reduction of nitrogen loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, N. J.; Paddison, T.; Whitehead, P. G.

    The Integrated Nitrogen Catchment model (INCA) was applied successfully to simulate nitrogen concentrations in the River Lee, a northern tributary of the River Thames for 1995-1999. Leaching from urban and agricultural areas was found to control nitrogen dynamics in reaches unaffected by effluent discharges and abstractions; the occurrence of minimal flows resulted in an upward trend in nitrate concentration. Sewage treatment works (STW) discharging into the River Lee raised nitrate concentrations substantially, a problem which was compounded by abstractions in the Lower Lee. The average concentration of nitrate (NO3) for the simulation period 1995-96 was 7.87 mg N l-1. Ammonium (NH4) concentrations were simulated less successfully. However, concentrations of ammonium rarely rose to levels which would be of environmental concern. Scenarios were run through INCA to assess strategies for the reduction of nitrate concentrations in the catchment. The conversion of arable land to ungrazed vegetation or to woodland would reduce nitrate concentrations substantially, whilst inclusion of riparian buffer strips would be unsuccessful in reducing nitrate loading. A 50% reduction in nitrate loading from Luton STW would result in a fall of up to 5 mg N l-1 in the reach directly affected (concentrations fell from maxima of 13 to 8 mg N l-1 , nearly a 40 % reduction), whilst a 20% reduction in abstractions would reduce maximum peaks in concentration in the lower Lee by up to 4 mg l-1 (from 17 to 13 mg N l-1, nearly a 25 % reduction),.

  2. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Environmental loading ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the

  3. Load Management in Residential Buildings Considering Techno-Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-12-01

    be a possible solution for the utility to solve their peak demand problems. Another solution, considered by the utility and analyzed in this study is a construction of diesel peak power plant. This alternative has negative environmental consequences compared to load management. The analysis of environmental aspects was extended to national level. To include an environmental perspective is a novel approach, since traditionally, load management evaluation is limited the economic and technical viewpoints. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. The results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, since hydropower is used as the demand following production source in Sweden. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand.

  4. Analysis and Assessment of Environmental Load of Vending Machines by a LCA Method, and Eco-Improvement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukio; Sadamichi, Yucho; Maruyama, Naoki; Kato, Seizo

    These days the environmental impact due to vending machines'(VM) diffusion has greatly been discussed. This paper describes the numerical evaluation of the environmental impact by using the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) scheme and then proposes eco-improvements' strategy toward environmentally conscious products(ECP). A new objective and universal consolidated method for the LCA-evaluation, so-called LCA-NETS(Numerical Eco-load Standardization ) developed by the authors is applied to the present issue. As a result, the environmental loads at the 5years' operation and the material procurement stages are found to dominate others over the life cycle. Further eco-improvement is realized by following the order of the LCA-NETS magnitude; namely, energy saving, materials reducing, parts' re-using, and replacing with low environmental load material. Above all, parts' re-using is specially recommendable for significant reduction of the environmental loads toward ECP.

  5. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Trend survey of global environment related studies (researches on measureds for reduction of environmental load of CO2); Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. INCA Modelling of the Lee System: strategies for the reduction of nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Flynn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Nitrogen Catchment model (INCA was applied successfully to simulate nitrogen concentrations in the River Lee, a northern tributary of the River Thames for 1995-1999. Leaching from urban and agricultural areas was found to control nitrogen dynamics in reaches unaffected by effluent discharges and abstractions; the occurrence of minimal flows resulted in an upward trend in nitrate concentration. Sewage treatment works (STW discharging into the River Lee raised nitrate concentrations substantially, a problem which was compounded by abstractions in the Lower Lee. The average concentration of nitrate (NO3 for the simulation period 1995-96 was 7.87 mg N l-1. Ammonium (NH4 concentrations were simulated less successfully. However, concentrations of ammonium rarely rose to levels which would be of environmental concern. Scenarios were run through INCA to assess strategies for the reduction of nitrate concentrations in the catchment. The conversion of arable land to ungrazed vegetation or to woodland would reduce nitrate concentrations substantially, whilst inclusion of riparian buffer strips would be unsuccessful in reducing nitrate loading. A 50% reduction in nitrate loading from Luton STW would result in a fall of up to 5 mg N l-1 in the reach directly affected (concentrations fell from maxima of 13 to 8 mg N l-1 , nearly a 40 % reduction, whilst a 20% reduction in abstractions would reduce maximum peaks in concentration in the lower Lee by up to 4 mg l-1 (from 17 to 13 mg N l-1, nearly a 25 % reduction,. Keywords: modelling, water quality, nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, INCA, River Lee, River Thames, land-use.

  7. Blade-Pitch Control for Wind Turbine Load Reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lio, Alan Wai Hou

    Large wind turbines are subjected to the harmful loads that arise from the spatially uneven and temporally unsteady oncoming wind. Such loads are the known sources of fatigue damage that reduce the turbine operational lifetime, ultimately increasing the cost of wind energy to the end-users. In re...

  8. Reduction of HLW repository environmental impact by Na-Cooled FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong; Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    The present study proposes the total toxicity index of radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as the environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport models that incorporate the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading resulting from FBR deployment and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. The rate of increase in the environmental impact with the increase in the repository size can be reduced by reducing the initial mass loading of Np and its precursors. (author)

  9. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the des moines river, iowa using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km2 in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the Des Moines River, Iowa using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Keith E; Wolter, Calvin F

    2009-10-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km(2) in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed.

  11. Fiscal 1995 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system` (interim report); 1995 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The coal utilization is expected to make substantial growth according to the long-term energy supply/demand plan. To further expand the future coal utilization, however, it is indispensable to reduce environmental loads in its total use with other energies, based on the coal use. In this survey, a regional model survey was conducted as environmental load reduction measures using highly cleaned coal which were taken in fiscal 1993 and 1994. Concretely, a model system was assumed which combined facilities for mixed combustion with coal and other energy (hull, bagasse, waste, etc.) and facilities for effective use of burned ash, and potential reduction in environmental loads of the model system was studied. The technology of mixed combustion between coal and other energy is still in a developmental stage with no novelties in the country. Therefore, the mixed combustion technology between coal and other energy is an important field which is very useful for the future energy supply/demand and environmental issues. 34 refs., 27 figs., 48 tabs.

  12. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes...

  13. Can environmental innovation facilitate carbon emissions reduction? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Yu-Lu; Ma, Chao-Qun; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental innovation has been recognized as an efficient way of addressing environmental problems. However, how environmental innovation may affect carbon emissions in China and whether the effect may differ among various environmental innovation variables remain to be investigated. Therefore, based on the panel data of China’s 30 provinces during 2000–2013, we use a system generalized method of moments (SGMM) technique to estimate the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions in China. Also, we evaluate the effect on carbon emission reduction of China’s initial carbon emissions trading (CET) scheme. Empirical results indicate that, most environmental innovation measures in China reduce carbon emissions effectively. Among the various environmental innovation factors, energy efficiency exerts the most evident effect on carbon emissions abatement in China; meanwhile, resources for innovation and knowledge innovation also play prominent roles in this regard. However, the impact of governmental environmental policies on curbing carbon emissions reduction suffers from a lag effect, which mainly occurred during 2006–2013. Finally, despite the short time of operation and incomplete market mechanism, the pilot CET in China has appeared relatively promising with regard to carbon emissions reduction. - Highlights: • The SGMM is used for the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions. • Energy efficiency proves the most effective way to reduce China’s carbon emissions. • Innovation resources and knowledge innovation are conducive for carbon reduction. • The governmental environmental policies have lag effect on carbon reduction. • The effect of China’s initial CET on carbon emissions reduction has appeared.

  14. Performance Evaluation of a Thermal Load Reduction System in a Hyundai Sonata PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Titov, Eugene V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallagher, James [Gentherm, Inc.; Scott, Matthew [Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc.

    2017-11-28

    Increased adoption of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) requires overcoming hurdles including limited vehicle range. Vehicle cabin heating and cooling demand for occupant climate control requires energy from the main battery and has been shown to significantly degrade vehicle range. During peak cooling and heating conditions, climate control can require as much or more energy as propulsion. As part of an ongoing project, NREL and project partners Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI), Gentherm , Pittsburgh Glass Works (PGW), PPG Industries, Sekisui, 3M, and Hanon Systems developed a thermal load reduction system in order to reduce the range penalty associated with electric vehicle climate control. Solar reflective paint, solar control glass, heated and cooled/ventilated seats, heated surfaces, and heated windshield with door demisters were integrated into a Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Cold weather field-testing was conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska while warm weather testing was conducted in Death Valley, California to assess the system performance in comparison to the baseline production vehicle. In addition, environmental chamber testing at peak heating and cooling conditions was performed to assess the performance of the system in standardized conditions compared to the baseline. Experimental results are presented in this paper providing quantitative data to automobile manufacturers on the impact of climate control thermal load reduction technologies to increase the advanced thermal technology adoption and market penetration of electric drive vehicles.

  15. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction.

  16. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Controller (MPC) developed is based on a model with individual blade pitching to utilize the LIDAR measurements. The MPC must also maintain a given power reference while satisfying a set of actuator constraints. The designed controller was tested on a 5 MW wind turbine in the FAST simulator and compared......Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...

  17. Load reduction test method of similarity theory and BP neural networks of large cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruigang; Duan, Zhibin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Static load tests are an important means of supervising and detecting a crane's lift capacity. Due to space restrictions, however, there are difficulties and potential danger when testing large bridge cranes. To solve the loading problems of large-tonnage cranes during testing, an equivalency test is proposed based on the similarity theory and BP neural networks. The maximum stress and displacement of a large bridge crane is tested in small loads, combined with the training neural network of a similar structure crane through stress and displacement data which is collected by a physics simulation progressively loaded to a static load test load within the material scope of work. The maximum stress and displacement of a crane under a static load test load can be predicted through the relationship of stress, displacement, and load. By measuring the stress and displacement of small tonnage weights, the stress and displacement of large loads can be predicted, such as the maximum load capacity, which is 1.25 times the rated capacity. Experimental study shows that the load reduction test method can reflect the lift capacity of large bridge cranes. The load shedding predictive analysis for Sanxia 1200 t bridge crane test data indicates that when the load is 1.25 times the rated lifting capacity, the predicted displacement and actual displacement error is zero. The method solves the problem that lifting capacities are difficult to obtain and testing accidents are easily possible when 1.25 times related weight loads are tested for large tonnage cranes.

  18. Reducing uncertainty of estimated nitrogen load reductions to aquatic systems through spatially targeting agricultural mitigation measures using groundwater nitrogen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Jabloun, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    variation across the landscape in natural N-reduction (denitrification) of leached nitrate in the groundwater and surface water systems. A critical basis for including spatial targeting in regulation of N-load in Denmark is the uncertainty associated with the effect of spatially targeting measures, since......The need to further abate agricultural nitrate (N)-loadings to coastal waters in Denmark represents the main driver for development of a new spatially targeted regulation that focus on locating N-mitigation measures in agricultural areas with high N-load. This targeting makes use of the spatial...... the effect will be critically affected by uncertainty in the quantification of the spatial variation in N-reduction. In this study, we used 30 equally plausible N-reduction maps, at 100 m grid and sub-catchment resolutions, for the 85-km2 groundwater dominated Norsminde catchment in Denmark, applying set...

  19. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  20. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  1. Structure Optimal Design of Electromagnetic Levitation Load Reduction Device for Hydroturbine Generator Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrust bearing is one part with the highest failure rate in hydroturbine generator set, which is primarily due to heavy axial load. Such heavy load often makes oil film destruction, bearing friction, and even burning. It is necessary to study the load and the reduction method. The dynamic thrust is an important factor to influence the axial load and reduction design of electromagnetic device. Therefore, in the paper, combined with the structure features of vertical turbine, the hydraulic thrust is analyzed accurately. Then, take the turbine model HL-220-LT-550, for instance; the electromagnetic levitation load reduction device is designed, and its mathematical model is built, whose purpose is to minimize excitation loss and total quality under the constraints of installation space, connection layout, and heat dissipation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO is employed to search for the optimum solution; finally, the result is verified by finite element method (FEM, which demonstrates that the optimized structure is more effective.

  2. Reduction of seismic loads in cable tray hangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, B.K.; Jackson, J.E.; Dixon, M.W.; Bourne, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been conducted to partially assess the feasibility of using flexible rather than rigid support systems for carrying electrical and control cables in nuclear power plants. Using analytical and experimental studies, it was found that a flexible hanger design with appropriate stiffness and damping characteristics could be used to isolate trays from hanger vibration and significantly reduce hanger loads during seismic events if the connectors could be adequately tuned to account for system variables. Finite element techniques were used to select a flexible connector for a specified base hanger system. Tests were conducted on one-third-scale models to establish values for some of the parameters and to partially verify the analytical methods. For the hanger systems considered, introduction of the flexible connector allowed support-hanger loads and hanger displacements to be reduced greatly while satisfying tray displacement constraints. It appears that a flexible-connector system can provide better dynamic response than the conventional type system using rigid connectors. This conclusion is valid for all variations in system parameters studied. Although the flexible-connector concept looks very promising based on this study, substantial work, including full-scale testing, must be completed before this concept can be validated for actual plant designs. (orig.)

  3. Reduction Assessment of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, YiCheng; Zang, Wenbin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Wanli

    2018-01-01

    NPS (Non-point source) pollution has become a key impact element to watershed environment at present. With the development of technology, application of models to control NPS pollution has become a very common practice for resource management and Pollutant reduction control in the watershed scale of China. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a semi-conceptual model, which was put forward to estimate pollutant production & the influences on water quantity-quality under different...

  4. Environmental Optimization Using the WAste Reduction Algorithm (WAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally chemical process designs were optimized using purely economic measures such as rate of return. EPA scientists developed the WAste Reduction algorithm (WAR) so that environmental impacts of designs could easily be evaluated. The goal of WAR is to reduce environme...

  5. Fatigue load reductions in co-located wind-wave arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Caitlyn; Velarde, Joey; Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    2018-01-01

    As offshore wind turbines (OWTs) increase in size and are placed farther offshore, hydrodynamic loads have increased contribution to total load, resulting in fatigue limit states becoming more important to consider in structural design. Previous literature shows that placing wave energy converters...... is investigated. A method for quantifying relative sea state reductions from WECs are applied, and fully-coupled time-domain fatigue analyses are performed for a 10 MW reference offshore wind turbine. Results indicate that a single WEC and a WEC array can lead to 8% and 10% fatigue load reduction, respectively....

  6. Capacitive top-loading of a mobile phone antenna for size reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    Capacitive top loading for size reduction of the Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) is presented in this paper. A measured 39% reduction from 1.8 to 1.22 GHz of the resonant frequency is accomplished by using a 1.1 pF distributed capacitor. The simulated –6 dB bandwidth is 9% with a peak radiation ...

  7. Design and Implementation of a Thermal Load Reduction System in a Hyundai PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Increased market penetration of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) requires overcoming a number of hurdles including limited vehicle range and the elevated cost of EDVs as compared to conventional vehicles. Climate control loads have a significant impact on range, cutting it by over 50% in both cooling and heating conditions. In order to minimize the impact of climate control on EDV range, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has partnered with Hyundai America and key industry partners to quantify the performance of thermal load reduction technologies on a Hyundai Sonata PHEV. Technologies that impact vehicle cabin heating in cold weather conditions and cabin cooling in warm weather conditions were evaluated. Tests included thermal transient and steady-state periods for all technologies, including the development of a new test methodology to evaluate the performance of occupant thermal conditioning. Heated surfaces and increased insulation demonstrated significant reductions in energy use from steady-state heating, including a 29% - 59% reduction from heated surfaces. Solar control glass packages demonstrated significant reductions in energy use for both transient and steady-state cooling, with up to a 42% reduction in transient and 12.8% reduction in steady-state energy use for the packages evaluated. Technologies that demonstrated significant climate control load reduction were selected for incorporation into a complete thermal load reduction package. The complete package is set to be evaluated in the second phase of the ongoing project.

  8. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  9. Active load reduction by means of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, Ian; Castaignet, Damien; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the blade fatigue load reduction achieved with a trailing edge flap during a full scale test on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. A frequency-weighted linear model predictive control (MPC) is tuned to decrease flapwise blade root fatigue loads at the frequencies where most of the blade...... damage occurs, i.e. the 1P and 2P frequencies (respectively 1 and 2 events per revolution). Frequency-weighted MPC is chosen for its ability to handle constraints on the trailing edge flap deflection and to optimise its actuation in order to decrease wear and tear of the actuator. The controller...... was first tested in aero-servo-elastic simulations, before being implemented on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. Consistent load reduction is achieved during the full-scale test. An average of 14% flapwise blade root fatigue load reduction is measured....

  10. Active load reduction using individual pitch, based on local blade flow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Thomsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    -of-the-art load-reducing concepts. Since the new flow-based concept deviates significantly from previous published load-reducing strategies, a comparison of the performance based on aeroelastic simulations is included. Advantages and drawbacks of the systems are discussed. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......A new load-reducing control strategy for individual blade control of large pitch-controlled wind turbines is presented This control concept is based on local blade inflow measurements and offers the possibility of larger load reductions, without loss of power production, than seen in other state...

  11. The effect of load reductions on repetition performance for commonly performed multijoint resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto; Fontana, Fabio E

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 different loading schemes for the free weight bench press, wide grip front lat pull-down, and free weight back squat to determine the extent of progressive load reductions necessary to maintain repetition performance. Thirty-two recreationally trained women (age = 29.34 ± 4.58 years, body mass = 59.61 ± 4.72 kg, height = 162.06 ± 4.04 cm) performed 4 resistance exercise sessions that involved 3 sets of the free weight bench press, wide grip front lat pull-down, and free weight back squat, performed in this exercise order during all 4 sessions. Each of the 4 sessions was conducted under different randomly ordered loading schemes, including (a) a constant 10 repetition maximum (RM) load for all 3 sets and for all 3 exercises, (b) a 5% reduction after the first and second sets for all the 3 exercises, (c) a 10% reduction after the first and second sets for all the 3 exercises, and (d) a 15% reduction after the first and second sets for all the 3 exercises. The results indicated that for the wide grip front lat pull-down and free weight back squat, a 10% load reduction was necessary after the first and second sets to accomplish 10 repetitions on all the 3 sets. For the free weight bench press, a load reduction between 10 and 15% was necessary; specifically, a 10% reduction was insufficient and a 15% reduction was excessive, as evidenced by significantly >10 repetitions on the second and third sets for this exercise (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that a resistance training prescription that involves 1-minute rest intervals between multiple 10RM sets does require load reductions to maintain repetition performance. Practitioners might apply these results by considering an approximate 10% load reduction after the first and second sets for the exercises examined, when training women of similar characteristics as in this study.

  12. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  13. Technique for Reduction of Environmental Pollution from Construction Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Klimenko, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research on the negative impact construction wastes have on the urban environment and construction ecological safety are described. The research results are based on the statistical data and indicators calculated with the use of environmental pollution assessment in the restoration system of urban buildings technical conditions. The technique for the reduction of environmental pollution from construction wastes is scientifically based on the analytic summary of scientific and practical results for ecological safety ensuring at major overhaul and current repairs (reconstruction) of the buildings and structures. It is also based on the practical application of the probability theory method, system analysis and disperse system theory. It is necessary to execute some stages implementing the developed technique to reduce environmental pollution from construction wastes. The stages include various steps starting from information collection to the system formation with optimum performance characteristics which are more resource saving and energy efficient for the accumulation of construction wastes from urban construction units. The following tasks are solved under certain studies: basic data collection about construction wastes accumulation; definition and comparison of technological combinations at each system functional stage intended for the reduction of construction wastes discharge into the environment; assessment criteria calculation of resource saving and energy efficiency; optimum working parameters of each implementation stage are created. The urban construction technique implementation shows that the resource saving criteria are from 55.22% to 88.84%; potential of construction wastes recycling is 450 million tons of construction damaged elements (parts).

  14. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to

  15. Wake-Effect Minimising Optimal Control of Wind Farms, with Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Sivabalan, Senthuran

    2014-01-01

    A power generating wind turbine causes a speed reduction and an added turbulence to the wind. Wind turbines in wind farms are often caught in these wakes and are found to have a higher structural load than non affected wind turbines. This article investigates the possibility of designing a contro...

  16. Investigation of potential extreme load reduction for a two-bladed upwind turbine with partial pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Larsen, Torben J.; Yde, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wind turbine concept with an innovative design combining partial pitch with a two-bladed (PP-2B) turbine configuration. Special emphasis is on extreme load reduction during storm situations at standstill, but operational loads are also investigated. In order to compare...... loads are reduced by approximately 20% for the PP-2B and 18% for the PP-3B compared with the 3B turbine for the parked condition in a storm situation. Moreover, a huge potential of 60% is observed for the reduction of the extreme tower bottom bending moment for the PP-2B turbine, when the wind direction...... is from ±90° to the turbine, but this also requires that the turbine is parked in a T-configuration. © 2014 The Authors. Wind Energy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. Cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elofsson, K.

    1997-11-01

    To restore the health of the Baltic Sea, the Helsinki Commission, HELCOM, suggests that the nitrogen load should be reduced by 50%. The agricultural sector accounts for about 1/3 of the total load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea, while point sources account for about 1/4. The remaining load reaches the Baltic as atmospheric deposition. The purpose of this study is to calculate cost effective reductions in the agricultural load of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea coastal waters. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is divided into 17 regions, which differ with respect to costs, leaching and nitrogen retention. For each region, cost functions are estimated for 11 nitrogen abatement measures in the agricultural sector. It is difficult to find reliable data on both costs and biological parameters for all regions included, and several assumptions are made to obtain the cost functions. In this paper the total cost of a 50% reduction of the nitrogen load from arable land is estimated to 11,700 million SEK per year. A decrease in the use of fertilizer nitrogen is the most important measure in a cost effective policy. Other measures included in the cost effective solution are changes in land-use and in manure management practices. If, instead, each country is required to reduce its load by 50%, the total cost will increase by nearly 60%. Three out of nine countries around the Baltic Sea would gain from separate reduction targets, while all others lose by such a policy. The results are sensitive to assumptions about the biological parameters and the shape of the cost functions for reductions in chemical fertilizer. 75 refs, 3 figs, 11 tabs

  18. Environmental and economic evaluation of selective non-catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchevskii, V. M.; Shchederkina, T. E.; Proshina, A. O.

    2017-11-01

    There are two groups of atmosphere protecting measures: technology (primary) and treatment (secondary). When burning high-calorie low-volatile brands of coals in the furnaces with liquid slag removal to achieve emission standards required joint use of these two methods, for example, staged combustion and selective non-catalytic reduction recovery (SNCR). For the economically intelligent combination of these two methods it is necessary to have information not only about the environmental performance of each method, but also the operating costs per unit of reduced emission. The authors of this report are made an environmental-economic analysis of SNCR on boiler Π-50P Kashirskaya power station. The obtained results about the dependence of costs from the load of the boiler and the mass emissions of nitrogen oxides then approximates into empirical formulas, is named as environmental and economic characteristics, which is suitable for downloading into controllers and other control devices for subsequent implementation of optimal control of emissions to ensure compliance with environmental regulations at the lowest cost at any load of the boiler.

  19. Relevance of aerodynamic modelling for load reduction control strategies of two-bladed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, B.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-06-01

    A new load reduction concept is being developed for the two-bladed prototype of the Skywind 3.5MW wind turbine. Due to transport and installation advantages both offshore and in complex terrain two-bladed turbine designs are potentially more cost-effective than comparable three-bladed configurations. A disadvantage of two-bladed wind turbines is the increased fatigue loading, which is a result of asymmetrically distributed rotor forces. The innovative load reduction concept of the Skywind prototype consists of a combination of cyclic pitch control and tumbling rotor kinematics to mitigate periodic structural loading. Aerodynamic design tools must be able to model correctly the advanced dynamics of the rotor. In this paper the impact of the aerodynamic modelling approach is investigated for critical operational modes of a two-bladed wind turbine. Using a lifting line free wake vortex code (FVM) the physical limitations of the classical blade element momentum theory (BEM) can be evaluated. During regular operation vertical shear and yawed inflow are the main contributors to periodic blade load asymmetry. It is shown that the near wake interaction of the blades under such conditions is not fully captured by the correction models of BEM approach. The differing prediction of local induction causes a high fatigue load uncertainty especially for two-bladed turbines. The implementation of both cyclic pitch control and a tumbling rotor can mitigate the fatigue loading by increasing the aerodynamic and structural damping. The influence of the time and space variant vorticity distribution in the near wake is evaluated in detail for different cyclic pitch control functions and tumble dynamics respectively. It is demonstrated that dynamic inflow as well as wake blade interaction have a significant impact on the calculated blade forces and need to be accounted for by the aerodynamic modelling approach. Aeroelastic simulations are carried out using the high fidelity multi body

  20. Reduction of environmental pollution from fuel and target manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, H.A.

    1976-10-01

    Nuclear fuel and target manufacturing processes in the 300 Area generate potential environmental pollutants. Efforts to eliminate or reduce their harmful effects have been pursued for many years by the Raw Materials and Raw Materials Technology departments with assistance from other groups, primarily the Project and Health Physics departments. This report documents: methods adopted to reduce pollution; cost of these methods; amount of pollution reduction achieved; and other benefits in cost savings or quality improvement for January 1968 through December 1975. Capital funds totaling $915,000 were spent on these programs. Annual cost savings of $65,000 were realized, and incidental but significant improvements in product quality were obtained. In no case was product quality degraded. Reductions in releases of pollutants are summarized for water pollution, air pollution, and land pollution. In addition to these reductions, intangible benefits were realized including reduced corrosion of structures and equipment; improved working conditions for personnel; energy savings, both on and offplant; improved utilization of natural resources; and reduced impact to environment, both on and offplant

  1. Force reduction induced by unidirectional transversal muscle loading is independent of local pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Rode, Christian; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-05-03

    Transversal unidirectional compression applied to muscles via external loading affects muscle contraction dynamics in the longitudinal direction. A recent study reported decreasing longitudinal muscle forces with increasing transversal load applied with a constant contact area (i.e., leading to a simultaneous increase in local pressure). To shed light on these results, we examine whether the decrease in longitudinal force depends on the load, the local pressure, or both. To this end, we perform isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis without and with transversal loading (i) changing the local pressure from 1.1-3.2Ncm(-2) (n=9) at a constant transversal load (1.62N) and (ii) increasing the transversal load (1.15-3.45N) at a constant local pressure of 2.3Ncm(-2) (n=7). While we did not note changes in the decrease in longitudinal muscle force in the first experiment, the second experiment resulted in an almost-linear reduction of longitudinal force between 7.5±0.6% and 14.1±1.7%. We conclude that the observed longitudinal force reduction is not induced by local effects such as malfunction of single muscle compartments, but that similar internal stress conditions and myofilament configurations occur when the local pressure changes given a constant load. The decreased longitudinal force may be explained by increased internal pressure and a deformed myofilament lattice that is likely associated with the decomposition of cross-bridge forces on the one hand and the inhibition of cross-bridges on the other hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  3. Design and Implementation of a Thermal Load Reduction System for a Hyundai Sonata PHEV for Improved Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, Matthew [Hyundai America Technical Center Inc.; Gallagher, James [Gentherm Incoporated

    2018-04-03

    Increased adoption of electric-drive vehicles requires overcoming hurdles including limited vehicle range. Vehicle cabin heating and cooling demand for occupant climate control requires energy from the main battery and has been shown to significantly degrade vehicle range. During peak cooling and heating conditions, climate control can require as much as or more energy than propulsion. As part of an ongoing project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and project partners Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc., Gentherm, Pittsburgh Glass Works, PPG Industries, Sekisui, 3 M, and Hanon Systems developed a thermal load reduction system to reduce the range penalty associated with electric vehicle climate control. Solar reflective paint, solar control glass, heated and cooled/ventilated seats, heated surfaces, and a heated windshield with door demisters were integrated into a Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Cold weather field-testing was conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska, and warm weather testing was conducted in Death Valley, California, to assess the system performance in comparison to the baseline production vehicle. In addition, environmental chamber testing at peak heating and cooling conditions was performed to assess the performance of the system in standardized conditions compared to the baseline. Experimental results are presented in this paper, providing quantitative data to automobile manufacturers on the impact of climate control thermal load reduction technologies to increase the advanced thermal technology adoption and market penetration of electric drive vehicles.

  4. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  5. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  6. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  7. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumley, C; Leithead, W; Jamieson, P; Bossanyi, E; Graham, M

    2014-01-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies

  8. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers for reduction of platinum loading at Nissan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohma, Atsushi; Mashio, Tetsuya; Sato, Kazuyuki; Iden, Hiroshi; Ono, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Kei; Akizuki, Ken; Takaichi, Satoshi; Shinohara, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The biggest issue that must be addressed in promoting widespread use of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) is to reduce the cost of the fuel cell system. Especially, it is of vital importance to reduce platinum (Pt) loading of catalyst layers (CLs) in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In order to lower the Pt loading of the MEA, mass transport of reactants related to the performance in high current density should be enhanced significantly as well as kinetics of the catalyst, which can result in the better Pt utilization and effectiveness. In this study, we summarized our analytical approach and methods for reduction of Pt loading in CLs. Microstructure, mass transport properties of the reactants, and their relation in CLs were elucidated by applying experimental analyses and computational methods. A simple CL model for I–V performance prediction was then established, where experimentally elucidated parameters of the microstructure and the properties in CLs were taken into account. Finally, we revealed the impact of lowering the Pt loading on the transport properties, polarization, and the I–V performance.

  9. Behaviour of the RBMK-1000 plant during reactivity disturbances under part load reduction - completing investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, M.; Langenbuch, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the behavior of a RBMK-1000 reactor core during reactivity initiated accidents and completes earlier studies of the Chernobyl accident. Special questions related to this accident are studied, e.g. the effect of Xenon dynamics during the delayed load reduction and the coarse of the experiment as planned with the coast-down of four main recirculaton pumps at nominal part load conditions. The main interest is the detailed analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the low power range till 25% during start-up. In the calculations no reactor trip is taken into account. The results confirm the unfavourable effects of the positive void coefficient, which are amplified in the low power range. Finally the results are discussed in comparison to other positive reactivity effects. (orig.) [de

  10. Performance enhancement and load reduction on wind turbines using inflow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abildgaard Kragh, K.

    2013-06-15

    by applying inflow measurement based control are assessed. The potential for increasing the power output through improved yaw alignment is studied by analyzing operational data from different turbines, and through experiments with a modified yaw controller. The results demonstrate that there is no significant potential for increased power output through improved yaw alignment for well calibrated turbines. The potential for increasing the power output through pitch control is studied through optimization of collective and individual pitch actuation. The results show that there is a potential for increasing the power output through individual pitch control. However, the increased power output is penalized by increased load variations. The load variations on a wind turbine can be alleviated using either yaw or pitch actuation. A method is presented for alleviating load variations using yaw control, and it is shown how the method can be efficiently applied for decreasing the load variations that are caused by a vertical wind shear. The potential of reducing the load variations using both inflow measurement based collective and individual pitch control is studied through simulations. The results demonstrate that tower and blade load variations can be efficiently alleviated in situations with large scale inflow variations using collective pitch control. For individual pitch control, it is demonstrated that control based on upstream inflow measurements can lead to great load reductions in certain situations. However, it is also shown that the potential load variation reductions are sensitive to uncertainties relating to the estimated inflow. This thesis is comprised of a collection of scientific papers that covers the various results presented in this summary. (Author)

  11. Water Quality Improvement through Reductions of Pollutant Loads on Small Scale of Bioretention System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyza Muha, Norshafa; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Jajarmizadeh, Milad

    2016-03-01

    Bioretention system is introduced as an important topic namely Urban Storm Water Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) in May 2012. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of water quality for small scale bioretention system under tropical climate via MUSIC model. Two bioretention systems 1 and 2 are observed based on the difference media depth. The result of bioretention system is compared with a reference model which has infrastructure with Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) for pollutants load reduction and water quality results. Assessment of results via MUSIC software indicates a significant percentage of reduction for Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN). The prediction of pollutant reduction via using MUSIC has the harmony for requirement in MSMA. TSS pollutant reduction is more than 80%, while for TP and TN more than 50%. The outcome of this study can be helpful for improvement of the existing MSMA guidelines for application of bioretention systems in Malaysia.

  12. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  13. Reduction of environmental impact by FR cycle deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Atsushi; Nakai, Ryodai

    2005-03-01

    In this report radioactive waste generations in terms of disposal volume or disposal field equivalent, and the radioactive toxicity of HLW are evaluated to clarify the promising nuclear scenario for the sake of realization of sustainable society in 21st century. This analysis was conducted based on the outcomes of the mass flow evaluation tool 'FAMILY-21' which calculates a material balance for TRU in the following scenarios. 1) LWR once-through scenario, 2) Pu partly recycling in LWR scenario, 3) Pu full recycling in LWR scenario, 4) FBR deployment scenario, 5) Interim storage scenario. The result shows that the cumulative area of low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal field at 2150 in the FR cycle deployment scenario is 1.8 times larger than that in the LWR once-through scenario. The area of LLW disposal field at 2150 is a few km 2 in all the scenarios. In contrast, the cumulative area of high level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal field at 2150 in the FR cycle deployment scenario is less than half of that in the LWR once-through scenario. The area of HLW disposal field at 2150 is about 10 times of the area of LLW disposal field. Moreover, the FR deployment reduces the radioactive toxicity of HLW by U/TRU recycling, and shortens the period to decay under the natural Uranium toxicity level. Considering the area of radioactive waste disposal field and the radioactive toxicity of HLW, the advantage of the FR cycle deployment is indicated quantitatively from the viewpoint of the environmental burden reduction. (author)

  14. Modelling reduction of urban heat load in Vienna by modifying surface properties of roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, Maja; Andre, Konrad; Schwaiger, Hannes; Bird, David Neil; Gallaun, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    The study examines the potential of urban roofs to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect by changing their reflectivity and implementing vegetation (green roofs) using the example of the City of Vienna. The urban modelling simulations are performed based on high-resolution orography and land use data, climatological observations, surface albedo values from satellite imagery and registry of the green roof potential in Vienna. The modelling results show that a moderate increase in reflectivity of roofs (up to 0.45) reduces the mean summer temperatures in the densely built-up environment by approximately 0.25 °C. Applying high reflectivity materials (roof albedo up to 0.7) leads to average cooling in densely built-up area of approximately 0.5 °C. The green roofs yield a heat load reduction in similar order of magnitude as the high reflectivity materials. However, only 45 % of roof area in Vienna is suitable for greening and the green roof potential mostly applies to industrial areas in city outskirts and is therefore not sufficient for substantial reduction of the UHI effect, particularly in the city centre which has the highest heat load. The strongest cooling effect can be achieved by combining the green roofs with high reflectivity materials. In this case, using 50 or 100 % of the green roof potential and applying high reflectivity materials on the remaining surfaces have a similar cooling effect.

  15. Do Voluntary Pollution Reduction Programs (VPRs) Spur Innovation in Environmental Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Carrion-Flores, Carmen E.; Innes, Robert; Sam, Abdoul G.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the EPA's 33/50 program, we study whether a VPR can prompt firms to develop new environmental technologies that yield future emission reduction benefits. Because pollutant reductions generally require costly reformulations of products and/or production processes, environmental over-compliance induced by a VPR may potentially spur environmental innovation that can reduce these costs. Conversely, a VPR may induce a participating firm to divert resources from environmental rese...

  16. Workshop: Valuing Environmental Health Risk Reductions to Children (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This two-day workshop on children's health valuation was co-sponsored by EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics, Office of Children's Health Protection, and National Center for Environmental Research as well as the University of Central Florida.

  17. Application of microwaves for microbial load reduction in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G Chengaiyan; Sowbhagya, H Bogegowda; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-09-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in the export market due to non-adherance to microbial safety standards. The present study investigates the use of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyses the effect on quality. Black pepper was exposed to MWs at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W g(-1) for different time intervals (1-15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g kg(-1) on a wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MWs at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3 ± 0.03, 87.6 ± 0.02 and 90.7 ± 0.05%, respectively, in MW-treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100 ± 1 g kg(-1) for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260 ± 3 g kg(-1) . These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without a significant loss in product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Measurements and simulations for peak electrical load reduction in cooling dominated climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadineni, Suresh B.; Boehm, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Peak electric demand due to cooling load in the Desert Southwest region of the US has been an issue for the electrical energy suppliers. To address this issue, a consortium has been formed between the University of Nevada Las Vegas, Pulte Homes (home builder) and NV Energy (local utility) in order to reduce the peak load by more than 65%. The implemented strategies that were used to accomplish that goal consist of energy efficiency in homes, onsite electricity generation through roof integrated PV, direct load control, and battery storage at the substation level. The simulation models developed using building energy analysis software were validated against measured data. The electrical energy demand for the upgraded home during peak period (1:00–7:00 PM) decreased by approximately 37% and 9% compared to a code standard home of the same size, due to energy efficiency and PV generation, respectively. The total decrease in electrical demand due to energy efficiency and PV generation during the peak period is 46%. Additionally, a 2.2 °C increase in thermostat temperature from 23.9 °C to 26.1 °C between 4:00 PM and 7:00 PM has further decreased the average demand during the peak period by 69% of demand from a standard home. -- Highlights: ► A study to demonstrate peak load reductions of 65% at the substation. ► A new residential energy efficient community named Villa Trieste is being developed. ► The peak demand from the homes has decreased by 37% through energy efficiency. ► A 1.8 kWp system along with energy efficiency measures decreased peak by 46%.

  19. [Mapping Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soil Based on Different Environmental Effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-xing; Wu, Shao-hua; Zhou, Sheng-lu; Wang, Chun-hui; Chen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    China's rapid development of industrialization and urbanization causes the growing problem of heavy metal pollution of soil, threatening environment and human health. Therefore, prevention and management of heavy metal pollution become particularly important. Critical loads of heavy metals are an important management tool that can be utilized to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution. Our study was based on three cases: status balance, water environmental effects and health risks. We used the steady-state mass balance equation to calculate the critical loads of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn at different effect levels and analyze the values and spatial variation of critical loads. In addition, we used the annual input fluxes of heavy metals of the agro-ecosystem in the Yangtze River delta and China to estimate the proportion of area with exceedance of critical loads. The results demonstrated that the critical load value of Cd was the minimum, and the values of Cu and Zn were lager. There were spatial differences among the critical loads of four elements in the study area, lower critical loads areas mainly occurred in woodland and high value areas distributed in the east and southwest of the study area, while median values and the medium high areas mainly occurred in farmland. Comparing the input fluxes of heavy metals, we found that Pb and Zn in more than 90% of the area exceeded the critical loads under different environmental effects in the study area. The critical load exceedance of Cd mainly occurred under the status balance and the water environmental effect, while Cu under the status balance and water environmental effect with a higher proportion of exceeded areas. Critical loads of heavy metals at different effect levels in this study could serve as a reference from effective control of the emissions of heavy metals and to prevent the occurrence of heavy metal pollution.

  20. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using harmonic vibrational load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro; Hirai, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Welding is widely used for construction of many structures. Since welding is a process using locally given heat, residual stress is generated near the bead. Tensile residual stress degrades fatigue strength. Some reduction methods of residual stress have been presented and, for example, heat treatment and shot peening are practically used. However, those methods need special tools and are time consuming. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using harmonic vibrational load during welding is proposed. The proposed method is examined experimentally for some conditions. Two thin plates are supported on the supporting device and butt-welded using an automatic CO 2 gas shielded arc welding machine. Residual stress in the direction of the bead is measured by using a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. First, the welding of rolled steel for general structure for some excitation frequencies is examined. Specimens are welded along the groove on both sides. For all frequencies, tensile residual stress near the bead is significantly reduced. Second, welding of the specimen made of high tensile strength steel is examined. In this case, tensile residual stress near the bead is also reduced. Finally, the proposed method is examined by an analytical method. An analytical model which consists of mass and preloaded springs with elasto-plastic characteristic is used. Reduction of residual stress is demonstrated using this model

  1. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero-servo-elastic...... tool HAWC2, developed at Risø-DTU in Denmark, and their potential load reduction capabilities compared: (1) full-blade ‘individual-pitch controllers’ acting as wake compensators and (2) controllers using trailing-edge flaps. Information on the wake inflow conditions, induced by upstream turbines...... for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduction of machine tools, etc. Technology development of environmental load reduction related to water soluble lubricating oil, etc. (R and D of low energy coolant degradation prevention technology and waste liquid processing technology); 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Suiyosei junkatsuyu ni kakawaru kankyo fuka teigen nado gijutsu kanri (tei energy coolant fuhai boshi gijutsu oyobi haieki shori gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The R and D were carried out on a system by which the long life of coolant of machine tools can be achieved and a system to process waste efficiently, economically and with less environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the R and D of a system to prevent degradation of low energy coolant, measurement was made of effects of the degradation prevention system at a laboratory level, and it was found out that propagation of bacteria causing the degradation can be prevented with pH kept high. Further, it was admitted that the alkali effect on metal formability was not very much. As to the coolant processing, in the present situation, most of the coolant is taken back by industrial waste processing dealers. So, the development of the low energy waste liquid processing system is earnestly desired. In the R and D of the low energy waste liquid processing system, test on characteristics evaluation was conducted about each method of systems. Subjects to be improved/solved were extracted such as the point that volatile organic matters are included in condensed water after evaporation of waste liquid and there seems to be a possibility of needing the secondary processing. (NEDO)

  3. Reduction of teat skin mastitis pathogen loads: differences between strains, dips, and contact times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, B D; Fox, L K; Gay, J M; Johnson, K A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to (1) assess differences in mastitis pathogen strain sensitivities to teat disinfectants (teat dips), and (2) determine the optimum time for premilking teat dips to remain in contact with teat skin to reduce pathogen loads on teat skin. Two experiments were conducted using the excised teat model. In experiment 1, the differences in mastitis pathogen strain sensitivities to 4 commercially available dips (dip A: 1% H2O2; dip B: 1% chlorine dioxide; dip C: 1% iodophor; and dip D: 0.5% iodophor) were evaluated. Four strains of 11 common mastitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus) were tested. In experiment 2, the percentage log reduction of mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) on teat skin with 3 commercially available teat dips: dip A; dip D; and dip E: 0.25% iodophor, using dip contact times of 15, 30, and 45 s, was evaluated. Experiment 1 results indicated significant differences in strain sensitivities to dips within pathogen species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Species differences were also found where Mycoplasma bovis (97.9% log reduction) was the most sensitive to tested teat dips and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (71.4% log reduction) the most resistant. Experiment 2 results indicated that contact times of 30 and 45 s were equally effective in reducing recovered bacteria for dips D and E and were also significantly more effective than a 15-s contact time. No differences were seen in recovered bacteria between tested contact times after treatment with dip

  4. Investigation of the load reduction potential of two trailing edge flap controls using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Joachim Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    ) and subjected to a turbulent inflow signal. The employed airfoil model corresponds to a successfully tested prototype airfoil where piezoelectric actuators were used for the flapping. In the present investigation two possible control methods for the flap are compared in their ability to reduce the fluctuating......In this work, a 2D aero‐servo‐elastic model of an airfoil section with 3 degrees of freedom (DOF) based on the 2D CFD solver EllipSys2D to calculate the aerodynamic forces is utilized to calculate the load reduction potential of an airfoil equipped with an adaptive trailing edge flap (ATEF...... normal forces on the airfoil due to a 4 s turbulent inflow signal and the best location of the measurement point for the respective control input is determined. While Control 1 uses the measurements of a Pitot tube mounted in front of the leading edge (LE) as input, Control 2 uses the pressure difference...

  5. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  6. National environmental targets and international emission reduction instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing within the European Union the overall EU emission reduction target as agreed by in the Kyoto protocol is converted into national greenhouse gas reduction-targets for each of the member states. In parallel with national emission reduction initiatives common EU policies for emission reductions are considered. Currently discussed is the introduction of a market for tradable permits for CO 2 -emissions to achieve emission reductions within the power industry and other energy intensive industries. In parallel with this markets for green certificates to deploy renewable energy technologies seem to be appearing in a number of countries, among these Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Belgium (Flanders), England and Australia. Although these national initiatives for a green certificate market are fairly different, they could be a starting point for establishing a common EU certificate market. But interactions between national targets for greenhouse gas emissions and these international instruments for emission reduction are not a trivial matter, especially not seen in relation to the possible contributions of these instruments in achieving national GHG-reduction targets. The paper is split into three parts all taking a liberalised power market as starting point: The first part discusses the consequences of a general deployment of renewable energy technologies, using planning initiatives or national promotion schemes (feed-in tariffs). In the second part an international green certificate market is introduced into the liberalised power market context, substituting other national promotion schemes. Finally, in the third part a combination of an international green certificate market (TGC) and an international emission-trading scheme for CO 2 is analysed within the liberalised international power market set-up. The main conclusion is that neither the use of national renewable support schemes nor the introduction of a TGC-market into a liberalised

  7. A business perspective on environmental risk and cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, U.V.

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which the petrochemical industry can enjoy successful business partnerships with environmental service companies was discussed. The petrochemical industry has traditionally viewed environmental service companies as an inherent cost in the context of risk management, and not in the context of business opportunity. Today, as environmental issues are integrated into business operations, there is a new potential for creating business opportunities in a number of operational areas, among them : (1) energy efficiency, (2) process efficiency, (3) waste minimization, (4) waste recycling, and (5) operational pooling. As environmental service companies became more competitive, they have become more attractive business partners. They are providing more diversified services and are better aligned with core competencies required to exploit business opportunities that are too small for major players in the oil,natural gas and petro-chemical industry. They also offer public recognition and financial upside for industry. Some examples of successful business partnerships along these lines are briefly described

  8. Reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde from a loaded TBP phase containing Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Lim, Jae Kwan; Chung, Dong Yong; Yang, Han Beom; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2008-01-01

    The reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde (NBA) from loaded organic solution containing Np, which was oxidative-extracted in a system of a 30 % TBP/NDD-2M HNO 3 and O/A=2 containing 0.005 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 as an oxidant of Np, was studied. The stripping yields of Np was increased with an increasing the NBA concentration, with a decreasing the nitric acid concentration of stripping solution and with a decreasing the reaction temperature. The apparent reductive stripping rate equation was shown by the following equation : -d [Np]-O-r-g/dt = 1,524 exp(-2,906/T) [NBA] 0.92 [Np] Org . At 1.04 M NBA and 2 M HNO 3 , the stripping yield of Np and U was 70.1 %, and 7.1 %, respectively, and the separation factor of U over Np (=D U /D Np ) was about 30.4. Therefore, it was found that U and Np co-extracted in a system of TBP-NHO 3 could be effectively mutual-separated by the NBA.

  9. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: araya@sup.ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kamishiro, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakuta, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: itozaki@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-10-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise.

  10. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Kamishiro, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich; Berezhnyy Aleksandr Yurevich

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the author proposes a mathematical model designated for the assessment of the ecological impact produced on the environment within the territory of the construction site. Integrated index EI (Environmental Index) is introduced as a vehicle designated for the evaluation of the ecological load. EI represents the intensity of the ecological load, or a generalized and optimized parameter reflecting the intensity of the anthropogenic impact of the construction site onto the natural e...

  12. The use of the droppings for the reduction environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Ara, Alice; Sangiorgi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The use of by-products of livestock such as poultry manure, obtained from the manure of poultry farming, in substitution of chemical formulations, generates benefits of economic nature but especially impact environmental. Subject of this paper is the use manure in the cycle of tanning hides and that of the production of fertilizers. [it

  13. Mud, models, and managers: Reaching consensus on a watershed strategy for sediment load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.; Cho, S. J.; Gran, K.; Belmont, P.; Hobbs, B. F.; Heitkamp, B.; Marr, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source sediment pollution is a leading cause of impairment of U.S. waters. Sediment sources are often on private land, such that solutions require not only considerable investment, but broad acceptance among landowners. We present the story of a participatory modeling exercise whose goal was to develop a consensus strategy for reducing sediment loading from the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, a large (9,200 km2) watershed in southern Minnesota dominated by row crop agriculture. The Collaborative for Sediment Source Reduction was a stakeholder group of farmers, industry representatives, conservation groups, and regulatory agencies. We used a participatory modeling approach to promote understanding of the problem, to define the scope of solutions acceptable to farmers, to develop confidence in a watershed model, and to reach consensus on a watershed strategy. We found that no existing watershed model could provide a reliable estimate of sediment response to management actions and developed a purpose-built model that could provide reliable, transparent, and fast answers. Because increased stream flow was identified as an important driver of sediment loading, the model and solutions included both hydrologic and sediment transport components. The model was based on an annual sediment budget with management actions serving to proportionally reduce both sediment sources and sediment delivery. Importantly, the model was developed in collaboration with stakeholders, such that a shared understanding emerged regarding of the modeling challenges and the reliability of information used to strongly constrain model output. The simplicity of the modeling approach supported stakeholder engagement and understanding, thereby lowering the social barrier between expert modeler and concerned stakeholder. The consensus strategy focused on water storage higher in the watershed in order to reduce river discharge and the large supply of sediment from near

  14. Embodied pollution in trade: Estimating the "environmental load displacement" of the industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muradian, Roldan; O'Connor, Martin; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    The present paper sets out to aid in the development of "environmental load displacement" indicators. Developing the notion of the "environmental memory" of physical flows, we estimated embodied pollution in trade of 18 industrialized countries with a) the rest of the world and b) developing countries, from 1976 to 1994. We found that in the last years of analysis, total imports of Japan, USA and Western Europe have entailed, in general, larger air pollutant emissions than local exports. The ...

  15. Using vehicle-to-grid technology for frequency regulation and peak-load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey D.; Zhang, K. Max

    This paper explores the potential financial return for using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a grid resource. While there is little financial incentive for individuals when the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service is used exclusively for peak reduction, there is a significant potential for financial return when the V2G service is used for frequency regulation. We propose that these two uses for V2G technology are not mutually exclusive, and that there could exist a "dual-use" program that utilizes V2G for multiple uses simultaneously. In our proposition, V2G could be used for regulation on a daily basis to ensure profits, and be used for peak reduction on days with high electricity demand and poor ambient air quality in order to reap the greatest environmental benefits. The profits for the individual in this type of dual-use program are close to or even higher than the profits experienced in either of the single-use programs. More importantly, we argue that the external benefits of this type of program are much greater as well. At higher V2G participation rates, our analysis shows that the market for regulation capacity could become saturated by V2G-based regulation providers. At the same time, there is plenty of potential for widespread use of V2G technology, especially if the demand for regulation, reserves, and storage grows as more intermittent renewable resources are being incorporated into the power systems.

  16. Environmental load factors and system strength evaluation of offshore jacket platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Nizamani, Zafarullah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study for the determination of environmental load factors for Jacket Platforms in Malaysia and a methodology to determine the life extension of aging platforms. The simplified methods described here could be used for determining not only structural reliability but also safety factors. Its content is particularly interesting to design and maintenance engineers who are working in offshore or onshore industry.

  17. Changes in pollution load and environmental trends in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Janet

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to the quality of the marine environment in the North Sea. Changes in pollution load and environmental trends are analysed. Main themes discussed cover chemical contaminants, temporal trends contaminants in biota, inputs of contaminants to the marine environment, and biological effects of contaminants and biological monitoring. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Bone Reduction to Facilitate Immediate Implant Placement and Loading Using CAD/CAM Surgical Guides for Patients With Terminal Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Fawaz; Massoomi, Nima; Nattestad, Anders

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to present a method, using 3 computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, to accurately obtain the desired bone reduction followed by immediate implant placements and loading for patients diagnosed with terminal dentition. Patients who had bone reduction, implants placed, and immediate loading using Anatomage Invivo 5 CAD/CAM surgical guides between the period 2013 and 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients diagnosed with terminal dentition and treated using the "3-guide technique" were identified. Pre- and postsurgical images were superimposed to evaluate deviations of the bone reduction and deviations at the crest, apex, and angle of implants placed. Twenty-six implants placed in 5 patients were included in this study. The overall deviation means measured for bone reduction was 1.98 mm. The overall deviation means measured for implant placement at the crest, apex, and angle were 1.43 mm, 1.90 mm, and 4.14°, respectively. The CAD/CAM surgical guide fabrication is an emerging tool that may facilitate the surgical process and aid in safe and predictable execution of bone reduction and immediate implant placement. Using 3 CAD/CAM surgical guides, a method is presented to obtain the desired bone reduction followed by immediate implant placement and loading for patients diagnosed with terminal dentition. This method may improve guide stability for patients with terminal dentition undergoing complete implant-supported treatment by taking advantage of the teeth to be extracted.

  19. Investigation of load reduction for a variable speed, variable pitch, and variable coning wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A two bladed, variable speed and variable pitch wind turbine was modeled using ADAMS{reg_sign} to evaluate load reduction abilities of a variable coning configuration as compared to a teetered rotor, and also to evaluate control methods. The basic dynamic behavior of the variable coning turbine was investigated and compared to the teetered rotor under constant wind conditions as well as turbulent wind conditions. Results indicate the variable coning rotor has larger flap oscillation amplitudes and much lower root flap bending moments than the teetered rotor. Three methods of control were evaluated for turbulent wind simulations. These were a standard IPD control method, a generalized predictive control method, and a bias estimate control method. Each control method was evaluated for both the variable coning configuration and the teetered configuration. The ability of the different control methods to maintain the rotor speed near the desired set point is evaluated from the RMS error of rotor speed. The activity of the control system is evaluated from cycles per second of the blade pitch angle. All three of the methods were found to produce similar results for the variable coning rotor and the teetered rotor, as well as similar results to each other.

  20. Monitoring environmental burden reduction from household waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeshi; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Asari, Misuzu; Yano, Junya; Miura, Takahiro; Ii, Ryota; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the amount of prevented household waste in Kyoto city was quantified using three methods. Subsequently, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction by waste prevention was calculated in order to monitor the impact of waste prevention. The methods of quantification were "relative change from baseline year (a)," "absolute change from potential waste generation (b)," and "absolute amount of activities (c)." Method (a) was popular for measuring waste prevention, but method (b) was the original approach to determine the absolute amount of waste prevention by estimating the potential waste generation. Method (c) also provided the absolute value utilizing the information of activities. Methods (b) and (c) enable the evaluation of the waste prevention activities with a similar baseline for recycling. Methods (b) and (c) gave significantly higher GHG reductions than method (a) because of the difference in baseline between them. Therefore, setting a baseline is very important for evaluating waste prevention. In practice, when focusing on the monitoring of a specific policy or campaign, method (a) is an appropriate option. On the other hand, when comparing the total impact of waste prevention to that of recycling, methods (b) and (c) should be applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental vibration reduction utilizing an array of mass scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peplow, Andrew; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Bucinskas, Paulius

    2017-01-01

    .g. concrete or stone blocks, specially designed brick walls, etc.). The natural frequencies of vibration for such blocks depend on the local ground stiffness and on the mass of the blocks which can be chosen to provide resonance at specified frequencies. This work concerns the effectiveness of such “blocking......Ground vibration generated by rail and road traffic is a major source of environmental noise and vibration pollution in the low-frequency range. A promising and cost effective mitigation method can be the use of heavy masses placed as a periodic array on the ground surface near the road or track (e...

  2. Individual pitch control of NREL 5MW wind turbine blade for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Yo Han; Nam, Yoon Su; Hoon, Son Jae

    2012-01-01

    As the size of a wind turbine increases, the rotor diameter increases. Rotor blades experience mechanical loads caused by the wind shear and the tower shadow effect. These mechanical loads reduce the life of the wind turbine. Therefore, with increasing size of the wind turbine, wind turbine control system design for the mitigation of mechanical loads is important. In this study, Individual Pitch Control in introduced for reducing the mechanical loads of rotor blades, and a simulation for IPC performance verification is discussed

  3. Environmental reduction of mobile telephone base station produced radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.; Testagrossa, B.; Sansotta, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the authors discuss about their own proposal about a model to modify how the Wireless Telephone Base Stations (W.T.B.S.) works. The proposal, which was made having in mind the GSM technology, can be applied to all other kind of similar technologies and was pointed out as a different way of working of the W.T.B.S. without any modifications on their distribution over the territory. After a short review of the state of the art about the technology and the basis of wireless telephone base stations, the baselines and the principles of the proposed model are discussed, facing out the most significant parameters obtained from the way W.T.B.S. are working at present towards the proposed one. Then the authors illustrate the possible advantages o f the proposed model in terms of environmental, socials and energy savings aspects. It is the authors opinion that such model can be a simple and no -cost solution to apply to the existing infrastructures; more over it can be of interest either for mobile phone companies or for environmental and/or customers associations. (authors)

  4. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  5. Environmental impact reduction through ecological planning at Bahia Magdalena, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagrino, Giovanni; Lagunas, Magdalena; Rubio, Alfredo Ortega

    2008-03-01

    For analyzing basic marine and coastal characteristics we selected the potential sites where shrimp culture could be developed in a large coastal zone, Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Based on our analysis, 6 sites were preselected and field stages of work were then developed to assess the precise suitability of each site in order to develop the proposed aquaculture activities. In ranking the suitability we were able to recommend the most appropriate places to develop shrimp culture in this region. Also, knowing the exact biological, physico-chemical and social environment, we determined the best species to cultivate, the recommended total area and the methodology to be used to lessen the environmental impact and to obtain the maximum profitability Our methodology could be used not only to select appropriate sites for shrimp culture in other coastal lagoons, but it also could be applied to assess the suitability in a quick and accurate way, of any other production activity in coastal zones.

  6. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  7. Reliability-oriented multi-objective optimal decision-making approach for uncertainty-based watershed load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Feifei; Liu, Yong; Su, Han; Zou, Rui; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-01-01

    Water quality management and load reduction are subject to inherent uncertainties in watershed systems and competing decision objectives. Therefore, optimal decision-making modeling in watershed load reduction is suffering due to the following challenges: (a) it is difficult to obtain absolutely “optimal” solutions, and (b) decision schemes may be vulnerable to failure. The probability that solutions are feasible under uncertainties is defined as reliability. A reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) decision-making approach was proposed in this study for optimal decision making with stochastic parameters and multiple decision reliability objectives. Lake Dianchi, one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China, was examined as a case study for optimal watershed nutrient load reduction to restore lake water quality. This study aimed to maximize reliability levels from considerations of cost and load reductions. The Pareto solutions of the ROMO optimization model were generated with the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, demonstrating schemes representing different biases towards reliability. The Pareto fronts of six maximum allowable emission (MAE) scenarios were obtained, which indicated that decisions may be unreliable under unpractical load reduction requirements. A decision scheme identification process was conducted using the back propagation neural network (BPNN) method to provide a shortcut for identifying schemes at specific reliability levels for decision makers. The model results indicated that the ROMO approach can offer decision makers great insights into reliability tradeoffs and can thus help them to avoid ineffective decisions. - Highlights: • Reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) optimal decision approach was proposed. • The approach can avoid specifying reliability levels prior to optimization modeling. • Multiple reliability objectives can be systematically balanced using Pareto fronts. • Neural network model was used to

  8. Reliability-oriented multi-objective optimal decision-making approach for uncertainty-based watershed load reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Feifei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences (MOE), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yongliu@pku.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences (MOE), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Water Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Su, Han [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences (MOE), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zou, Rui [Tetra Tech, Inc., 10306 Eaton Place, Ste 340, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Management of Plateau Lake-Watershed, Kunming 650034 (China); Guo, Huaicheng [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences (MOE), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Water quality management and load reduction are subject to inherent uncertainties in watershed systems and competing decision objectives. Therefore, optimal decision-making modeling in watershed load reduction is suffering due to the following challenges: (a) it is difficult to obtain absolutely “optimal” solutions, and (b) decision schemes may be vulnerable to failure. The probability that solutions are feasible under uncertainties is defined as reliability. A reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) decision-making approach was proposed in this study for optimal decision making with stochastic parameters and multiple decision reliability objectives. Lake Dianchi, one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China, was examined as a case study for optimal watershed nutrient load reduction to restore lake water quality. This study aimed to maximize reliability levels from considerations of cost and load reductions. The Pareto solutions of the ROMO optimization model were generated with the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, demonstrating schemes representing different biases towards reliability. The Pareto fronts of six maximum allowable emission (MAE) scenarios were obtained, which indicated that decisions may be unreliable under unpractical load reduction requirements. A decision scheme identification process was conducted using the back propagation neural network (BPNN) method to provide a shortcut for identifying schemes at specific reliability levels for decision makers. The model results indicated that the ROMO approach can offer decision makers great insights into reliability tradeoffs and can thus help them to avoid ineffective decisions. - Highlights: • Reliability-oriented multi-objective (ROMO) optimal decision approach was proposed. • The approach can avoid specifying reliability levels prior to optimization modeling. • Multiple reliability objectives can be systematically balanced using Pareto fronts. • Neural network model was used to

  9. Observation of modulation speed enhancement, frequency modulation suppression, and phase noise reduction by detuned loading in a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser

    OpenAIRE

    Vahala, Kerry; Paslaski, Joel; Yariv, Amnon

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous direct modulation response enhancement, phase noise (linewidth) reduction, and frequency modulation suppression are produced in a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser by the detuned loading mechanism.

  10. Hydroelectric power available resources and environmental impact reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penta, P.

    1998-01-01

    The actual energy demand in Italy is met only in part by means of hydropower, as the available resources are almost entirely exploited. Italy is therefore obliged to import energy from far countries, in form of fossil fuel, that gives rise to serious outcomes due to the emission of undesirable gas in the environment. According to some recent evaluations conducted by the Ministry of Environment and the Agency for Alternative Energy (ENEA), the situation could improve in the year 2020 if the demand would reduce and the use of clean-energy increase. However, such an ambitious programme require to invest in ten years more than 100.000 billion Liras and the overall fuel consumption will only partially, decrease. To look at the problem in a broader view, taking into account that a drastic demand reduction is unthinkable, new resources, preferably non-polluting, must be identified. An energy source, still unexploited, is that of River Congo at the Inga falls, where the estimated potential is of 270 GWh, namely of the same order of the total energy consumed in Italy in 1997. Because such an energy cannot be conveyed to Italy by means of electric lines, it must be transformed into a vector suitable of an easier transportation: this could be the hydrogen [it

  11. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Törnqvist

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N, due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2 semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000 of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here

  12. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Risman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  13. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  14. Environmental Loads of a Finnish indoor training iceskating rink in the Context of LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study the environmental burdens generated by its essential building elements and systems of a typical new indoor training ice-skating rink during entire life cycle were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method developed at Helsinki University of Technology at the department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Economics and Management. The developed method is based on LCA -methodology and follows the principle of the ISO 14040 Environmental Management standard. In the calculations the life cycle of the indoor training iceskating rink was divided in four main phases: new construction, maintenance and energy, repair, and demolition. In each life cycle phase all the material and energy flows and emissions were calculated. Almost all (99 %) of the building elements in the indoor training ice skating rink were made of non-renewable materials. Also the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was mainly (81 %) produced with non-renewable energy sources. The life cycle phases causing the most environmental loads were energy and new construction. The energy phase consumed 92 % of the total energy and produced 91 of the CO 2 equivalents and 74 % of the SO 2 equivalents. In the new-construction phase 6 % of the life cycle energy was consumed, and 64 % of the ethene equivalents were produced. In addition to these 79 % of the building materials were used in the new- construction phase. The calculations were also tested against the sensitivity to different presumption changes. Two kinds of presumptions were made: ones that could be influenced by project control and others which refer to the future of the building and could not be influenced by project control. The calculations of the environmental loads of the indoor training ice skating rink were most sensitive to changes in the usage profiles and indoor temperature. For example one of the usage profile increased the environmental loads of the indoor training ice skating rink

  15. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  16. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  17. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  19. Electrocatalytic activity of Pd-loaded Ti/TiO2 nanotubes cathode for TCE reduction in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenjing; Yuan, Songhu; Mao, Xuhui; Hu, Wei; Liao, Peng; Tong, Man; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2013-07-01

    A novel cathode, Pd loaded Ti/TiO2 nanotubes (Pd-Ti/TiO2NTs), is synthesized for the electrocatalytic reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Pd nanoparticles are successfully loaded on TiO2 nanotubes which grow on Ti plate via anodization. Using Pd-Ti/TiO2NTs as the cathode in an undivided electrolytic cell, TCE is efficiently and quantitatively transformed to ethane. Under conditions of 100 mA and pH 7, the removal efficiency of TCE (21 mg/L) is up to 91% within 120 min, following pseudo-first-order kinetics with the rate constant of 0.019 min(-1). Reduction rates increase from 0.007 to 0.019 min(-1) with increasing the current from 20 to 100 mA, slightly decrease in the presence of 10 mM chloride or bicarbonate, and decline with increasing the concentrations of sulfite or sulfide. O2 generated at the anode slightly influences TCE reduction. At low currents, TCE is mainly reduced by direct electron transfer on the Pd-Ti/TiO2NT cathode. However, the contribution of Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination, an indirect reduction mechanism, becomes significant with increasing the current. Compared with other common cathodes, i.e., Ti-based mixed metal oxides, graphite and Pd/Ti, Pd-Ti/TiO2NTs cathode shows superior performance for TCE reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of load in a contact with boundary lubrication. [reduction of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, J. M.; Lamy, B.; Daronnat, M.; Moro, S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the transition load on the wear in a contact with boundary lubrication was investigated. An experimental method was developed for this purpose, and parameters affecting the boundary lubrication under industrial operating conditions were identified. These parameters are the adsorbed boundary film, the contact microgeometry (surface roughness), macrogeometry, and hardness of materials used. It was found that the curve of the tops of the surface protrustion affect the transition load, and thus the boundary lubrication. The transition load also depends on the chemical nature of the contact and its geometrical and mechanical aspects.

  1. Linking Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction in Africa: An Analysis of the Regional Legal Responses to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the protection of the environment is critical to the achievement of poverty reduction initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals in Africa . Hence, it can be argued that there is a mutual relationship between the achievement of environmental protection and reduction of poverty in Africa . This article therefore examines the extent to which the various regional legal instruments for the protection of the environment in Africa recognise this mutual linkage by providing for the promotion of poverty reduction and socio-economic development as integral aspect of their objective of ensuring the protection of the environment in the region.

  2. Performance Enhancement and Load Reduction on Wind Turbines Using Inflow Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    . The load variations on a wind turbine can be alleviated using either yaw or pitch actuation. A method is presented for alleviating load variations using yaw control, and it is shown how the method can be efficiently applied for decreasing the load variations that are caused by a vertical wind shear...... wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded...... excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator...

  3. [Change traits of phosphorous consumption structure in China and their effects on environmental phosphorous loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dun-Chao; Hu, Shan-Ying; Chen, Ding-Jiang; Li, You-Run

    2012-04-01

    Substance flow analysis was used to construct a model to analyze change traits of China's phosphorous (P) consumption structure from 1980 to 2008 and their influences on environmental phosphorous loads, then the correlation between several socioeconomic factors and phosphorous consumption pollution was investigated. It is found that phosphorous nutrient inputs of urban life and rural life on a per capita level climbed to 1.20 kg x a(-1) and 0.99 kg x a(-1) from 0.83 kg x a(-1) and 0.75 kg x a(-1) respectively, but phosphorous recycling ratios of urban life fell to 15.6% from 62.6%. P inputs of animal husbandry and planting also kept increasing, but the recycling ratio of the former decreased from 67.5% to 40.5%, meanwhile much P input of the latter was left in agricultural soil. Correlation coefficients were all above 0.90, indicating that population, urbanization level, development levels of planting and animal husbandry were important incentives for P consumption pollution in China. Environmental Kuznets curve showed that China still stayed in the early development stage, promoting economic growth at an expense of environmental quality. This study demonstrates that China's P consumption system is being transformed into a linear and open structure, and that P nutrient loss and environmental P loads increase continually.

  4. One-step Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticles Highly Loaded on Graphene Aerogel as Durable Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qinghong; Tao, Feifei; Zou, Liangliang; Yuan, Ting; Zou, Zhiqing; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of highly active and durable Pt based catalysts with a high metal loading for fuel cells’ applications still remains a big challenge. The three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogel (GA) not only possess the intrinsic property of graphene, but also have abundant pore architecture for anchoring metal nanoparticles, thus would be suitable as metal catalysts’ support. This work reports a simple and mild one-step co-reduction synthesis of Pt nanoparticles highly loaded on 3D GA and the use as durable oxygen reduction catalyst. Both X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements confirm that Pt nanoparticles (ca. 60 wt.% Pt loading) with an average diameter of ca. 3.2 nm are uniformly decorated on the homogeneously interconnected pores of 3D GA even after a heat treatment at 300 °C. Such a Pt/GA catalyst exhibits significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and improved durability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability may result from the unique 3-D architecture structure of GA, the uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles, and the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles and GA. The GA-supported Pt can serve as a highly active catalyst for fuel cell applications

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Ryul Nam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate the effects of nationwide conservation voltage reduction (CVR on peak-load shaving, using substation operating results management system (SOMAS data. Its evaluation is based on a national CVR factor, which is defined as the weighted average of CVR factors associated with all transformer banks and weighting coefficients are determined by the reconstructed loads corresponding to each transformer bank. To make use of the data resulting from nationwide CVR without installing additional measuring devices, we adopt a linearized static-load model with a linearizing parameter. SOMAS data are used to evaluate the effects of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system. Evaluation results show that the national CVR factor of the Korean power system has small values in the summer season and large values in the winter season. This means that the effect of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system presents stronger benefits during winter months.

  6. Experimental analysis of flexibility change with different levels of power reduction by demand response activation on thermostat controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the flexibility available with thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide power system services by demand response (DR) activation. Although the DR activation on TCLs can provide power system ancillary services, it is important to know how long such services can...... be provided for when different levels of power reduction are imposed. The flexibility change with different levels of power reduction is tested experimentally with domestic fridges used by real customers with unknown user interaction. The investigation quantifies the flexibility of household fridges...... and the impact of DR activation in terms of deviation in the average temperature. The maximum possible power reduction with the cluster of refrigerators is 67% and the available flexibility with the cluster of refrigerators is 10%. The resulting deviation in the average temperature is 14%....

  7. A novel approach for UI charge reduction using AMI based load prioritization in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani Pujara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available System frequency is vital part for power system balance. As per India Electricity Grid code frequency should be in the range of 49.5 Hz–50.5 Hz. Deviation from above mentioned range is charged as Unscheduled Interchange (UI charge. This paper proposes a new method for load and frequency control based on control of third parameter of three-part Availability Based Tariff (ABT i.e. Unscheduled Interchange charges. New circuit is designed considering prioritization of load and using Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI under Smart Grid environment.

  8. Considerable reduction of loads in piping systems after pump failure by coupled fluid/structure-calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, C.; Kellner, A.

    1985-01-01

    An approximated representative part of a PWR-feed-water-line was modelled and used to calculate the displacements of the piping system and the loads on it, caused by pressure pulse due to pump failure and subsequent check valve closure. The computation was performed with the code SAPHYR which contains the fluid code ROLAST and the structure code SAPIENS, calculating simultaneously and interactively. The results were compared with an uncoupled calculation without fluid/structure interaction. It was shown that neglecting the fluid/structure interaction can lead to considerable overestimations - in some cases up to a factor of 3 - of the loads on the structures. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of reduction in perception of nuclear risk related to perception of environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a bibliographic research accomplished to evaluate the matter of reduction in risk perception, on people in general, that nuclear energy can show, for generation of electric power, face to perception of risk associated to environmental questions, as the global warming, from greenhouse effect, addressing the matter to the relevance of public acceptance for the development of new technologies. (author)

  10. Reduction of nickel oxide particles by hydrogen studied in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    In situ reduction of nickel oxide (NiO) particles is performed under 1.3 mbar of hydrogen gas (H2) in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structural and chemical evolution of the...

  11. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial optimization of watershed management practices for nitrogen load reduction using a modeling-optimization framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best management practices (BMPs) are perceived as being effective in reducing nutrient loads transported from non-point sources (NPS) to receiving water bodies. The objective of this study was to develop a modeling-optimization framework that can be used by watershed management p...

  13. Conceptual framework for load controlling : with demand reduction bidding & consumer retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Ahamed, I.; Al-Ammar, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Advancement in demand side management strategies enables smart grid to cope with the increasing energy demand and provide economic benefit to all of its stakeholders. Moreover, emerging concept of smart pricing and advances in load control and communication generate new business opportunities as a

  14. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  15. A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy for Fatigue Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in wind farm management is to cope with requirements from the grid companies and to optimize efficiency and minimize wear on wind turbines. This paper addresses an optimized active power dispatch strategy of a wind farm to reduce the fatigue load of wind turbines, wh...

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2012-10-01

    The theoretical background of the proposed approach consists in an integrated methodology implemented in the system engineering of construction projects. A building system may be represented as the aggregate of all stages of construction works and participants involved in them. The building system is object-oriented, and it is implemented under the impact of pre-determined environmental factors. The core constituent of the building system represents a Production Technology Module (PTM, or summarized groups of processes. The model formula designated for the assessment of the intensity of the ecological load produced by the construction project onto the environment may be represented as follows:

  17. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  18. Estimated environmental loads of alpha-amylase from transgenic high-amylase maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Karaman, Sule [Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Environmental exposure of plants bioengineered to improve efficiencies of biofuel production is an important consideration for their adoption. High-amylase maize genetically engineered to produce thermostable alpha-amylase in seed endosperm is currently in development, and its successful adoption will entail >1000 km{sup 2} of annual production in the USA. Environmental exposure of thermostable amylase will occur in production fields from preharvest and harvest dropped grain, with minor additional contributions from stover and root biomass. Mass loadings of thermostable alpha-amylase are projected to be 16 kg km{sup -2} and represent a potential source of increased alpha-amylase activity in receiving soils. An understanding of the degradation, persistence, accumulation, and activity of thermostable alpha-amylase introduced from transgenic high-amylase maize will be necessary in order to effectively manage transgenic crop systems intended or biofeedstock production. (author)

  19. Design and simulation of Macro-Fiber composite based serrated microflap for wind turbine blade fatigue load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Dai, Qingli; Bilgen, Onur

    2018-05-01

    A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) based active serrated microflap is designed in this research for wind turbine blades. Its fatigue load reduction potential is evaluated in normal operating conditions. The force and displacement output of the MFC-based actuator are simulated using a bimorph beam model. The work done by the aerodynamic, centripetal and gravitational forces acting on the microflap were calculated to determine the required capacity of the MFC-based actuator. MFC-based actuators with a lever mechanical linkage are designed to achieve the required force and displacement to activate the microflap. A feedback control scheme is designed to control the microflap during operation. Through an aerodynamic-aeroelastic time marching simulation with the designed control scheme, the time responses of the wind turbine blades are obtained. The fatigue analysis shows that the serrated microflap can reduce the standard deviation of the blade root flapwise bending moment and the fatigue damage equivalent loads.

  20. Environmental TEM study of the dynamic nanoscaled morphology of NiO/YSZ during reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Agersted, Karsten; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of a metal oxide is often a critical preparation step for activating catalytic behaviour. This study addresses the reduction process of NiO in pure form and in a composite of NiO/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in hydrogen relevant for solid oxide electrochemical cells by comparing...... results from environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature dependent reduction profiles obtained from TGA confirm an inhibitive effect from YSZ on the NiO reduction. The ETEM images show the growth of Ni in decaying NiO and reveal...... the nanoscale morphological changes such as pore formation in NiO above 280°C and densification and collapse of the pore structures above 400°C. The accelerated Ni front in NiO illustrates the auto catalysis of the reaction. A rapid temperature ramping from room temperature to 780°C in hydrogen in 1 second...

  1. Reductive dehalogenation of haloacetic acids by hemoglobin-loaded carbon nanotube electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode to catalyze the dehalogenation of haloacetic acids (HAAs). FTIR and UV measurements were performed to investigate the activity-keep of Hb after immobilization on CNT. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the Hb-loaded electrode for the dehalogenation of HAAs were studied by cyclic voltammmetry and constant-potential electrolysis technique. An Hb-loaded packed-bed flow reactor was also constructed for bioelectrocatalytic dehalogenation of HAAs. The results showed that Hb retained its nature, the essential features of its native secondary structure, and its biocatalytic activity after immobilization on CNT. Chloroacetic acids and bromoacetic acids could be dehalogenated completely with Hb catalysis through a stepwise dehalogenation process at -0.400V (vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) and -0.200V (vs. SCE), respectively. The removal of 10.5mM trichloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid is ca. 97% and 63%, respectively, with electrolysis for 300min at -0.400V (vs. SCE) using the Hb-loaded packed-bed flow reactor, and almost 100% of tribromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid was removed with electrolysis for 40min at -0.200V (vs. SCE). The average current efficiency of Hb-catalytic dehalogenation almost reaches 100%.

  2. Quad Cities Unit 2 Main Steam Line Acoustic Source Identification and Load Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBoo, Guy; Ramsden, Kevin; Gesior, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 have a history of steam line vibration issues. The implementation of an Extended Power Up-rate resulted in significant increases in steam line vibration as well as acoustic loading of the steam dryers, which led to equipment failures and fatigue cracking of the dryers. This paper discusses the results of extensive data collection on the Quad Cities Unit 2 replacement dryer and the Main Steam Lines. This data was taken with the intent of identifying acoustic sources in the steam system. Review of the data confirmed that vortex shedding coupled column resonance in the relief and safety valve stub pipes were the principal sources of large magnitude acoustic loads in the main steam system. Modifications were developed in sub-scale testing to alter the acoustic properties of the valve standpipes and add acoustic damping to the system. The modifications developed and installed consisted of acoustic side branches that were attached to the Electromatic Relief Valve (ERV) and Main Steam Safety Valve (MSSV) attachment pipes. Subsequent post-modification testing was performed in plant to confirm the effectiveness of the modifications. The modifications have been demonstrated to reduce vibration loads at full Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) conditions to levels below those at Original Licensed Thermal Power (OLTP). (authors)

  3. Review comments on Environmental Analysis Cost Reduction Proposals (WIPP-DOE-136), July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-11-01

    The cost reduction proposals have the laudable goal of significantly reducing the total capital And operating cost connected with WIPP. Furthermore, since the proposed changes would reduce the size and operating rate of the project, they would be expected to have decreased environmental And socioeconomic impacts. However, some of these cost reduction proposals do decrease factors of safety in various components of the project or trade off one type of environmental detriment for another. The report does not contain sufficient detail to justify all of the conclusions reached; more discussion and quantitative information (including costs) is necessary in some cases. Also, there are places where the report is unclear or contradictory. Without a more detailed evaluation, EEG is unable to conclude that each of these cost reduction proposals either has a net environmental/health and safety benefit or a cost savings that justifies a net detriment. A revised Environmental Analysis (EA) should either include additional information or specifically reference backup documents where these conclusions have been justified. In addition, the EA needs to be revised to include the effect of the recently announced (11/18/82) decision by DOE to relocate the underground waste storage areas of the repository to the south

  4. Reduction of fatigue loads on jacket substructure through blade design optimization for multimegawatt wind turbines at 50 m water depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried; Pavese, Christian; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the reduction of the fore-aft damage equivalent moment at the tower base for multi-megawatt offshore wind turbines mounted on jacket type substructures at 50 m water depths. The study investigates blade design optimization of a reference 10 MW wind turbine under standard wind...... conditions of onshore sites. The blade geometry and structure is optimized to yield a design that minimizes tower base fatigue loads without significant loss of power production compared to that of the reference setup. The resulting blade design is then mounted on a turbine supported by a jacket and placed...

  5. The Role of Ecotourism in the Reduction of Anthropogenic Load on Natura 2000 Territories throughout Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitis, Eriks; Leitis, Ēriks

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is able to contribute to biodiversity and to ensure the ecosystem function in Latvia through a complicated process of fulfilment of the established criteria for a valid ecotourism. The tourism flow in protected nature territories should be monitored, and the appropriate environmental management, education and a code of conduct need to be introduced. Ecotourism will serve for reducing the social and economic pressures on biodiversity and will promote responsible actions in support of environmentally friendly technologies and approaches. The areas selected for this study are the Natura 2000 territories that have undertaken the development of ecotourism facilities.

  6. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 3: Tax differentiation and environmental tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Tax differentiation for cars would mean a new structure of the buyer market as the decisive factor in new car price is its fuel efficiency and environmentally friendly low CO 2 emission. Reduction of fuel cost per kilometer can result in increased annual car use. On the other hand growing sales of cars in Denmark would give extra profit to the state as purchase taxation and weight-dependent tax are both extremely high. Environmental tagging can increase consumer awareness of fuel efficiency and emission control. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 13 refs

  7. Integrase inhibitors in late pregnancy and rapid HIV viral load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Cates, Jordan; Potter, JoNell; Badell, Martina L; Seidman, Dominika; Miller, Emilly S; Coleman, Jenell S; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Levison, Judy; Short, William R; Yawetz, Sigal; Ciaranello, Andrea; Livingston, Elizabeth; Duthely, Lunthita; Rimawi, Bassam H; Anderson, Jean R; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing time to HIV viral suppression is critical in pregnancy. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), like raltegravir, are known to rapidly suppress plasma HIV RNA in nonpregnant adults. There are limited data in pregnant women. We describe time to clinically relevant reduction in HIV RNA in pregnant women using INSTI-containing and non-INSTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) options. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States from 2009 through 2015. We included women who initiated ART, intensified their regimen, or switched to a new regimen due to detectable viremia (HIV RNA >40 copies/mL) at ≥20 weeks gestation. Among women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, we estimated time to 1-log RNA reduction using the Kaplan-Meier estimator comparing women starting/adding an INSTI in their regimen vs other ART. To compare groups with similar follow-up time, we also conducted a subgroup analysis limited to women with ≤14 days between baseline and follow-up RNA data. This study describes 101 HIV-infected pregnant women from 11 US clinics. In all, 75% (76/101) of women were not taking ART at baseline; 24 were taking non-INSTI containing ART, and 1 received zidovudine monotherapy. In all, 39% (39/101) of women started an INSTI-containing regimen or added an INSTI to their ART regimen. Among 90 women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, the median time to 1-log RNA reduction was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7-14) in the INSTI group vs 35 days (IQR, 20-53) in the non-INSTI ART group (P pregnancy. Inclusion of an INSTI may play a role in optimal reduction of HIV RNA for HIV-infected pregnant women presenting late to care or failing initial therapy. Larger studies are urgently needed to assess the safety and effectiveness of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TOKES studies of the thermal quench heat load reduction in mitigated ITER disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pestchanyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruption mitigation by massive gas injection (MGI of Ne gas has been simulated using the 3D TOKES code that includes the injectors of the Disruption Mitigation System (DMS as it will be implemented in ITER. The simulations have been done using a quasi-3D approach, which gives an upper limit for the radiation heat load (notwithstanding possible asymmetries in radial heat flux associated with MHD. The heating of the first wall from the radiation flash has been assessed with respect to injection quantity, the number of injectors, and their location for an H-mode ITER discharge with 280MJ of thermal energy. Simulations for the maximum quantity of Ne (8kPam3 have shown that wall melting can be avoided by using solely the three injectors in the upper ports, whereas shallow melting occurred when the midplane injector had been added. With all four injectors, melting had been avoided for a smaller neon quantity of 250Pam3 that provides still a sufficient radiation level for thermal load mitigation.

  9. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834

  10. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p<0.00001. Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p<0.001. Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure.

  11. Linking the environmental loads to the fate of PPCPs in Beijing: Considering both the treated and untreated wastewater sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Dai, Guohua; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The environmental loads of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in Beijing were estimated from direct discharge of untreated wastewater and WWTP treated effluent. The annual environmental loads of 15 PPCP components ranged from 16.3 kg (propranolol) to 9.85 tons (caffeine). A fugacity model was developed to successfully estimate the PPCP pollution based on the estimated environmental load. The modeled results approximated the observed PPCP concentrations in Beijing. The untreated wastewater contributed significantly to PPCP pollution in Beijing, ranging from 46% (propranolol) to 99% (caffeine). The total environmental burden of target PPCPs ranged from 0.90 kg (propranolol) to 536 kg (caffeine). Water is the most important media for the fate of PPCPs. Monte Carlo-based concentration distributions of PPCPs are consistent with the observed results. The most important way to reduce the PPCP pollution is to both improve wastewater collection rate and adopt deep treatment technologies. - Highlights: • Annual environmental loads of PPCPs ranged from 16.3 kg to 9.85 tons in Beijing. • The environmental loads can be linked to PPCP pollution by fugacity model. • Untreated wastewater significantly contributed to PPCP pollution in Beijing. • The environmental burden of 15 PPCPs in Beijing ranged from 0.90 kg to 536 kg. • Uncertainty simulation successfully generated PPCP concentration distribution. - The environmental loads from both the treated and untreated wastewater sources contribute to PPCPs pollution in the surface water in Beijing, China

  12. Impacts of Commercial Building Controls on Energy Savings and Peak Load Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas E.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Commercial buildings in the United States use about 18 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of primary energy annually . Studies have shown that as much as 30% of building energy consumption can be avoided by using more accurate sensing, using existing controls better, and deploying advanced controls; hence, the motivation for the work described in this report. Studies also have shown that 10% to 20% of the commercial building peak load can be temporarily managed/curtailed to provide grid services. Although many studies have indicated significant potential for reducing the energy consumption in commercial buildings, very few have documented the actual savings. The studies that did so only provided savings at the whole building level, which makes it difficult to assess the savings potential of each individual measure deployed.

  13. Emissions from coal-fired electric stations : environmental health effects and reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.; Lourie, B.; Pengelly, D.; Labatt, S.; Ogilvie, K.; Kelly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Findings of a study on the environmental effects of current emissions from coal-fired electric stations were summarized. Current and projected emissions from coal-fired electric stations for five emission reduction scenarios were estimated for Ontario, Eastern Canada, Ohio Valley/Great Lakes, and the U.S. northeast regions. Coal-fired electric stations generate a wide range of environmentally significant air emissions. The five pollutants selected - sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (less than 10 micrometres in size), mercury, and carbon dioxide - are considered to impact most on environmental health. This report focused on 312 coal-fired electric stations in the regions named above. They were selected based on the likelihood that long-range transport of the emissions from these coal-fired utilities would have an impact on human health and the environment. 55 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  15. Building and environmental factors that influence bacterial and fungal loading on air conditioning cooling coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A; Siegel, J A; Mendell, M J; Peccia, J

    2018-05-30

    We investigated bacterial and fungal concentrations on cooling coils of commercial AC units and quantified associations between microbial loads and AC unit or building operational parameters. A field campaign was conducted to sample 25 AC units in the humid, subtropical climate of Southern CT, USA and 15 AC units in the hot-summer Mediterranean climate of Sacramento, CA, USA. Median concentrations (with interquartile range) of bacteria and fungi on the cooling coils were 1.2 × 10 7 (5.1 × 10 6 -3.9 × 10 7 ) cells/m 2 and 7.6 × 10 5 (5.6 × 10 4 -4.4 × 10 6 ) spore equivalents (SE)/m 2 , respectively. Concentrations varied among units with median unit concentrations ranging three orders of magnitude for bacteria and seven orders of magnitude for fungi. Controlled comparisons and multivariable regressions indicate that dominant factors associated with AC coil loading include the nominal efficiency of upstream filters (P = .008 for bacteria and P < .001 for fungi) and coil moisture, which was reflected in fungal loading differences between top and bottom halves of the AC coils in Southern CT (P = .05) and the dew points of the two climates considered (P = .04). Environmental and building characteristics explained 42% (P < .001) of bacterial concentration variability and 66% (P < .001) of fungal concentration variability among samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reduction of cognitive conflict and learning style impact towards student-teacher's misconception load

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'yun, Kurroti; Suyono, Poedjiastoeti, Sri; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial issue in education is a misconception that is caused by the misconception of the students themselves. Therefore, this study provided the solution to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in the schools through the remediation of misconceptions to the chemistry teacher candidates. This study employed a mixed method approach using concurrent embedded designs where it tended more to the qualitative research, but it still relied on the quantitative research in the assessment of the learning impact. The results of this study were the students with higher levels of cognitive conflict still have high loads of misconceptions (MC), it possibly due to the type of students' learning styles that is the sequential-global balanced. To facilitate the cognitive conflict character and the learning style of sequential-global balanced, the researchers created an integrated worksheet conceptual change with peer learning (WCCPL). The peer learning undertaken in the last stages of conceptual change of WCCPL can increase the resistance of students' concept in a category of knowing the concept significantly, but it should be examined in an in-depth study related to the long-term memory.

  17. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 °C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode.

  18. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  19. Supported Metal Zeolites as Environmental Catalysts for Reduction of NOx Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May Nwe Win; Tin Tin Aye; Kyaw Myo Naing; Nyunt Wynn; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    The NOx contamination of air is a major pollutant due to its reaction with the volatile organic compounds, which give rise to ground level (tropospheric) ozone. It is a conventional fact that NOx are one of the major components of car exhaust. In view of that fact, to sustain the tropospheric ozone is to reduce the amount of NOx in the air. Therefore, this paper is concerned with the catalytic activity of Fe-loaded zeolite and Cu-loaded zeolite used to decompose NIOx by SCR (selective catalytic reduction) reaction with very high activity have been studied. Their preparations, characterization by XRD, FT-IR and SEM were also studied. Fe and Cu containig were prepared by soild state ion-exchange method under ambient presure and at the temperature of 600C for 4 hours. From this study, selective catalytic reduction rection was observed, showing about 87% conversion of the NOx molecule with the corresponding optimum amount of catalyst (1.0+-0.5)g working under the reactor space volume of 30cm3 at ambient temperature (30-32)C

  20. Is Recovery of Large-Bodied Zooplankton after Nutrient Loading Reduction Hampered by Climate Warming? A Long-Term Study of Shallow Hypertrophic Lake Sobygaard, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florencia Gutierrez, Maria; Devercelli, Melina; Brucet Balmana, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    biomass of cladocerans increased coinciding with a diminished fish catch per unit effort (CPUE), and likely then an overall reduction in the predation on zooplankton. A cascading effect to phytoplankton was evidenced by enhanced zooplankton: phytoplankton and cladoceran: phytoplankton ratios...... on phytoplankton through an expected diminished fish CPUE related to nutrient loading reduction....

  1. A pollutant load hierarchical allocation method integrated in an environmental capacity management system for Zhushan Bay, Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Yang, Cong; Melching, Charles; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-11-15

    An environmental capacity management (ECM) system was developed to help practically implement a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a key bay in a highly eutrophic lake in China. The ECM system consists of a simulation platform for pollutant load calculation and a pollutant load hierarchical allocation (PLHA) system. The simulation platform was developed by linking the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). In the PLHA, pollutant loads were allocated top-down in several levels based on characteristics of the pollutant sources. Different allocation methods could be used for the different levels with the advantages of each method combined over the entire allocation. Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China, was selected as a case study. The allowable loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 2122.2, 94.9, 1230.4, and 5260.0 t·yr(-1), respectively. The PLHA for the case study consists of 5 levels. At level 0, loads are allocated to those from the lakeshore direct drainage, atmospheric deposition, internal release, and tributary inflows. At level 1 the loads allocated to tributary inflows are allocated to the 3 tributaries. At level 2, the loads allocated to one inflow tributary are allocated to upstream areas and local sources along the tributary. At level 3, the loads allocated to local sources are allocated to the point and non-point sources from different towns. At level 4, the loads allocated to non-point sources in each town are allocated to different villages. Compared with traditional forms of pollutant load allocation methods, PLHA can combine the advantages of different methods which put different priority weights on equity and efficiency, and the PLHA is easy to understand for stakeholders and more flexible to adjust when applied in practical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of organic carbon and nitrate loading on partitioning between dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and N2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Amber K.; Algar, Christopher K.; Giblin, Anne E.; Rich, Jeremy J.

    2015-09-01

    Biologically available nitrogen is removed from ecosystems through the microbial processes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) retains it. A mechanistic understanding of controls on partitioning among these pathways is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to conduct a manipulative experiment to determine the influence of organic C and NO3- loading on partitioning. Sediment was collected from a location on the southern New England shelf (78 m water depth) and sieved. Half of the sediment was mixed with freeze-dried phytoplankton and the other half was not. Sediment was then spread into 1.5 mm, "thin discs" closed at the bottom and placed in large aquarium tanks with filtered, N2/CO2 sparged seawater to maintain O2 limited conditions. Half of the discs received high NO3- loading, while the other half received low NO3- loading, resulting in a multifactorial design with four treatments: no C addition, low NO3- (-C-N); C addition, low NO3- (+C-N); no C addition, high NO3- (-C+N); and C addition, high NO3- (+C+N). Sediment discs were incubated in the tanks for 7 weeks, during which time inorganic N (NH4+, NO3-, and NO2-) was monitored, and sediment discs were periodically removed from the tanks to conduct 15N isotope labeling experiments in vials to measure potential rates of anammox, denitrification, and DNRA. Temporal dynamics of inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were indicative of anoxic N metabolism, with strong response of the build up or consumption of the intermediate NO2-, depending on treatments. Vial incubation experiments with added 15NO2- + 14NH4+ indicated significant denitrification and DNRA activity in sediment thin discs, but incubations with added 15NH4+ + 14NO2- indicated anammox was not at all significant. Inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were fit to a reactive transport model assuming different N transformations. Organic C decomposition rates

  3. Attribution Analyses of Impacts of Environmental Changes on Streamflow and Sediment Load in a Mountainous Basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in the southeastern China and northern Vietnam, the Red River is an important international trans-boundary river that has experienced rapid deforestation and environmental changes over the past decades. We conducted attribution analysis of impacts of various environmental changes on streamflow and sediment load. The contribution of reclassified environmental changes to total change of the streamflow and sediment load was separated. Land cover change based on climate-induced and human-induced indicators were defined. We found that human-induced land cover change was the main factor affecting changes of the streamflow and sediment load. Changes of the land cover were more pronounced in the dry season than in the wet season whereas sediment load changed more in the wet season than in the dry season. In addition, changes in sediment load were mainly caused by human-induced land cover change and the changes of land cover were more influential on sediment load than on streamflow in the Red River basin.

  4. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Saini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307.

  5. Optimization of Ru{sub x}Se{sub y} electrocatalyst loading for oxygen reduction in a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Huerta, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Laboratorio de Electroquimica y Corrosion ESIQIE, UPALP, 07738 Mexico, D.F., Mexico (Mexico); Guzman-Guzman, A.; Solorza-Feria, O. [Depto. Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico D.F., Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The synthesis, characterization and optimization of Ru{sub x}Se{sub y} catalyst loading as a cathode electrode for a single polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC were investigated. Ru{sub x}Se{sub y} catalyst was synthesized via a decarbonylation of Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} and elemental selenium in 1,6-hexanediol under refluxing conditions for 2 h. The powder electrocatalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and examined for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.5M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by rotating disk electrode (RDE) and in membrane-electrode assemblies, MEAs for a single PEMFC. Results indicate the formation of agglomerates of crystalline particles with nanometric size embedded in an amorphous phase. The catalyst exhibited high current density and lower overpotential for the ORR compared to that of Ru{sub x} cluster catalyst. Dispersed Ru{sub x}Se{sub y} catalyst loading on Vulcan carbon was optimized as a cathode electrode by performance testing in a single H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel cell. (author)

  6. Fiscal 1996 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system`; 1996 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Oil demand is expected to substantially grow in the future, and the use of oil with combustibles such as hull, baggase and waste is considered from an effective use of energy. A regional model survey was conducted as measures to reduce environmental loads where the fuel mixing combustion with coal and other energy is made the core. The domestic production amount of hull is 2.4-3.0 tons/year, which have a heating value of 3,500 kcal/kg. If hull can be formed into the one storable for a the long term (the one mixed with low grade coal, etc.), it can be a fuel for stable supply. Bagasse is produced 100 million tons/year, which have a heating value of 2,500 kcal/kg. Among wastes, waste tire, plastics, waste, sludge, etc. have a lot of problems in terms of price and environment, but each of them has a heating value during 3,000-10,000 kcal/kg. As to the coal combustion, the pollutional regulation on it is strict, and much higher processing technology is needed. The technology of coal fuel mixing combustion with other energy has not risen higher than the developmental level. Though the technology is a little bit higher in price than the coal fuel single combustion, it is viable. 38 refs., 32 figs., 65 tabs.

  7. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental clean up is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not just controlled, concentrated, and moved from one media to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in waste water sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over two billion dollars has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy for fiscal year 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to manage and dispose of these wastes

  8. Evaluation of Parameter Uncertainty Reduction in Groundwater Flow Modeling Using Multiple Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B. W.; Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    Calibration of groundwater flow models for the purpose of evaluating flow and aquifer heterogeneity typically uses observations of hydraulic head in wells and appropriate boundary conditions. Environmental tracers have a wide variety of decay rates and input signals in recharge, resulting in a potentially broad source of additional information to constrain flow rates and heterogeneity. A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in uncertainty during model calibration using observations of various environmental tracers and combinations of tracers. A synthetic data set was constructed by simulating steady groundwater flow and transient tracer transport in a high-resolution, 2-D aquifer with heterogeneous permeability and porosity using the PFLOTRAN software code. Data on pressure and tracer concentration were extracted at well locations and then used as observations for automated calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method and the PEST code. Optimization runs were performed to estimate parameter values of permeability at 30 pilot points in the model domain for cases using 42 observations of: 1) pressure, 2) pressure and CFC11 concentrations, 3) pressure and Ar-39 concentrations, and 4) pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations. Results show significantly lower uncertainty, as indicated by the 95% linear confidence intervals, in permeability values at the pilot points for cases including observations of environmental tracer concentrations. The average linear uncertainty range for permeability at the pilot points using pressure observations alone is 4.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and CFC11 concentrations is 1.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and Ar-39 concentrations is 0.9 order of magnitude, and using pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations is 1.0 order of magnitude. Data on Ar-39 concentrations result in the greatest parameter uncertainty reduction because its half-life of 269

  9. Proof of fatigue strength of nuclear components part II: Numerical fatigue analysis for transient stratification loading considering environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krätschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Herter, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: ► We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. ► A simplified as well as a general elastic–plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. ► The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F en are shown. ► The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.

  10. Environmental Effects on Long Term Displacement Data of Woven Fabric Webbings Under Constant Load for Inflatable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, WInfred S.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Duncan, Quinton; Plant, James

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of environmental temperature and humidity conditions on long-term creep displacement data of high strength Kevlar and VectranTM woven fabric webbings under constant load for inflatable structures is presented. The restraint layer of an inflatable structure for long-duration space exploration missions is designed to bear load and consists of an assembly of high strength webbings. Long-term creep displacement data of webbings can be utilized by designers to validate service life parameters of restraint layers of inflatable structures. Five groups of high-strength webbings were researched over a two year period. Each group had a unique webbing length, load rating, applied load, and test period. The five groups consisted of 1.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 49% ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 2.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 55% UTS, 3.) 12.5K Vectran webbings loaded to 22% UTS, 4.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 40% and 43% UTS, and 5.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 48% UTS. Results show that all webbing groups exhibit the initial two stages of three of a typical creep curve of an elastic material. Results also show that webbings exhibit unique local wave patterns over the duration of the test period. Data indicate that the local pattern is primarily generated by daily variations in relative humidity values within the test facility. Data indicate that after a three to six month period, where webbings reach a steady-state creep condition, an annual sinusoidal displacement pattern is exhibited, primarily due to variations in annual mean temperature values. Data indicates that variations in daily temperature values and annual mean humidity values have limited secondary effects on creep displacement behavior. Results show that webbings in groups 2 and 5 do not exhibit well defined annual displacement patterns because the magnitude of the applied loads cause large deformations, and data indicate that material yielding within a webbing

  11. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process is proposed. • Rare and valuable metal germanium from coal fly ash is recycled. • Residues are not a hazardous material and can be further recycled. • A germanium recovery ratio of 94.64% is obtained in pilot scale experiments. - Abstract: The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173 K and 10 Pa with 10 wt% coke addition for 40 min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473 K, 1–10 Pa and heating time 40 min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  12. Contribution of different antiretroviral regimens containing zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on HIV viral load reduction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Patumrat; Le Coeur, Sophie; Ingsrisawang, Lily; Cressey, Tim R; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Traisathit, Patrinee; Srirompotong, Ussanee; Ayudhaya, Orada Patamasingh Na; Puangsombat, Achara; Jungpipun, Jantana; Jittayanun, Kanokwan; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc; Urien, Saïk

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have evolved over time. We evaluated the contribution of different ARV regimens on the reduction of the plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) during pregnancy. A total of 1,833 VL measurements from ARV-naive pregnant women participating in perinatal prevention trials in Thailand were included. Women received either zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy, ZDV plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), or ZDV plus lamivudine (3TC) plus LPV/r. VL time-course during pregnancy was described as a function of pretreatment VL and treatment duration using an Emax non-linear mixed-effect model. VL reduction and median time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml were estimated for each regimen. Among 745 women, 279 (37%), 145 (20%) and 321 (43%) received ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. The predicted VL reduction from baseline to delivery after a median of 10 weeks of treatment were 0.5, 2.7 and 2.9 log10 copies/ml with ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. At delivery, 1%, 57% and 63% of women receiving ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r or ZDV+3TC+LPV/r had a VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r reduced the time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml and the higher the pretreatment VL, the larger the effect 3TC had on reducing the time to VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r was associated with a slight further VL reduction but the time to reach a VL<50 copies/ml was shorter. This beneficial effect of 3TC is crucial for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in women who receive ARVs late and with high pretreatment VL.

  13. Analysis of load reduction possibilities using a hydraulic soft yaw system for a 5-MW turbine and its sensitivity to yaw-bearing friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, S.; Pedersen, H. C.; Jonkman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind turbines and with increasing lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction in the turbines need to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine flexible, thereby dampening the loads to the system. This paper presents a hydraulic soft yaw...... concept and investigates the effect this has on critical loads in the turbine. To analyze the system, a novel friction model is developed and implemented for the yaw system using the NREL 5-MW turbine in the aerodynamic code FAST. Based on this model, the influence of friction is investigated...

  14. Cargo load reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, I.; Otsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, most newly synthesized secretory proteins are first translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transit through organelles that constitute a secretory pathway. However, a fraction of them never reach the desired native state. Instead, these proteins misfold in the ER

  15. Membrane Bioreactor-Based Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia: Reduction of Viral Diversity, Load, and Infectious Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad

    2017-07-18

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia was assessed over a nine-month period for virus removal efficiency. Viral diversity was detected using omics-based approaches. Log reduction values (LRV) of Adenoviruses (AdV) and Enteroviruses (EV) were enumerated using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and assessed for infectivity using fluorescence-based infection assays. MBR treatment was successful in reducing viral diversity. Plant viruses remained abundant in the treated effluent. Human enteric viruses were present in lower abundance than plant viruses, and were reduced by MBR at varying LRV. AdV copy numbers were reduced by 3.7-log. Infectious AdV was not detected in the effluent. EV copy numbers were reduced by 1.7-log post MBR and infectious EV decreased by an average of 2.0-log. Infectious EV was detected in the chlorinated effluent, occasionally in concentrations that approximate to its 50% infectious dose. Overall, results indicated that a MBR-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effectively reduces viral diversity, viral load, and infectious capacity by up to 4-logs. These findings suggest potential concerns associated with plant and human enteric viruses for reuse events in this country. Local guidelines for assessment of treated water quality should take into consideration both infectious viral concentration and LRV.

  16. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W.; Wortmann, K.; Bregas, J. [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und

  17. Instruments. Climate protection of reduction of no-load losses in electric appliances and equipment; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten. Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, U; Hellmann, R [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany); Moehring-Hueser, W; Wortmann, K; Bregas, J [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Mordziol, C [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Two studies on the subject of 'Climate Protection through Reduction of No-load Losses in Electric Applicances and Equipment' have been performed on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency. The first study, carried out by the Tuebingen-based engineering bureau eboek, has been published in the Federal Environmental Agency's TEXTE series (Texte 45/97, 2{sup nd} edition, 1998). It was the starting point for a multitude of activities among them two information campaigns carried out in 1998 and 1999 that were funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Section of the Friends of the Earth (BUND). The study also served as a basis for decisions taken by the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (Council of Constituent States). The second study on the subject was carried out by the engineering bureau eboek and Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein. Building on the results obtained in the first study, it presents estimates of relevant data for the European Union and examines various approaches for possible measures to reduce no-load losses as to their suitability. The studies impressively show that effective climate protection can be achieved in all relevant sectors, and in many cases even save costs. The results are detailed below. (orig.) [German] Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit sowie des Umweltbundesamtes wurden zwei Studien zum Thema: 'Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Leerlaufverlusten bei Elektrogeraeten' durchgefuehrt: Die erste, vom Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und oekologische Konzepte (eboek), Tuebingen, earbeitete Studie wurde in der Reihe TEXTE des UBA veroeffentlicht (Texte 45/97, 2. Auflage 1998). Sie bildete den Ausgangspunkt fuer eine Vielzahl von Aktivitaeten, unter anderem zwei vom Bundesumweltministerium finanzierte und vom Bund fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz (BUND) 1998 und

  18. Development of RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR) for environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tetsushi; Ohtsuka, Masaya; Moriya, Kumiaki; Matsuura, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of long-life transuranium elements produced as by-products with uranium fuel burning became an issue of nuclear power. Hitachi had been developing the reactor with transuranium elements burning as fuels based on BWR type reactors successfully used as commercial reactors: RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR). Efficient transmutation and fissioning of transuranium elements needed adjustment of in-core neutron energy spectra distribution better for nuclear reaction of transuranium elements. Taking advantage of characteristics of BWR type reactors with neutron spectra hardening more easily adjustable than other type of reactors, multiple recycling and fissioning transuranium elements as fuels could make environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes and efficient use of resources compatible. This article described the concept and history of RBWR and showed its specifications and reactor core characteristics. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Numerical investigation of optimal yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle for load imbalance reduction of rigid and flexible HAWT blades under sheared inflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min-Soo; Cha, Myung-Chan; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, In

    2015-01-01

    Wind shear can strongly influence the cyclic loading on horizontal axis wind turbine blades. These load fluctuation causes a variation of power output and introduces fatigue load. Thus, individual pitch controllers have been developed that are focused on the load alleviations, however, comes at a price of actuator requirements for control. Moreover, these controllers are unable to apply to already existing wind turbines with active yaw and collective pitch control system. Therefore, the investigations for minimizing load imbalance through the adjustments of yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle are implemented for the rigid and flexible blades under the sheared inflow. By applying the optimization process based on a sequential quadratic programming approach, the optimal yaw and pitch angle can be estimated. Then, the numerical simulations for predicting the performance are performed. The results showed that the fluctuation range of the root flapwise bending moment for the rigid blades can be reduced by 84.5%, whereas the vibratory bending moment for the flexible blades can be reduced by up to approximately 82.4% in the best case. Therefore, the magnitudes of load imbalance can be minimized by the adjustment of the optimal yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle without any power loss. - Highlights: • We propose a novel method for the reduction of load imbalance under sheared inflow. • We estimate optimal yaw misalignment and collective pitch angle through optimization. • Numerical results of performance are predicted for rigid and flexible blades. • By applying optimal angles, load variations are reduced without any power loss

  20. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki; Peterson, Everett B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics

    2010-06-15

    Global carbon dioxide emissions need to be reduced by at least 50 to 85 % in 2050 compared to 2000 levels to limit global surface temperature increase to 2 C compared to preindustrial levels (IPCC 2007). As an intermediate greenhouse gas emission reduction target for industrialized countries in 2020 the IPCC (2007) confirmed a range of 25 % to 40 % compared to 1990, together with a substantial deviation from baseline in some developing regions, which was quantified as reductions in the range of 15 % to 30 % below baseline (den Elzen and Hoehne 2008). This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord as quantifiable emission reductions or as NAMAs. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges leading to emission reductions of 17 % below 1990 levels for Annex I countries and 13 % below reference levels for Non-Annex I countries. Both scenarios do not reach the level of ambition indicated as necessary by science to keep temperature increase below 2 C. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO{sub 2}-emissions by 30 % and by 40 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, respectively. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In the scenarios for 2030 all but the least developed countries are assumed to take on emission targets, but emission caps are considerably less stringent for developing countries than for developed countries. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target. The analyses are carried out with the dynamic Computable General

  1. A three-dimensional water quality modeling approach for exploring the eutrophication responses to load reduction scenarios in Lake Yilong (China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuzhao; Zou, Rui; He, Bin; Zhu, Xiang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Junsong; Zhu, Yongguan

    2013-01-01

    Lake Yilong in Southwestern China has been under serious eutrophication threat during the past decades; however, the lake water remained clear until sudden sharp increase in Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and turbidity in 2009 without apparent change in external loading levels. To investigate the causes as well as examining the underlying mechanism, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed, simulating the flow circulation, pollutant fate and transport, and the interactions between nutrients, phytoplankton and macrophytes. The calibrated and validated model was used to conduct three sets of scenarios for understanding the water quality responses to various load reduction intensities and ecological restoration measures. The results showed that (a) even if the nutrient loads is reduced by as much as 77%, the Chl a concentration decreased only by 50%; and (b) aquatic vegetation has strong interaction with phytoplankton, therefore requiring combined watershed and in-lake management for lake restoration. -- Highlights: ► We quantitatively investigated the non-linear lake responses to load reduction. ► The aquatic ecological condition had a great impact on algal blooms. ► Only water quality improvement cannot ensure the aquatic ecology restoration. -- The lake water quality responds to watershed load reduction in a nonlinear way, which requires combined watershed and in-lake management for lake restoration

  2. Assessment of thermal load reduction due to the application of simple passive techniques in a house office building at the south of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, Roman; Azzain, Gassem

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of possible reduction of heating and cooling requirements of 300 m 2 house-office building has been presented in this paper, when simple Thermal Passive Techniques (TPT) have been applied to building's construction in Sebha city at the Libyan south. The known software for dynamic simulation (TRNSYS) has been used as an environment of digital experimentation for this study. A prototype represents the building has been constructed with the help of the available model of single thermal zone of TRNSYS (Type 19). The built-in ASHREA Transfer Function Method within this model has been used to calculate the heat flux through building's materials. Primarily, the thermal load on building's construction without TPTs has been evaluated under weather conditions of a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) of Sebha city. Then, the building has been equipped with simple TPTs (such as the control of building materials, insulation, shading, infiltration and ventilation with windows resizing). This building was subjected to the same weather conditions and again the thermal load has been evaluated in order to report the percentage of reduction of thermal load. The simulation has been conducted successfully, where good assessment of reduction of annual heating and cooling demands in the building has been obtained. It is proved that, about (46%) of annual heating load and (48%) of annual cooling load can be reduced if suitable simple TPTs were incorporated in buildings.(Author)

  3. Environmental Loads of a Finnish indoor training iceskating rink in the Context of LCA; Jaeaehallirakennuksen aiheuttamat ympaeristoekuormitukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this study the environmental burdens generated by its essential building elements and systems of a typical new indoor training ice-skating rink during entire life cycle were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method developed at Helsinki University of Technology at the department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Economics and Management. The developed method is based on LCA -methodology and follows the principle of the ISO 14040 Environmental Management standard. In the calculations the life cycle of the indoor training iceskating rink was divided in four main phases: new construction, maintenance and energy, repair, and demolition. In each life cycle phase all the material and energy flows and emissions were calculated. Almost all (99 %) of the building elements in the indoor training ice skating rink were made of non-renewable materials. Also the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was mainly (81 %) produced with non-renewable energy sources. The life cycle phases causing the most environmental loads were energy and new construction. The energy phase consumed 92 % of the total energy and produced 91 of the CO{sub 2} equivalents and 74 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents. In the new-construction phase 6 % of the life cycle energy was consumed, and 64 % of the ethene equivalents were produced. In addition to these 79 % of the building materials were used in the new- construction phase. The calculations were also tested against the sensitivity to different presumption changes. Two kinds of presumptions were made: ones that could be influenced by project control and others which refer to the future of the building and could not be influenced by project control. The calculations of the environmental loads of the indoor training ice skating rink were most sensitive to changes in the usage profiles and indoor temperature. For example one of the usage profile increased the environmental loads of the indoor training ice

  4. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. In situ oxidation and reduction of triangular nickel nanoplates via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    LAGROW, A.P.; AlYami, Noktan; LLOYD, D.C.; Bakr, Osman; BOYES, E.D.; GAI, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), is important for their use in industrial applications of catalysis. A powerful technique for investigating the redox reactive species is in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), where oxidation and reduction can be tracked in real time. One particular difficulty in understanding the underlying reactions is understanding the underlying morphology of the starting structure in a reaction, in particular the defects contained in the material, and the exposed surface facets. Here-in, we use a colloidal nanoparticle synthesis in a continuous flow reactor to form nanoplates of nickel coated with oleylamine as a capping agent. We utilise an in situ heating procedure at 300 °C in vacuum to remove the oleylamine ligands, and then oxidise the Ni nanoparticles at 25 °C with 2 Pa oxygen, and follow the nanoparticles initial oxidation. After that, the nanoparticles are oxidised at 200 and 300 °C, making the size of the oxide shell increase to ∼4 nm. The oxide shell could be reduced under 2 Pa hydrogen at 500 °C to its initial size of ∼1 nm. High temperature oxidation encouraged the nanoparticles to form pure NiO nanoparticles, which occurred via the Kirkendall effect leading to hollowing and void formation.

  6. In situ oxidation and reduction of triangular nickel nanoplates via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    LAGROW, A.P.

    2017-08-29

    Understanding the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), is important for their use in industrial applications of catalysis. A powerful technique for investigating the redox reactive species is in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), where oxidation and reduction can be tracked in real time. One particular difficulty in understanding the underlying reactions is understanding the underlying morphology of the starting structure in a reaction, in particular the defects contained in the material, and the exposed surface facets. Here-in, we use a colloidal nanoparticle synthesis in a continuous flow reactor to form nanoplates of nickel coated with oleylamine as a capping agent. We utilise an in situ heating procedure at 300 °C in vacuum to remove the oleylamine ligands, and then oxidise the Ni nanoparticles at 25 °C with 2 Pa oxygen, and follow the nanoparticles initial oxidation. After that, the nanoparticles are oxidised at 200 and 300 °C, making the size of the oxide shell increase to ∼4 nm. The oxide shell could be reduced under 2 Pa hydrogen at 500 °C to its initial size of ∼1 nm. High temperature oxidation encouraged the nanoparticles to form pure NiO nanoparticles, which occurred via the Kirkendall effect leading to hollowing and void formation.

  7. Research on noise and vibration reduction at DB to improve the environmental friendliness of railway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Werning, B.; Beier, M.; Degen, K. G.; Stiebel, D.

    2006-06-01

    One of the most prominent keywords relating to the environmental friendliness of railway traffic is noise reduction. Thus, the research and development programme "Low Noise Railway" of Deutsche Bahn (DB) is under way to treat the noise of the vehicles and infrastructure. The noise reduction of the trains and the rail/wheel system are being tackled within several projects. The direct noise experienced by railway-lineside residents due to train movements on the track can be reduced by minimising the sound radiation directly at the source. This is the first-choice solution, as it proves to be the most effective countermeasure regarding a cost-benefit relation. The limit values for the noise emission as specified in the technical specification for interoperability are an essential criterion to be confirmed during the procurement process of railway vehicles. A recently developed acoustical quality management scheme establishes systematic noise management to complete the vehicle procurement process in the phases of concept, design, construction and manufacturing. In freight traffic quiet railway wheels for block brake operation will play an important role in the future to meet the goal of a low-noise railway system. A first attempt to realise successfully the low-noise potential of such optimised wheels was performed, even if with mixed results. To show ways of reducing the noise of the cooling ventilation in locomotives, DB is a partner in a development project led by Siemens. A notable 8 dB(A) noise reduction was measured. Concerning bridge noise, a project was started based on an effective and cost-efficient combination of experiments and simulations in order to develop specifications for the construction of generic low-noise bridges.

  8. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  9. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE

  10. Opportunities for cost reduction and improved environmental impact in the lead and lead/acid battery industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N.

    The opportunities for cost reduction through improved environmental performance exist in many companies, but often are not realized. This paper describes the efforts of a typical firm — Calder Industrial Materials (CIM) — that is experiencing ever-tighter environmental controls and profit erosion through the effects of new environmental legislation. At the same time, however, CIM sees opportunities to reduce its environmental burden and cut costs. As the story unfolds, readers may well discover many parallels with their own companies. It may even spur some into action, for remember, every £1000 saved requires ten times the turnover to generate the same profit.

  11. Is Recovery of Large-Bodied Zooplankton after Nutrient Loading Reduction Hampered by Climate Warming? A Long-Term Study of Shallow Hypertrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gutierrez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient fluctuations and climate warming can synergistically affect trophic dynamics in lakes, resulting in enhanced symptoms of eutrophication, thereby potentially counteracting restoration measures. We performed a long-term study (23 years of zooplankton in Danish Lake Søbygaard, which is in recovery after nutrient loading reduction, but now faces the effects of climate warming. We hypothesized that the recovery of large-bodied zooplankton after nutrient loading reduction would be hampered by climate warming through indirect effects on fish size structure. We found a shift in macrozooplankton from initial dominance of Daphnia spp. towards Bosmina spp. as well as a decline in the body size of copepods and an increase in the abundance of nauplii. These changes coincided with the increase in small sized fish as a result of rising water temperature. Despite a reduction in body size, the total biomass of cladocerans increased coinciding with a diminished fish catch per unit effort (CPUE, and likely then an overall reduction in the predation on zooplankton. A cascading effect to phytoplankton was evidenced by enhanced zooplankton:phytoplankton and cladoceran:phytoplankton ratios and a decrease in Chl-a:TP and Chl-a:TN ratios. Our results indicate that climate warming, through changes in the size structure of fish community, has major effects on zooplankton size structure. In Lake Søbygaard, the decline in zooplankton size did not prevent, but modulated, the positive cascading effect on phytoplankton through an expected diminished fish CPUE related to nutrient loading reduction.

  12. Acid deposition and assessment of its critical load for the environmental health of waterbodies in a subtropical watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junjie; Gao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric acidic deposition in subtropical watersheds poses an environmental risk of causing acidification of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of acid deposition in a subtropical forest ecosystem and the associated critical loads of acidity for a sensitive aquatic ecosystem. We found that out of 132 rainfall events, 33(25%) were acidic rainfall occurrences. Estimated wet acid deposition (2282.78 eq·ha-1·yr-1), consistent with SO42- and NH4+ deposition, was high in spring and summer and low in autumn and winter. Waterbodies surrounded by mixed wood and citrus orchard experience severe acidification, mostly from S deposition because acidic deposition exceeds the corresponding critical loads of acidity. Modifications that take acid rain deposition into consideration are needed for land-use and agricultural management strategies to improve the environmental health of waterbodies in subtropical watersheds.

  13. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  14. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and means of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can vary depending on the case investigated and interests of actors involved. Based on the objective for the SEA of a proposed aluminium reduction plant (ARP) in Greenland, this paper evaluates the SEA’s effectiveness in securing...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...... assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...

  15. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions: Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Michael R.; Lewis, Geoffrey McD.; Cepela, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO 2 and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices.

  16. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions. Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael R.; Cepela, Daniel J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Lewis, Geoffrey McD. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO{sub 2} and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices. (author)

  17. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions: Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael R., E-mail: micmoore@umich.ed [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Lewis, Geoffrey McD. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cepela, Daniel J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO{sub 2} and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices.

  18. Reduction environmental effects of civil aircraft through multi-objective flight plan optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D S; Gonzalez, L F; Walker, R; Periaux, J; Onate, E

    2010-01-01

    With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO 2 ) and NO x using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NO x with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NO x with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NO x and CO 2 (minimum mission fuel weight).

  19. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  20. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  1. Modification of ASTM Standard E1681 on Environmental Cracking to Include Bolt-Load Specimen Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, Jean D. M

    1997-01-01

    Benet Laboratories experience with environmental cracking of cannon components has been combined with the technical expertise of various participants at ASTM technical meetings and symposia to develop...

  2. An Introductory Lesson to Environmental Health: Media Analysis and Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Rhodes, Darson L.

    2010-01-01

    This activity is designed to provide students with an overview of environmental health and to encourage them to think critically about how they can minimize their potential negative health impacts from environmental exposures. Objectives: Students will (a) define environmental health, (b) analyze media wherein environmental health issues are…

  3. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  4. Creep of MDF panels under constant load and cyclic environmental conditions. Influence of surface coating

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Golfín Seco, J. I.; Díez Barra, M. Rafael

    1997-01-01

    Four different strategies of surface coating (based on 80 g m2 melamin impregnated papers) were used on 19 mm thick commercial MDF panels to assess its reological behaviour under cyclic humidity conditions (20ºC 30 % rh-20ºC 90 % rh). Three different levels of stress (20 %, 30 % and 40 %), based on the ultimate load in bending, were used. Tests were conducted by means of the three points load system. For the same stress level, the relative creep of MDF panels was higher than that in par...

  5. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  6. Retrofitting impervious urban infrastructure with green technology for rainfall-runoff restoration, indirect reuse and pollution load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansalone, John; Raje, Saurabh; Kertesz, Ruben; Maccarone, Kerrilynn; Seltzer, Karl; Siminari, Michele; Simms, Peter; Wood, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The built environs alter hydrology and water resource chemistry. Florida is subject to nutrient criteria and is promulgating “no-net-load-increase” criteria for runoff and constituents (nutrients and particulate matter, PM). With such criteria, green infrastructure, hydrologic restoration, indirect reuse and source control are potential design solutions. The study simulates runoff and constituent load control through urban source area re-design to provide long-term “no-net-load-increases”. A long-term continuous simulation of pre- and post-development response for an existing surface parking facility is quantified. Retrofits include a biofiltration area reactor (BAR) for hydrologic and denitrification control. A linear infiltration reactor (LIR) of cementitious permeable pavement (CPP) provides infiltration, adsorption and filtration. Pavement cleaning provided source control. Simulation of climate and source area data indicates re-design achieves “no-net-load-increases” at lower costs compared to standard construction. The retrofit system yields lower cost per nutrient load treated compared to Best Management Practices (BMPs). -- Continuous simulation of climate and site data demonstrate that urban re-design using green infrastructure can provide long-term “no-net-load-increases” at a lower costs compared to BMPs

  7. Tracking Dissipation Reduction, Externalities, Stability and Sustainability for Environmental Management of New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability requires stability, but in promoting economic development, modern economies and political systems reduce stabilizing dissipation by facilitating use and management of the environment through engineered mitigation of disturbances, which externalizes dissipation over the short to medium term. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between a range of environmental management approaches and sustainability, and the implications for Earth's future, we track the impact of management strategies on dissipation within the system and its externalities in a numerical model for the coupled economic, political/management and flooding dynamics of New Orleans. The model simulates river floods, hurricane storm-surge-induced floods, subsidence, and agent-based market interactions leading to development of port services, hotels, homes and labor relations. Flood protection decisions for levee construction based on the baseline case of cost-benefit analyses designed to prevent short-term economic loss from future floods qualitatively reproduce historical expansion of New Orleans and increases in levee height. Alternative management strategies explored include majority voting, consensus-based decision-making, and variations in discounting of costs and benefits. Enhanced dissipation is measured relative to optimal economic development without floods. The focus of modern economies on commodification is exploited to track dissipation as a scalar representing value or power, but this approach might not be applicable to more complicated traditional/indigenous cultures or cultures of resistance. For the baseline case, short-to-medium-term reductions in dissipation destabilize the coupled system, resulting in episodic bursts of externalized dissipation during flooding. Comparisons of results for a range of management options and generalizations of this approach for alternative cultural systems will be discussed.

  8. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator's success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning

  9. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL RISK REDUCTION IN MONCURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite rigorous efforts to understand and resolve environmental justice (EJ) issues, the complexity of the issues associated with many of these EJ communities continues to bring challenges to community residents and environmental researchers. Moncure, NC, located in northern Cha...

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) for Phosphorus Loads in Tile-Drained Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W; King, K; Williams, M; Williams, J; Fausey, N

    2015-07-01

    Numerical modeling is an economical and feasible approach for quantifying the effects of best management practices on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loadings from agricultural fields. However, tools that simulate both surface and subsurface DRP pathways are limited and have not been robustly evaluated in tile-drained landscapes. The objectives of this study were to test the ability of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX), a widely used field-scale model, to simulate surface and tile P loadings over management, hydrologic, biologic, tile, and soil gradients and to better understand the behavior of P delivery at the edge-of-field in tile-drained midwestern landscapes. To do this, a global, variance-based sensitivity analysis was performed, and model outputs were compared with measured P loads obtained from 14 surface and subsurface edge-of-field sites across central and northwestern Ohio. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that response variables for DRP were highly sensitive to coupled interactions between presumed important parameters, suggesting nonlinearity of DRP delivery at the edge-of-field. Comparison of model results to edge-of-field data showcased the ability of APEX to simulate surface and subsurface runoff and the associated DRP loading at monthly to annual timescales; however, some high DRP concentrations and fluxes were not reflected in the model, suggesting the presence of preferential flow. Results from this study provide new insights into baseline tile DRP loadings that exceed thresholds for algal proliferation. Further, negative feedbacks between surface and subsurface DRP delivery suggest caution is needed when implementing DRP-based best management practices designed for a specific flow pathway. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Reductions in energy use and environmental emissions achievable with utility-based cogeneration: Simplified illustrations for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Significant reductions in energy use and environmental emissions are demonstrated to be achievable when electrical utilities use cogeneration. Simplified illustrations of these reductions are presented for the province of Ontario, based on applying cogeneration to the facilities of the main provincial electrical utility. Three cogeneration illustrations are considered: (i) fuel cogeneration is substituted for fuel electrical generation and fuel heating, (ii) nuclear cogeneration is substituted for nuclear electrical generation and fuel heating, and (iii) fuel cogeneration is substituted for fuel electrical generation and electrical heating. The substitution of cogeneration for separate electrical and heat generation processes for all illustrations considered leads to significant reductions in fuel energy consumption (24-61%), which lead to approximately proportional reductions in emissions. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Environmental benefits from CO2 reduction, due to modal replacement: Case study on light rail vehicle in Brasilia City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Costa, P.H. da; Alves Teixeira, L.M.; Cardoso Pinheiro, J.; Serra Arruda, F.; Mendonça Brasil, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to measure the reduction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions in atmosphere by replacing the modal urban bus by Light Rail Vehicle (VLT). In order to accomplish this objective, a case study in Brasilia, Federal District, in the stretch of VLT which passes on Via W-3 South was conducted. The Theory of Externalities that discusses the right to ownership of private and public goods and responsibilities about the positive and negative externalities caused by the agents and individuals of society was used to support the analyses. It was used the Top-Down method, which allowed the calculation the direct emissions of CO2. The values obtained on the reduction of CO2 emissions were converted into values of carbon credits as a way to economically measure such reductions. The results showed a significant reduction in CO2 emissions per year and consequent environmental benefit. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of hirst-type spore trap to monitor environmental fungal load in hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Dananché

    Full Text Available The main purpose was to validate the use of outdoor-indoor volumetric impaction sampler with Hirst-type spore traps (HTSTs to continuously monitor fungal load in order to prevent invasive fungal infections during major structural work in hospital settings. For 4 weeks, outdoor fungal loads were quantified continuously by 3 HTSTs. Indoor air was sampled by both HTST and viable impaction sampler. Results were expressed as particles/m3 (HTST or colony-forming units (CFU/m3 (biocollector. Paired comparisons by day were made with Wilcoxon's paired signed-rank test or paired Student's t-test as appropriate. Paired airborne spore levels were correlated 2 by 2, after log-transformation with Pearson's cross-correlation. Concordance was calculated with kappa coefficient (κ. Median total fungal loads (TFLs sampled by the 3 outdoor HTSTs were 3,025.0, 3,287.5 and 3,625.0 particles/m3 (P = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.3.-Concordance between Aspergillaceae fungal loads (AFLs, including Aspergillus spp. + Penicillium spp. was low (κ = 0.2. A low positive correlation was found between TFLs sampled with outdoor HTST and indoor HTST with applying a 4-hour time lag, r = 0.30, 95% CI (0.23-0.43, P<0.001. In indoor air, Aspergillus spp. were detected by the viable impaction sampler on 63.1% of the samples, whereas AFLs were found by HTST-I on only 3.6% of the samples. Concordance between Aspergillus spp. loads and AFLs sampled with the 2 methods was very low (κ = 0.1. This study showed a 4-hour time lag between increase of outdoor and indoor TFLs, possibly due to insulation and aeraulic flow of the building. Outdoor HTSTs may permit to quickly identify (after 48 hours time periods with high outdoor fungal loads. An identified drawback is that a too low sample area read did not seem to enable detection of Aspergillaceae spores efficiently. Indoor HTSTs may not be recommended at this time, and outdoor HTSTs need further study. Air sampling by viable impaction sampler remains the

  14. Evaluation of hirst-type spore trap to monitor environmental fungal load in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananché, Cédric; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Cassier, Pierre; Loeffert, Sophie Tiphaine; Thibaudon, Michel; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose was to validate the use of outdoor-indoor volumetric impaction sampler with Hirst-type spore traps (HTSTs) to continuously monitor fungal load in order to prevent invasive fungal infections during major structural work in hospital settings. For 4 weeks, outdoor fungal loads were quantified continuously by 3 HTSTs. Indoor air was sampled by both HTST and viable impaction sampler. Results were expressed as particles/m3 (HTST) or colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 (biocollector). Paired comparisons by day were made with Wilcoxon's paired signed-rank test or paired Student's t-test as appropriate. Paired airborne spore levels were correlated 2 by 2, after log-transformation with Pearson's cross-correlation. Concordance was calculated with kappa coefficient (κ). Median total fungal loads (TFLs) sampled by the 3 outdoor HTSTs were 3,025.0, 3,287.5 and 3,625.0 particles/m3 (P = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.3).-Concordance between Aspergillaceae fungal loads (AFLs, including Aspergillus spp. + Penicillium spp.) was low (κ = 0.2). A low positive correlation was found between TFLs sampled with outdoor HTST and indoor HTST with applying a 4-hour time lag, r = 0.30, 95% CI (0.23-0.43), PHTST-I on only 3.6% of the samples. Concordance between Aspergillus spp. loads and AFLs sampled with the 2 methods was very low (κ = 0.1). This study showed a 4-hour time lag between increase of outdoor and indoor TFLs, possibly due to insulation and aeraulic flow of the building. Outdoor HTSTs may permit to quickly identify (after 48 hours) time periods with high outdoor fungal loads. An identified drawback is that a too low sample area read did not seem to enable detection of Aspergillaceae spores efficiently. Indoor HTSTs may not be recommended at this time, and outdoor HTSTs need further study. Air sampling by viable impaction sampler remains the reference tool for quantifying fungal contamination of indoor air in hospitals.

  15. Retrofitting impervious urban infrastructure with green technology for rainfall-runoff restoration, indirect reuse and pollution load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, John; Raje, Saurabh; Kertesz, Ruben; Maccarone, Kerrilynn; Seltzer, Karl; Siminari, Michele; Simms, Peter; Wood, Brandon

    2013-12-01

    The built environs alter hydrology and water resource chemistry. Florida is subject to nutrient criteria and is promulgating "no-net-load-increase" criteria for runoff and constituents (nutrients and particulate matter, PM). With such criteria, green infrastructure, hydrologic restoration, indirect reuse and source control are potential design solutions. The study simulates runoff and constituent load control through urban source area re-design to provide long-term "no-net-load-increases". A long-term continuous simulation of pre- and post-development response for an existing surface parking facility is quantified. Retrofits include a biofiltration area reactor (BAR) for hydrologic and denitrification control. A linear infiltration reactor (LIR) of cementitious permeable pavement (CPP) provides infiltration, adsorption and filtration. Pavement cleaning provided source control. Simulation of climate and source area data indicates re-design achieves "no-net-load-increases" at lower costs compared to standard construction. The retrofit system yields lower cost per nutrient load treated compared to Best Management Practices (BMPs). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corelations between tourism and environmental load in the „Slovak Paradise – Slovenský Raj“, E.Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Jablonská

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism – and specially nature tourism - is an area, where the interaction between the tourists and environment is very intensive. Tourists are sensitive to the beauty and purity of the environment, but at the same time, the environmental impact of their presence in nature is marked. In order to maintain the beauty and purity of the environment a number of environmental threats are to be alleviated. Further, it seems to be necessary to decrease/regulate the number of tourists, or a set of costly cleaning and revitalising operations are to be implemented. The paper analyses the data available on the tourism related load of one of the most beautiful areas in Slovakia – the „Slovak paradise“, located in E. Slovakia.

  17. Children's Urinary Environmental Carbon Load. A Novel Marker Reflecting Residential Ambient Air Pollution Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenen, Nelly D; Bové, Hannelore; Steuwe, Christian; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Provost, Eline B; Lefebvre, Wouter; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Ameloot, Marcel; Nawrot, Tim S

    2017-10-01

    Ambient air pollution, including black carbon, entails a serious public health risk because of its carcinogenic potential and as climate pollutant. To date, an internal exposure marker for black carbon particles that have cleared from the systemic circulation into the urine does not exist. To develop and validate a novel method to measure black carbon particles in a label-free way in urine. We detected urinary carbon load in 289 children (aged 9-12 yr) using white-light generation under femtosecond pulsed laser illumination. Children's residential black carbon concentrations were estimated based on a high-resolution spatial temporal interpolation method. We were able to detect urinary black carbon in all children, with an overall average (SD) of 98.2 × 10 5 (29.8 × 10 5 ) particles/ml. The urinary black carbon load was positively associated with medium-term to chronic (1 mo or more) residential black carbon exposure: +5.33 × 10 5 particles/ml higher carbon load (95% confidence interval, 1.56 × 10 5 to 9.10 × 10 5 particles/ml) for an interquartile range increment in annual residential black carbon exposure. Consistently, children who lived closer to a major road (≤160 m) had higher urinary black carbon load (6.93 × 10 5 particles/ml; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 × 10 5 to 13.1 × 10 5 ). Urinary black carbon mirrors the accumulation of medium-term to chronic exposure to combustion-related air pollution. This specific biomarker reflects internal systemic black carbon particles cleared from the circulation into the urine, allowing investigators to unravel the complexity of particulate-related health effects.

  18. Effective Method for Determining Environmental Loads on Supporting Structures for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymarski Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an effective method for determining loads due to waves and current acting on the supporting structures of the offshore wind turbines. This method is dedicated to the structures consisting of the cylindrical or conical elements as well as (truncates pyramids of polygon with a large number of sides (8 or more. The presented computational method is based on the Morison equation, which was originally developed only for cylindrically shaped structures. The new algorithm shown here uses the coefficients of inertia and drag forces that were calculated for non-cylindrical shapes. The analysed structure consists of segments which are truncated pyramids on the basis of a hex decagon. The inertia coefficients, CM, and drag coefficients, CD, were determined using RANSE-CFD calculations. The CFD simulations were performed for a specific range of variation of the period, and for a certain range of amplitudes of the velocity. In addition, the analysis of influence of the surface roughness on the inertia and drag coefficients was performed. In the next step, the computations of sea wave, current and wind load on supporting structure for the fifty-year storm were carried out. The simulations were performed in the time domain and as a result the function of forces distribution along the construction elements was obtained. The most unfavourable distribution of forces will be used, to analyse the strength of the structure, as the design load.

  19. Overview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant Early Reduction Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laznow, J.; Daniel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Under provision of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Title III, the EPA has proposed a regulation (Early Reduction Program) to allow a six-year compliance extension from Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for sources that voluntarily reduce emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) by 90% or more (95% or more for particulates) from a base year of 1987 or later. The emission reduction must be made before the applicable MACT standard is proposed for the source category or be subject to an enforceable commitment to achieve the reduction by January 1, 1994 for sources subject to MACT standards prior to 1994. The primary purpose of this program is to encourage reduction of HAPs emissions sooner than otherwise required. Industry would be allowed additional time in evaluating emission reduction options and developing more cost-effective compliance strategies, although, under strict guidelines to ensure actual, significant and verifiable emission reductions occur

  20. Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the ship-loading of petroleum products: Dispersion modelling and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Ancione, Giuseppa; Lisi, Roberto

    2017-12-15

    Emissions due to ship-loading of hydrocarbons are currently not addressed neither by the Directive on the integrated pollution prevention or by other environmental regulations. The scope of this study is to point towards the environmental and safety concerns associated with such emissions, even if proper attention has not been given to this issue until now. In order to achieve this goal, the modelling of the emission volatile organic compounds (VOC), due to ship-load operations at refineries has been made by means of the definition of a simulation procedure which includes a proper treatment of the hours of calm. Afterwards, a quantitative analysis of VOC dispersion for an Italian case-study is presented with the primary aims: (i) to develop and verify the validity of the approach for the modelling of the emission sources and of the diffusion of these contaminants into the atmosphere by a proper treatment of the hours of calm and (ii) to identify their contribution to the total VOC emitted in a typical refinery. The calculated iso-concentration contours have also been drawn on a map and allowed the identification of critical areas for people protecting by the adoption of abatement solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D FEM Analysis of a Pile-Supported Riverine Platform under Environmental Loads Incorporating Soil-Pile Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing riverine platform in Egypt, together with its pile group foundation, is analyzed under environmental loads using 3D FEM structural analysis software incorporating soil-pile interaction. The interaction between the transfer plate and the piles supporting the platform is investigated. Two connection conditions were studied assuming fixed or hinged connection between the piles and the reinforced concrete platform for the purpose of comparison of the structural behavior. The analysis showed that the fixed or hinged connection condition between the piles and the platform altered the values and distribution of displacements, normal force, bending moments, and shear forces along the length of each pile. The distribution of piles in the pile group affects the stress distribution on both the soil and platform. The piles were found to suffer from displacement failure rather than force failure. Moreover, the resulting bending stresses on the reinforced concrete plate in the case of a fixed connection between the piles and the platform were almost doubled and much higher than the allowable reinforced concrete stress and even exceeded the ultimate design strength and thus the environmental loads acting on a pile-supported riverine offshore platform may cause collapse if they are not properly considered in the structural analysis and design.

  2. Chitosan-based nanocomplexes for simultaneous loading, burst reduction and controlled release of doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Antonio; Kucharczyk, Pavel; Capakova, Zdenka; Humpolicek, Petr; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    In this work, nanocomplexes based on chitosan grafted by carboxy-modified polylactic acid (SPLA) were prepared with the aim of loading simultaneously two anticancer drugs - doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, as well as to control their release, reduce the initial burst and boost cytotoxicity. The SPLA was prepared by a polycondensation reaction, using pentetic acid as the core molecule, and linked to the chitosan backbone through a coupling reaction. Nanocomplexes loaded with both drugs were formulated by the polyelectrolyte complexation method. The structure of the SPLA was characterized by 1 H NMR, while the product CS-SPLA was analyzed by FTIR-ATR to prove the occurrence of the reaction. Results showed that the diameters and ζ-potential of the nanocomplexes fall in the range 120-200nm and 20-37mV, respectively. SEM and TEM analysis confirmed the spherical shape and dimensions of the nanocomplexes. The presence of hydrophobic side chain SPLA did not influence the encapsulation efficiency of the drugs but strongly reduced the initial burst and prolonged release over time compared to unmodified chitosan. MS analysis showed that no degradation or interactions between the drugs and carrier were exhibited after loading or 24h of release had taken place, confirming the protective role of the nanocomplexes. In vitro tests demonstrated an increase in the cytotoxicity of the drugs when loaded in the prepared carriers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive wing : Investigations of passive wing technologies for loads reduction in the cleansky smart fixed wing aircraft (SFWA) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, W.R.; Dillinger, J; De Breuker, R.; Reyes, M.; Haydn, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the work package “Adaptive Wing” in the Clean-Sky “Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft” (SFWA) project, design processes and solutions for aircraft wings have been created, giving optimal response with respect to loads, comfort and performance by the introduction of passive and active concepts. Central

  4. Impact of Sustainable Environmental Expenditures Policy on Air Pollution Reduction, During European Integration Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the growth of society, against the boosting of scientific and technological progress, also arises the negative effect of pollution acceleration. In this context, we relate to risks that imply the growth of pollution, especially against nuisance air pollution increase (CO, SO2, NO etc. with major implications on the growth of greenhouse effect, the melting of the ice fields, respectively the pollution of the soil with nitrates from fertilizers intensively used in agriculture. Our study is up-to-date, as pursuant to the ONU Conference from Paris (France 2015, Conference on Climate Changes, they reached an agreement and the adopted text admits the menace of climate modifications is far more important than previously acknowledged and engages the participants to reduce their pollutant emissions. The researchers’ current concerns focus on studying the effects of the redistribution of financial resources obtained by practising the ‘green’ fiscal policy on dependent variables. Observing them, we integrate the respective variables into complex models analysed by multiple regression (both standard and robust and the fixed effects panel on 20 European countries which also reflect the different effects on the environmental policy and the expenses it incurred. The main purpose of the analysis we aim to accomplish is the impact of the policy for environment expenditure tenable within the European framework on against nuisance air pollution attenuation. The statistical analysis aims at identifying these effects by means of regression equations (OLS, robust regression (M method, fixed and random effects, using panel data from 18 EU countries, as well as Switzerland and Turkey due to their position in relation to the community block; we will analyse the period between 1995-2013. Further to the application of multiple regression statistical methods (OLS and robust M, our results show that teimiqgdp expenses played a major role in the reduction

  5. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  6. Water-mineral interaction in hygromechanics of clays exposed to environmental loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueckel, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Water-mineral interaction in narrow interstices (<3 nm) in dense, saturated clays is discussed in view of recent experimental findings and molecular dynamics simulations. Consequences to the macroscopic behavior are considered. A mixture theory for two interacting constituents is developed. Effects of temperature and chemicals are discussed. A postulate of mass transfer of absorbed water from solid to fluid fraction caused by thermal or chemical load is then discussed. Theory of plasticity of clays affected by heat or chemicals is developed to deal with the effects of thermal and chemical consolidation

  7. Numerical tools to predict the environmental loads for offshore structures under extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the extreme waves were generated using the open source computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools — OpenFOAM and Waves2FOAM — using linear and nonlinear NewWave input. They were used to conduct the numerical simulation of the wave impact process. Numerical tools based on first-order (with and without stretching) and second-order NewWave are investigated. The simulation to predict force loading for the offshore platform under the extreme weather condition is implemented and compared.

  8. A modified harmony search method for environmental/economic load dispatch of real-world power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeddi, Babak; Vahidinasab, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) model is proposed. • The proposed model considers practical constraints of real-world power systems. • A new modified harmony search algorithm proposed to solve non-convex CEELD. • The proposed algorithm is tested by applying it to solve seven test systems. - Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is one of the basic and important optimization problems in a power system. However, considering practical constraints of real-world power systems such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, valve loading effects, multi-fuel options, spinning reserve and transmission system losses in ELD problem makes it a non-convex optimization problem, which is a challenging one and cannot be solved by traditional methods. Moreover, considering environmental issues, results in combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) problem that is a multiobjective optimization model with two non-commensurable and contradictory objectives. In this paper, a modified harmony search algorithm (MHSA) proposed and applied to solve ELD and CEELD problem considering the abovementioned constraints. In the proposed MHSA, a new improvising method based on wavelet mutation together with a new memory consideration scheme based on the roulette wheel mechanism are proposed which improves the accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness of the classical HSA. Performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated by applying it to solve various test systems having non-convex solution spaces. To Show the effectiveness of the proposed method, obtained results compared with classical harmony search algorithm (HSA) and some of the most recently published papers in the area

  9. Los Angeles Area Permit Holder Estimated Trash Load Reduction, Los Angeles CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Los Angeles River has been designated as an impaired waterbody due to the large volume of trash it receives from the watershed. To address this problem a Total...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WRITING INSTRUMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A NUCLEAR POWERED ELECTRICAL GENERATING STATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HARDENED STEEL GEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small to medium sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of the...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A TRANSPORTER OF BULK PLASTIC PELLETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SYSTEMS TO PRODUCE SEMICONDUCTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. ne of the ...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTROPLATING CHEMICAL PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the State of New Jersey. One of th...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A REMANUFACTURER OF AUTOMOBILE RADIATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. ne of the ...

  18. Research, Development and Demonstration of Peak Load Reduction on Distribution Feeders Using Distributed Energy Resources for the City of Fort Collins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Dennis [City of Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States); Vosburg, Tom [City of Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States); Brunner, Steve [Brendle Group, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gates, Judy [Woodward, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Howard, Nathan [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Merton, Andrew [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wright, Don [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Birlingmair, Doug [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This project titled “Research, Development and Demonstration of Peak Load Reduction on Distribution Feeders Using Distributed Energy Resources for the City of Fort Collins” evolved in response to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-PS26-07NT43119. Also referred to as the Fort Collins Renewable and Distributed System Integration (RDSI) Project, the effort was undertaken by a diverse group of local government, higher education and business organizations; and was driven by three overarching goals: I. Fulfill the requirements of the DOE FOA’s Area of Interest 2: Renewable and Distributed System Integration; most notably, to demonstrate the ability to reduce electric system distribution feeder peak load by 15% or more through the coordinated use of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). II. Advance the expertise, technologies and infrastructure necessary to support the long term vision of the Fort Collins Zero Energy District (FortZED) and move towards creating a zero energy district in the Fort Collins “Old Town” area. III. Further the goals of the City of Fort Collins Energy Policy, including the development of a Smart Grid-enabled distribution system in Fort Collins, expanded use of renewable energy, increased energy conservation, and peak load reduction. Through the collaborative efforts of the partner organizations, the Fort Collins RDSI project was successful in achieving all three of these goals. This report is organized into two distinct sections corresponding to the two phases of the project: • Part 1: Feeder Peak Load Reduction and the FortZED Initiative. • Part 2: Forming and Operating Utility Microgrids and Managing Load and Production Variability The original project scope addressed the Part 1 feeder peak load reduction. That work took place from 2009 through 2011 and was largely complete when the project scope was amended to include a demonstration of microgrid operations. While leveraging the

  19. Geneva convention and Critical Loads: an example of Science-based Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabago Juan-Aracil, I.; Alonso del Amo, R.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading environmental problems of out times that could eventually change the living conditions of human beings and the ecosystems on the whole planet. Therefore, international forums have been created to discuss environmental policies aimed at the control of pollutant emissions and the protection of ecosystems and human health. the fundamental purpose is to take common actions that go beyond political borders, since in many cases the emissions of pollutants affect ecosystems far from the emission source. These were the objectives leading to the creation of the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, of the Economic commission for Europe-United Nations (UNECE). (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Environmental TEM investigation of the reduction of α-Fe2O3 nanorods under H2 atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Fay, Michael W.; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reduction of hydrothermally synthesised α-Fe2O3 nanorods (NRs) to Fe3O4 NRs under hydrogen is investigated. Complete reduction of α-Fe2O3 NRs to Fe3O4 NRs was achieved during in situ XRD under 1 bar H2 atmosphere at 360°C. Complementary environmental transmission electron microscope...... investigation at high resolution, during in situ heating under an H2 pressure of 5 mbar at 500°C, provided evidence for the very first stages of transformation, supporting a model for the migration of oxygen along favoured α-Fe2O3 lattice planes during the templated thermal reduction of α-Fe2O3 NRs to Fe3O4 NRs....

  1. Effects of environmental risks and polygenic loading for schizophrenia on cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Emma; Bois, Catherine; Gibson, Jude; Duff, Barbara; Watson, Andrew; Roberts, Neil; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Hall, Jeremy; McIntosh, Andrew M; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2017-06-01

    There are established differences in cortical thickness (CT) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar (BD) patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown to what extent environmental or genetic risk factors impact on CT in these populations. We have investigated the effect of Environmental Risk Scores (ERS) and Polygenic Risk Scores for SCZ (PGRS-SCZ) on CT. Structural MRI scans were acquired at 3T for patients with SCZ or BD (n=57) and controls (n=41). Cortical reconstructions were generated in FreeSurfer (v5.3). The ERS was created by determining exposure to cannabis use, childhood adverse events, migration, urbanicity and obstetric complications. The PGRS-SCZ were generated, for a subset of the sample (Patients=43, HC=32), based on the latest PGC GWAS findings. ANCOVAs were used to test the hypotheses that ERS and PGRS-SCZ relate to CT globally, and in frontal and temporal lobes. An increase in ERS was negatively associated with CT within temporal lobe for patients. A higher PGRS-SCZ was also related to global cortical thinning for patients. ERS effects remained significant when including PGRS-SCZ as a fixed effect. No relationship which survived FDR correction was found for ERS and PGRS-SCZ in controls. Environmental risk for SCZ was related to localised cortical thinning in patients with SCZ and BD, while increased PGRS-SCZ was associated with global cortical thinning. Genetic and environmental risk factors for SCZ appear therefore to have differential effects. This provides a mechanistic means by which different risk factors may contribute to the development of SCZ and BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uniformly active phase loaded selective catalytic reduction catalysts (V_2O_5/TNTs) with superior alkaline resistance performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Wang, Penglu; Chen, Xiongbo; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VOSO_4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH_4VO_3. • Ion-exchange reaction occurs between VOSO_4 and titanate nanotubes. • Ion-exchange resulting in uniformly vanadium distribution on titanate nanotubes. • VOSO_4-based catalyst exhibited impressive SCR activity and alkaline resistance. - Abstract: In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH_4VO_3 and VOSO_4) were used to synthesize deNO_x catalysts. The results showed that VOSO_4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH_4VO_3, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V"5"+/V"4"+ redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved. Besides, VOSO_4-based titanate nanotubes catalysts also showed enhanced alkaline resistance than particles (P25) based catalysts. It was strongly associated with its abundant acid sites, large surface area, flexible redox cycles and oxygen transfer ability. For the loading on protonated titanate nanotubes, active metal with cation groups was better precursors than anion ones. V_2O_5/TNTs catalyst was a promising substitute for the commercial vanadium catalysts and the work conducted herein provided a useful idea to design uniformly active phase loaded catalyst.

  3. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management: Waste Reduction Workshop 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The sixth of a series of waste reduction workshops was held at the Airport Hilton Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia, on February 6--7, 1991. These workshops are held under the auspices of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The focus of this workshop was the review of guidance and the status of conducting process waste assessments (PWAs). Other highlights of the workshop were the status of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Pollution Prevention Program, and presentations on budgeting for waste reduction and the impact of the toxic release inventory (TRI) reporting requirements on pollution prevention activities. Concurrent sessions on the second day included case studies of the experiences at various sites on the subjects of recycling, incentives, source reduction, volume and toxicity reduction, and material procurement. The impact of new state laws on waste reduction efforts at Oak Ridge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Hanford were also reviewed by representatives from those sites. These workshops assist DOE waste-generating sites in implementing waste minimization (WMIN) plans and programs, thus providing for optimal waste reduction within the DOE complex. All wastes are considered liquid, solid, and airborne, within the categories of high-level waste, transuranic waste (TRU), low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, office waste, and sanitary wastes. Topics of discussion within workshops encompass a wide range of subjects, including any method or technical activity from waste generation to disposal, such as process design or improvement, substitution of materials, waste segregation and recycling/reuse, waste treatment and processing, and administrative controls (procurement and waste awareness training). Consideration is also given to activities for remedial action and for decontamination and disposal

  4. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  5. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductive transformations are important processes for determining the fate of organic pollutants in anoxic environments. These processes are most often microbially mediated by both direct and indirect means. For example, specific bacteria transform organic pollutants directly as ...

  7. Full-scale test of trailing edge flaps on a Vestas V27 wind turbine: active load reduction and system identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Barlas, Thanasis K.; Buhl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    model, from trailing edge flap angle to flapwise blade root moment, was derived and compared with the linear analytical model used in the model predictive control design model. Flex5 simulations run with the same model predictive control showed a good correlation between the simulations......A full-scale test was performed on a Vestas V27 wind turbine equipped with one active 70 cm long trailing edge flap on one of its 13 m long blades. Active load reduction could be observed in spite of the limited spanwise coverage of the single active trailing edge flap. A frequency-weighted model...

  8. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males...... from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole...

  9. Reduction of negative environmental impact generated by residues of plant tissue culture laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleidys Cortés Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the activity developed by teaching and research laboratories for biotechnology purposes with an environmental approach to determine potential contamination risk and analyze the residuals generated. The physical - chemical characterization of the residuals was carried out from contamination indicators that can affect the dumping of residual water. In order to identify the environmental risks and sources of microbial contamination of plant material propagated by in vitro culture that generate residuals, all the risk activities were identified, the type of risk involved in each activity was analyzed, as well as whether or not the standards were met of aseptic normative. The dilution and neutralization was proposed for residuals with extreme values of pH. Since the results of the work a set of measures was proposed to reduce the negative environmental impact of the laboratory residuals. Key words: biosafety, environmental management, microbial contamination

  10. Information by the Federal Government. Report of the Federal Governement on 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation load in 1975'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report on environmental radioactivity and radiation load, to be published annually by the Federal government, contains data on artificial exposure from nuclear facilities, data on the application of radioactive substances and ionizing rays in research and technology, on occupational activities, medical application and special occurrences. Not only the annual release of radioactive substances from nuclear fcilities is presented but also data on the maximum permissible radiation exposures and the average gonadal exposure within the vicinity of plants. Furthermore, data is presented on the influence of X-ray investigations on the genetically significant dose as well as on the proportion in percent of the various radionuclides when applied in nuclear medicine. (ORU) [de

  11. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  12. Microbial Diversity and Parasitic Load in Tropical Fish of Different Environmental Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hennersdorf

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed fecal bacterial communities and parasites of three important Indonesian fish species, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus sexfasciatus and Atule mate. We then compared the biodiversity of bacterial communities and parasites of these three fish species collected in highly polluted Jakarta Bay with those collected in less polluted Indonesian areas of Cilacap (E. sexfasciatus, A. mate and Thousand Islands (E. fuscoguttatus. In addition, E. fuscoguttatus from net cages in an open water mariculture facility was compared with free living E. fuscoguttatus from its surroundings. Both core and shared microbiomes were investigated. Our results reveal that, while the core microbiomes of all three fish species were composed of fairly the same classes of bacteria, the proportions of these bacterial classes strongly varied. The microbial composition of phylogenetically distant fish species, i.e. A. mate and E. sexfasciatus from Jakarta Bay and Cilacap were more closely related than the microbial composition of more phylogentically closer species, i.e. E. fuscoguttatus, E. sexfasciatus from Jakarta Bay, Cilacap and Thousand Islands. In addition, we detected a weak negative correlation between the load of selected bacterial pathogens, i.e. Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. and the number of endoparasites. In the case of Flavobacterium sp. the opposite was observed, i.e. a weak positive correlation. Of the three recorded pathogenic bacterial genera, Vibrio sp. was commonly found in E. fuscoguttatus from mariculture, and lessly in the vicinity of the net cages and rarely in the fishes from the heavily polluted waters from Jakarta Bay. Flavobacterium sp. showed higher counts in mariculture fish and Photobacteria sp. was the most prominent in fish inside and close to the net cages.

  13. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Zambello, E.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: ► The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. ► Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an MBR were analysed. ► The removal rates achieved

  14. Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: Removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlicchi, P., E-mail: paola.verlicchi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Al Aukidy, M., E-mail: mustafakether.alaukidi@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Zambello, E., E-mail: elena.zambello@unife.it [Dept. of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra and AcquaTech Technopoles, Via Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The review refers to 118 pharmaceuticals occurring in raw and treated wastewaters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from 264 municipal WWTPs with a CAS or an

  15. Environmental Assessment: Bird Strike Risk Reduction at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    mglkg in rats, 291 - 609 mglkg in mice, > 1000 mglkg in sheep , > 100 mglkg in dogs and > 1000 mglkg in rabbits (Pesticide Residues in Food-1987... vineyards . Wildl. Soc. Bull. 21:47-51. LAFB Strike Risk Reduction EA - 39 Gaines, T.B. 1969. Acute toxicity of pesticides. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol

  16. Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions for Environmental Policy: A White Paper (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This white paper addresses current and recent U.S. EPA practices regarding the valuation of mortality risk reductions, focusing especially on empirical estimates of the “value of a statistical life” (VSL) from stated preference and hedonic wage studies.

  17. Environmental education for hazardous waste management and risk reduction in laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Rafael Pierre Martinez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The University laboratories are places where teaching, extension and research activities are develop, which harmful substances are manipulated and hazardous waste are generated, the lack of information about this makes them an inadequate provision causing human health and environmental risks. This research proposes the implementation of environmental education as an alternative for waste management and safety in the University of Magdalena laboratories. Applying a series of polls showed the effectiveness with efficiency or assertively rises at 30% cognitive level during the process. It recommends to obtain better results is necessary evaluate the ethic component.  

  18. The use of poultry dejections for the reduction of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Ara, Alice; Sangiorgi Sergio; La Peruta, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The use of livestock products such as poultry dejections, contained in the manure of poultry farming in substitution of chemical formulations, generates economic benefits but above all of environmental impact. Subject of this paper is the use of poultry manure in the cycle of tanning hides and in the production of fertilizers. [it

  19. School- And Home-Based Drug Prevention: Environmental, Parent, and Child Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel

    2007-01-01

    The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…

  20. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management waste reduction workshop 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The fourth of a series of waste minimization/reduction workshops was held at the Sheridan Grand Hotel in Tampa, Florida, on February 6--7, 1990. The workshops are held under the auspices of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This workshop provided a forum for waste minimization/reduction planning, including waste minimization assessments. The workshops assist DOE waste-generating sites in implementing waste minimization/reduction programs, plans, and activities, thus providing for optimal waste reduction within the DOE complex. All wastes are considered within this discipline: liquid, solid, and airborne, within the categories of high-level, transuranic (TRU), low-level (LLW), hazardous, and mixed. Topics of discussion within workshops encompassed a wide range of subjects. Subjects included any method or technical activity from waste generation to disposal, such as process design or improvement, substitution of materials, waste segregation and recycling/reuse, waste treatment and processing, and administrative controls (procurement and waste awareness training). Consideration was also given to activities for remedial action and for decontamination and disposal. 1 tab

  1. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM and in situ XRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    Paar furnace and a mass spectrometer to complement and extrapolate the ETEM data to higher pressures and gas flows. Diffraction peak intensities, crystallite sizes (obtained using the Scherrer formula) and H2/H2O mass spectrometer signals are monitored. The recorded images and diffraction patterns show...... that the presence and stagnation of H2O vapour created upon reduction blocks H2 access to the reactive sites, decreasing the reaction rate at a high conversion fraction. The gas flow is low and may not evacuate the product gas efficiently around the Ni(O) particles. Complementary XRD experiments point towards...... the same conclusion and underline the impact of the pressure and gas flow on the kinetics. It is possible to determine an approximate activation energy for NiO reduction inside the ETEM using the Kissinger method [8], which is based on measurements of the shift in the temperature at which the reaction rate...

  2. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for the off-loading and transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste across the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE allowing Chem-Nuclear Systems, L.L.C. (CNS) to off-load and transport low-level radioactive waste (LLW) packages across the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina, to the nearby CNS facility. The proposed action entails DOE granting permission to CNS to use SRS for landing shipping barges at the existing SRS boat ramp and off-loading trailered LLW packages for transportation across SRS to the CNS facility. Project activities would include modification of the SRS boat ramp on the Savannah River, as needed for off-loading activities, and construction of a bridge across Lower Three Runs. The proposed action also encompasses any similar future off-loading and transportation activities for LLW en route to the CNS facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  3. Microbial dissimilatory iron(III) reduction: Studies on the mechanism and on processes of environmental relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Many microbes are able to respire aerobically oxygen or anaerobically other electron acceptors for example sulphate, nitrate, manganese(IV) or Fe(III). As iron minerals are widespread in nature, dissimilatory iron(III) reduction by different microorganisms is a very important process of anaerobic respiration. The general goal of this work was to improve the knowledge of processes, in which iron-reducing microbes are said to play an important role. For this purpose, in one part the focus wa...

  4. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Everett B.; Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    A multi-region, multi-sector dynamic computable general equilibrium model is applied to explore the economic and welfare effects of the pledges submitted by developed countries (Annex I countries) and major developing (non-Annex I) countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord. In addition to analyzing scenarios reflecting the upper and lower bounds of the Copenhagen Pledges, one additional policy scenario where Annex I countries as a group reduce CO 2 -emissions by 30% in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, and where major non-Annex I countries reduce CO 2 emissions 15% below baseline, is also analyzed. Economic effects are measured as changes in GDP compared to baseline and welfare effects are measured via the equivalent variation. Assuming that countries with emission targets may trade certificates, average reductions in GDP for countries with targets range between 0.1% and 0.7% in 2020 for the policy scenarios. While the GDP losses are larger for major non-Annex I countries with emission targets compared to Annex I countries, this is not the case for the changes in welfare. With the exception of Mexico, the welfare losses for the major non-Annex I regions, as a percentage of projected GDP in 2020, are lower than for the large Annex I countries. - Highlights: → Copenhagen pledges are not ambitious in terms of global CO 2 -emission reductions. → Copenhagen pledges are not costly in terms of global GDP or welfare losses. → Reductions in GDP and welfare in 2020 are not evenly distributed across regions.→ Major non-Annex I countries face relatively larger reductions in GDP compared with Annex I countries.→ Copenhagen pledges do not result in large amounts of carbon leakage.

  5. NiO/YSZ Reduction for SOFC/SOEC Studied In Situ by Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Agersted, Karsten; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2014-01-01

    SOFCs/SOECs are typically composed of ceramic materials, which are highly complex at the nano-scale. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) are routinely applied for studying these nano-scaled structures post mortem, but only few SOFC/SOEC studies have applied environmental T...... and constant temperature ramping rate of 1°C/min. The NiO observed in the first image at 320°C is dense. From the lower left corner a front of porous Ni is progressing until full reduction at 340°C. [Formula]...

  6. Significant Reduction in Helicobacter pylori Load in Humans with Non-viable Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17648: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Caterina; Busjahn, Andreas; Mehling, Heidrun; Arya, Stefanie; Boettner, Mewes; Habibi, Hajar; Lang, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Reducing the amount of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach by selective bacterial-bacterial cell interaction was sought as an effective and novel method for combating the stomach pathogen. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17648 was identified as a highly specific binding antagonist to H. pylori among more than 700 wild-type strains of Lactobacillus species. Applying a stringent screening procedure, the strain DSM17648 was identified as selective binder to H. pylori cells under in vivo gastric conditions. The strain DSM17648 co-aggregates the pathogen in vivo and in vitro. The specific co-aggregation occurs between Lact. reuteri DSM17648 and different H. pylori strains and serotypes, as well as H. heilmannii, but not with Campylobacter jejuni or other commensal oral and intestinal bacteria. Lact. reuteri DSM17648 was shown in a proof-of-concept single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study to significantly reduce the load of H. pylori in healthy yet infected adults. Reducing the amount of H. pylori in the stomach by selective bacterial-bacterial cell interaction might be an effective and novel method for combating the stomach pathogen. Lact. reuteri DSM17648 might prove useful as an adhesion blocker in antibiotic-free H. pylori therapies.

  7. Reduction in Clostridium difficile environmental contamination by hospitalized patients treated with fidaxomicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J S; Patel, A; Otter, J A; Wade, P; Newsholme, W; van Kleef, E; Goldenberg, S D

    2015-07-01

    Fidaxomicin is sporicidal and may be associated with a reduced time to resolution of diarrhoea when used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This study investigated whether fidaxomicin for treatment of all patients with CDI reduced C. difficile environmental contamination. Surfaces in the rooms of 66 hospitalized patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin and 68 hospitalized patients treated with fidaxomicin were sampled. Patients treated with fidaxomicin were less likely to contaminate their environment (25/68, 36.8%) than patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin (38/66 57.6%) (P = 0.02). Treatment with fidaxomicin was associated with reduced environmental contamination with C. difficile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Light-Induced Reduction of Cuprous Oxide in an Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo Carlo; Laursen, Anders Bo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysts for solar fuel production are subject to intensive investigation as they constitute one viable route for solar energy harvesting. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a working photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution but it photocorrodes upon light illumination in an aqueous environment....... Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) makes it possible to obtain insight into the local structure, composition and reactivity of catalysts in their working environment, which is of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research and is essential for further material optimization. Herein...

  9. In-situ reduction of promoted cobalt oxide supported on alumina by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan, Roya; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    the reactivity of the nanoparticles and the importance of controlling the gas composition and specimen temperature during this type of experiment. Similar behaviour was observed for a non-promoted catalyst. Imaging and analysis of the promoted sample before and after reduction indicated a uniform distribution...... resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The cobalt particles were mainly face centred cubic while some hexagonal close packed particles were also found. Reoxidation of the sample upon cooling to room temperature, still under flowing H2, underlines...

  10. Simulating the potential for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) reduction by the application of environmentally friendly transportation (case study: Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, Isra; Turmuzi Lubis, Muhammad; Mawaddah, Nurul

    2018-03-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. One source of greenhouse gases comes from the use of fossil fuels from the transport sector. The transportation sector is one of the dominant sectors in contributing to the greenhouse effect. This study aims to calculate the amount of CO2 from transportation activities by using mobile six equations in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City. A sampling of CO2 concentration was done using Carbon Dioxide Monitor with Non-Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Analyzer method. Also, a simulation of the reduction of the number of private vehicles to mass transportation such as BRT gas-fired. The results showed CO2 emissions calculations with mobile six ranged from 47.2 kg CO2 - 978.2 kg CO2. Meanwhile, measurements range from 3,004 ppm - 3,405 ppm. Implementation of the concept of environmentally friendly transportation such as BRT in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City will be able to reduce the average emissions load CO2 by 42.75% -78.80%. Based on the calculation simulation in this study is estimated the number of BRT required approximately 71 units.

  11. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO 2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO 2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO 2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  12. Acidic electrolyzed water as a novel transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure reduction of bacterial loads on shelled fresh shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping eDu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW, a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products.

  13. Acidic Electrolyzed Water as a Novel Transmitting Medium for High Hydrostatic Pressure Reduction of Bacterial Loads on Shelled Fresh Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Suping; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xiao, Lili; Lou, Yang; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP) processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products. PMID:27014228

  14. A facile approach to fabricate Au nanoparticles loaded SiO{sub 2} microspheres for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: mingyitjucu@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Huang, Guanbo, E-mail: gbhuang2007@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Hydrophilic and biocompatible macromolecules were used to improve and simplify the process for the fabrication of core/shell SiO{sub 2}@Au composite particles. The influence of polymers on the morphology of SiO{sub 2}@Au particles with different size of SiO{sub 2} cores was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical property of the SiO{sub 2}@Au particles was studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results indicate that the structure and composition of macromolecules affect the morphology of Au layers on SiO{sub 2} microspheres. The SiO{sub 2}@Au particles prepared in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have thin and complete Au nanoshells owing to their inducing act in preferential growth of Au nanoparticles along the surface of SiO{sub 2} microspheres. SiO{sub 2}@Au particles can be also prepared from SiO{sub 2} microspheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of PVA or PVP. This offers a simple way to fabricate a Au layer on SiO{sub 2} or other microspheres. The SiO{sub 2}@Au particles demonstrated high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Facile direct deposition method for Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres. • Influence of different types of macromolecule on the formation of Au shell. • High catalytic performance of Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres.

  15. A facile approach to fabricate Au nanoparticles loaded SiO2 microspheres for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mingyi; Huang, Guanbo; Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo; Qiu, Haixia

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic and biocompatible macromolecules were used to improve and simplify the process for the fabrication of core/shell SiO 2 @Au composite particles. The influence of polymers on the morphology of SiO 2 @Au particles with different size of SiO 2 cores was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical property of the SiO 2 @Au particles was studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results indicate that the structure and composition of macromolecules affect the morphology of Au layers on SiO 2 microspheres. The SiO 2 @Au particles prepared in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have thin and complete Au nanoshells owing to their inducing act in preferential growth of Au nanoparticles along the surface of SiO 2 microspheres. SiO 2 @Au particles can be also prepared from SiO 2 microspheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of PVA or PVP. This offers a simple way to fabricate a Au layer on SiO 2 or other microspheres. The SiO 2 @Au particles demonstrated high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Facile direct deposition method for Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres. • Influence of different types of macromolecule on the formation of Au shell. • High catalytic performance of Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres

  16. Food loss reduction from an environmental, socio-economic and consumer perspective - The case of the Swiss potato market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mouron, Patrik; Mack, Gabriele; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably. Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to predict the influence of specific subjective items like the intention to avoid food loss, knowledge related to food loss and consumers' price sensitivity on the assigned preference. Results show that perceived risks, perceived inconvenience and the general acceptance of loss-reducing instruments influence consumers' preferences. Altogether, only three out of six tested scenarios seem realistic: selling unwashed potatoes in a lightproof box, selling unpacked potatoes, and improved quality sorting at farms. For two of the other scenarios, consumers significantly indicated their refusal even if losses decreased considerably, whereas the sixth scenario was unfavorable from a socio-economic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Manual for calculating critical loads of heavy metals for soils and surface waters; preliminary guidelines for environmental quality criteria, calculation methods and input data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Bakker, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Methodologies are described for calculating critical loads of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and mercury for soils and surface waters. The aspects which are discussed are: selection of a computation model, determination of environmental-quality criteria for the metals, collection of

  18. Estimating the non-environmental consequences of greenhouse gas reductions is harder than you think

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCanio, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Top-down and bottom-up models of the non-environmental consequences of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions embody different implicit theories of economic organizations. Yet neither approach is explicit in showing the detailed computations that must be traced if the activities of firms are to be described realistically. Specifications of firms' computational processes leads inevitably to a consideration of potential computational limits on the behaviour of organizations. It is known that solutions of some standard economic problems are not effectively computable, and that the solutions to others are computationally intractable. These fundamental computational limits have strong implications for the theory of the firm, and recognizing their existence and importance suggests new policy approaches for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  19. Reduction of post-ECT memory complaints through brief, partial restricted environmental stimulation (REST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, P; Ramirez, C E; Remick, R A; Fleming, J A

    1989-01-01

    1. A previous paper (Suedfeld, et al. 1987) reported on preliminary results of placing patients into a room with substantially reduced environmental stimulation (REST) immediately after recovery from ECT. 2. Comparing two depressed patients who had undergone this experience with three who had instead returned to their own hospital room (Ward), Suedfeld et al. (1987) found that the former registered much fewer complaints concerning memory loss related to ECT administration than the latter. 3. The current report extends this finding to a total of 19 patients, of whom 13 completed four testing sessions. Once again, objective tests of memory showed no significant change as a function of ECT. Both groups of patients complained of substantial memory disruption after the first ECT. By the one-week follow-up, such complaints were minimal among REST patients but showed only a slight decline among the Ward group. This was the only significant intergroup difference.

  20. Radioecological reduction of acute and long-term environmental contamination with 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of the research project 'Investigations on the radioecology of 129 I', analytical methods with extremely low detection limits for all important test materials have been developed. The behaviour of 129 I in a reprocessing plant and its emission from a reprocessing plant has been completely investigated and understood. The feared long-term hazard due to a single environmental contamination with 129 I is not to be expected as the biological availability of 129 I in the ground is reduced with a half-life of 0.3a. The 'basis for calculation' recommended by the Federal Minister of the Interior overestimate 129 I doses by at least a factor of 45. (orig.) [de

  1. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  2. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  3. Investigations of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-01-01

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures

  4. Environmental pH-controlled loading and release of protein on mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Tianlin; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zongliang; Zhang, Peibiao; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the controlled delivery of protein drugs in micro-environment established by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, the loading/release properties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) depending on pH environment were assessed. The adsorption amounts over mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) or hydroxyapatite (HA) decreased as the pH increased, negatively correlating with zeta-potential values. The adsorption behavior over MHA fits well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models at different pHs. The results suggest that the adsorbed amount of protein on MHA or HA depended on the pH of protein solution. MHA adsorbed BSA at basic pH (MHApH 8.4) exhibited a different release kinetics compared with those in acid and neutral environments (MHApH 4.7 and MHApH 7.4), indicating that the release of protein could be regulated by environmental pH at which MHAs adsorb protein. MHApH 8.4 showed a sustained release for 6h before a gradual release when immersing in acidic environment, which is 2h longer than that in neutral environment. This suggests that MHApH 8.4 showed a more sustained release in acidic environment, which can be established by osteoclasts. The variation of adsorption strength between protein and MHA may be responsible for these behaviors. Our findings may be very useful for the development of MHA applications on both bone repair and protein delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas.

  6. Multifunctional reduction-responsive SPIO and DOX-loaded PEGylated polymeric lipid vesicles for magnetic resonance imaging-guided drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng; Yang, Weitao; Wang, Hanjie; Chang, Jin; Gong, Xiaoqun; Du, Hongli; Guo, Fangfang; Zhang, Bingbo

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO)-based nanoparticles have been emerging as candidate nanosystems for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Here, we report the use of reduction- responsive SPIO/doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEG)ylated polymeric lipid vesicles (SPIO and DOX-PPLVs) as a novel theranostic system for tumor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis and controlled drug delivery. These SPIO and DOX-PPLVs are composed of SPIOs that function as MR contrast agents for tumor enhancement and PPLVs as polymer matrices for encapsulating SPIO and antitumor drugs. The in vitro characterizations show that the SPIO and DOX-PPLVs have nanosized structures (∼80 nm), excellent colloidal stability,  good biocompatibility, as well as T _2-weighted MRI capability with a relatively high T _2 relaxivity (r _2 = 213.82 mM"−"1 s"−"1). In vitro drug release studies reveal that the release rate of DOX from the SPIO and DOX-PPLVs is accelerated in the reduction environment. An in vitro cellular uptake study and an antitumor study show that the SPIO and DOX-PPLVs have magnetic targeting properties and effective antitumor activity. In vivo studies show the SPIO and DOX-PPLVs have excellent T _2-weighted tumor targeted MRI capability, image-guided drug delivery capability, and high antitumor effects. These results suggest that the SPIO and DOX-PPLVs are promising nanocarriers for MRI diagnosis and cancer therapy applications. (paper)

  7. Reduction of H{sub 2}S from biogas by using environmental air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.N.

    1997-04-01

    First a general description is given about environmental aspects of producing biogas from manures, the anaerobic digestion process, and inhibition by ammonia. Two experiment were carried out to determine the effect of air on reducing H{sub 2}S from biogas. In both the experiments the same amount of degassed manure (1.5 lit) collected from Boddam Biogas Plant is initially used. Everyday feed the digester (3 lit of total volume) was fed by 500 ml of pig liquid manure, when the rate or Volatile Fatty Acid production in the experimental tanks goes down. First experiment was for trial and the biogas produced were measured only qualitatively. In this experiment 5% of air was used in the experimental tank. It was found that the biogas production was increased, though negligibly, in the experimental tank. In this experiment the amount of gas production was more in experimental tank, as well as, less H{sub 2}S concentration. The following biochemical parameters was measured of the manure used for biogas production. TS (Total Solid), VFA (Volatile Fatty Acid), Analysis of biogas. (LN) 30 refs.

  8. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL's sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL's outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE's purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives

  9. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    maintaining safety at each site while negotiating state and Federal environmental compliance agreements. The program also concentrated on characterizing waste and nuclear materials and assessing the magnitude and extent of environmental contamination. By the late 1990s, EM had made significant progress in identifying and characterizing the extent of contamination and cleanup required and began transitioning from primarily a characterization and stabilization program to an active cleanup and closure program. During that time, EM formulated multi-year cleanup and closure plans, which contributed to cleanup progress; however, reducing the overall environmental risk associated with the cleanup program remained a challenge. In response, the Secretary of Energy directed a review of the EM program be undertaken. The resulting 'Top-to Bottom Review' re-directed the program focus from managing risks to accelerating the reduction of these risks

  10. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    maintaining safety at each site while negotiating state and Federal environmental compliance agreements. The program also concentrated on characterizing waste and nuclear materials and assessing the magnitude and extent of environmental contamination. By the late 1990s, EM had made significant progress in identifying and characterizing the extent of contamination and cleanup required and began transitioning from primarily a characterization and stabilization program to an active cleanup and closure program. During that time, EM formulated multi-year cleanup and closure plans, which contributed to cleanup progress; however, reducing the overall environmental risk associated with the cleanup program remained a challenge. In response, the Secretary of Energy directed a review of the EM program be undertaken. The resulting 'Top-to Bottom Review' re-directed the program focus from managing risks to accelerating the reduction of these risks.

  11. Reduction of environmental pollution through optimization of energy use in cement industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbassi, A.R.; Jafari, H.R.; Yavari, A.R.; Hoveidi, H. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran). Graduate Faculty of the Environment; Sid Kalal, H. [J.I.H. Research Laboratories, Tehran (Iran). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial development has lead to higher energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, as well as air pollutants. Cement factories play an important role in overall greenhouse emissions. This study aims to investigate the role of Iranian cement industries and their contribution of greenhouse gases contribution. The measured emission factors for oil and fuel gas shows that carbon dioxide contribution from fuel oil based cement industries is almost 2.7 times higher than gas based cement factories. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat technique analysis showed that the best strategy to combat greenhouse gases from Iranian cement factory is to implement energy efficiency measures. Further, strategic position and action evaluation matrix analysis indicates that Iranian cement industries fall within invasive category. Therefore, exploitation of opportunities must carefully be used. One of these opportunities is the utilization of financial assistance provided by clean development mechanism. The results show that replacement of ball mills with vertical roller mill can reduce the electricity consumption from 44.6 to 28 kWh/ton. As a result of such substitution about 720 million kWh/y of electricity would be saved (almost a power plant of 125 MW capacities). Though implementation of new mills may not be economic for the cement industries' owner, but the overall gain for the government of Iran will be about US$ 304 million. If the duration of such efficiency measure is considered as about 12 y, then the overall carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reduction/phase-out would be around 4.3 million tons.

  12. Reduction of Environmental Temperature Mitigates Local Anesthetic Cytotoxicity in Bovine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Onur, Alexis Dang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess whether reducing environmental temperature will lead to increased chondrocyte viability following injury from a single-dose of local anesthetic treatment. Bovine articular chondrocytes from weight bearing portions of femoral condyles were harvested and cultured. 96-well plates were seeded with 15,000 chondrocytes per well. Chondrocytes were treated with one of the following conditions: ITS Media, 1x PBS, 2% lidocaine, 0.5% bupivacaine, or 0.5% ropivacaine. Each plate was then incubated at 37°C, 23°C, or 4°C for one hour and then returned to media at 37°C. Chondrocyte viability was assessed 24 hours after treatment. Chondrocyte viability is presented as a ratio of the fluorescence of the treatment group over the average of the media group at that temperature (ratio ± SEM. At 37°C, lidocaine (0.35 ± 0.04 and bupivacaine (0.30 ± 0.05 treated chondrocytes show low cell viability when compared to the media (1.00 ± 0.03 control group (p < 0.001. Lidocaine treated chondrocytes were significantly more viable at 23°C (0.84 ± 0.08 and 4°C (0.86±0.085 than at 37°C (p < 0.001. Bupivacaine treated chondrocytes were significantly more viable at 4°C (0.660 ± 0.073 than at 37°C or 23°C (0.330 ± 0.069 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 respectively. Reducing the temperature from 37°C to 23°C during treatment with lidocaine increases chondrocyte viability following injury. Chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine can be rescued by reducing the temperature to 4°C.

  13. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  14. [Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite in hospital environmental surfaces in the reduction of contamination and infection prevention: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Samantha Storer Pesani; Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2015-08-01

    To search for evidence of the efficiency of sodium hypochlorite on environmental surfaces in reducing contamination and prevention of healthcare-associated infection HAIs. Systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration. We analyzed 14 studies, all controlled trials, published between 1989-2013. Most studies resulted in inhibition of microorganism growth. Some decreased infection, microorganism resistance and colonization, loss of efficiency in the presence of dirty and surface-dried viruses. The hypochlorite is an effective disinfectant, however, the issue of the direct relation with the reduction of HAIs remains. The absence of control for confounding variables in the analyzed studies made the meta-analysis performance inadequate. The evaluation of internal validity using CONSORT and TREND was not possible because its contents were not appropriate to laboratory and microbiological studies. As a result, there is an urgent need for developing specific protocol for evaluating such studies.

  15. Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite in hospital environmental surfaces in the reduction of contamination and infection prevention: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Storer Pesani Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo search for evidence of the efficiency of sodium hypochlorite on environmental surfaces in reducing contamination and prevention of healthcare-associated infection HAIs.METHODSystematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration.RESULTSWe analyzed 14 studies, all controlled trials, published between 1989-2013. Most studies resulted in inhibition of microorganism growth. Some decreased infection, microorganism resistance and colonization, loss of efficiency in the presence of dirty and surface-dried viruses.CONCLUSIONThe hypochlorite is an effective disinfectant, however, the issue of the direct relation with the reduction of HAIs remains. The absence of control for confounding variables in the analyzed studies made the meta-analysis performance inadequate. The evaluation of internal validity using CONSORT and TREND was not possible because its contents were not appropriate to laboratory and microbiological studies. As a result, there is an urgent need for developing specific protocol for evaluating such studies.

  16. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950s when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re-establish a

  17. Economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic MBR-based (AnMBR-based) technology as compared to aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental sustainability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in comparison with aerobic-based technologies for moderate-/high-loaded urban wastewater (UWW) treatment. To this aim, a combined approach of steady-state performance modelling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) was used, in which AnMBR (coupled with an aerobic-based post-treatment) was compared to aerobic membrane bioreactor (AeMBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS). AnMBR with CAS-based post-treatment for nutrient removal was identified as a sustainable option for moderate-/high-loaded UWW treatment: low energy consumption and reduced sludge production could be obtained at given operating conditions. In addition, significant reductions can be achieved in different aspects of environmental impact (global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion, acidification, etc.) and LCC over existing UWW treatment technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling North Sea oil-based mud cuttings discharges to assess environmental loading: An E ampersand P forum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandsma, M.G.; McKelvie, S.

    1994-01-01

    Oil concentrations in the water column and benthic sediments caused by the discharge of oily cuttings were predicted at four North Sea sites using a computer model. The cuttings were drilled with oil based mud and were treated to reduce oil content prior to discharge. The predictions allowed the results of biological experiments to be related to field conditions in a multi-disciplinary research project. The goal of the project was to determine what amount of oil remaining on the cuttings is environmentally acceptable. Model results suggested that treatment reduced maximum and average oil concentrations in benthic sediments by more than 93%. Frequently, the maximum concentration was reduced below the 1,000 ppm identified in the biological experiments as the sediment oil concentration above which significant effects on biological communities may be observed. Reductions of oil concentrations in the cuttings were accompanied by reduced particle sizes and settling velocities. This resulted in increased dispersion at the seabed and caused water column oil concentrations to increase. The increased water column concentrations were still several orders of magnitude below toxic levels

  19. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Desai

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN, wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction, across variations in: (a environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  20. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prajakta; Loke, Seng W; Desai, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN), wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction), across variations in: (a) environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b) algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c) agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  1. The RACER (risk analysis, communication, evaluation, and reduction) stakeholder environmental data transparency project for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echohawk, John Chris; Dorries, Alison M.; Eberhart, Craig F.; Werdel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The RACER (Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction) project was created in 2003, as an effort to enhance the Los Alamos National Laboratory's ability to effectively communicate the data and processes used to evaluate environmental risks to the public and the environment. The RACER project staff consists of members of Risk Assessment Corporation, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). RACER staff worked closely with members of the community, tribal governments, and others within NMED and LANL to create innovative tools and a process that could provide information to regulators, LANL and the community about the sources of public health risk and ecological impact from LAN L operations. The RACER Data Analysis Tool (DA T) provides the public with webbased access to environmental measurement data collected in and around the LANL site. Its purpose is to provide a 'transparent' view to the public of all data collected by LANL and NMED regarding the LANL site. The DAT is available to the public at 'www.racernm.com'.

  2. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of microbial arsenic reduction, oxidation and extrusion genes along a wide range of environmental arsenic concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V Escudero

    Full Text Available The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V to As (III in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III oxidation gene aioA and the As (III transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations.

  4. Comparative analysis of the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by dsr operon to maintain environmental sulfur balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur metabolism is one of the oldest known redox geochemical cycles in our atmosphere. These redox processes utilize different sulfur anions and the reactions are performed by the gene products of dsr operon from phylogenetically diverse sets of microorganisms. The operon is involved in the maintenance of environmental sulfur balance. Interestingly, the dsr operon is found to be present in both sulfur anion oxidizing and reducing microorganisms and in both types of organisms DsrAB protein complex plays a vital role. Though there are various reports regarding the genetics of dsr operon there are practically no reports dealing with the structural aspects of sulfur metabolism by dsr operon. In our present study, we tried to compare the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by Allochromatium vinosum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris respectively through DsrAB protein complex. We analyzed the modes of bindings of sulfur anions to the DsrAB protein complex and observed that for sulfur anion oxidizers, sulfide and thiosulfate are the best substrates whereas for reducers sulfate and sulfite have the best binding abilities. We analyzed the binding interaction pattern of the DsrA and DsrB proteins while forming the DsrAB protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Allochromatium vinosum. To our knowledge this is the first report that analyzes the differences in binding patterns of sulfur substrates with DsrAB protein from these two microorganisms. This study would therefore be essential to predict the biochemical mechanism of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by these two microorganisms i.e., Desulfovibrio vulgaris (sulfur anion reducer) and Allochromatium vinosum (sulfur anion oxidizer). Our observations also highlight the mechanism of sulfur geochemical cycle which has important implications in future study of sulfur metabolism as it has a huge application in waste remediation and production of industrial bio-products viz. vitamins, bio-polyesters and bio

  5. Proceedings of the 11. Banska Stiavnica Days 2009. Peaceful use of nuclear energy. Application of nuclear technologies and determination of radionuclides in the environment. Environmental load and municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, M.; Sebesta, P.

    2009-10-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems in environmental sciences and radio-environmental sciences. The conference proceeded in two sections: (I) Nuclear technologies; (II) Municipal wastes and environmental load. Fifty-seven participants took part in conference. Twenty-eight lectures were presented. Proceedings contain nineteen papers and thirteen presentations, which deal with the scope of INIS..

  6. Proceedings of the 10. Banska Stiavnica Days 2008. Peaceful use of atomic energy. Application of nuclear technologies and determination of radionuclides in the environment. Environmental load and municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, M.; Sebesta, P.

    2008-10-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems in environmental sciences and radio-environmental sciences. The conference proceeded in two sections: (I) Nuclear technologies; (II) Municipal wastes and environmental load. Fifty participants took part in conference. Twenty-four lectures and two posters were presented. Proceedings contain twenty-six papers all papers deals with the scope of INIS

  7. The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janočková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

  8. Chapter 4: Pulsating Wave Loads Section 4.3: 3D Effects Force Reduction of Short-Crested Non-Breaking Waves on Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1999-01-01

    The effect of wave short-crestedness on the horizontal wave force on a caisson is twofold. The one is the force reduction due to the reduction of point pressure on the caisson, named point-pressure reduction. The other is the force reduction due to the fact that the peak pressures do not occur si...

  9. Insights into selenite reduction and biogenesis of elemental selenium nanoparticles by two environmental isolates of Burkholderia fungorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Nazanin Seyed; Lampis, Silvia; Zonaro, Emanuele; Yrjälä, Kim; Bernardi, Paolo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2017-01-25

    Microorganisms capable of transforming toxic selenium oxyanions into non-toxic elemental selenium (Se°) may be considered as biocatalysts for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), eventually exploitable in different biotechnological applications. Two Burkholderia fungorum strains (B. fungorum DBT1 and B. fungorum 95) were monitored during their growth for both capacity and efficiency of selenite (SeO 3 2- ) reduction and elemental selenium formation. Both strains are environmental isolates in origin: B. fungorum DBT1 was previously isolated from an oil refinery drainage, while B. fungorum 95 has been enriched from inner tissues of hybrid poplars grown in a soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results showed that B. fungorum DBT1 is able to reduce 0.5mM SeO 3 2- to Se° when cultured aerobically in liquid medium at 27°C, while B. fungorum 95 can reduce more than 1mM SeO 3 2- to Se° within 96h under the same growth conditions, with the appearance of SeNPs in cultures of both bacterial strains. Biogenic SeNPs were spherical, with pH-dependent charge and an average hydrodynamic diameter of 170nm and 200nm depending on whether they were produced by B. fungorum 95 or B. fungorum DBT1, respectively. Electron microscopy analyses evidenced that Se nanoparticles occurred intracellularly and extracellularly. The mechanism of SeNPs formation can be tentatively attributed to cytoplasmic enzymatic activation mediated by electron donors. Biogenic nanoparticles were then probably released outside the bacterial cells as a consequence of a secretory process or cell lysis. Nevertheless, formation of elemental selenium nanoparticles under aerobic conditions by B. fungorum DBT1 and B. fungorum 95 is likely due to intracellular reduction mechanisms. Biomedical and other high tech sectors might exploit these biogenic nanoparticles in the near future, once fully characterized and tested for their multiple properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Travel and the ecological footprint in 2005. Environmental load of holidays by people in the Netherlands; Reizen op grote voet in 2005. De milieubelasting van vakanties van Nederlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruijn, K.; Dirven, R. [NRIT Onderzoek, Breda (Netherlands); Eijgelaar, E.; Peeters, P. [NHTV Centre for Sustainable Tourism and Transport, Breda (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the environmental load of Dutch people going on holiday. The environmental load is expressed as the 'ecological footprint', a measure for the environmental space and the carbon footprint, i.e. the CO2 emissions that are responsible for climatic change. The research shows that the holidays of Dutch people account for a share of 7.3% of the ecological footprint of the Netherlands and for 7.9% of all CO2 emissions. The differences between various kinds of travel are wide, though [mk]. [Dutch] Het rapport bevat de resultaten van een onderzoek naar de milieubelasting van de Nederlandse vakantieganger. De milieubelasting wordt uitgedrukt in de 'ecologische voetafdruk', een maat voor de milieugebruiksruimte, en de 'carbon footprint', ofwel de emissies van kooldioxide die verantwoordelijk zijn voor klimaatverandering. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de Nederlandse vakantieganger verantwoordelijk is voor 7,3% van de ecologische voetafdruk van Nederland en 7,9% van de CO2-emissies. De verschillen tussen verschillende reizen zijn echter groot.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the agricultural policy/environmental extender (APEX) for phosphorus loads in tile-drained landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerical modeling is an economical and feasible approach for quantifying the effects of best management practices on phosphorus (P) loadings from agricultural fields. However, tools that simulate both surface and subsurface P pathways are limited and have not been robustly evaluated in tile-drained...

  12. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  13. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yeora, E-mail: yrchae@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: > The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.> Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.> Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.> Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.> Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  14. Validated measurements of microbial loads on environmental surfaces in intensive care units before and after disinfecting cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, H; Bachert, S; Warnke, P; Podbielski, A

    2018-03-01

    Preanalytic aspects can make results of hygiene studies difficult to compare. Efficacy of surface disinfection was assessed with an evaluated swabbing procedure. A validated microbial screening of surfaces was performed in the patients' environment and from hands of healthcare workers on two intensive care units (ICUs) prior to and after a standardized disinfection procedure. From a pure culture, the recovery rate of the swabs for Staphylococcus aureus was 35%-64% and dropped to 0%-22% from a mixed culture with 10-times more Staphylococcus epidermidis than S. aureus. Microbial surface loads 30 min before and after the cleaning procedures were indistinguishable. The quality-ensured screening procedure proved that adequate hygiene procedures are associated with a low overall colonization of surfaces and skin of healthcare workers. Unchanged microbial loads before and after surface disinfection demonstrated the low additional impact of this procedure in the endemic situation when the pathogen load prior to surface disinfection is already low. Based on a validated screening system ensuring the interpretability and reliability of the results, the study confirms the efficiency of combined hand and surface hygiene procedures to guarantee low rates of bacterial colonization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Life cycle assessment of supercharger for automotive use. Small displacement, high charging pressure engine and environmental load; Jidosha tosaiyo supercharger no life cycle assessment (LCA hyoka). Shohaikiryo kokakyu engine no kankyo eno yasashisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, S; Sonoya, T; Hara, M [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In resent years environmental conservation requires low fuel consumption and low emission engine. And environmental load of every car life stage (production, using, abolition) is considered. Life Cycle Assessment of supercharging small displacement engine is reported, compared with natural aspirated engine as same maximum torque and maximum power as supercharging engine. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FIRE RETARDANT PLASTIC PELLETS AND HOT MELT ADHESIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small to medium sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of the...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLASTIC CONTAINERS BY INJECTION MOLDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. ne of the ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WIRE STOCK USED FOR PRODUCTION OF METAL ITEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  19. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  20. The effectiveness of environmental strategies on noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit: creation of single-patient bedrooms and reducing noise sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Emine; Aydın, Perihan; Dursun, Oguz

    2015-07-01

    Noise is a substantial problem for both patients and healthcare workers in hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of environmental strategies (creating single-patient rooms and reducing noise sources) in noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit. Noise measurement in the unit was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, measurements aimed at determining the unit's present level of noise were performed over 4 weeks in December 2013. During the month following the first measurement phase, the intensive care unit (ICU) was moved to a new location and noise-reducing strategies were implemented. The second phase, in May 2014, measured noise levels in the newly constructed environment. The noise levels before and after environmental changes were statistically significant at 72.6 dB-A and 56 dB-A, respectively (p noise-reducing strategies can be effective in controlling environmental noise in the ICU. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Nightingale, Philp D.; Turner, Suzanne M.; Liss, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Measurement of multiple components of Fenton chemistry; Fe(II) and H 2 O 2 . •Rapid, quasi-simultaneous analysis enables calculation of environmental kinetics. •Low, nano to pico-molar detection limits with dual analyte analysis. •Able to measure complex matrix samples – organically enriched seawater. •Low cost system with appreciable sensitivity compared to single analyte analysis. -- Abstract: Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22 s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions

  2. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  3. Reduction mechanism of dynamic loads on down wind rotor; Furyoku hatsuden system down wind rotor no doteki kaju no keigen kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, K; Shimizu, Y; Yasui, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Dynamic force on blades in a large wind mill changes with rotational speed for various reasons, such as wind shear that causes vertical distribution of wind velocity or titling angle. Therefore, a 2-blade system on a teetered hub is a practical selection for the coned, down-wind type. Use of teetered axis greatly reduces bending moment in the flap direction and that at the axis of rotation. An attempt was made to understand dynamic loads by inertial force resulting from oscillation of the blade rotating on the teetered axis, and thereby to avoid them. The in-plane load can be diminished to zero when the teetered axis is coincided with the center of gravity, but generally cannot be avoided when the blade is strained significantly, except it is operated at the rated condition. The in-plane load and bending moment can be avoided, when rotational freedom is given around the y axis. Dynamic load on a down-wind rotor can be avoided by use of universal joint. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. A Baltic Sea estuary as a phosphorus source and sink after drastic load reduction: seasonal and long-term mass balances for the Stockholm inner archipelago for 1968-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walve, Jakob; Sandberg, Maria; Larsson, Ulf; Lännergren, Christer

    2018-05-01

    Internal phosphorus (P) loading from sediments, controlled by hypoxia, is often assumed to hamper the recovery of lakes and coastal areas from eutrophication. In the early 1970s, the external P load to the inner archipelago of Stockholm, Sweden (Baltic Sea), was drastically reduced by improved sewage treatment, but the internal P loading and its controlling factors have been poorly quantified. We use two slightly different four-layer box models to calculate the area's seasonal and annual P balance (input-export) and the internal P exchange with sediments in 1968-2015. For 10-20 years after the main P load reduction, there was a negative P balance, small in comparison to the external load, and probably due to release from legacy sediment P storage. Later, the stabilized, near-neutral P balance indicates no remaining internal loading from legacy P, but P retention is low, despite improved oxygen conditions. Seasonally, sediments are a P sink in spring and a P source in summer and autumn. Most of the deep-water P release from sediments in summer-autumn appears to be derived from the settled spring bloom and is exported to outer areas during winter. Oxygen consumption and P release in the deep water are generally tightly coupled, indicating limited iron control of P release. However, enhanced P release in years of deep-water hypoxia suggests some contribution from redox-sensitive P pools. Increasing deep-water temperatures that stimulate oxygen consumption rates in early summer have counteracted the effect of lowered organic matter sedimentation on oxygen concentrations. Since the P turnover time is short and legacy P small, measures to bind P in Stockholm inner archipelago sediments would primarily accumulate recent P inputs, imported from the Baltic Sea and from Lake Mälaren.

  5. Investigation about a possible correlation between the loading with environmental aerosols and the occurrence of child's lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagerer, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    In the recent years the increase of respiratory diseases and allergies has been discussed extensively, both by experts and in the media, at the national and the international level. This rise of respiratory diseases and allergies has stimulated the search for potential causes. One of these presumed causes is the occurrence of environmental aerosols in ambient air. Within the framework of the present masters thesis it was attempted to correlate cause and effect for the city and province of Salzburg. For this purpose, aerosol measurements were carried out at a few selected places: Salzburg (Rudolfsplatz) as an urban area and Tamsweg and Hallein Winterstall as rural areas. A comparison of the results of these measurements between the three places indicates an unambiguous decrease of concentration of the particles in the air, from the city to the country side. This gradient in particle concentrations consistent with the frequency of respiratory diseases and allergies. It is therefore possible to suggest a relationship between the concentration of environmental aerosols in ambient air and the health effects considered in this study. However, I would like to point out that the results of the present masters thesis have some informative value, but it would still be necessary to confirm them by a greater number of measurements which were unfortunately not possible within the framework of the present work. (author)

  6. Degradation and ecotoxicity of dye Reactive Black 5 after reductive-oxidative process : Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo Lumbaque, Elisabeth; Gomes, Monike Felipe; Da Silva Carvalho, Vanessa; de Freitas, Adriane Martins; Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes

    2017-03-01

    This research paper describes the study of a reduction-oxidation system using commercial steel wool (Fe 0 ) and H 2 O 2 for degradation of the dye Reactive Black 5 and aromatic compounds in water. The reductive process alone allowed the almost complete removal of color (97 ± 1 %) after 60 min of reaction. The decrease in spectral area (λ = 599 nm) associated with the chromophore group indicates breakage of the azo bonds. Moreover, the significant change in UV spectra can be associated with the formation of aromatic amines. Regarding the transformation products, a spectrophotometric method based on the diazotization reaction was employed to identify aromatic amines after reductive process, using sulfanilic acid as a model of aromatic amines. In addition, association with Fenton reagents improved the efficiency in the system with 93 ± 1 % degradation of intermediates formed during the reductive process. Ecotoxicological analysis revealed that the dye solution, after the reductive and oxidative processes, was not toxic to Lactuca sativa seeds. For Daphnia magna, the EC 50 (%) values observed revealed that dye solution has an EC 50 (%) = 74.1 and after reductive process, the toxicity increased (EC 50 (%) = 63.5), which might be related to the formation of aromatic amines. However, after the Fenton process, the EC 50 (%) was >100. These results demonstrated that the Fenton reaction using steel wool as an iron source was very efficient to decrease color, aromatic transformation products, and the ecotoxicity of Reactive Black 5 in solution.

  7. Mechanical Properties and Real-Time Damage Evaluations of Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC CMCs Subjected to Tensile Loading Under Thermal Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require new state-of-the art environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to withstand increased temperature requirements and high velocity combustion corrosive combustion gasses. The present work compares the response of coated and uncoated SiC/SiC CMC substrates subjected to simulated engine environments followed by high temperature mechanical testing to asses retained properties and damage mechanisms. Our focus is to explore the capabilities of electrical resistance (ER) measurements as an NDE technique for testing of retained properties under combined high heat-flux and mechanical loading conditions. Furthermore, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were performed to determine material damage onset and accumulation.

  8. A study of the impact of environmental loads that penetrate a passive skylight roofing system in Malaysian buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam M. Al-Obaidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A passive skylight system is a significant building design element that provides an ideal condition for interior spaces. However, the use of this system is limited to specific climatic regions because of its considerable effect on the indoor environment. Malaysia is a tropical country that has favorable natural benefits, such as solar geometry and natural light, which can brighten building interiors throughout the year. However, harnessing this benefit affects spaces, especially those in single-story buildings, because of excessive natural loads. This study reviews a concept to understand the passive behavior of solar radiation in the form of light and heat that falls on, interacts with, and is emitted from a skylight system in a single-story building. The study method is theoretically based on descriptive analysis to assess design requirements. The review shows that designs grounded on the physical aspects of climate (influenced variables, materials (design variables, and human comfort (affected variables in one process (ESI can develop the architectural way of thinking rather than estimate the condition based on a limited perspective. This assumption indicates that the adoption of this concept in the preliminary design stage will enable designers to balance the building environment effectively.

  9. Commissioning of qualification of structures, systems and components for seismic and environmental loads of CIRENE nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.; Gatti, F.; Muzzi, F.; Zola, M.; De Pasquali, F.

    1993-01-01

    On behalf of the Italian National Electricity Board (ENEL) concerning the commissioning of qualification of structures, systems and components of CIRENE NPP, ISMES performed a technical surveillance on the documentation concerning the environmental and seismic qualification of the safety related systems and experimental activities (dynamic and static tests) on plant buildings. The aims of the work were: - the evaluation of the qualification carried out (by test, by analysis, by combination of analysis and test) on the equipment and system, compared with the requirements of the ENEL technical specifications and the most recent international regulations; - the experimental determination of modal quantities (frequencies, damping, mode shapes) of the structures and, in the case of reactor building, the complex impedance of the soil for supporting the analytical work. The present paper deals with the criteria, the system and the results concerning the technical surveillance and with the characteristics and the results of the experimental tests

  10. Implementation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm in Cape-Open Based Process Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sustainable Technology Division has recently completed an implementation of the U.S. EPA's Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm that can be directly accessed from a Cape-Open compliant process modeling environment. The WAR Algorithm add-in can be used in AmsterChem's COFE (Cape-Op...

  11. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H-2 up to 600 degrees C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way...

  12. Protecting the Green Behind the Gold: Catchment-Wide Restoration Efforts Necessary to Achieve Nutrient and Sediment Load Reduction Targets in Gold Coast City, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, Nathan J.; Barry, Michael; McAlister, Tony; Weber, Tony; Groth, Dominic

    2014-10-01

    The Gold Coast City is the tourist center of Australia and has undergone rapid and massive urban expansion over the past few decades. The Broadwater estuary, in the heart of the City, not only offers an array of ecosystems services for many important aquatic wildlife species, but also supports the livelihood and lifestyles of residents. Not surprisingly, there have been signs of imbalance between these two major services. This study combined a waterway hydraulic and pollutant transport model to simulate diffuse nutrient and sediment loads under past and future proposed land-use changes. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled in an attempt to define optimal catchment scale restoration efforts necessary to protect and enhance the City's waterways. The modeling revealed that for future proposed development, a business as usual approach to catchment management will not reduce nutrient and sediment loading sufficiently to protect the community values. Considerable restoration of upper catchment tributaries is imperative, combined with treatment of stormwater flow from intensively developed sub-catchment areas. Collectively, initiatives undertaken by regulatory authorities to date have successfully reduced nutrient and sediment loading reaching adjoining waterways, although these programs have been ad hoc without strategic systematic planning and vision. Future conservation requires integration of multidisciplinary science and proactive management driven by the high ecological, economical, and community values placed on the City's waterways. Long-term catchment restoration and conservation planning requires an extensive budget (including political and societal support) to handle ongoing maintenance issues associated with scale of restoration determined here.

  13. Vehicle Ancillary Load Reduction Project Close-Out Report: An Overview of the Task and a Compilation of the Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of fuel used for climate control in U.S. vehicles reduces the fuel economy of more than 200 million light-duty conventional vehicles and thus affects U.S. energy security. Researchers at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimated that the United States consumes about 7 billion gallons of fuel per year for air-conditioning (A/C) light-duty vehicles. Using a variety of tools, NREL researchers developed innovative techniques and technologies to reduce the amount of fuel needed for these vehicles' ancillary loads. For example, they found that the A/C cooling capacity of 5.7 kW in a Cadillac STS could be reduced by 30% while maintaining a cooldown performance of 30 minutes. A simulation showed that reducing the A/C load by 30% decreased A/C fuel consumption by 26%. Other simulations supported the great potential for improving fuel economy by using new technologies and techniques developed to reduce ancillary loads.

  14. Peat in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinttilae, R.

    1998-01-01

    Peat is the largest natural resource of Finland. The DS-reserves of peat are more than seven times larger than those of wood. Peat is known as a domestic source of energy. Peat is, however, more than an energy source. The most significant problem of water protection in Finland is the eutrophication of the water courses. The reduction of concentrated loads and large emissions sources has up to now been the target for the water protection. The control of diffuse loads has been more difficult. The environmental use of peat can reduce the loads on watercourses, and especially the diffuse emissions. The natural and unique properties of peat can be utilized in several targets: agriculture, pisciculture, fur farming, in small and medium sized industry, and in processing of waste waters of both municipalities and rural areas, as well as in different environmental hazards. The present use of environmental peat is just a small fragment of the annual growth of peat reserves in Finland. The amount of protected mires is about ten times larger than the amount of peatlands taken into peat production. The use of environmental peat makes it possible to reduce the diffuse loads significantly in the future. This, however, requires willingness of cooperation and development by the entrepreneurs, authorities, and peat producers. The present use of agricultural peat binds about three times more phosphor and nearly one and a half fold nitrogen fertilizers compare to the emissions caused by peat production. It has to be noticed that the utilization of peat in reduction of environmental loads does not cause any secondary waste problem. The final product formed can usually be composted and used e.g. in soil remediation or in construction of green areas. The tightening environmental regulations and international agreements increase the utilization of peat. As the demand of peat increased the quality requirements for peat will be increased. Certain grain size and the restoration of the

  15. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  16. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  17. Uniformly active phase loaded selective catalytic reduction catalysts (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TNTs) with superior alkaline resistance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Wang, Penglu [Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental & Resources Science, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Xiongbo [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wu, Zhongbiao, E-mail: zbwu@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental & Resources Science, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • VOSO{sub 4} exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Ion-exchange reaction occurs between VOSO{sub 4} and titanate nanotubes. • Ion-exchange resulting in uniformly vanadium distribution on titanate nanotubes. • VOSO{sub 4}-based catalyst exhibited impressive SCR activity and alkaline resistance. - Abstract: In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} and VOSO{sub 4}) were used to synthesize deNO{sub x} catalysts. The results showed that VOSO{sub 4} exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V{sup 5+}/V{sup 4+} redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved. Besides, VOSO{sub 4}-based titanate nanotubes catalysts also showed enhanced alkaline resistance than particles (P25) based catalysts. It was strongly associated with its abundant acid sites, large surface area, flexible redox cycles and oxygen transfer ability. For the loading on protonated titanate nanotubes, active metal with cation groups was better precursors than anion ones. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TNTs catalyst was a promising substitute for the commercial vanadium catalysts and the work conducted herein provided a useful idea to design uniformly active phase loaded catalyst.

  18. The Potential of Combined Heat and Power Generation, Wind Power Generation and Load Management Techniques for Cost Reduction in Small Electricity Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jeremy Hugh

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. An evaluation is made of the potential fuel and financial savings possible when a small, autonomous diesel system sized to meet the demands of an individual, domestic consumer is adapted to include: (1) combined heat and power (CHP) generation, (2) wind turbine generation, (3) direct load control. The potential of these three areas is investigated by means of time-step simulation modelling on a microcomputer. Models are used to evaluate performance and a Net Present Value analysis used to assess costs. A cost/benefit analysis then enables those areas, or combination of areas, that facilitate and greatest savings to be identified. The modelling work is supported by experience gained from the following: (1) field study of the Lundy Island wind/diesel system, (2) laboratory testing of a small diesel generator set, (3) study of a diesel based CHP unit, (4) study of a diesel based direct load control system, (5) statistical analysis of data obtained from the long-term monitoring of a large number of individual household's electricity consumption. Rather than consider the consumer's electrical demand in isolation, a more flexible approach is adopted, with consumer demand being regarded as the sum of primarily two components: a small, electricity demand for essential services and a large, reschedulable demand for heating/cooling. The results of the study indicate that: (1) operating a diesel set in a CHP mode is the best strategy for both financial and fuel savings. A simple retrofit enables overall conversion efficiencies to be increased from 25% to 60%, or greater, at little cost. (2) wind turbine generation in association with direct load control is a most effective combination. (3) a combination of both the above areas enables greatest overall financial savings, in favourable winds resulting in unit energy costs around 20% of those of diesel only operation.

  19. Environmental Factors’ Effect on Stress Reduction of Employees: A Case Study on Farhangian University Staff in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Payedar Ardakani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues the contemporary societies encounter is the job stress. There are various factors affecting it, but not enough researches have been done on the role that environmental factors play. This paper presents an experimental study with 100 participants on the influence of environmental factors on employees’ stress level. This method uses information derived from field observations and answers to questionnaires distributed to employees and officials who are in the top management of the central organization of Farhangian University, Tehran branch. The results demonstrate that color, window, lighting and brightness, landscape, communications and interactions, flexibility, thermal convenience, noise convenience, cleanness, physical activity, privacy and accessibility play an important role in the stress of employees, suggesting that the architectures and designers should consider the aforementioned factors so they can create dynamic and pleasant office environments devoid of any stress.

  20. Electrochemical Reduction Process for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Hong, Sun-Seok; Park, Wooshin; Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung-Chul; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun; Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Nuclear energy is expected to meet the growing energy demand while avoiding CO{sub 2} emission. However, the problem of accumulating spent fuel from current nuclear power plants which is mainly composed of uranium oxides should be addressed. One of the most practical solutions is to reduce the spent oxide fuel and recycle it. Next-generation fuel cycles demand innovative features such as a reduction of the environmental load, improved safety, efficient recycling of resources, and feasible economics. Pyroprocessing based on molten salt electrolysis is one of the key technologies for reducing the amount of spent nuclear fuel and destroying toxic waste products, such as the long-life fission products. The oxide reduction process based on the electrochemical reduction in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte has been developed for the volume reduction of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) spent fuels and for providing metal feeds for the electrorefining process. To speed up the electrochemical reduction process, the influences of the feed form for the cathode and the type of anode shroud on the reduction rate were investigated.

  1. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on reduction of microbial load and antioxidant properties of Chum-Hed-Thet (Cassia alata (L.) Roxb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growing demands of herbal medicines, Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. has been reported to have various phytochemical activities. It has also been called in Thai as Chum-Hed-Thet. In this study, C. alata (L.) Roxb. powder were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. At the dose of 10 kGy, both of gamma and electron beam irradiation were sufficient in reducing microbial load of irradiated samples as specified in Thai pharmacopoeia (2005). These include the total aerobic microbial count of bacteria of 0.05). Therefore, both of radiation by gamma ray or electron beam at 10 kGy was sufficient in elimination of microbial flora and did not significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of C. alata (L.) Roxb.

  2. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  3. Evaluation and use of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Watersheds Needs Survey data to quantify nutrient loads to surface water, 1978–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara I.

    2017-12-07

    Changes in municipal and industrial point-source discharges over time have been an important factor affecting nutrient trends in many of the Nation’s streams and rivers. This report documents how three U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national datasets—the Permit Compliance System, the Integrated Compliance Information System, and the Clean Watersheds Needs Survey—were evaluated for use in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment project to assess the causes of nutrient trends. This report also describes how a database of total nitrogen load and total phosphorous load was generated for select wastewater treatment facilities in the United States based on information reported in the EPA Clean Watersheds Needs Survey. Nutrient loads were calculated for the years 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012 based on average nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations for reported treatment levels and on annual reported flow values.The EPA Permit Compliance System (PCS) and Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS), which monitor point-source facility discharges, together are the Nation’s most spatially comprehensive dataset for nutrients released to surface waters. However, datasets for many individual facilities are incomplete, the PCS/ICIS historical data date back only to 1989, and historical data are available for only a limited number of facilities. Additionally, inconsistencies in facility reporting make it difficult to track or identify changes in nutrient discharges over time. Previous efforts made by the U.S. Geological Survey to “fill in” gaps in the PCS/ICIS data were based on statistical methods—missing data were filled in through the use of a statistical model based on the Standard Industrial Classification code, size, and flow class of the facility and on seasonal nutrient discharges of similar facilities. This approach was used to estimate point-source loads for a single

  4. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management: Waste reduction workshop 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The focus of this workshop was on goal setting and the methods of establishing meaningful goals for a waste minimization program. These workshops assist DOE waste-generating sites in implementing waste minimization plans and programs, thus providing for optimal waste reduction within the DOE complex. All wastes are considered liquid, solid, and airborne within the categories of high-level waste, transuranic waste (TRU), low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, office waste, and sanitary waste. Topics of discussion within workshops encompass a wide range of subjects. Subjects include any method or technical activity from waste generation to disposal, such as process design or improvements, substitution of materials, waste segregation and recycling/reuse, waste treatment and processing, and administrative controls (procurement and waste awareness training). Consideration is also given to activities for remedial action and for decontamination and decommissioning

  5. Comparative estimation of soil and plant pollution in the impact area of air emissions from an aluminium plant after technogenic load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Mozgova, Natalya P

    2015-01-01

    The work provides a comparative analysis of changes in soil properties in the last 10-13 years along the pollution gradient of air emissions from Kandalaksha aluminium plant in connection with the reduction of their volume. The content of the priority pollutant fluorine (F) in atmospheric precipitation and in the organic horizon of soil in the plant impact zone significantly decreased in 2011-2013 compared to 2001. The aluminium concentrations reduced only in immediate proximity to the plant (2 km). The fluorine, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are higher in liquid phase compared to solid phase thus these elements can migrated to greater distances from the pollution source (up to 15-20 km). Silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) can be found only in solid phases and in fall-out within the 5 km. The acidity of soil litter reduced by 2 pH units in the proximity to the plot within the 2 km. The zone of maximum soil contamination decreased from 2.5 km to 1.5 km from the emission source, the zones of heavy and moderate pollution reduced by 5 km in connection with the reduction of pollutant emissions in the plant. A high correlation between the fluorine concentrations in vegetables and litter was found. Higher fluorine concentrations in the soil result in its accumulation in plants. Mosses accumulate fluorine most intensively.

  6. Potential Environmental and Environmental-Health Implications of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario in California: Chapter F in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; San Juan, Carma

    2013-01-01

    The California Tsunami Scenario models the impacts of a hypothetical, yet plausible, tsunami caused by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula. In this chapter, we interpret plausible tsunami-related contamination, environmental impacts, potential for human exposures to contaminants and hazardous materials, and implications for remediation and recovery. Inundation-related damages to major ports, boat yards, and many marinas could release complex debris, crude oil, various fuel types and other petroleum products, some liquid bulk cargo and dry bulk cargo, and diverse other pollutants into nearby coastal marine environments and onshore in the inundation zone. Tsunami-induced erosion of contaminated harbor bottom sediments could re-expose previously sequestered metal and organic pollutants (for example, organotin or DDT). Inundation-related damage to many older buildings could produce debris containing lead paint, asbestos, pesticides, and other legacy contaminants. Intermingled household debris and externally derived debris and sediments would be left in flooded buildings. Post tsunami, mold would likely develop in inundated houses, buildings, and debris piles. Tsunamigenic fires in spilled oil, debris, cargo, vehicles, vegetation, and residential, commercial, or industrial buildings and their contents would produce potentially toxic gases and smoke, airborne ash, and residual ash/debris containing caustic alkali solids, metal toxicants, asbestos, and various organic toxicants. Inundation of and damage to wastewater treatment plants in many coastal cities could release raw sewage containing fecal solids, pathogens, and waste chemicals, as well as chemicals used to treat wastewaters. Tsunami-related physical damages, debris, and contamination could have short- and longer-term impacts on the environment and the health of coastal marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Marine habitats in intertidal zones, marshes, sloughs, and lagoons could be damaged by erosion or

  7. Flash flooding: Toward an Interdisciplinary and Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction in a Global Environmental Change Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruin, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    How do people answer to heavy precipitation and flood warnings? How do they adapt their daily schedule and activity to the fast evolution of the environmental circumstances? More generally, how do social processes interact with physical ones? Such questions address the dynamical interactions between hydro-meteorological variables, human perception and representation of the environment, and actual individual and social behavioral responses. It also poses the question of scales and hierarchy issues through seamless interactions between smaller and larger scales. These questions are relevant for both social and physical scientists. They are more and more pertinently addressed in the Global Environmental Change perspective through the concepts of Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS), resilience or panarchy developped in the context of interdisciplinary collaborations. Nevertheless those concepts are complex and not easy to handle, specially when facing with operational goals. One of the main difficulty to advance these integrated approaches is the access to empirical data informing the processes at various scales. In fact, if physical and social processes are well studied by distinct disciplines, they are rarely jointly explored within similar spatial and temporal resolutions. Such coupled observation and analysis poses methodological challenges, specially when dealing with responses to short-fuse and extreme weather events. In fact, if such coupled approach is quite common to study large scale phenomenon like global change (for instance using historical data on green house gaz emissions and the evolution of temperatures worldwide), it is rarer for studing smaller nested sets of scales of human-nature systems where finer resolution data are sparse. Another problem arise from the need to produce comparable analysis on different case studies where social, physical and even cultural contexts may be diverse. Generic and robust framework for data collection, modeling

  8. Reduction in the microbial load on high-touch surfaces in hospital rooms by treatment with a portable saturated steam vapor disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Jonathan D; Tanner, Benjamin D; Maxwell, Sheri L; Gerba, Charles P

    2011-10-01

    Recent scientific literature suggests that portable steam vapor systems are capable of rapid, chemical-free surface disinfection in controlled laboratory studies. This study evaluated the efficacy of a portable steam vapor system in a hospital setting. The study was carried out in 8 occupied rooms of a long-term care wing of a hospital. Six surfaces per room were swabbed before and after steam treatment and analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms, methicillin-intermediate and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MISA and MRSA), and Clostridium difficile. The steam vapor device consistently reduced total microbial and pathogen loads on hospital surfaces, to below detection in most instances. Treatment reduced the presence of total coliforms on surfaces from 83% (40/48) to 13% (6/48). Treatment reduced presumptive MISA (12/48) and MRSA (3/48) to below detection after cleaning, except for 1 posttreatment isolation of MISA (1/48). A single C difficile colony was isolated from a door push panel before treatment, but no C difficile was detected after treatment. The steam vapor system reduced bacterial levels by >90% and reduced pathogen levels on most surfaces to below the detection limit. The steam vapor system provides a means to reduce levels of microorganisms on hospital surfaces without the drawbacks associated with chemicals, and may decrease the risk of cross-contamination. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: Assessment of mass loading, input source and environmental fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yufeng; Wang Jizhong; Ni Honggang; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale sampling program was conducted to simultaneously collect water samples at the eight major riverine runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China to assess the importance of riverine runoff in transporting anthropogenic pollutants from terrestrial sources to the coastal ocean. The concentrations of Σ 21 OCPs (sum of 21 OCP components) and Σ 20 PCBs (sum of 20 PCB congeners) were 2.57-41.2 and 0.12-1.47 ng/L, respectively. Compositional distributions of DDTs suggested the possibility of new input sources in the study area, but contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. The annual inputs of Σ 21 OCPs and Σ 20 PCBs were 3090 and 215 kg, with those of total HCHs and DDTs being 1110 and 1020 kg, respectively. A mass balance consideration indicated that riverine runoff is the major mode carrying OCPs from the PRD to the coastal ocean, and the majority of OCPs is further dissipated to open seas. - Mass loadings, input sources and environmental fate of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China are assessed

  10. New approach to the assessment and reduction of health risks and environmental impacts originating from TENORM according to EC regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffijn, A.; Kraus, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    The New Basic Safety Standards as laid down in the Directive 96/29/Euratom differ from the earlier versions in that specific provisions have been formulated in Title VII for exposure to natural radiation sources. The scope of its application involves work activities, within which the presence of natural radiation sources may lead to exposures of workers and/or members of the public that cannot be ignored form the point of view of radiation protection. Two groups of work activities are of particular concern : the processing and/or storage of materials with enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and the production of residues causing a significant increase in the exposure of workers and members of the public. The Member States have to identity the activities of concern and they are given a high degree of flexibility in implementing the articles on natural radiation sources into national legislation. There is, however, a great need to harmonize the national approaches. Therefore guidance on the likely level of regulation of various materials and recommendations on the identification of such workplaces and on the nature of appropriate control have been prepared. The proposed set of screening and reference levels is intended as a first order approach, needing in some cases more detailed investigations. As a particular case, the detailed investigations done in relation to the phosphate industry and its environmental impact will be described and discussed. (authors)

  11. New approach to the assessment and reduction of health risks and environmental impacts originating from TENORM according to EC regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffijn, A. [Laboratory for Nuclear Physics, Gent (Belgium); Kraus, W.D. [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The New Basic Safety Standards as laid down in the Directive 96/29/Euratom differ from the earlier versions in that specific provisions have been formulated in Title VII for exposure to natural radiation sources. The scope of its application involves work activities, within which the presence of natural radiation sources may lead to exposures of workers and/or members of the public that cannot be ignored form the point of view of radiation protection. Two groups of work activities are of particular concern : the processing and/or storage of materials with enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and the production of residues causing a significant increase in the exposure of workers and members of the public. The Member States have to identity the activities of concern and they are given a high degree of flexibility in implementing the articles on natural radiation sources into national legislation. There is, however, a great need to harmonize the national approaches. Therefore guidance on the likely level of regulation of various materials and recommendations on the identification of such workplaces and on the nature of appropriate control have been prepared. The proposed set of screening and reference levels is intended as a first order approach, needing in some cases more detailed investigations. As a particular case, the detailed investigations done in relation to the phosphate industry and its environmental impact will be described and discussed. (authors)

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in seagrass coverage in Southwest Florida: assessing the relative effects of anthropogenic nutrient load reductions and rainfall in four contiguous estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasko, D A; Corbett, C A; Greening, H S; Raulerson, G E

    2005-08-01

    The estuaries of Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay, Lemon Bay, and Upper Charlotte Harbor are contiguous waterbodies located within the subtropical environment of Southwest Florida. Based on an examination of rainfall data over the period of record (1916-2001) within the watersheds of these estuaries, there is no evidence for spatial differences (at the watershed level) or monotonic trends in annual rainfall. During the 1980s, nitrogen loads into Tampa Bay and Sarasota Bay (generated primarily by domestic wastewater treatment facilities) were reduced by 57% and 46%, respectively. In response, both Tampa Bay and Sarasota Bay have lower phytoplankton concentrations, greater water clarity and more extensive seagrass coverage in 2002 than in the early 1980s. As there is no evidence of a concurrent trend in rainfall during the period of 1982-2001, it is unlikely that variation in rainfall can account for the observed increase in seagrass coverage in these two bays. In contrast, seagrass coverage has remained relatively constant since the mid 1980s in Lemon Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Domestic wastewater treatment facilities are minor sources of nitrogen to Lemon Bay, and water clarity in Charlotte Harbor varies mostly as a function of dissolved organic matter and non-chlorophyll associated turbidity, not phytoplankton levels. Even in estuaries that share boundaries and are within 100 km of each other, varied responses to anthropogenic changes and natural phenomena were observed in water quality and associated seagrass extent. Resource management strategies must take into account system-specific factors-not all strategies will result in similar results in different systems.

  13. Enhanced catalytic activity over MIL-100(Fe) loaded ceria catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH₃ at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Sun, Hong; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2016-01-15

    The development of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions that are highly active at low temperatures and show good resistance to SO2 and H2O is still a challenge. In this study, we have designed and developed a high-performance SCR catalyst based on nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside the pores of MIL-100(Fe) that combines excellent catalytic power with a metal organic framework architecture synthesized by the impregnation method (IM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the encapsulation of ceria in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The prepared IM-CeO2/MIL-100(Fe) catalyst shows improved catalytic activity both at low temperatures and throughout a wide temperature window. The temperature window for 90% NOx conversion ranges from 196 to 300°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis indicated that the nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside MIL-100(Fe) promotes the production of chemisorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface, which greatly enhances the formation of the NO2 species responsible for fast SCR reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multilevel analysis of the Be Active Eat Well intervention: environmental and behavioural influences on reductions in child obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B A; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A; de Silva-Sanigorski, A M

    2012-07-01

    BMI changes were modest, these findings are encouraging as small reductions can have population level impacts on childhood obesity levels.

  15. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  16. Enhanced catalytic activity over MIL-100(Fe) loaded ceria catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Hong [School of Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Quan, Xie, E-mail: quanxie@dlut.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nano-ceria was successfully encapsulated into MIL-100(Fe) for the SCR of NO{sub x}. • The incorporated ceria in MIL-100(Fe) showed high content of chemisorbed oxygen. • The added ceria into MIL-100(Fe) improved the formation of adsorbed NO{sub 2} species. • The addition of ceria into MIL-100(Fe) enhanced SCR activity at low temperature. - Abstract: The development of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions that are highly active at low temperatures and show good resistance to SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O is still a challenge. In this study, we have designed and developed a high-performance SCR catalyst based on nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside the pores of MIL-100(Fe) that combines excellent catalytic power with a metal organic framework architecture synthesized by the impregnation method (IM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the encapsulation of ceria in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The prepared IM-CeO{sub 2}/MIL-100(Fe) catalyst shows improved catalytic activity both at low temperatures and throughout a wide temperature window. The temperature window for 90% NO{sub x} conversion ranges from 196 to 300 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis indicated that the nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside MIL-100(Fe) promotes the production of chemisorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface, which greatly enhances the formation of the NO{sub 2} species responsible for fast SCR reactions.

  17. Synthesis of TiO2-loaded Co0.85Se thin films with heterostructure and their enhanced catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Yong; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Mao, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Yi; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    P-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrazine hydrate are considered to be highly toxic pollutants in wastewater, and it is of great importance to remove them. Herein, TiO 2 -loaded Co 0.85 Se thin films with heterostructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction. The results demonstrate that TiO 2 nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are easily loaded on the surface of graphene-like Co 0.85 Se nanofilms, and the NH 3  · H 2 O plays an important role in the generation and crystallization of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement shows that the obtained nanocomposites have a larger specific surface area (199.3 m 2 g −1 ) than that of Co 0.85 Se nanofilms (55.17 m 2 g −1 ) and TiO 2 nanoparticles (19.49 m 2 g −1 ). The catalytic tests indicate Co 0.85 Se–TiO 2 nanofilms have the highest activity for 4-NP reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition within 10 min and 8 min, respectively, compared with the corresponding precursor Co 0.85 Se nanofilms and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the larger specific surface area and higher rate of interfacial charge transfer in the heterojunction than that of the single components. In addition, recycling tests show that the as-synthesized sample presents stable conversion efficiency for 4-NP reduction. (paper)

  18. The National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE): A Network of Excellence for Environmental and Human Radiation Risk Reduction - 13365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W.W.; Jannik, G.T.; Farfan, E.B.; Knox, A.S.; Mayer, J.J.; Murray, A.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950's when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re

  19. Spatially differentiated strategies for reducing nitrate loads from agriculture in two Danish catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2018-01-01

    Nutrient loss from agriculture is the largest source of diffuse water pollution in Denmark. To reduce nutrient loads a number of solutions have been implemented, but this has been insufficient to achieve the environmental objectives without unacceptable repercussions for agricultural production...... reducing the source loading or enhancing the natural reduction (denitrification) of N after it is leached from the root zone of agricultural crops. In this study, a new method of spatially differentiated analysis for two Danish catchments (Odense and Norsminde) was conducted that reach across...... the individual farms to achieve selected N-load reduction targets. It includes application of cover crops within current crop rotations, set-a-side application on high N-load areas, and changes in agricultural management based on maps of N-reduction available for two different spatial scales, considering soil...

  20. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Ziganshin, Ayrat M.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L −1 d −1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg −1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg −1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L −1  d −1  VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  1. Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors are influenced by inhalative glucocorticoid therapy in combination with environmental dust reduction in equine recurrent airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ann Kristin; Shety, Tarek; Bondzio, Angelika; Einspanier, Ralf; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2016-12-09

    Overexpression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been shown to lead to tissue damage in equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), as a misbalance with their natural inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), occurs. This favors irreversible pulmonary fibrosis formation. Increased levels of MMPs, TIMPs or altered ratios between them can be used as biomarkers of respiratory disease. We hypothesized that levels of MMPs, TIMPs and their ratios correlate with improvement in clinical findings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology after 10 days of inhalative glucocorticoid therapy and environmental dust reduction (EDR) and may be used to monitor treatment success. Ten horses with a history of RAO participated in a prospective clinical study. Clinical and cytological scoring was performed before and after inhalative therapy using budesonide (1500 μg BID over 10 days) and EDR (bedding of wood shavings and wet hay as roughage). Gelatin zymography was performed for qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BALF supernatant, while fluorimetry was used to evaluate MMP-8 activity. Additionally, specific equine ELISA assays were used for quantitative assessment of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. A significant reduction in the total and several single parameters of the clinical score were found after 10 days of inhalative therapy and EDR. The concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 (ELISA) as well as their activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9 zymography and MMP-8 fluorimetry) were significantly decreased after therapy. Significant improvements in MMP-8/TIMP-1 and MMP-8/TIMP-2 ratios were also found, differences between other ratios before and after therapy were insignificant. Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, in particular MMP-9 and TIMP-2, are valuable markers for clinical improvement in RAO.

  2. Synthetic jet actuation for load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Hein; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of wind turbine blade loads is an important issue in the reduction of the costs of energy production. Reduction of the loads of a non-cyclic nature requires so-called smart rotor control, which involves the application of distributed actuators and sensors to provide fast and local

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  4. Temperature profiles of three types CNTs (SWCNT, MWCNT and MWCNT-COOH) loaded environmental matrices generated from a microwave induced heating quantification method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Relationships of temperature and CNT mass (SWCNT, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH) were developed for three environmental matrices (sand, soil and sludge) spiked with known...

  5. Sustainable Campus Program: University of Sao Paulo and its contribution to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts; Programa Campus Sutentavel: a Universidade de Sao Paulo e sua contribuicao a reducao dos impactos ambientais e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, M M; Grimoni, J A.B.; Burani, G F [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Massola, A M.A.; Barbosa, E J.S.; Hamzo, S T; Guarnieri, M C; Prist, R; Sonnewend, J E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (COSESP/USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria do Campus da Capital

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the actions and the results obtained by the action of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in reduction of environmental impacts caused by its activities, the creation of standards and indicators to monitor the results, the training of personnel and development models of public administration that can be adopted by other universities and city, state and federal administration. (author)

  6. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  8. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  9. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  10. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  11. Reduction in HIV community viral loads following the implementation of a "Treatment as Prevention" strategy over 2 years at a population-level among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Yang, Jiezhe; Ma, Qiaoqin; Zhang, Jiafeng; Xu, Yun; Xia, Yan; Chen, Wanjun; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Jinlei; Jiang, Jun; Luo, Yan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Xingliang; Xia, Shichang; Pan, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) could reduce the community viral load (CVL) and reduce the occurrence of new HIV infections. However, the impact on the reduction of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is much less certain. The frequency of HIV infections in MSM have been rapidly increasing in recent years in Hangzhou, China. The "Treatment as Prevention" strategy was implemented at a population-level for HIV-infected MSM from January 2014 to June 2016 in Hangzhou; it aimed to increase the ART coverage, reduce the CVL, and reduce HIV transmission. We investigated a subset of MSM diagnosed with HIV pre- and post-implementation of the strategy, using random sampling methods. Viral load (VL) testing was performed for all enrolled individuals; the lower limits of detection were 20 and 50 copies/mL. The data on infections were collected from the national epidemiology database of Hangzhou. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the differences in social demographic characteristics and available VL data. The ART coverage increased from 60.7% (839/1383) during the pre-implementation period to 92.3% (2183/2365) during the post-implementation period in Hangzhou. A total of 940 HIV-infected MSM were selected for inclusion in this study: 490 (52.1%) and 450 (47.9%) MSM in the pre- and post-implementation periods, respectively. In total, 89.5% (841/940) of patients had data available on VL rates. The mean CVL was 579 copies/mL pre-implementation and this decreased to 33 copies/mL post-implementation (Kruskal-Wallis implementation of the treatment strategy (P implementation period was 50.0% which increased to 84.7% post-implementation (P implementation (Kruskal-Wallis < 0.05). Our study confirmed a population-level association between increased ART coverage and decreased mean CVL; overall 84.7% of HIV infected MSM had an undetectable VL and were no longer

  12. Company car study 2011. Reduction of environmental impacts by influencing the selection process of company cars; Tyoesuhdeautotutkimus 2011. Ympaeristoehaittojen vaehentaeminen autonvalinnan ohjauksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify: What kinds of operational models directing towards eco-friendlier company car use there are and which are in use. What kinds of practical impacts these operational models have had. What is the demand for company car use and what changes have taken place from the viewpoint of companies and beneficiaries. What factors should the best company car taxation include in terms of directiveness (from the environmental point of view). The main objective is to find directive factors in company car use which would result in smaller environmental impacts and which company car users could commit themselves to. The main target groups of the study were the recipients of company car benefits, and enterprises using company cars. Company cars are mainly used for two reasons: in many organisations, work is carried out where the customer is, in which case company cars are used for reducing travel costs. On the other hand, a company car is a significant means for attracting and motivating employees, especially skilled experts and management staff. Company cars also play a significant role in the replacement rate of Finnish motor vehicles. The car selection rules of organisations determine the roles that entitle an employee to have a company car and how they can choose their car. Factors restricting the choice are usually CO{sub 2} and the price and make of the car. The CO{sub 2} limit is used by about 70% of organisations. According to this study, the average emission limit is 168 g/km, depending on the company and the position of the beneficiary. However, the average CO{sub 2} emissions of new company cars are currently about 140 g/km, and therefore the emission limits of organisations have not followed the development of motor technology. In entrepreneurship, environmental issues will be regarded as very important in the future, and there is also a notion for this to be reflected in the guidelines for selecting company cars. Emissions reduction

  13. Research report of FY 1997 on the clean coal technology promotion project and region model survey. Measures for environmental load reduction: feasibility survey on the environmental load reduction-type utilization Energy Center (interim report); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa `kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: kankyo fuka teigengata sekitan riyo energy center feasibility chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey has given an eye to the coal that it can be easily burnt together with combustible waste and supplements unstable generation of waste. Thus, the establishment of the Energy Center at the place where infrastructure of coal will be arranged, a lot of combustible waste will be expected to generate and a considerable aniybt if energy will be used, has been planned, and this survey is intended to study the scale of Energy Center, its economy and the problems to be solved. In power plant project using RDF for above-mentioned local governments, the construction of power plant and the renewal time of the existing incinerator to RDF facility can be planned separately in this system. The power plant will be economically constructed and the amount of coal can be decreased in accordance with increased RDF to meet wide range of refuse treatment. In FY 1997, the actual situation of the waste treatment and the infrastructure of coal supply was surveyed, and selection of the place suitable for the Energy Center and its scale was studied. 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. The importance of thermal loading conditions to waste package performance at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    Temperature and relative humidity are primary environmental factors affecting waste package corrosion rates for the potential repository in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Under ambient conditions, the repository environment is quite humid. If relative humidity is low enough (<70%), corrosion will be minimal. Under humid conditions, corrosion is reduced if the temperature is low (<60 C). Using the V-TOUGH code, the authors model thermo-hydrological flow to investigate the effect of repository heat on temperature and relative humidity in the repository for a wide range of thermal loads. These calculations indicate that repository heat may substantially reduce relative humidity on the waste package, over hundreds of years for low thermal loads and over tens of thousands of year for high thermal loads. Temperatures associated with a given relative humidity decrease with increasing thermal load. Thermal load distributions can be optimized to yield a more uniform reduction in relative humidity during the boiling period

  15. AN ATTEMPT TO DEVELOP AN ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM OF ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR EVALUATING FUNCTIONS OF ECOSYSTEM-BASED SOLUTIONS FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (ECO-DRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Ecological Infrastructure (EI” are defined as naturally functioning ecosystems that deliver valuable services to people, such as healthy mountain catchments, rivers, wetlands, coastal dunes, and nodes and corridors of natural habitat, which together form a network of interconnected structural elements in the landscape. On the other hand, natural disaster occur at the locations where habitat was reduced due to the changes of land use, in which the land was converted to the settlements and agricultural cropland. Hence, habitat loss and natural disaster are linked closely. Ecological infrastructure is the nature-based equivalent of built or hard infrastructure, and is as important for providing services and underpinning socio-economic development. Hence, ecological infrastructure is expected to contribute to functioning as ecological disaster reduction, which is termed Ecosystem-based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction (Eco-DRR. Although ecological infrastructure already exists in the landscape, it might be degraded, needs to be maintained and managed, and in some cases restored. Maintenance and restoration of ecological infrastructure is important for security of human lives. Therefore, analytical tool and effective visualization tool in spatially explicit way for the past natural disaster and future prediction of natural disaster in relation to ecological infrastructure is considered helpful. Hence, Web-GIS based Ecological Infrastructure Environmental Information System (EI-EIS has been developed. This paper aims to describe the procedure of development and future application of EI-EIS. The purpose of the EI-EIS is to evaluate functions of Eco-DRR. In order to analyse disaster data, collection of past disaster information, and disaster-prone area is effective. First, a number of digital maps and analogue maps in Japan and Europe were collected. In total, 18,572 maps over 100 years were collected. The Japanese data includes Future

  16. An Attempt to Develop AN Environmental Information System of Ecological Infrastructure for Evaluating Functions of Ecosystem-Based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction Eco-Drr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko, T.; Chen, W.; Sasaki, K.; Furutani, T.

    2016-06-01

    "Ecological Infrastructure (EI)" are defined as naturally functioning ecosystems that deliver valuable services to people, such as healthy mountain catchments, rivers, wetlands, coastal dunes, and nodes and corridors of natural habitat, which together form a network of interconnected structural elements in the landscape. On the other hand, natural disaster occur at the locations where habitat was reduced due to the changes of land use, in which the land was converted to the settlements and agricultural cropland. Hence, habitat loss and natural disaster are linked closely. Ecological infrastructure is the nature-based equivalent of built or hard infrastructure, and is as important for providing services and underpinning socio-economic development. Hence, ecological infrastructure is expected to contribute to functioning as ecological disaster reduction, which is termed Ecosystem-based Solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction (Eco-DRR). Although ecological infrastructure already exists in the landscape, it might be degraded, needs to be maintained and managed, and in some cases restored. Maintenance and restoration of ecological infrastructure is important for security of human lives. Therefore, analytical tool and effective visualization tool in spatially explicit way for the past natural disaster and future prediction of natural disaster in relation to ecological infrastructure is considered helpful. Hence, Web-GIS based Ecological Infrastructure Environmental Information System (EI-EIS) has been developed. This paper aims to describe the procedure of development and future application of EI-EIS. The purpose of the EI-EIS is to evaluate functions of Eco-DRR. In order to analyse disaster data, collection of past disaster information, and disaster-prone area is effective. First, a number of digital maps and analogue maps in Japan and Europe were collected. In total, 18,572 maps over 100 years were collected. The Japanese data includes Future-Pop Data Series (1,736 maps

  17. Environmental re-adaptations of farms seeking to the water contamination reduction (Itaipu/UNIOESTE integrated project); Readequacao ambiental de propriedades rurais visando a reducao de contaminacao das aguas (Projeto integrado Itaipu/UNIOESTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, Jacir; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Navarini, Franciele; Matsuo, Melissa [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia; Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paran (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    The work is destined to diagnose and to elaborate environmental adaptation projects in agricultural properties located in the micro basins: Arroio Fundo, Corregos Curvado and Ajuricaba, selected and located in the Rio Sao Francisco Verdadeiro basin, in the west Parana State area, by means of accord between ITAIPU Binational and UNIOESTE (West Parana State University). Four hundred and forty farms properties will be visited in a eleven months period. It will be lifted up environmental problems, in what it refers the ciliary forest, law reserves, fishing, crops, production and handling of dejections by: swine, dairy cattle, as well as readaptations projects of the farms in the areas of the micro basins, seeking to the environmental adaptation, reducing, consequently, the contamination of the waters that provisions the ITAIPU reservoir. The projects will be leaded to the IAP (Parana State environmental organ), by ITAIPU, for the environmental norms adaptation of the farms. Besides the environmental preservation and sustainability, with the environmental adaptations, ITAIPU will also benefit with the reduction of the ITAIPU lake water contamination, which arrives to the turbines. (author)

  18. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  19. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action

  20. Constraining the role of iron in environmental nitrogen transformations. Dual stable isotope systematics of abiotic NO2- reduction by Fe(II) and its production of N2O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wankel, Scott David [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Buchwald, Carolyn [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Hansel, Colleen [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Redox reactions involving nitrogen and iron have been shown to have important implications for mobilization of priority contaminants. Thus, an understanding of the linkages between their biogeochemical cycling is critical for predicting subsurface mobilization of radionuclides such as uranium. Despite mounting evidence for biogeochemical interactions between iron and nitrogen, our understanding of their environmental importance remains limited. Here we present an investigation of abiotic nitrite (NO2-) reduction by Fe(II) or ‘chemodenitrification,’ and its relevance to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O), specifically focusing on dual (N and O) isotope systematics under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions. We observe a range of kinetic isotope effects that are regulated by reaction rates, with faster rates at higher pH (~8), higher concentrations of Fe(II) and in the presence of mineral surfaces. A clear non-linear relationship between rate constant and kinetic isotope effects of NO2- reduction was evident (with larger isotope effects at slower rates) and is interpreted as reflecting the dynamics of Fe(II)-N reaction intermediates. N and O isotopic composition of product N2O also suggests a complex network of parallel and/or competing pathways. Our findings suggest that NO2- reduction by Fe(II) may represent an important abiotic source of environmental N2O, especially in iron-rich environments experiencing dynamic redox variations. This study provides a multi-compound, multi-isotope framework for evaluating the environmental occurrence of abiotic NO2- reduction and N2O formation, helping future studies constrain the relative roles of abiotic and biological N2O production pathways.

  1. Street litter reduction programs in the Netherlands: reflections on the implementation of the Dutch litter reduction program for 2007-2009. Lessons from a public private partnership in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria

    2013-01-01

    On a daily basis one is confronted with litter. Most forms of litter are, however, of no concern to people. Nonetheless, litter accounts for serious economic costs, and causes negative effects to health, safety and biodiversity. Most countries implement litter reduction policy programs, often in the

  2. Environmental justice and U.S. Forest Service hazardous fuels reduction: A spatial method for impact assessment of federal resource management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D.O. Adams; Susan Charnley

    2018-01-01

    Natural resource managers of federal lands in the USA are often tasked with various forms of social and economic impact analysis. Federal agencies in the USA also have a mandate to analyze the potential environmental justice consequences of their activities. Relatively little is known about the environmental justice impacts of natural resource management in rural areas...

  3. Environmental impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed; Das, Pranab

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient loadings were measured for surface seawater and bottom sediments of semi-intensive and improved extensive shrimp culture pond, adjacent estuary, and fallow land in the south-east coastal region of Bangladesh during August, 2000-January, 2001 to evaluate the impact of shrimp culture. The mean levels of nutrients found in the pond surface water were 108.780 mg/L for CaCO3, 0.526 mg/L for NH4+ -N, 3.075 wt% for organic carbon, 7.00 mg/L for PO4-P, 5.57 mg/L for NO3-N, and 7.33 mg/L for chlorophyll-a. The maximum mean value of H2S (0.232 mg/L) was found in estuarine water. Nutrients loading were found to be decreased with distance from the shrimp farm discharge unit in estuarine water. The mean level of organic matter, total nitrogen, and organic carbon were found in higher concentrations in sediments of cultured pond compared to bottom soil of adjacent fallow land at the same elevation. Extractable Ca values were found in higher concentration (550.33 ppt) in adjacent fallow land, as the shrimps for molting in shrimp ponds use extractable Ca. The relation between seawater H2S value and sediment pH (r = - 0.94); sediment organic carbon and sediment pH values (r = -0.76), sediment total nitrogen and sediment pH (r = -0.74) were found to be highly negatively correlated. Whereas the relation between seawater H2S value and sediment total nitrogen (r = 0.92), water NH4+ -N and sediment pH (r = 0.66) were found to be positively correlated. The results revealed that load of nutrients at eutrophic level in estuarine water, and decrease of soil pH; leading to acid sulphate soil formation indicates a negative impact of shrimp culture.

  4. Using environmental transmission electron microscope to study the in-situ reduction of Co3O4 supported on α-Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan-Niri, R.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    in specialized Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) instruments with differentially pumped columns at pressures in the range up to 20 mbar. 1-3 The objective of this work is to study the reduction of Co3O4 nanoparticles directly and observe their morphology and crystallography. The catalysts were produced...... by dispersion of crushed powder directly on steel grids and gold grids. TEM analysis was performed with an FEI TITAN E-cell electron microscope operating at 300 kV. Reduction was done at 360°C and 3.4 mbar H2 flow. The samples were studied before and after reduction by High Resolution TEM (HRTEM) imaging, high...

  5. Durable Reliability of Jack-up Platforms. The impact of Fatigue, Fracture and Effect of Extreme Environmental Loads on the Structural Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabakhty, N.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of factors is governing the operational conditions of jack-up platforms. The platforms are moved to different locations, which are causing changes in water depth, environmental and seabed conditions, drilling depths, payload etc. Insight should be gained in how the different factors affect

  6. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe

  7. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  8. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  9. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a “Low-tech” waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling......Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider....... Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system...

  10. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  11. Geneva convention and Critical Loads: an example of Science-based Environmental Policy; Conveio de Ginebra y cargas criticas:un ejemplo de politica ambiental basada en ciencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago Juan-Aracil, I.; Alonso del Amo, R.

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading environmental problems of out times that could eventually change the living conditions of human beings and the ecosystems on the whole planet. Therefore, international forums have been created to discuss environmental policies aimed at the control of pollutant emissions and the protection of ecosystems and human health. the fundamental purpose is to take common actions that go beyond political borders, since in many cases the emissions of pollutants affect ecosystems far from the emission source. These were the objectives leading to the creation of the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, of the Economic commission for Europe-United Nations (UNECE). (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...) activities at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. It addresses future DTRA testing activities and expands on the current testing parameters addressed in existing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents...

  13. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  14. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  15. Environmental aspects of the closing of the cooling system of an oil refinery; Aspectos ambiental do fechamento do sistema de refrigeracao de uma refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaz, Fernando Ribeiro [PETROBRAS, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias (REDUC); Amaral, Sergio Pinto [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia, Gestao de Negocios e Meio Ambiente (LATEC)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present paper was the evaluation, analysis and statistical treatment of the behavior of the pollutant load of the Duque de Caxias Refinery. It was analyzed the oil and grease, nitrogen and metals levels in the effluent discharged in the Iguacu River through the Refrigeration Basin , and after to the Guanabara Bay, according to data of the reports of the PROCON-WATER, correspondents to the environmental agency, FEEMA, in the period of the research, from 1998 to 2006. The environmental aspects and impacts of the closing of the cooling system, action of the Term of Commitment of Environmental Adjustment (TCAA), with their multiple variables involved in a socioeconomic and environmental process dynamic. The studies demonstrated great reduction in the consumption of water resources and in the pollutant load discharged. Besides the environmental earnings and the reduction of costs, the refinery provided important economical, social, environmental and image earnings for PETROBRAS, as an environmental responsible company. (author)

  16. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  18. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    ), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic...

  19. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Experimental Study for Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Panel (PLP) Under Flexural Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, W. I.; Mohamad, N.; Tay, Y. L.; Rahim, N. H. A.; Jhatial, A. A.; Samad, A. A. A.; Abdullah, R.

    2017-06-01

    Precast lightweight concrete slab is first fabricated in workshop or industrial before construction and then transported to site and installed by skilled labour. It can reduce construction time by minimizing user delay and time for cast-in-situ to increase workability and efficiency. is environmental friendly and helps in resource reduction. Although the foamed concrete has low compressive strength compared to normal weight concrete but it has excellent thermal insulation and sound absorption. It is environmental friendly and helps in resource reduction. To determine the material properties of foamed concrete, nine cubes and six cylindrical specimens were fabricated and the results were recorded. In this study, structural behaviour of precast lightweight panel (PLP) with dry density of 1800 kg/m3 was tested under flexural load. The results were recorded and analysed in terms of ultimate load, crack pattern, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution. Linear Voltage Displacement Transducers (LVDT) and strain gauges were used to determine the deflection and strain distribution of PLP. The theoretical and experimental ultimate load of PLP was analysed and recorded to be 70 and 62 kN respectively, having a difference of 12.9%. Based on the results, it can be observed that PLP can resist the adequate loading. Thus, it can be used in precast industry for construction purposes.

  1. Reduced Nutrient Excretion and Environmental Microbial Load with the Addition of a Combination of Enzymes and Direct-Fed Microbials to the Diet of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the dietary inclusion of an enzyme blend and a direct-fed microbials in broiler diets on litter production and quality. In total, 900 Cobb 500(r broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design into 4 treatments and 9 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were reared from 1 to 42 days of age. The treatments consisted of the following diets: NC: negative control; DFM: NC + 500 ppm of direct-fed microbials product (DFM, containing Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; ENZ: diet formulated with an enzyme blend (20 ppm phytase, 200 ppm protease and 200 ppm of xylanase; DFM+E: ENZ + DFM. Birds and litter were weighed at the start and end of the rearing period, for litter production and waste ratio (Rw determination. Litter samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM content, total and thermotolerant coliform counts, nutrient composition (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P and potassium (K, and fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin. The dietary inclusion of the evaluated additivesdid not influence litter production or Rw; however, ADF (%, NDF (kg and kg/kg DM litter, and total and thermotolerant coliform counts were reduced, and N content increased in the litter. The diets containing enzymes (ENZ and DFM+E reduced litter P content. The addition of exogenous enzymes and their combination with a DFM based on Bacillus spp .Did not affect waste production, and reduced litter microbial load, and the contents of P and insoluble fiber in the litter.

  2. Independent environmental audit at COPENE (Petrochemical Company of Northeast, Brazil): first results of a partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the first experiences and results in the implementation of a pioneer model in environmental monitoring of a Brazilian companies consortium, for wastewater and groundwater monitoring. Some practical results, such as the flow reduction in the organic wastewaters and organic load in the final effluents, were obtained in the very first year of activities. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Independent environmental audit at COPENE (Petrochemical Company of Northeast, Brazil): first results of a partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the first experiences and results in the implementation of a pioneer model in environmental monitoring of a Brazilian companies consortium, for wastewater and groundwater monitoring. Some practical results, such as the flow reduction in the organic wastewaters and organic load in the final effluents, were obtained in the very first year of activities. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Reductions in commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds in Mexico City due to the environmental program ProAire2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Ángeles, Felipe; Basaldud, Roberto; Cardenas, Beatriz; Wakamatsu, Shinji

    2017-05-01

    We investigated commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds in the metropolitan area of Mexico City in 2011 in private car, microbus, bus, metro, metrobus, and trolley bus. A similar survey was conducted in 2002 before initiation of the ProAire2002-2010 program aimed at reducing air pollution. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene were sampled while traveling during the morning rush hour in May 2011. Compared with the 2002 survey, in-vehicle concentrations were substantially lower in 2011, except for formaldehyde in microbuses (35% higher than in 2002). The reductions were 17-42% (except microbuses), 25-44%, 41-61%, 43-61%, 71-79%, 80-91%, and 79-93% for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene, respectively. These reductions are considered to be the outcome of some of the actions in the ProAire2002-2010 program. In some microbuses, use of liquid petroleum gas may have increased in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations. The reduction in predicted excess cancer incidence of commuters because of ProAire2002-2010 was estimated to be 1.4 cases/yr. In addition, if every microbus commuter changed their transport mode to bus, metro, or metrobus in the future, the estimated excess cancer incidence of commuters could be further decreased from 6.4 to 0.88-2.2 cases/year.

  5. Loading and Light Degradation Characteristics of B t Toxin on Nano goethite: A Potential Material for Controlling the Environmental Risk of B t Toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; She, Ch.; She, Ch.; Liu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic B t-modified crops release toxins into soil through root exudate s and upon decomposition of residues. The fate of these toxins in soil has not been yet clearly elucidated. Nano goethite was found to have a different influence on the lifetime and identicalness activity of B t toxin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the adsorption characteristics of B t toxin on nano goethite and its activity changes before and after adsorption. The adsorption of toxin on nano goethite reached equilibrium within 5 h, and the adsorption isotherm of B t toxin on nano goethite conformed to the Langmuir equation (). In the range of ph from 6.0 to 8.0, larger adsorption occurred at lower ph value. The toxin adsorption decreased with the temperature between 10 and 50 degree. The results of Ftir, XRD, and SEM indicated that toxin did not influence the structure of nano goethite and the adsorption of toxin only on the surface of nano goethite. The LC_5_0 value for bound toxin was higher than that of free toxin, and the nano goethite greatly accelerated the degradation of toxin by ultraviolet irradiation. The above results suggested that nano goethite is a potential material for controlling the environmental risk of toxin released by Bt transgenic plants

  6. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  7. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    n/a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed

  9. The Intergovernmental Marine Bioenergy and Carbon Sequestration Protocol: Environmental and Political Risk Reduction of Global Carbon Management (The IMBECS Protocol Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The IMBECS Protocol concept employs large cultivation and biorefinery installations, within the five Subtropical Convergence Zones (STCZs), to support the production of commodities such as carbon negative biofuels, seafood, organic fertilizer, polymers and freshwater, as a flexible and cost effective means of Global Warming Mitigation (GWM) with the primary objective being the global scale replacement of fossil fuels (FF). This governance approach is categorically distinct from all other large scale GWM governance concepts. Yet, many of the current marine related GWM technologies are adaptable to this proposals. The IMBECS technology would be managed by an intergovernmentally sanctioned non-profit foundation which would have the following functions/mission: Synthesises relevant treaty language Performs R&D activities and purchases relevant patents Under intergovernmental commission, functions as the primary responsible international actorfor environmental standards, production quotas and operational integrity Licence technology to for-profit actors under strict production/environmental standards Enforce production and environmental standards along with production quotas Provide a high level of transparency to all stakeholders Provide legal defence The IMBECS Protocol is conceptually related to the work found in the following documents/links. This list is not exhaustive: Climate Change Geoengineering The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A guide to the debate IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation DoE Roadmap for Algae Biofuels PodEnergy Ocean Agronomy development leaders and progenitor of this proposal. Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert NASAs' OMEGA study. Cool Planet; Land based version of a carbon negative biofuel concept. Cellana; Leading developer of algae based bioproducts. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Mariculture: A global analysis

  10. Is ozonation environmentally benign for reverse osmosis concentrate treatment? Four-level analysis on toxicity reduction based on organic matter fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jingxia; Jia, Huichao; Wu, Bing; Pan, Bingcai

    2018-01-01

    Ozonation is a promising option to treat reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). However, a systematic understanding and assessment of ozonation on toxicity reduction is insufficient. In this study, ROC sampled from a typical industrial park wastewater treatment plant of China was fractionated into hydrophobic acid (HOA), hydrophobic base (HOB), hydrophobic neutral (HON), and hydrophilic fraction (HI). Systematic bioassays covering bacteria, algae, fish, and human cell lines were conducted to reveal the role of ozonation in toxicity variation of the four ROC fractions. HOA in the raw ROC exhibited the highest toxicity, followed by HON and HI. Ozonation significantly reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and UV 254 values in HOA, HON, and HI and their toxicity except in HOB. Correlation analysis indicated that chemical data (TOC and UV 254 ) of HOA and HON correlated well with their toxicities; however, poor correlations were observed for HOB and HI, suggesting that a battery of toxicity assays is necessary. This study indicates that TOC reduction during ozonation could not fully reflect the toxicity issue, and toxicity assessment is required in conjunction with the chemical data to evaluate the effectiveness of ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  12. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  13. QUEST. Qualification and testing of shock-absorbing structures and materials for the optimization/reduction of loads on packages for the disposal of radioactive residues from decommissioning and removal; QUEST. Qualifikation und Erprobung von stossdaempfenden Strukturen und Materialien zur Optimierung/Reduzierung der Beanspruchung von Verpackungen zur Entsorgung radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Stilllegung und Rueckbau.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    The safe enclosure of radioactive residues from decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be guaranteed using appropriated packaging. The container design has to consider accidental drops from different heights and on different ground conditions. For energy absorbing pine wood and polyurethane foams are possible, damping concrete for the underground is discussed. Optimization and reduction of mechanical loads on the containers a demonstration concept is planned. The project QUEST is aimed to study the materials behavior of pine wood, polyurethane foam and damping concrete under hypothetical boundary conditions of a drop accident. Appropriate numerical modeling had to be developed.

  14. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  15. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  16. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  17. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.

  18. Using environmental tracers to determine the relative importance of travel times in the unsaturated and saturated zones for the delay of nitrate reduction measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christoph; Purtschert, Roland; Hunkeler, Daniel; Hug, Rainer; Sültenfuss, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater quality in many regions with intense agriculture has deteriorated due to the leaching of nitrate and other agricultural pollutants. Modified agricultural practices can reduce the input of nitrate to groundwater bodies, but it is crucial to determine the time span over which these measures become effective at reducing nitrate levels in pumping wells. Such estimates can be obtained from hydrogeological modeling or lumped-parameter models (LPM) in combination with environmental tracer data. Two challenges in such tracer-based estimates are (i) accounting for the different modes of transport in the unsaturated zone (USZ), and (ii) assessing uncertainties. Here we extend a recently published Bayesian inference scheme for simple LPMs to include an explicit USZ model and apply it to the Dünnerngäu aquifer, Switzerland. Compared to a previous estimate of travel times in the aquifer based on a 2D hydrogeological model, our approach provides a more accurate assessment of the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the aquifer. We find that including tracer measurements (3H/3He, 85Kr, 39Ar, 4He) reduces uncertainty in nitrate predictions if nitrate time series at wells are not available or short, but does not necessarily lead to better predictions if long nitrate time series are available. Additionally, the combination of tracer data with nitrate time series allows for a separation of the travel times in the unsaturated and saturated zone.

  19. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  20. Investigation of the theoretical load alleviation potential using trailing edge flaps controlled by inflow data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    the rotational frequency. The highest fatigue load reduction was achieved when the inflow sensor was placed at the outer parts of the blade. In the best case, the reduction of the local fatigue loads induced by the blade sectional normal force was 60%. The control method gave the highest fatigue load reductions...... effects seem to be negligible. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  2. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  3. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. → Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. → Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  4. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  5. Reduction corporoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  6. Overestimation of the Legionella spp. load in environmental samples by quantitative real-time PCR: pretreatment with propidium monoazide as a tool for the assessment of an association between Legionella concentration and sanitary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Savina; Ricciardi, Elisa; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Arauco Rivera, Susan R; Ceccarelli, Adriano; Zotti, Carla M

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Legionella in environmental water samples. In this study, qPCR and qPCR combined with propidium monoazide (PMA-qPCR) were both applied to hot-water system samples and compared to traditional culture techniques. In addition, we evaluated the ability of PMA-qPCR to monitor the efficacy of different disinfection strategies. Comparison between the quantification obtained by culture and by qPCR or PMA-qPCR on environmental water samples confirms that the concentration of Legionella estimated by GU/L is generally higher than that estimated in CFU/L. Our results on 57 hot-water-system samples collected from 3 different sites show that: i) qPCR results were on average 178-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=2.25), ii) PMA-qPCR results were on average 27-fold higher than the culture results (Δ log10=1.43), iii) propidium monoazide-induced signal reduction in qPCR were nearly 10-fold (Δ log10=0.95), and that iv) different degrees of correlations between the 3 methods might be explained by different matrix properties, but also by different disinfection methods affecting cultivability of Legionella. In our study, we calculated the logarithmic differences between the results obtained by PMA-qPCR and those obtained by culture, and we suggested an algorithm for the interpretation of PMA-qPCR results for the routine monitoring of healthcare water systems using a commercial qPCR system (iQ-check real-time PCR kit; Bio-Rad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the efficiency of a tubular digester in the reduction of organic load of biogas from swine wastes; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na reducao da carga organica de biogas a partir de dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Moreno Palacio, Soraya [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil); Szymanski, Nayara [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the anaerobic biological treatment systems in the reduction and stabilization of biodegradable organic matter of swine waste. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. The residues analysis was performed by means of sampling at the entrance and way out of the digester. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, DBO{sub 5}, DQO, total solids, total volatile solids, total fixed solids, total nitrogen e ammonia, potassium, total phosphate, average of biogas production. The results suggested that the anaerobic biological treatment system was efficient for reducing and stabilizing the organic matter resulted from the swine wastes. Expressive reductions of DBO, DQO, ST and SVT of 76, 77, 43 and 59% respectively, were obtained for the effluent originated by the digester. The average daily production of biogas during the analyzed period was 31, 5 m{sup 3}. (author)

  8. Soil Fatigue Due To Cyclically Loaded Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Pytlik, Robert Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loading on civil structures can lead to a reduction of strength of the used materials. A literature study showed that, in contrast to steel structures and material engineering, there are no design codes or standards for fatigue of foundations and the surrounding ground masses in terms of shear strength reduction. Scientific efforts to study the fatigue behaviour of geomaterials are mainly focused on strain accumulation, while the reduction of shear strength of geomaterials has not been...

  9. Drag reduction of nata de coco suspensions in circular pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, J.; Ogata, S.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing pipe friction by adding a drag-reducing agent has attracted interest as a means to reduce energy consumption. In addition to reducing drag, these agents are required to have a low environmental load and conserve natural resources. However, no drag-reducing agent currently satisfies both these conditions. We focused on nata de coco and found that the nata de coco fiber reduced drag by up to 25%. With respect to the mechanism of drag reduction by nata de coco fiber, the relationship between drag-reduction phenomena and the fiber form of nata de coco was investigated by visualization. We also found that the drag-reduction effect appeared to be due to the formation of networks of tangled fibers of nata de coco. However, drag reduction did not occur in the case in which fibers of nata de coco did not form networks.

  10. Relationship medical exposure in X-ray diagnosis and loading factor and film/screen system for reduction exposure dose in Aomori. An analysis based on the results of questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, Masanori; Fukushi, Shouji; Oota, Fumio; Kawamura, Kouji; Shinohe, Tetsuo; Suwa, Kouki; Fujii, Kiyosuke; Yamagami, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    A fact-finding questionnaire survey on medical exposure in Aomori Prefecture was conducted in September 1998. Of the 23 exposed sites in the body investigated, exposure at 17 sites in adults was investigated in terms of the type of high-voltage generator, imaging conditions (X-ray tube voltage, electric current, exposure time, etc.), photosensitive materials and relative photosensitivity, and entrance surface doses. At 6 of the 17 exposed sites, the relationships between these technical conditions and entrance surface doses were analyzed to consider further reduction of medical exposure. The most frequently used high-voltage generators were inverter generators (about 52%). In many institutions, additional filters were utilized for high-voltage imaging of the chest. Highly sensitive green-emission materials were the most frequently used photosensitive materials (73%). These findings indicate that many institutions are attempting to reduce exposure. Entrance surface doses varied greatly among institutions: and a 100-fold difference was observed in exposure to the chest, Martius, and the pelvis. Further efforts to lower entrance surface doses are therefore necessary to reduce medical exposure. Negative correlations were observed between electric voltage, electric current, and exposure time. Examination of the relationships between entrance surface doses, electric current, and exposure time yielded positive correlations. However, the entrance surface doses may not have been properly calculated in some institutions, and examination of the relationship between the relative sensitivity of the sensitive material and entrance surface doses showed great variability in entrance surface doses between institutions. Based on the above results, it is concluded that further reduction of medical exposure is possible, not only by improving the accuracy of X-ray units/devices, but by choosing a more appropriate of conditions to perform radiography. (K.H.)

  11. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  12. Reduction Corporoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Introduction Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. Materials and Methods: We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Conclusions Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  13. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  14. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  15. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  16. Industrial pollution load assessment in Phnom Penh, Cambodia using an industrial pollution projection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Vibol; Spoann, Vin; Schmidt, Johannes

    2018-02-15

    Approximately 56% out of the total 1302 Cambodian firms are operated in the Capital city of Cambodia. The necessary information on industrial pollution to set strategies, priorities and action plans on environmental protection issues is absent in Cambodia. In the absence of this data, effective environmental protection cannot be implemented. The objective of this study is to estimate industrial pollution load by employing the Industrial Pollution Projection System, a rapid environmental management tool for assessment of pollution load, to produce a scientific rational basis for preparing future policy direction to reduce industrial pollution in Phnom Penh city. Factory data between 1994 and 2014 obtained from the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft of Cambodia were used in our study. Due to the high number of employees, the total environmental load generated in Phnom Penh city was estimated to be 476,981Mg in 2014. Phnom Penh city generated 189,109Mg of VOC, 165,411Mg of toxic chemicals to air, 38,523Mg of toxic chemicals to land, and 28,968Mg of SO 2 in 2014. The results of the estimation show that the Textiles and Apparel sector was the highest generators of toxic chemicals into land and air, and toxic metals into land, air and water, while the Basic Metal sector was the greatest contributor of toxic chemicals to water. The Textiles and Apparel sector alone emitted 436,016Mg of total pollution load. The results indicate that the Dangkao and Meanchey districts were the greatest emitters of all pollutants in Phnom Penh. The results suggest that reduction in industrial pollution could be achieved by focusing on the most polluting sectors and areas. Adopting waste minimization strategies, which include cleaner production processes, will not only reduce the cost of controlling pollution, it will also make manufacturing more efficient thereby increasing profits while reducing pollution load in the long run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Managed nutrient reduction impacts on nutrient concentrations, water clarity, primary production, and hypoxia in a north temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Candace; Smith, Leslie; Krumholz, Jason; Coupland, Catherine; Stoffel, Heather; Keller, Aimee; McManus, M. Conor; Reed, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Except for the Providence River and side embayments like Greenwich Bay, Narragansett Bay can no longer be considered eutrophic. In summer 2012 managed nitrogen treatment in Narragansett Bay achieved a goal of reducing effluent dissolved inorganic nitrogen inputs by over 50%. Narragansett Bay represents a small northeast US estuary that had been heavily loaded with sewage effluent nutrients since the late 1800s. The input reduction was reflected in standing stock nutrients resulting in a statistically significant 60% reduction in concentration. In the Providence River estuary, total nitrogen decreased from 100 μm to about 40 μm, for example. We tested four environmental changes that might be associated with the nitrogen reduction. System apparent production was significantly decreased by 31% and 45% in the upper and mid Bay. Nutrient reductions resulted in statistically improved water clarity in the mid and upper Bay and in a 34% reduction in summer hypoxia. Nitrogen reduction also reduced the winter spring diatom bloom; winter chlorophyll levels after nutrient reduction have been significantly lower than before the reduction. The impact on the Bay will continue to evolve over the next few years and be a natural experiment for other temperate estuaries that will be experiencing nitrogen reduction. To provide perspective we review factors effecting hypoxia in other estuaries with managed nutrient reduction and conclude that, as in Narragansett Bay, physical factors can be as important as nutrients. On a positive note managed nutrient reduction has mitigated further deterioration in most estuaries.

  18. Goal specificity: a proxy measure for improvements in environmental outcomes in collaborative governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer C; Koontz, Tomas M

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative governance critics continually call for evidence to support its prevalent use. As is often the case in environmental policy, environmental outcomes occur at a rate incompatible with political agendas. In addition, a multitude of possibly confounding variables makes it difficult to correlate collaborative governance processes with environmental outcomes. The findings of this study offer empirical evidence that collaborative processes have a measurable, beneficial effect on environmental outcomes. Through the use of a unique paired-waterbody design, our dataset reduced the potential for confounding variables to impact our environmental outcome measurements. The results of a path analysis indicate that the output of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is significantly related to watershed partnerships' level of attainment of their environmental improvement goals. The action of setting specific goals (e.g. percentage of load reductions in pollutant levels) is fostered by sustained participation from partnership members throughout the lifecycle of the collaborative. In addition, this study demonstrates the utility of logic modeling for environmental planning and management, and suggests that the process of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is a useful proxy measure for reporting progress towards improvements in environmental outcomes when long-term environmental data are not available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Snubber reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Singh, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants have been oversupported. Since snubbers make up a large percentage of the pipe supports or restraints used in a plant, a plant's snubber population is much larger than required to adequately restrain the piping. This has resulted in operating problems and unnecessary expenses for maintenance and inservice inspections (ISIs) of snubbers. This paper presents an overview of snubber reduction, including: the incentives for removing snubbers, a historical perspective on how piping became oversupported, why it is possible to remove snubbers, and the costs and benefits of doing so

  20. Load management in electrical networks. Objectives, methods, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabioud, D.

    2008-01-01

    This illustrated article takes up the problems related to the variation of the load in electricity networks. How to handle the peak load? Different solutions in the energy demand management are discussed. Method based on the price, method based on the reduction of the load by electric utilities. Information systems are presented which gives the consumer the needed data to participate in the local load management.

  1. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  2. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  3. Swelling Behaviour of Superabsorbent Polymers for Soil Amendment under Different Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lejcuś

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important among the numerous applications of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs, also known as hydrogels, is soil improvement and supporting plant vegetation in agriculture and environmental engineering. Currently, when water scarcity involves water stress, they are becoming still more commonly used for water retention in soil. As it turns out, one of the major factors influencing the superabsorbent polymers water retention capacity (WRC is the load of soil. The study presents test results of absorbency under load (AUL of SAPs. The object of the analysis was cross-linked copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate, of a granulation of 0.50–3.15 mm. The authors analysed the water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymers under loads characteristic for 3 different densities of soil (1.3 g∙cm−3, 0.9 g∙cm−3, 0.5 g∙cm−3 and three different depths of application (10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm. Soil load and bulk densities were simulated by using weights. The experiments were conducted with a Mecmesin Multitest 2.5-xt apparatus. The obtained results demonstrate a very significant reduction in water absorption capacity by SAP under load. For a 30 cm deep layer of soil of bulk density of 1.3 g∙cm−3, after 1 h, this value amounted to 5.0 g∙g−1, and for the control sample without load, this value amounted to more than 200 g∙g−1. For the lowest load in the experiment, which was 0.49 kPa (10 cm deep layer of soil of a bulk density of 0.5 g∙cm−3, this value was 33.0 g∙g−1 after 60 min. Loads do not only limit the volume of the swelling superabsorbent polymer but they also prolong the swelling time. The soil load caused a decrease in the absorption capacity from 338.5 g∙g−1 to 19.3 g∙g−1, as well as a prolongation of the swelling time. The rate parameter (time required to reach 63% of maximum absorption capacity increased from 63 min for the control sample to more than 300 min for the largest analysed

  4. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics

    2015-04-15

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  5. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen; Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  6. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  7. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  8. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  9. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  10. Working memory load modulates microsaccadic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmaso, Mario; Castelli, Luigi; Scatturin, Pietro; Galfano, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Microsaccades are tiny eye movements that individuals perform unconsciously during fixation. Despite that the nature and the functions of microsaccades are still lively debated, recent evidence has shown an association between these micro eye movements and higher order cognitive processes. Here, in two experiments, we specifically focused on working memory and addressed whether differential memory load could be reflected in a modulation of microsaccade dynamics. In Experiment 1, participants memorized a numerical sequence composed of either two (low-load condition) or five digits (high-load condition), appearing at fixation. The results showed a reduction in the microsaccadic rate in the high-load compared to the low-load condition. In Experiment 2, five red or green digits were always presented at fixation. Participants either memorized the color (low-load condition) or the five digits (high-load condition). Hence, visual stimuli were exactly the same in both conditions. Consistent with Experiment 1, microsaccadic rate was lower in the high-load than in the low-load condition. Overall, these findings reveal that an engagement of working memory can have an impact on microsaccadic rate, consistent with the view that microsaccade generation is pervious to top-down processes.

  11. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  12. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    OpenAIRE

    Widi Nugraha; Indra Djati Sidi

    2016-01-01

    Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM) vehicular loads measurement i...

  13. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  14. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  15. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  16. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  17. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Determination of current loads of floating platform for special purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long; Zhao, Chen-yao

    2017-08-01

    This article studied a new floating offshore platform for special purposes, which was assembled by standard floating modules. The environmental load calculation of the platform is an important part of the research of the ocean platform, which has always been paid attention to by engineers. In addition to wave loads, the wind loads and current loads are also important environmental factors that affect the dynamic response of the offshore platform. The current loads on the bottom structure should not be ignored. By Fluent software, the hydrostatic conditions and external current loads of the platform were calculated in this paper. The coefficient which is independent of the current velocity, namely, current force coefficient, can be fitted through current loads, which can be used for the consequent hydrodynamic and mooring analyses.

  19. Parameter importance and uncertainty in predicting runoff pesticide reduction with filter strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A; Sabbagh, George J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an environmental management tool used to reduce sediment and pesticide transport from surface runoff. Numerical models of VFS such as the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD-W) are capable of predicting runoff, sediment, and pesticide reduction and can be useful tools to understand the effectiveness of VFS and environmental conditions under which they may be ineffective. However, as part of the modeling process, it is critical to identify input factor importance and quantify uncertainty in predicted runoff, sediment, and pesticide reductions. This research used state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools, a screening method (Morris) and a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test), to evaluate VFSMOD-W under a range of field scenarios. The three VFS studies analyzed were conducted on silty clay loam and silt loam soils under uniform, sheet flow conditions and included atrazine, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and terbuthylazine data. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for predicting infiltration and runoff, explaining >75% of the total output variance for studies with smaller hydraulic loading rates ( approximately 100-150 mm equivalent depths) and approximately 50% for the higher loading rate ( approximately 280-mm equivalent depth). Important input factors for predicting sedimentation included hydraulic conductivity, average particle size, and the filter's Manning's roughness coefficient. Input factor importance for pesticide trapping was controlled by infiltration and, therefore, hydraulic conductivity. Global uncertainty analyses suggested a wide range of reductions for runoff (95% confidence intervals of 7-93%), sediment (84-100%), and pesticide (43-100%) . Pesticide trapping probability distributions fell between runoff and sediment reduction distributions as a function of the pesticides' sorption. Seemingly

  20. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Reduction of techno-genic load on the interior of the earth and environment due to development of hydrocarbon fields; La reduction de l'impact technologique sur le sous-sol et l'environnement lors du developpement de gisements d'hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrievsky, A.I.; Basniev, K.S.; Sedykh, A.D.; Zhidenko, G.G.; Sidorov, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oil and Gas Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences, I.M. Gubkin Russian State, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The present-day stage of industrial advance is associated with a risk of occurrence of anomalous and catastrophic natural and techno-genic events. The process of hydrocarbon field development can result in adverse consequences for the interior of the earth and for the environment in general. Two factors that complement and intensify each other can be conducive to that: the natural factor (geodynamic conditions) and the techno-genic factor (engineering and technological solutions employed for the development of formations). The lithosphere undergoes current geodynamic processes of high activity. Tectonic flexure faults bring about leakage from the wells and from the reservoirs in the process of fluid withdrawal. Man changes inevitably the interior of the earth and, as a consequence, the face of the planet while producing significant volumes of oil, gas and water. It is necessary to minimize the damage from penetration into the earth required to find very much needed energy. Negative after-effects are examined, in particular rock subsidence, failure of well casing strings, hydrodynamic changes in gas-bearing formations, techno-genic and induced earthquakes, etc. Cited are methods to reduce the after-effects that have already been worked out. It is emphasized that there is a need in registering and forecasting the environmental consequences of the natural and techno-genic events. (authors)

  2. Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric aerosol loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

    1981-08-01

    The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10 1 g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10 -3 of normal. We also infer from this result tha the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al. is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids of comets than previously estimated

  3. Cooling load reduction by means of night sky radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Abdullah; Armansyah, H.T.; Dyah, W.; Gunadnya, I.B.P.

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal cooling can work under clear sky condition of the humid tropical climate. Such effect had been observed in a cool storage facilities for potatoes and for temporary storage of fresh vegetables installed in highland area of Candi kuning village of Bali. Test results have shown that the rate of heat dissipation to the sky could reduce storage temperature to 15 o C had been achieved when the nocturnal cooling unit was combined with modified cooling tower and 1 kW cooling effect of an auxiliary cooling unit. Under such condition the facility could maintain better quality of stored vegetables, such as broccoli, shallot, and celery as compared to those stored in room without cooling facility. The estimated average cooling rate due to night sky radiation was 47.6 W/m 2 , on September 28, 1999 and 47.2 W/m 2 with the lowest water temperature of 14 o C under ambient temperature of 16 o C

  4. Reduction of lateral loads in abutments using ground anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Laefer, Debra F.; Truong-Hong, Linh; Le, Khanh Ba

    2013-01-01

    In bridge design, economically addressing large, lateral earth pressures on bridge abutments is a major challenge. Traditional approaches employ enlargement of the abutment components to resist these pressures. This approach results in higher construction costs. As an alternative, a formal approach using ground anchors to resist lateral soil pressure on bridge abutments is proposed herein. The ground anchors are designed to minimise lateral forces at the pile cap base. Design examples for hig...

  5. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  6. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  7. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  8. Application of SELECT and SWAT models to simulate source load, fate, and transport of fecal bacteria in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, T.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of fate and transport of fecal bacteria in a watershed is a processed based approach that considers releases from manure, point sources, and septic systems. Overland transport with water and sediments, infiltration into soils, transport in the vadose zone and groundwater, die-off and growth processes, and in-stream transport are considered as the other major processes in bacteria simulation. This presentation will discuss a simulation of fecal indicator bacteria source loading and in-stream conditions of a non-tidal watershed (Cedar Bayou Watershed) in South Central Texas using two models; Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool (SELECT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Furthermore, it will discuss a probable approach of bacteria source load reduction in order to meet the water quality standards in the streams. The selected watershed is listed as having levels of fecal indicator bacteria that posed a risk for contact recreation and wading by the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The SELECT modeling approach was used in estimating the bacteria source loading from land categories. Major bacteria sources considered were, failing septic systems, discharges from wastewater treatment facilities, excreta from livestock (Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goat), excreta from Wildlife (Feral Hogs, and Deer), Pet waste (mainly from Dogs), and runoff from urban surfaces. The estimated source loads from SELECT model were input to the SWAT model, and simulate the bacteria transport through the land and in-stream. The calibrated SWAT model was then used to estimate the indicator bacteria in-stream concentrations for future years based on regional land use, population and household forecast (up to 2040). Based on the reductions required to meet the water quality standards in-stream, the corresponding required source load reductions were estimated.

  9. Load Carriage Induced Alterations of Pulmonary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    pulmonar , function reductions are directh’ related to the backpack load carried due to the mechanical constraint it imposes on the thoracic cage.2 To...and Fish- man. A.P.. 1965. The regulation of venttlation in diffuse Agostor. E.. D’Angelc, E. and Piolini, M., 1978. Breathing pulmonary fibrosis . J

  10. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading for Selected Sites in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 1978-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. The U.S. Geologic Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading in the Lower Gunnison River Basin to support the development of total maximum daily selenium loads at sites that represent the cumulative contribution to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list segments. Analysis of selenium loading included quantifying loads and determining the amount of load that would need to be reduced to bring the site into compliance, referred to as 'the load reduction,' with the State chronic aquatic-life standard for dissolved selenium [85th percentile selenium concentration not to exceed 4.6 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)], referred to as 'the water-quality standard.' Streamflow and selenium concentration data for 54 historical water-quality/water-quantity monitoring sites were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data sources. Three methods were used for analysis of selenium concentration data to address the variable data density among sites. Mean annual selenium loads were determined for only 10 of the 54 sites due to data availability limitations. Twenty-two sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations that exceeded the water-quality standard, 3 sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations less than the State standard, and 29 sites could not be evaluated with respect to 85th percentile selenium concentration (sample count less than 5). To bring selenium concentrations into compliance with the water-quality standard, more than 80 percent of the mean annual selenium load would need to be reduced at Red Rock Canyon, Dry Cedar Creek, Cedar Creek, Loutzenhizer Arroyo, Sunflower Drain, and Whitewater Creek. More than 50 percent of the mean annual load would need to be reduced at Dry Creek to bring the site into compliance with the water

  11. Dangers of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental pollution is ever increasing. Protection of the environment must not be neglected for economic reasons. Damage to health due to environmental effects is hard to determine epidemiologically as there are nearly always several causes to consider at the same time. Still, the increase in environmental pollution results in increased damage to humans, animals, and plants. The many dangers to health can be illustrated by the example of energy demand and the different ways to meet it. It is highly necessary to create environmental laws which aim at a reduction of environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  12. An environmental impact measure for nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2004-01-01

    Review of the models and measures for repository performance assessment has revealed that dedicated measures for environmental impacts need to be developed for the purpose of nuclear-fuel-cycle evaluation from the viewpoint of environmental impact minimization. The present study proposes the total toxicity index of released radionuclides that have accumulated in the region exterior to the repository as an environmental impact measure. The measure is quantitatively evaluated by a radionuclide transport model that incorporates the effects of canister-array configuration and the initial mass loading in the waste canister. With the measure, it is demonstrated that the environmental impact of the repository can be effectively reduced by reduction of the initial mass loading and change in the canister-array configuration in the repository. Environmental impacts of the mill tailings and the depleted uranium are as important as those from the high-level radioactive wastes repository. For a fair comparison of various fuel cycles, the sum of these impacts should be compared. (author)

  13. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  14. Auditory working memory load impairs visual ventral stream processing: toward a unified model of attentional load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemen, Jane; Büchel, Christian; Bühler, Mira; Menz, Mareike M; Rose, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences that disruptions to attention can have. According to the load theory of cognitive control, processing of task-irrelevant stimuli is increased by attending in parallel to a relevant task with high cognitive demands. This is due to the relevant task engaging cognitive control resources that are, hence, unavailable to inhibit the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. However, it has also been demonstrated that a variety of types of load (perceptual and emotional) can result in a reduction of the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, suggesting a uniform effect of increased load irrespective of the type of load. In the present study, we concurrently presented a relevant auditory matching task [n-back working memory (WM)] of low or high cognitive load (1-back or 2-back WM) and task-irrelevant images at one of three object visibility levels (0%, 50%, or 100%). fMRI activation during the processing of the task-irrelevant visual stimuli was measured in the lateral occipital cortex and found to be reduced under high, compared to low, WM load. In combination with previous findings, this result is suggestive of a more generalized load theory, whereby cognitive load, as well as other types of load (e.g., perceptual), can result in a reduction of the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, in line with a uniform effect of increased load irrespective of the type of load.

  15. Factor structure underlying components of allostatic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available Allostatic load is a commonly used metric of health risk based on the hypothesis that recurrent exposure to environmental demands (e.g., stress engenders a progressive dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Prominent indicators of response to environmental challenges, such as stress-related hormones, sympatho-vagal balance, or inflammatory cytokines, comprise primary allostatic mediators. Secondary mediators reflect ensuing biological alterations that accumulate over time and confer risk for clinical disease but overlap substantially with a second metric of health risk, the metabolic syndrome. Whether allostatic load mediators covary and thus warrant treatment as a unitary construct remains to be established and, in particular, the relation of allostatic load parameters to the metabolic syndrome requires elucidation. Here, we employ confirmatory factor analysis to test: 1 whether a single common factor underlies variation in physiological systems associated with allostatic load; and 2 whether allostatic load parameters continue to load on a single common factor if a second factor representing the metabolic syndrome is also modeled. Participants were 645 adults from Allegheny County, PA (30-54 years old, 82% non-Hispanic white, 52% female who were free of confounding medications. Model fitting supported a single, second-order factor underlying variance in the allostatic load components available in this study (metabolic, inflammatory and vagal measures. Further, this common factor reflecting covariation among allostatic load components persisted when a latent factor representing metabolic syndrome facets was conjointly modeled. Overall, this study provides novel evidence that the modeled allostatic load components do share common variance as hypothesized. Moreover, the common variance suggests the existence of statistical coherence above and beyond that attributable to the metabolic syndrome.

  16. Analysis of a Fluid-Loaded Thick Plate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The physics of a thick plate with fluid loading on both sides provides the theoretical basis for insertion loss and echo reduction tests, both of which are typically used to determine how efficiently...

  17. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  18. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH ONGOING - EPA'S RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is to advance the understanding, development and application of engineering solutions for the prevention or reduction of risks from environmental contamination. This mission is accomplished through basic and applied researc...

  20. Concentration reduction of selected pollutants in fish culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration reduction of selected pollutants in fish culture effluents using plastic straws and palm kernel shells. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... Their effluent treatment ability were evaluated in terms of reduction made to ...

  1. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  3. LOADING OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF TROLLEYBUS TRACTION DRIVING GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Safonov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes factors that determine dynamic loads of mechanical transmission of trolleybus traction driving gear. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of calculative moments of loading transmission elements. Results of the research are analyzed and recommendations on  dynamic reduction of trolleybus transmission are given in the paper. 

  4. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007,......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  5. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  6. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  7. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  8. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  9. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  11. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  12. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  13. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  14. Derivation and Mapping of Critical Loads for Nitrogen and Trends in Their Exceedance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Nagel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “critical load” means a quantitative estimate of an exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur, according to present knowledge. In the case of nitrogen, both oxidised and reduced compounds contribute to the total deposition of acidity, which exceeds critical loads in many forest ecosystems. These also cause negative effects through eutrophication. Critical loads of nitrogen were derived for forest soils (deciduous and coniferous forest, natural grassland, acid fens, heathland, and mesotrophic peat bogs. In Germany, a decrease in sulphur emissions over the past 15 years resulted in a reduced exceedance of critical loads for acid deposition. In the same period it was noted that reduction in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia remained insignificant. Therefore, emissions of nitrogen compounds have become relatively more important and will continue to threaten ecosystem function and stability. The risk of environmental damage remains at an unacceptable level. The German maps show the degree to which the critical loads are exceeded, and they present current developments and an expected future trend. Results indicate that recovery from pollutant stress occurs only gradually.

  15. Experimental Setup for Cyclic Lateral Loading of Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The majority of all offshore wind turbines are installed on monopiles, i.e. large diameter stiff piles. During the environmental loading of the wind turbine the monopile is subjected to millions of load cycles which might cause an accumulated rotation of the wind turbine. In this paper the influe...

  16. Environmental and economic results achieved by Cornare in implementing the remunerative tax in eastern Antioquia 1997 - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero V, John Fredy

    2008-01-01

    A summary of the development was carried out that has had since 1995 and even the 2005 the program of remunerative tax executed by CORNARE, in which the environmental management in the process of implementation is visualized, evolution and environmental as economic results, through the reduction of the load contaminant poured to the superficial water sources in terms of DBO 5 and SST, like in the destination of the resources obtained by this tax that elevate to the 11.600 million pesos in the period evaluated, and that in their great majority they were destined to finance jointly projects of saneamiento basic municipal. It will be able to be observed how in the private sector better results in the reduction of the polluting load have been had, whereas the policeman represents the greater load generated and spilled without treatment, in special the municipalities or regions with population and absence of PTAR, as they are some from the pertaining ones to the river basin of the Negro River. In general, comparing the year of 1997 with the 2005, was relative a semester reduction of polluting load for all the region of CORNARE of 24% for DBO 5 and 35% for SST

  17. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  18. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  19. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie,