WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental licensing processes

  1. Nuclear and environmental licensing process for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Branco, Otavio E.A.; Alves, Paulo R.R.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated in the power plants. This question echoes in many people voices, every time that the nuclear energy is the subject in assignment. The long time that is necessary for the radioactive decay of some elements makes this issue a big challenge for the actual and future generations. Several environmental and nuclear aspects must be considered in this process, and the national and international legislation must be observed. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the applicability of the regulatory aspects of the Low and Intermediate Level Activity Waste Repository project, contemplating all the development phases, accomplishing a diagnosis of all the laws, norms and pertinent national regulations, observing the recommendations of the relevant international organs and the aspects of Nuclear and Environmental Licensing. Also, another goal is to discuss the compatibility of the application of these two licensing processes. (author)

  2. The importance of environmental education in the process of nuclear and environmental licensing of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Ribeiro, Katia Maria Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Today, there is a thread with regard to the global environment. To reduce the environmental impact due to spending supplies to meet the basic needs of the global population. Can be considered as the power of these needs and in this context, the environmental impact occurs by the use of fossil fuels and loss of land for use of water resources. To minimize these impacts, governments are establishing appropriate laws towards the use of renewable energy. However it appears that there is still a great distance between the established law and implementation in practice. In this context nuclear energy is an attractive option, both economic and environmental. The facilities that are somehow associated with nuclear power plants are classified as radioactive or nuclear. These facilities are subject to two licensing procedures: Environmental (by IBAMA) and Nuclear (by CNEN). Nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants Angra 1 and 2, deposits and tailings facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Rezende that are more the attention of the population. As part of these processes are reports of analysis of safety and environmental impacts and socio-economic (EIA/RIMA RFAS), which are available to the public and then discussed at public hearings, where there is the opportunity for questions on these reports. These questions are mainly related with the social-environmental and economic due to construction and operation of these facilities. This work is a research, discussing the law, identifying the difficulties in the licensing process and presents a discussion on the importance of environmental education at all school levels, for adult audiences and is a connection between the environmental education and process of environmental licensing and nuclear, showing how the popular consciousness more informed can better discuss issues associated with these licenses, understand the advantages and disadvantages and obtain benefits. (author)

  3. The Brazilian Audit Tribunal's role in improving the federal environmental licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Luiz Henrique; Magrini, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the role played by the Brazilian Audit Tribunal (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao - TCU) in the external auditing of environmental management in Brazil, highlighting the findings of an operational audit conducted in 2007 of the federal environmental licensing process. Initially, it records the constitutional and legal framework of Brazilian environmental licensing, describing the powers and duties granted to federal, state and municipal institutions. In addition, it presents the responsibilities of the TCU in the environmental area, comparing these with those of other Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI) that are members of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI). It also describes the work carried out in the operational audit of the Brazilian environmental licensing process and its main conclusions and recommendations. Finally, it draws a parallel between the findings and recommendations made in Brazil with those of academic studies and audits conducted in other countries.

  4. Application of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Jonatas F.C. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi, occurred in Japan in 2011, brought reflections, worldwide, on the management of nuclear and environmental licensing processes of existing nuclear reactors. One of the key lessons learned in this matter, is that the studies of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accidents are becoming essential, even in the early stage of a nuclear development project. In Brazil, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, conducts the nuclear licensing. The organism responsible for the environmental licensing is Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. In the scope of the licensing processes of these two institutions, the safety analysis is essentially deterministic, complemented by probabilistic studies. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the study performed to evaluate the behavior of the nuclear reactor in a sequence of events that may lead to the melting of its core. It includes both probability and consequence estimation of these events, which are called Severe Accidents, allowing to obtain the risk assessment of the plant. Thus, the possible shortcomings in the design of systems are identified, providing basis for safety assessment and improving safety. During the environmental licensing, a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), including probabilistic evaluations, is required in order to support the development of the Risk Analysis Study, the Risk Management Program and the Emergency Plan. This article aims to provide an overview of probabilistic risk assessment methodologies and their applications in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil. (author)

  5. Application of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jonatas F.C. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi, occurred in Japan in 2011, brought reflections, worldwide, on the management of nuclear and environmental licensing processes of existing nuclear reactors. One of the key lessons learned in this matter, is that the studies of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accidents are becoming essential, even in the early stage of a nuclear development project. In Brazil, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, conducts the nuclear licensing. The organism responsible for the environmental licensing is Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. In the scope of the licensing processes of these two institutions, the safety analysis is essentially deterministic, complemented by probabilistic studies. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the study performed to evaluate the behavior of the nuclear reactor in a sequence of events that may lead to the melting of its core. It includes both probability and consequence estimation of these events, which are called Severe Accidents, allowing to obtain the risk assessment of the plant. Thus, the possible shortcomings in the design of systems are identified, providing basis for safety assessment and improving safety. During the environmental licensing, a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), including probabilistic evaluations, is required in order to support the development of the Risk Analysis Study, the Risk Management Program and the Emergency Plan. This article aims to provide an overview of probabilistic risk assessment methodologies and their applications in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil. (author)

  6. License renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fable, D.; Prah, M.; Vrankic, K.; Lebegner, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about license renewal process, as defined by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Atomic Energy Act and NRC regulations limit commercial power reactor licenses to an initial 40 years but also permit such licenses to be renewed. This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected time period; however, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. The NRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements codified in 10 CFR Part 51 and 10 CFR Part 54, that are needed to assure safe plant operation for extended plant life. The timely renewal of licenses for an additional 20 years, where appropriate to renew them, may be important to ensuring an adequate energy supply during the first half of the 21st Century. License renewal rests on the determination that currently operating plants continue to maintain adequate levels of safety, and over the plant's life, this level has been enhanced through maintenance of the licensing bases, with appropriate adjustments to address new information from industry operating experience. Additionally, NRC activities have provided ongoing assurance that the licensing bases will continue to provide an acceptable level of safety. This paper provides additional discussion of license renewal costs, as one of key elements in evaluation of license renewal justifiability. Including structure of costs, approximately value and two different approaches, conservative and typical. Current status and position of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, related to license renewal process, will be briefly presented in this paper. NPP Krsko is designed based on NRC Regulations, so requirements from 10 CFR 51, and 10 CFR 54, are applicable to NPP Krsko, as well. Finally, this paper will give an overview of current status of

  7. Licensing Process for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes how the licensing process should be applied at the various stages of the lifetime of a nuclear installation, with discussion of topics and required documents to be considered at each stage. Recommendations on the application by a regulatory body of a graded approach in the licensing process are also provided. It also describes the processes that should be undertaken to meet the regulatory and legal requirements in a Member State to authorize the establishment of a nuclear installation and/or initiation of its activities. While this Safety Guide focuses on safety at nuclear installations, it is noted that integration of safety and security aspects should be considered and evaluated by the regulatory body in the licensing process. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. General recommendations for the licensing process; 3. Steps of the licensing process; Appendix I: Examples of documents to be submitted to the regulatory body.

  8. Brand Licensing Processes and Workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Törmä, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis project is to provide an end-to-end brand licensing workflow mapping and give the reader understanding of the brand licensing workflows and how they are connected in the overall process. Brand licensing business is not too familiar in Finland and could offer an opportunity for a new income stream for many companies. To manage the brand licensing program, the company needs to understand the processes associated in the business model. The goal is to res...

  9. Process evaluation of an environmental health risk audit and action plan intervention to reduce alcohol related violence in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Annie; Moore, Simon C; Shovelton, Claire; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon

    2016-05-28

    Alcohol-related violence is associated with licensed premise environments and their management. There is a lack of evidence for effective interventions to address these, and there are significant barriers to implementation. This study aims to understand how development and implementation processes can facilitate intervention reach, fidelity and receipt and therefore provides key process data necessary to interpret the results of the randomised controlled trial conducted in parallel. A process evaluation, embedded within a randomised controlled trial. Intervention development and implementation were assessed via focus groups (n = 2) and semi-structured interviews (n = 22) with Environmental Health Practitioners (EHPs). Reach and fidelity were assessed via routinely collected intervention data, which was was collected from 276 licenced premises across Wales, UK. Case study semi-structured interviews with licensed premises proprietors (n = 30) explored intervention receipt. Intervention co-production with senior EHPs facilitated organisational adoption and implementation. Training events for EHPs played an important role in addressing wider organisational concerns regarding partnership working and the contextual integration of the intervention. EHPs delivered the intervention to 98 % of intervention premises; 35 % of premises should have received a follow up enforcement visit, however EHP confidence in dealing with alcohol risk factors meant only 7 % of premises received one. Premises therefore received a similar intervention dose regardless of baseline risk. Intervention receipt appeared to be greatest in premises with an existing commitment to prevention and those in urban environments. The study suggests that a collaborative approach to the development and diffusion of interventions is associated with high levels of organisational adoption, implementation and reach. However, the lack of enforcement visits represents implementation failure for a key

  10. Process evaluation of an environmental health risk audit and action plan intervention to reduce alcohol related violence in licensed premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related violence is associated with licensed premise environments and their management. There is a lack of evidence for effective interventions to address these, and there are significant barriers to implementation. This study aims to understand how development and implementation processes can facilitate intervention reach, fidelity and receipt and therefore provides key process data necessary to interpret the results of the randomised controlled trial conducted in parallel. Methods A process evaluation, embedded within a randomised controlled trial. Intervention development and implementation were assessed via focus groups (n = 2 and semi-structured interviews (n = 22 with Environmental Health Practitioners (EHPs. Reach and fidelity were assessed via routinely collected intervention data, which was was collected from 276 licenced premises across Wales, UK. Case study semi-structured interviews with licensed premises proprietors (n = 30 explored intervention receipt. Results Intervention co-production with senior EHPs facilitated organisational adoption and implementation. Training events for EHPs played an important role in addressing wider organisational concerns regarding partnership working and the contextual integration of the intervention. EHPs delivered the intervention to 98 % of intervention premises; 35 % of premises should have received a follow up enforcement visit, however EHP confidence in dealing with alcohol risk factors meant only 7 % of premises received one. Premises therefore received a similar intervention dose regardless of baseline risk. Intervention receipt appeared to be greatest in premises with an existing commitment to prevention and those in urban environments. Conclusions The study suggests that a collaborative approach to the development and diffusion of interventions is associated with high levels of organisational adoption, implementation and reach. However, the lack

  11. The USNCR license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Pao-Tsin

    2002-01-01

    The US Congress promulgated a law in 1954, entitled 'Atomic Energy Act'. This Act states that operating licenses for commercial nuclear power plants are limited to a fixed term of 40 years, but they may be renewed for a period not to exceed 20 years. The terms were established mainly for economic considerations, not based on technical limitations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the license renewal rule, Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), in December, 1991. The rule has since been amended in May, 1995. The underlying principle of the rule is that the regulatory process is adequate for ensuring safety of operating plants. The regulatory process includes NRC's issuance of Orders, Bulletins, Generic Letters, and Information Notices, as well as a number of special inspections in addition to the continuous oversight and routine inspection activities performed by on-site inspectors. Because of this comprehensive regulatory process, compilation of the current license basis or re-verification of the current licensing basis is not considered necessary for a license renewal review. The USNRC also determined on the basis of the findings of its research programs that active structures and components are well maintained by the existing programs. Therefore, the focus of the license renewal review is on passive, long-lived structures and components and on time-limited ageing analyses. The time-limited ageing analyses are for those structures and components which were originally designed to a 40 year service life

  12. Licensing Process for International Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christan

    2014-01-01

    Christan Raetzke, lawyer, then outlined why nuclear constructions were always international projects and in which cases it would make sense to also make the licensing process be international. His law consulting firm CONLAR focuses specifically on design review so he could adequately present why an international process would make a lot of sense without being a loss of sovereignty

  13. Environmental licensing issues for cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, G.S.; Bibbo, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The siting and licensing of cogeneration and independent power production (IPP) facilities is a complex process involving a number of interrelated engineering, economic, and environmental impact considerations. Important considerations for the siting and licensing of such facilities include air quality control and air quality impacts, water supply and wastewater disposal, and applicable noise criteria and noise impact considerations. Air quality control and air quality impact considerations for power generation facilities are commonly reviewed in the public forum, and most project developers are generally aware of the key air quality licensing issues. These issues include Best Available Control Technology (BACT) demonstration requirements, and air quality modeling requirements. BACT is a case-by-case determination, which causes uncertainty, in that developers have difficulty in projecting the cost of required control systems. Continuing developments in control technology may cause this problem to continue in the 1990's. Air quality modeling can be a problem in hilly terrain or within or near an urban environment, which could delay or preclude permitting of a new cogeneration or IPP facility in such locations. This paper discusses several environmental issues which are less frequently addressed than air quality issues, namely water/wastewater and noise. The design features of typical cogeneration and IPP facilities that affect water supply requirements, wastewater volumes, and noise emissions are discussed. Then, the site selection and impact review process are examined to identify typical constraints and trade-offs that can develop relative to water, wastewater, and noise issues. Trends in permit review requirements for water, wastewater, and noise are examined. Finally, innovative approaches that can be used to resolve potential development constraints for water, wastewater, and noise issues are discussed

  14. Reactor licensing process: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in its review of applications for licenses to construct and operate nuclear power plants, is required to consider those measures necessary to ensure the protection of the health and safety of the public and the environment. The article discusses the NRC staff procedures and policies for conducting the detailed safety, environmental, and antitrust reviews that provide the basis for these assurances. Included is a discussion of the improvements to the licensing process currently being proposed or implemented to enhance its stability and predictability for the benefit of all involved with the regulation of nuclear power. The views and opinions expressed in the article are those of the author alone and do not represent positions of the NRC

  15. DECISION MAKING ON STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY LICENSING: FIXED-FEE VERSUS ROYALTY LICENSING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    MING-CHUNG CHANG; JIN-LI HU; GWO-HSHIUNG TZENG

    2009-01-01

    Because of a deterioration in the quality of the environment, this paper studies the effects of the environment and the economy on environmental technology licensing in a homogeneous Cournot duopoly model in order to reduce environmental pollution and hence improve social welfare. To this end, two licensing methods — namely, a fixed-fee licensing method and a royalty licensing method — are compared. It is found that a high emission tax rate induces the innovator to not license the environment...

  16. Streamlining the license renewal review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, J.; Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    The staff of the NRC has been developing three regulatory guidance documents for license renewal: the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR), and Regulatory Guide (RG) for Standard Format and Content for Applications to Renew Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses. These documents are designed to streamline the license renewal review process by providing clear guidance for license renewal applicants and the NRC staff in preparing and reviewing license renewal applications. The GALL report systematically catalogs aging effects on structures and components; identifies the relevant existing plant programs; and evaluates the existing programs against the attributes considered necessary for an aging management program to be acceptable for license renewal. The GALL report also provides guidance for the augmentation of existing plant programs for license renewal. The revised SRP-LR allows an applicant to reference the GALL report to preclude further NRC staff evaluation if the plant's existing programs meet the criteria described in the GALL report. During the review process, the NRC staff will focus primarily on existing programs that should be augmented or new programs developed specifically for license renewal. The Regulatory Guide is expected to endorse the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline, NEI 95-10, Revision 2, entitled 'Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule', which provides guidance for preparing a license renewal application. This paper will provide an introduction to the GALL report, SRP-LR, Regulatory Guide, and NEI 95-10 to show how these documents are interrelated and how they will be used to streamline the license renewal review process. This topic will be of interest to domestic power utilities considering license renewal and international ICONE participants seeking state-of-the-art information about license renewal in the United States

  17. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wisenburg

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process

  18. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  19. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  20. U.S. licensing process and ABWR certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, J.F.; Williams, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) establishes a two-step licensing process by which the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) authorizes nuclear reactor plant construction through issuance of a construction permit and authorizes operation by issuance of an operating license. At each stage, the NRC Staff conducts technical reviews and there is potential for public hearings. In 1989, the NRC issued a new, simplified licensing process: Part 52. The purpose of the Part 52 licensing process is to provide a regulatory framework that brings about earlier resolution of licensing issues. Because issues are not resolved early in the Part 50 licensing process, approval of an operating license is not assured until after a significant investment has been made in the plant. Part 52 increases the stability and certainty of the licensing process by providing for the early resolution of safety and environmental issues. The Part 52 licensing process features (1) early site permits, (2) design certification, and (3) combined construction permit and operating licenses. As part of the U.S. Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program to revitalize the nuclear option through the integration of government/utility/industry efforts, GE undertook the role of applying for certification for its latest product line, the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), under the U.S. ABWR certification program. The ABWR design is an essentially complete plant. Initial application for design certification was in 1987 under Part 50. GE reapplied in late 1991 under the newly promulgated Part 52. Following seven years of intensive interactions with the NRC and ACRS, GE was awarded the first Final Design Approval (FDA) under Part 52. The Commission initiated rulemaking by publishing the proposed ABWR Certification Rule in the Federal Register in early 1995. Certification is anticipated mid-1996. (J.P.N.)

  1. Regulations and the licensing process in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulla, Herbert U.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the licensing process which took place from 1971 to 1978 shows which laws, regulations and standards were used in checking the safety aspects of the nuclear power plant and which organisations participated in the licensing process. The internal organisation of the Austrian main-expert in the procedure is illustrated. Examples of detail-work are explained. The importance of intensive co-operation of the different technical groups and the problems of comparable examination depth are underlined. (author)

  2. NRC materials licensing business process reengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued 6550 active licenses that authorize possession and use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear material. In October 1994, the NRC staff began to examine the process used to issue these licenses to identify ways to improve the process. In addition to examining the current process, the staff was directed to develop a new process design that would accomplish the following goals: (1) Maintain or raise the level of public safety achieved by the current process, (2) Perform licensing reviews and associated tasks an order of magnitude faster than the current process, (3) Exploit modern information technology as a fundamental part of the new process, and (4) Reduce the resources needed to carry out the licensing program to meet the projected 1997-1999 staffing levels. The method used for this examination is called Business Process Reengineering (BPR). BPR is the process of fundamentally changing the way work is performed so as to achieve radical performance improvements in speed, cost, and quality. Features of the new licensing process, scheduled to begin in 1996, are outlined in this paper

  3. 10 CFR 51.54 - Environmental report-manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-manufacturing license. 51.54 Section 51.54 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

  4. Evaluation of the environmental licensing process for small hydroelectric power plants in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Avaliacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental para pequenas centrais hidreletricas no estado de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli

    2004-07-01

    The present situation of the environmental licensing process have been slow and complicated, in relation to the current conception of the sustainable environmental development in the country. The enterprises and impacting activities are being discussed and analysed through a great number of environmental laws and specific laws to each enterprise. These laws along with the inexperience of the enterprises and of the many institutions involved in the process are an obstacle to the development. This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants. Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. The results show that the main barriers are the non-application of the CONAMA resolution 279/2001 to the SHPP, undetermined inspection criteria, excess of environmental programs, technical incapacity, lack of financial resources, non-integration of the institutional organs, the building of SHPP in permanent preservation area, project interfering in the fish fauna, studies an environmental impact with then reports and public audiences. Finally, concludes that the difficulties are based on the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, the study suggests on increase of the technical body in the institutions and training of their analysts; hiring of specialized consultancy, implantation of an environmental integrated system, social communication program in the planning phase, fulfillment of the CONAMA resolution 279/2001; integration of public ministry representatives in the licensing organs; application of planning and zoning, deadlines and legal imposition of these deadlines in order to supply the

  5. Generic environmental impact statement for license renewal of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Volume 2 of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants contains the appendices. These include: (A) General characterisitics and environmental settings of domestic nuclear plants, (B) Definition of impact initiators, (C) Socioeconomics and case studies, (D) Aquatic organisms and human health, (E) Radiation protection considerations, (F) Methodology for assessing impacts to aquatic ecology and water resources, (G) Postulated accidents, and (H) Environmental statutes and regulations affecting license renewal

  6. The importance of multidisciplinary action for the environmental licensing process in the PETROBRAS/UN-RIO (Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro); A importancia da acao multidisciplinar em processos de licenciamento ambiental na Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro - UN-RIO, da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Aline W.L.; Vidal, Roseane D.M.; Rocha, Valmir G. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the workings of the so-called Environmental Licensing Group from PETROBRAS's UN-RIO's SMS division (Safety, Health and the Environment Division). It emphasizes the importance of multidisciplinary action in the environmental licensing process of activities related to the transference and production of oil and gas, especially in a company the size and importance like PETROBRAS. The effectiveness of the system adopted by UN-RIO is verified by the results already achieved by the group, with the successful licensing of its activities. For a company like PETROBRAS, with a great number of activities simultaneously being licensed, it is extremely important that there exists a control, not only of the information that is being sent to the Environmental Agency as a follow-up of the several licensing processes, so that Licenses can be obtained in time and without complications. (author)

  7. 10 CFR 51.21 - Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY... § 51.21 Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental assessments. All licensing and regulatory actions subject to this subpart require an environmental assessment...

  8. 10 CFR 51.20 - Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY... § 51.20 Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental impact statements. (a) Licensing and regulatory actions requiring an environmental impact statement shall...

  9. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  10. Licensing process for the power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez P, R.; Mamani A, Y.R.; Salgado G, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)

  11. Licensing documentation and licensing process for dismantling and decontamination projects in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uspuras, Eugenijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas; Babilas, Egidijus [Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI), Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    One of the main tasks of any decommissioning project is the licensing process which allows implementation of developed strategies in real NPP. The Lithuanian laws on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management require that the dismantling and decontamination (D and D) projects shall be licensed by the Lithuanian State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) and other Authorities. Licensing is an inseparable part of the Lithuania regulatory and supervisory system for safety of nuclear facilities. The licensing process starts when NPP submits the first licensing document(s) to the Authorities. It is completed when all the licensing documents are approved by the Authorities and authorization to start D and D works is received by NPP. Current paper will discuss one of the main steps in D and D projects implementation process - Licensing and will provide information about D and D licensing approach used in Lithuania. (orig.)

  12. 47 CFR 22.949 - Unserved area licensing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unserved area licensing process. 22.949 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.949 Unserved area licensing process. This section sets forth the process for licensing unserved areas in cellular markets on channel blocks for which the...

  13. CEQ regulations called peril to nuclear licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Court challenges are expected over regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) that were designed to improve nuclear-licensing decisions, but that have actually changed the meanings of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations. The legal implications of these changes could, unless resolved, make the licensing process for nuclear facilities even more uncertain. Agency comments are thought to be critical, although the CEQ has declined to release them, and some question the Council's legality. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission faults the CEQ regulations for revising existing law, being inconsistent with the responsibilities of an independent regulatory body, and extending the CEQ's authority beyond the role assigned by NEPA and the President's Executive Order

  14. The time factor in environmental licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombach, P.

    2000-01-01

    The speed of planning and licensing procedures play a large part in the severity of Germany an attractive business location. A comparison is made between licensing procedures in Germany and abroad, whether they take longer and if so, how much; case studies one used as comparable illustrations of construction-, emission-, and waste-regulatory procedures in Germany, France and the USA. The second main part concerns the analysis of the fundamental delaying factors and comentional acceleration instruments in Germany. Applications, effectiveness and reliability of the new concepts (official Projectmanagenment, conflicts of interest, updating of the InvErl- and WohnbaulandG) as well as alternative proposals are developed on the basis of experiences in France and the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  16. Methodology and findings of the NRC's materials licensing process redesign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, P.A.; Brown, K.D.; Madera, J.R.; Moriarty, M.; Pelchat, J.M.; Usilton, W.K.; Whitten, J.E.; Vacca, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the work and vision of the team chartered to redesign the process for licensing users of nuclear materials. The Business Process Redesign team was chartered to improve the speed of the existing licensing process while maintaining or improving public safety and to achieve required resource levels. The report describes the team's methods for acquiring and analyzing information about the existing materials licensing process and the steps necessary to radically change this process to the envisioned future process

  17. 10 CFR 51.60 - Environmental report-materials licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to part 61 of this chapter. (v) Processing of source material for extraction of rare earth and... chapter authorizing (i) closure of a land disposal site, (ii) transfer of the license to the disposal site...

  18. Licensing and Environmental Issues of Wave Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Tedd, James; Prado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    . Different National settings and traditional use of ocean space, as well as different levels of advance in terms of legislation and procedural effectiveness make it extremely difficult to set out implementation strategies for ocean wave energy technologies. The paper includes a brief experience review from......The major non-technical barrier for large-scale wave energy implementation is the wide range of licensing issues and potential environmental concerns, in addition to significant National/regional differences in licensing procedures and permit requirements. Whereas some pilot plants have had...... a special standing or facilitated access to operating licenses due to their experimental character, the move of wave energy projects towards commercial applications implies complex procedures for obtaining licenses both with respect to the construction and deployment and operation phases, as well...

  19. Environmental license process complexity in natural protected areas: case of OSBAT pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO in the state of Sao Paulo; Complexidade do licenciamento ambiental em areas naturais protegidas: caso do duto OSBAT operado pela TRANSPETRO no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    It presents the environmental license process enforced to obtain the Implementation License (LI) of the OSBAT pipeway part substitution, in the Sao Sebastiao city, State of Sao Paulo, with the analyses centered on the several public power instances and on the many special legal protection aspects around the natural area scenarios of the project interference. The license process had the duration of seventeen months, since the LI protocol and its emission. The process had the involvement of several organisms, the main part from the Sistema Nacional de Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA, and represented an interesting experience that can contribute to the agility of other license process of infrastructure works on protected natural areas, which has the incidence of an extensive legislation and activities restriction. (author)

  20. Civil Responsability of The State for Granting Environmental License

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carinna Gonçalves Simplício

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecologically balanced environment is a fundamental condition to the maintenance of life on Earth, and there is no way to dissociate both concepts. However, it is not an easy task to achieve the optimal balance to answer the needs of everyone involved without degrading it. At this point, it is the role of the State in order to determine limits to preserve the common good, considering that the Federal Constitution of 1988 lifted to the status of a fundamental   right both balanced environment as the economic and social development. Environmental licensing is an essential tool in the pursuit of sustainable development. Your contribution is straightforward and aims to find the balanced interaction between the economic action of Man and the environment in which it is inserted. What is searched is the compatibility of economic development and free enterprise for the environment within their regeneration and permanence capacity. For this purpose, the Government grants, based on the relevant environmental impact assessment, an environmental license and provides conditions in order to give development with minimum environmental impact. The environmental license does not exclude, but only minimizes the possibility of damage to the environment. In this context, this study, with qualitative nature and bibliographic data collect, will approach the way to fix such damage, which occurs through the institute of civil liability. Concerning specifically with the responsibility of the State, It shall be liable for the damage that their agents cause to third parties, even when the legal guardianship is the environment. In this sense, the State is also civilly liable when there is damage to the environment caused by the exercise of the particular activity, properly licensed by the Government.

  1. The United States nuclear regulatory commission license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license renewal process establishes the technical and administrative requirements for the renewal of operating power plant licenses. Reactor ope-rating licenses were originally issued for 40 years and are allowed to be renewed. The review process for license renewal applications (L.R.A.) provides continued assurance that the level of safety provided by an applicant's current licensing basis is maintained for the period of extended operation. The license renewal review focuses on passive, long-lived structures and components of the plant that are subject to the effects of aging. The applicant must demonstrate that programs are in place to manage those aging effects. The review also verifies that analyses based on the current operating term have been evaluated and shown to be valid for the period of extended operation. The NRC has renewed the licenses for 52 reactors at 30 plant sites. Each applicant requested, and was granted, an extension of 20 years. Applications to renew the licenses of 20 additional reactors at 13 plant sites are under review. As license renewal is voluntary, the decision to seek license renewal and the timing of the application is made by the licensee. However, the NRC expects that, over time, essentially all U.S. operating reactors will request license renewal. In 2009, the U.S. has 4 plants that enter their 41. year of ope-ration. The U.S. Nuclear Industry has expressed interest in 'life beyond 60', that is, requesting approval of a second renewal period. U.S. regulations allow for subsequent license renewals. The NRC is working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on research related to light water reactor sustainability. (author)

  2. The environmental licensing processes of the offshore oil and natural gas exploration and production in the world and in Brazil: a comparative analysis considering the utilization of studies of the strategic environmental assessment; O processo de licenciamento ambiental das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural offshore no mundo e no Brasil: uma analise comparativa considerando a utilizacao de estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This study presents an analyses of the environmental licensing processes of the offshore oil and gas exploration and production of the following countries: USA, UK, Norway, Australia and Canada, and makes a comparison with the Brazilian case. This study also emphasizes the use of the Strategical Environmental Assessments (SEA) before the bid procedures. The SEA studies aim to predict and to evaluate the environmental implications of the adoption of sectorial policies and programs and are very useful to the decision making processes. They permit the exclusion of environmental sensitive areas and contribute to the improvement of the environmental management of the regions where the activities will take place. The selected countries use SEA as an environmental management tool and their experience is analysed so as to provide suggestions for the improvement of the current Brazilian environmental licensing process. (author)

  3. Process for license application development for the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, D.M.; Henderson, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has been charged by the US Congress, through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), with the responsibility for obtaining a license to develop a geologic repository. The NRC is the licensing authority for geologic disposal, and its regulations pertinent to construction authorization and license application are specified in 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, section 60.21ff and section 60.31ff. This paper discusses the process the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) will use to identify and apply regulatory and industry guidance to development of the license application (LA) for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This guidance will be implemented by the Technical Guidance Document for Preparation of the License Application (TGD), currently in development

  4. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  5. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Philippe [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Langdon, Esther Jean [Department of Anthropology, Center for Philosophy and Human Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina PO Box 5104, 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Arts, Jos [Department of Planning, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  6. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  7. Research and development tasks of the basalt waste isolation program, and their relationship to the licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, W.P.

    1978-06-01

    This document presents a preliminary licensing program and outlines the research and development strategy by which a license will be obtained for the repository. It addresses the base data covering the major areas of investigation and technology which will provide input to the licensing process. Basically, each facet of the program, as described in the plan, will be used as part of the documentation required for the Preliminary and Final Safety Analysis Report (PSAR and FSAR), as well as the Environmental Report (ER).

  8. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  9. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  10. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, M.A.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL LICENSING PROCESS IN INDUSTRIAL MINING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Meireles de Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Os projetos de mineraçao geralmente apresentam certa complexidade, e com frequencia tem problemas de desempenho associados ao aumento de prazos para entrada em operaçao. Nesse sentido, um dos grandes gargalos, considerados caminho crítico nos cronogramas de projetos de mineraçao, é o licenciamento ambiental. Os processos de licenciamento ambiental tem se tornado cada vez mais rigorosos, com órgaos responsáveis mais exigentes, o que tem demandado um prazo significativo nos cronogramas dos projetos, acarretando muitas vezes impactos consideráveis na implantaçao dos empreendimentos. Nesse contexto, este trabalho apresenta um estudo exploratório realizado no estado de Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de fazer um levantamento da dimensao dos atrasos em licenciamentos ambientais e das suas causas. Dessa forma, pode contribuir para que, em futuros trabalhos, sejam propostas diretrizes para modificaçao dos processos de licenciamento, no âmbito da concepçao e desenvolvimento dos empreendimentos. O estudo exploratório teve como base de análise os documentos constantes em 355 processos de licenciamento ambiental de quatorze empresas de mineraçao, formalizados no órgao licenciador mineiro. Foi constatado que um número substancial de empreendimentos tem prazos para a obtençao de licenças bem superiores aos previstos na legislaçao ambiental, impactando os cronogramas dos projetos. Constatouse, também, a alta incidencia de solicitaçao de informaçoes complementares por parte do órgao competente. Parte significativa dessas solicitaçoes é decorrente de falhas na caracterizaçao dos empreendimentos e das soluçoes de engenharia, bem como da falta de maturidade na análise do impacto ambiental e suas medidas mitigadoras. O trabalho é relevante na medida em que o conhecimento dos prazos praticados e das causas de atraso na obtençao de licenças ambientais permite aos empreendedores o estabelecimento de cronogramas mais realistas para a concessao das licenças, bem como o direcionamento de açoes no sentido de evitar que estas solicitaçoes ocorram, antevendo riscos e contribuindo para agilizar a análise dos processos de licenciamento.

  12. 10 CFR 51.80 - Draft environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.80 Section 51.80 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act...

  13. 76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, Office of Federal and... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 70-0036; NRC-2009-0278] Environmental Assessment and... availability of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact for a materials license...

  14. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 10168 (a), (c)) a final environmental impact statement for the construction of a monitored retrievable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.97 Final...

  15. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications. Many of the

  16. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland); Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications

  17. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  18. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the environmental impact study of PCH (small hydropower plant) Ninho da Aguia. Proposal for optimization of the environmental licensing process using a simplified matrix; Analise do estudo de impacto ambiental da PCH Ninho da Aguia. Proposta de otimizacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental utilizando uma matriz simplificada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Tania Aparecida de Souza

    2004-07-01

    This work intended to study the methodologies used for EIA - Study of Environmental Impact - and propose the adaptation of a simplified matrix for the assessment of environmental impacts regarding small hydropower plants. A case study of Ninho da Aguia SHP, located in the city of Delfim Moreira, MG, was used for elaborating the matrix. The methodology used the analysis of all the negative impacts and they were given combined weight based on a pre-established impact scale. The weights that were given to each impact were distributed according to the combination of features presented in the referred EIA. The results attained show that the environmental damage is reduced by 45% when the mitigating measures suggested by the EIA and by the analysis carried out by this study are applied. Besides, this preliminary proposal will make it possible for environmental licensing process to be accelerated. Today, this process is considered as an inhibiting investment because of it takes too much time. Also, the proposal may be used as initial guidelines regarding the environmental cost of the implementation of enterprises. The proposed matrix shows itself as efficient because it is easy to be used and it is a useful tool for the analysis of projects that will be implemented. (author)

  20. Siting Practices and Site Licensing Process for New Reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Marcel de

    2011-01-01

    'Siting' in Canada is composed of Site Evaluation and Site Selection. As outlined in CNSC Regulatory Document RD-346 Site Evaluation for New Nuclear Power Plants (based on IAEA NS-R-3), prior to the triggering of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and licensing processes, the proponent is expected to use a robust process to characterize proposed sites over the full life cycle of the facility, and then develop a fully documented defense of the site selection case. This case forms the backbone for submissions in support of the EA and the application for a License to Prepare Site which will be reviewed by the CNSC and other applicable federal authorities. The Environmental Assessment process and License to Prepare Site in Canada do not require a proponent to select a specific design; however, CNSC does not accept a 'black box' approach to siting. CNSC balances the level of design information required with the extent of safety assurance desired for any designs being contemplated for the proposed site. Nevertheless, the design information submitted must be sufficient to justify the site as suitable for all future licensing stages. The depth of plant design information contributes significantly to the credibility of the applicant's case for both the EA and application for License to Prepare Site. The review process utilizes an assessment plan with defined review stages and timelines. The outcome of these reviews is a series of recommendations to a federal government appointed Joint Review Panel (which also serves as a panel of the 'Commission') which, following public hearings, renders a decision regarding the EA, and subsequently, the application for a License to Prepare Site. (author)

  1. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

  2. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan (ESRP) (NUREG-1300) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform environmental reviews of environmental reports prepared by applicants in support of license applications to construct and operate new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The individual ESRPs that constitute this document identify the information considered necessary to conduct the review, the purpose and scope of the review, the analysis procedure and evaluation, the formal input to the environmental statement, and the references considered appropriate for each review. The ESRP is intended to ensure quality and uniformity of approach in individual reviews as well as compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. In addition, the ESRP will make information about the environmental component of the licensing process more readily available and thereby will serve to improve the understanding of this process among the public, States and regional compacts, and the regulated community

  3. Decommissioning Licensing Process of Nuclear Installations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Sainz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Enresa experience related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities includes the decommissioning of the Vandellos I and Jose Cabrera NPPs. The Vandellos I gas-graphite reactor was decommissioned in about five years (from 1998 to 2003) to what is known as level 2. In February 2010, the decommissioning of Jose Cabrera power plant has been initiated and it is scheduled to be finished by 2018. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is a complex administrative process, the procedure for changing from operation to decommissioning is established in the Spanish law. This paper summarizes the legal framework defining the strategies, the main activities and the basic roles of the various agents involved in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain. It also describes briefly the Licensing documents required to obtain the decommissioning authorization and the Enresa point of view, as licensee, on the licensing decommissioning process. (author)

  4. Risk-assessment techniques and the reactor licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), concentrating on the engineering aspects of the contribution to reactor accident risks is followed by some comments on how we have applied the insights and techniques developed in this study to prepare a program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. Some new work we are just beginning on the application of risk-assessment techniques to stablize the reactor licensing process is also discussed

  5. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  6. Nuclear law and environmental law in the licensing of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Large nuclear installations can have a considerable impact on the environment, both in actual terms, due to the construction and operation of the plant and in potential terms, related to the risk of an accident. A considerable part of the multiple authorisation processes required to develop a large nuclear project is devoted to addressing the possible impact on the environment. Accordingly, environmental protection is not only warranted by requirements and processes arising out of what is generally considered 'environmental law', but also by laws governing the design, siting, construction and operation of nuclear installations. By ensuring prevention and control of radiation releases to the environment, the aspects of nuclear law governing the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities pertain to the field of environmental protection just like other fields of environmental law. The perception of the public that nuclear energy is 'anti-environmental' and the generally antinuclear stance of environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) should not deflect attention from the fact that protection of the environment is one of the main functions of the body of nuclear law. In this article, the general relationship between the law governing civil nuclear installations and environmental law will be analysed. The subsequent chapters will deal with environmental requirements and procedures as part of the authorisation process for a nuclear installation. The role of public participation and the involvement of neighbouring states in the licensing process will also be investigated, as they are today mainly based on environmental law. Some other aspects which may also have some relation to environmental protection, such as waste management, emergency planning, multinational early notification and assistance in the case of an accident and nuclear liability, have been omitted from discussion as they lie outside the focus of this article

  7. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard Review Plans for Environmental... for Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 1: Operating License Renewal'' (ESRP). The ESRP serves as a guide... published a final rule, ``Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating...

  8. 78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal for... Environmental Assessment Summary On May 30, 2008, Cogema Mining, Inc. submitted an application to the NRC... NRC finds that there are no significant environmental impacts from the proposed action, and that the...

  9. Shirley Basin Uranium Mill. Environmental report to accompany source material license application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    This document summarizes all of the environmental monitoring conducted by Utah. This Environmental Report consequently supplements and updates the information presented in the Source Material License application of August 18, 1970 and the Final Environmental Statement (FES) of December 1974. Water and air quality, liquid waste management, soil/vegetation monitoring, and reclamation are covered

  10. Methodology and findings of the NRC`s materials licensing process redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, P.A.; Brown, K.D.; Madera, J.R.; Moriarty, M.; Pelchat, J.M.; Usilton, W.K.; Whitten, J.E.; Vacca, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the work and vision of the team chartered to redesign the process for licensing users of nuclear materials. The Business Process Redesign team was chartered to improve the speed of the existing licensing process while maintaining or improving public safety and to achieve required resource levels. The report describes the team`s methods for acquiring and analyzing information about the existing materials licensing process and the steps necessary to radically change this process to the envisioned future process.

  11. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste...

  12. Comparative assessment of licensing processes of uranium mines in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, K.M.; Menezes, R.M.; Mezrahi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Commercial operation of uranium mining and milling started in Brazil, at the Pocos de Caldas Unit, State of Minas Gerais, in 1982. The Pocos de Caldas Unit was licensed by the Brazilian Regulatory Body (CNEN) and its is now in the decommissioning process. In 2000, a new mining and milling installation, the Caetite Unit, located in State of Bahia, started operation. This paper will discuss how Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is licensing the Caetite Unit based on the lessons learned from the Pocos de Caldas Unit. The objective is to draw attention to the importance of the safety assessment for a new unit, specially considering that some wrong decisions were taken for the Pocos de Caldas unit. These decisions lead to less effective long term solutions to protect the environment. Notwithstanding the differences between the two units, it is of great value to use the acquired experience to avoid or minimize the short, medium and long term impacts to the environment and population in the new operation. (author)

  13. Industrial Pollution Control and Efficient Licensing Processes: The Case of Swedish Regulatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pettersson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution accounts for a large proportion of global pollution, and in the European Union, an integrated pollution and prevention approach based on individual performance standards has been implemented to regulate emissions from industrial plants. Crucial for the assessment of the licensing conditions are the Best Available Technique (BAT requirements, which should be set in accordance with the recently introduced Industrial Emissions Directive (IED. In this paper, we review and assess the licensing of industrial plants in one of the Member States, namely Sweden. Specifically, we discuss how the existing regulations (including the IED manage to address potential trade-offs between important regulatory design issues, such as flexibility, predictability and the need to provide continuous incentives for environmental improvements. The analysis indicates that while the EU regulations provide flexibility in terms of the choice of compliance measures, in Sweden, it enters an existing regulatory framework that adds a lot of uncertainty with respect to the outcome of the licensing processes. An important challenge for the implementation of the IED is to implement performance standards that lead to continuous incentives to improve environmental performance in industrial sectors without, at the same time, adding new uncertainties. While standards ideally should be both flexible and predictable, achieving one of these criteria may often come at the expense of the other.

  14. Automation of the DoD Export License Application Review Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2002-01-01

    .... The overall audit objective was to determine whether Federal automation programs supporting the export license and review process could be used to establish a common electronic interface creating...

  15. Licensing process characteristics of Small Modular Reactors and spent nuclear fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderholm, Kristiina, E-mail: kristiina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Tuunanen, Jari, E-mail: jari.tuunanen@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Amaba, Ben, E-mail: baamaba@us.ibm.com [IBM Complex Systems (United States); Bergqvist, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.bergqvist@se.ibm.com [IBM Rational Software (Sweden); Lusardi, Paul, E-mail: plusardi@nuscalepower.com [NuScale Power (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We examine the licensing process challenges of modular nuclear facilities. • We compare the features of Small Modular Reactors and spent nuclear fuel repository. • We present the need of nuclear licensing simplification. • Part of the licensing is proposed to be internationally applicable. • Systems engineering and requirements engineering benefits are presented. - Abstract: This paper aims to increase the understanding of the licensing processes characteristics of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) compared with licensing of spent nuclear fuel repository. The basis of the SMR licensing process development lies in licensing processes used in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their various licensing processes and recent actions in the new NPP construction. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and selected practices have been investigated as possibly suitable for use in nuclear licensing. Suitable features for SMR licensing are emphasized and suggested. The licensing features of the spent nuclear fuel deep repository along with similar features of SMR licensing are discussed. Since there are similar types of challenges of lengthy licensing time frames, as well as modular features to be taken into account in licensing, these two different nuclear industry fields can be compared. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are: • Standardization of the design. • Modularity. • Mass production. • Serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single power plant unit constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g. construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second one a power plant composed of many reactor modules, which are manufactured in factories and installed as needed (e.g. NuScale Power SMR design). The deep underground repository

  16. Environmental assessment for final rule on nuclear power plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations provide for the renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses beyond their initial 40-year term. The Act and NRC regulations, however, do not specify the procedures, criteria, and standards that must be satisfied in order to renew a license. The NRC is promulgating a rule (10 CFR Part 54) to codify such requirements prior to the receipt of applications for license renewal. The NRC has assessed the possible environmental effects of promulgating requirements in 10 CFR Part 54 now rather than employing such requirements in an ad hoc manner in individual licensing actions. The final part 54 rule requires the development of information and analyses to identify aging problems of systems, structures, and components unique to license renewal that will be of concern during the period of extended operation and will not be controlled by existing effective programs. In general, licensee activities for license renewal may involve replacement, refurbishment, inspection, testing, or monitoring. Such actions will be generally be within the range of similar actions taken for plants during the initial operating term. These actions would be primarily confined within the plants with potential for only minor disruption to the environment. It is unlikely that these actions would change the operating conditions of plants in ways that would change the environmental effects already being experienced. Relicensing under existing regulations would also be primarily focused on aging degradation and would likely result in requirements similar to those that will result from relicensing under the final rule

  17. Model and Analytic Processes for Export License Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Weimar, Mark R.; Wood, Thomas W.; Daly, Don S.; Brothers, Alan J.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry

    2011-09-29

    This paper represents the Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Simulations, Algorithms and Modeling (SAM) Program's first effort to identify and frame analytical methods and tools to aid export control professionals in effectively predicting proliferation intent; a complex, multi-step and multi-agency process. The report focuses on analytical modeling methodologies that alone, or combined, may improve the proliferation export control license approval process. It is a follow-up to an earlier paper describing information sources and environments related to international nuclear technology transfer. This report describes the decision criteria used to evaluate modeling techniques and tools to determine which approaches will be investigated during the final 2 years of the project. The report also details the motivation for why new modeling techniques and tools are needed. The analytical modeling methodologies will enable analysts to evaluate the information environment for relevance to detecting proliferation intent, with specific focus on assessing risks associated with transferring dual-use technologies. Dual-use technologies can be used in both weapons and commercial enterprises. A decision-framework was developed to evaluate which of the different analytical modeling methodologies would be most appropriate conditional on the uniqueness of the approach, data availability, laboratory capabilities, relevance to NA-22 and Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NA-24) research needs and the impact if successful. Modeling methodologies were divided into whether they could help micro-level assessments (e.g., help improve individual license assessments) or macro-level assessment. Macro-level assessment focuses on suppliers, technology, consumers, economies, and proliferation context. Macro-level assessment technologies scored higher in the area of uniqueness because less work has been done at the macro level. An

  18. Development model to public hearing for environmental licensing of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Luciana Gomes; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de, E-mail: lu_vasques@usp.br, E-mail: araquino@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of nuclear technology has always been a matter of concern from an environmental point of view. Although disputed, the generation of electricity in nuclear reactors was considered a source of clean emission in relation to emission of gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. In Brazil, nuclear activities are regulated and supervised by the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN. Environmental issues associated with nuclear activities are described by CONAMA, and the developments in this area are licensed by IBAMA, regardless of obtaining nuclear licenses issued by CNEN. Obtaining environmental licenses (prior, installation and operation) depends initially on preparing the Environmental Impact Study - EIS and the Environmental Impact Report - EIR, consisting of a presentation of EIS in language accessible to all. EIR is forwarded to bodies and entities with some connection to the enterprise, to be manifested with IBAMA about the relevance of its content. This information serves as a resource for Public Hearings, which are meetings organized by entrepreneurs, conducted by IBAMA, and rely on public participation, can be considered as a licensing step. Public Hearings are subject to subjectivity, and the model proposed in this research becomes more objective ill-defined, difficult to understand actions for the entrepreneur. (author)

  19. Development model to public hearing for environmental licensing of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, Luciana Gomes; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2015-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology has always been a matter of concern from an environmental point of view. Although disputed, the generation of electricity in nuclear reactors was considered a source of clean emission in relation to emission of gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. In Brazil, nuclear activities are regulated and supervised by the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN. Environmental issues associated with nuclear activities are described by CONAMA, and the developments in this area are licensed by IBAMA, regardless of obtaining nuclear licenses issued by CNEN. Obtaining environmental licenses (prior, installation and operation) depends initially on preparing the Environmental Impact Study - EIS and the Environmental Impact Report - EIR, consisting of a presentation of EIS in language accessible to all. EIR is forwarded to bodies and entities with some connection to the enterprise, to be manifested with IBAMA about the relevance of its content. This information serves as a resource for Public Hearings, which are meetings organized by entrepreneurs, conducted by IBAMA, and rely on public participation, can be considered as a licensing step. Public Hearings are subject to subjectivity, and the model proposed in this research becomes more objective ill-defined, difficult to understand actions for the entrepreneur. (author)

  20. Generic environmental impact statement for license renewal of nuclear plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This GEIS examines the possible environmental impacts that could occur as a result of renewing the licenses of individual nuclear power plants under 10 CFR 54. To the extent possible, it establishes the bounds and significance of these potential impacts. The analysis encompasses all operating light-water reactors. For each type of environmental impact, the GEIS attempts to establish generic findings covering as many plants as possible. While plant and site-specific information is used in developing the generic findings, the NRC does not intend for the GEIS to be a compilation of individual plant environmental impacts statements. This document has three principal objectives: (1) to provide an understanding of the types and severity of environmental impacts that may occur as a result of license renewal, (2) to identify and assess those impacts that are expected to be generic to license renewal, and (3) to support rulemaking (10 CFR 51) to define the number and scope of issues that need to be addressed by the applicants in plant-by-plant license renewal proceedings

  1. 10 CFR 51.50 - Environmental report-construction permit, early site permit, or combined license stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any conditions and monitoring requirements for protecting the non-aquatic environment, proposed for... non-aquatic environment, proposed for possible inclusion in the license as environmental conditions in... non-aquatic environment, proposed for possible inclusion in the license as environmental conditions in...

  2. USNRC licensing process as related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations establishes procedures and criteria for the issuance of licenses to receive title to, own, acquire, deliver, receive, possess, use, and initially transfer special nuclear material; and establishes and provides for the terms and conditions upon which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will issue such licenses. Section 70.22 of the regulations, ''Contents of Applications'', requires that applications for licenses contain proposed procedures to avoid accidental conditions of criticality. These procedures are elements of a nuclear criticality safety program for operations with fissionable materials at fuels and materials facilities (i.e., fuel cycle facilities other than nuclear reactors) in which there exists a potential for criticality accidents. To assist the applicant in providing specific information needed for a nuclear criticality safety program in a license application, the NRC has issued regulatory guides. The NRC requirements for nuclear criticality safety include organizational, administrative, and technical requirements. For purely technical matters on nuclear criticality safety these guides endorse national standards. Others provide guidance on the standard format and content of license applications, guidance on evaluating radiological consequences of criticality accidents, or guidance for dealing with other radiation safety issues. (author)

  3. Commitment tracking in the licensing renewal process: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurican, Gregory M.; Breslauer, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    The NRC's proposed 10 CFR 54 defines 'Current licensing basis' as inclusive of all licensee commitments. During the last five years, the regulatory commitment tracking group (RCTG) has been developing guidance for member utilities to track such commitments. The RCTG guidance for commitment tracking assists utilities in developing a system to store and maintain commitments related to the CLB. But a majority believe it unlikely that any one commitment tracking system will capture all commitments contained in the proposed definition of a 'Current Licencing Basis'. For future renewal applications the NRC proposes that utilities must identify and compile all licensing basis commitments. In addition, utilities 'shall maintain...(them) in an auditable and retrievable form'. Some utilities are already compiling and tracking licensing basis commitments; others are not. (author)

  4. 15 CFR 750.4 - Procedures for processing license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., reviews license applications involving items controlled for chemical and biological weapons reasons. The...-supporting countries: Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. (ii) Items subject to notification... items controlled for national security reasons; (B) All items controlled for chemical and biological...

  5. The Regime of Spent Nuclear Fuel Management in Korea: Focused on the Licensing Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Ri; Hwang, Yong Soo; Chang, Sun Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In June 2015, the Public Engagement Commission on Spent Nuclear Fuel Management submits the recommendations for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) management. It recommends a site for Underground Research Laboratory (URL) will be selected in 2020. The government was composed of SNF management general plan task force in August 2015 and is scheduled to establish a management general plan in the second half of this year. During the last two decades, the government has failed to site selection a Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) disposal repository in the face of vehement opposition from the potential host sites. If the governments do not want to repeat the mistakes in the past, the government investigated the other countries licensing process concerning SNF disposal facilities and it is desirable to formulate licensing process suitable for the situation in Korea. The problem of licensing process relating to nuclear facility in Korea was investigated based on licensing processes of Sweden and Finland and discussed improvements. Even if the licensing process of Sweden and Finland has been successfully applied to each country, Korea may not to suitable. However, the systematic licensing process in Sweden and Finland could be a good example that can be given a solution to the licensing process problems in Korea.

  6. Hold-up Problems with Respect to R&D Investment and Licensing in Environmental Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Breitscheidel, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    We explore the design of self-financing tax-subsidy schemes to solve hold-up problems in environmental regulation. The announcement of the tax rate seems to be preferable to solve hold-up problems with respect to the investment in environmental R&D. In contrast, only the announcement of the subsidy rate is adequate to solve hold-up problems with respect to the licensing of environmentally friendly technologies. Altogether, the announcement of the subsidy rate yields higher expected social wel...

  7. Generic data sources for the update of an environmental report in support of license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, John J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, our organization has been providing assistance to the NUMARC PLEX working group in matters pertaining to the environmental impacts of license renewal. Part of this support was the identification of data sets and publications that may be useful to the NRC in the preparation of their Environment Report Supplements (ERSs). The following presents a strategy for preparing an ERS, along with references and data sets pertinent to each ER topic. Each section of the ERS should present the following information: (1) Updated information on plant design and operating experience, along with projections of the plant impacts through the end of its currently licensed period of operation. These impacts are used as a baseline against which to compare the projected impacts for the period of license renewal. In addition, the baseline impacts may be compared to the impacts projected in the plant's original Environmental Report and Environmental Impact Statement. (2) Projections of how the impacts may change during the period of license renewal. The purpose of this information will be to determine the degree to which the projected impacts differ significantly from the impacts presented in the original ER and those that have actually occurred during the period of plant operation. We believe that the ERS will reveal that (1) the actual impacts that have occurred during the period of plant operation are comparable to, or less than, those predicted in the original ER, (2) many impacts have been decreasing with time, such as routine radioactive emissions, and (3) the impacts predicted for the period of license renewal will be comparable to, or less than, the baseline impacts. (author)

  8. Environmental assessment for renewal of source material license No. STB-401 (Docket No. 40-6563)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with the renewal of the license to operate the Columbian-Tantalum (Cv-Ta) Plant of Mallinckrodt, Inc. at St. Louis, Missouri, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51 (10 CFR Part 51), as amended, of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. This assessment examines the environmental impacts, environmental consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs associated with plant operation. Operational impacts are not anticipated on terrestrial and aquatic ecological resources (including endangered or threatened species) nor on historic and archaeological sites. No significant impacts are anticipated from normal operational releases of radioactivity. The risk of radiation exposure associated with accidental release of radioactivity is very low. Socioeconomic impacts of the project related to land use and employment are anticipated to be minimal

  9. Lessons learned from the licensing process for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, P.W.; Clare, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the experience of licensing a specific liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), the Clinch River Breader Reactor Plant (CRBRP). It was a success story in that the licensing process was accomplished in a very short time span. The actions of the applicant and the actions of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in response are presented and discussed to provide guidance to future efforts to license unconventional reactors. The history is told from the perspective of the authors. As such, some of the reasons given for success or lack of success are subjective interpretations. Nevertheless, the authors' positions provided them an excellent viewpoint to make these judgements. During the second phase of the licensing process, they were the CRBRP Technical Director and the Licensing Manager, respectively, for the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, the prime contractor for the reactor plant

  10. Environmental Assessment for renewal of Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-368 (Docket No. 70-371)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of the license necessary for UNC to continue the existing fuel fabrication operation. Principal operations in the fabrication facility include the processing of highly enriched uranium (>90% 235 U) into fuel elements and assembling of the elements into complete reactor cores. The present application for renewal involves no major changes in the current authorization and no new facilities are planned. The current operation of the UNC facilities results in the release of radioactive and nonradioactive effluent to the environment. The gaseous and liquid pollutants released during normal operation of the plant have been monitored and documented. The principal subjects addressed in this environmental assessment include water use, pollutant controls, environmental monitoring, and environmental impact of operation and accidents. Other site factors and plant operations necessary for this assessment are described, and aspects of insignificant impacts are identified. 7 figures, 23 tables

  11. Environmental contexts of combined alcohol and energy drink use: Associations with intoxication in licensed venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Nicolas; Miller, Peter; Pennay, Amy; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Lubman, Dan I

    2016-10-01

    Environmental factors inside licensed venues have been found to influence the intoxication levels and consumption practices of patrons. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) occurs primarily at or prior to attending licensed venues, however there is a lack of in situ research investigating AmED use in these contexts. Given that AmED use has been linked with increased alcohol consumption, intoxication, illicit substance use, and risk taking behaviours, this paper explores the environmental correlates and levels of intoxication associated with AmED use in licensed venues. Structured observations were undertaken in five Australian cities on Friday and Saturday nights. Covert teams spent 4-5h in venues and recorded hourly observations on patron, venue, and staff characteristics, alcohol, illicit drug and AmED consumption patterns and intoxication levels. 898 hourly observations were recorded across 68 venues. All but one venue served energy drinks, and patron AmED use was observed during 34.9% of hourly records. AmED use was more prevalent after 12am and in nightclub venues compared to bars and pubs, and was positively associated with high intoxication levels, illicit drug use, and younger crowds. After controlling for environmental factors (i.e. venue crowding, service practices, venue characteristics, patron demographics and behaviour) AmED use did not predict high intoxication at a venue level in multivariable models. AmED consumption is ubiquitous in the licensed venues of Australian night-time entertainment districts, particularly busy nightclub venues where intoxication and risky consumption are heightened. However, AmED use was not associated with high patron intoxication when environmental factors were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental radiation effects from muon and tau colliders and their impact on facility licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2012-11-01

    Although contemporary accelerators only affect their local radiation environment, muon and tau colliders produce radiation profiles that extend far beyond their site boundaries. These radiation profiles affect the licensing and siting of these planned accelerators. The analysis presented herein suggests that a linear collider concept with the lepton beams collided in air offers a means to limit the environmental radiation effects from these accelerators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Impact Appraisal for renewal of special nuclear material license No. SNM-42 (Docket No. 70-27)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) facility near Lynchburg, Virginia, produces fuel assemblies and complete fuel modules for reactors used in the US Navy nuclear propulsion program and fuel components for university and other research reactors; and processes scrap material to recover the enriched uranium content. No significant modifications of the production procedures for the US Navy nuclear fuel fabrication have been made since the previous environmental assessment, and none are anticipated during the five-year license renewal period being considered. In 1982 the fabrication of fuel assemblies for university and other research reactors was begun. This environmental assessment provides a review of the past five years of operation and an analysis of future impacts, including the effect of plant changes. The proposed action is the renewal of the license necessary for B and W to continue the existing fuel fabrication operations. Principal operations in the fabrication facility include the processing of highly enriched uranium (> 90% 235 U) into fuel elements and assembling the elements into complete reactor cores for shipment and eventual installation in US Navy facilities. The principal environmental impacts of current operation of the NNFD result from release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere and of radioactively contaminated liquids to the adjacent James River. The actual gaseous and liquid pollutants released during normal operation of the plant have been monitored and documented. The principal subjects addressed in this environmental assessment include water use, pollutant controls, environmental monitoring, and environmental impact of operation and accidents. Other site factors and plant operations necessary for this assessment are described, and aspects of insignificant impacts are identified. 10 figures, 36 tables

  14. Export Controls: Controls Over the Export Licensing Process for Chemical and Biological Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... foreign policy should read this report. The report discusses the effectiveness of the DoD review process for export license applications and updates to Federal export regulations to prevent the proliferation of items that could pose...

  15. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  16. Environmental management of business processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Čančer

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the decision-makers in enterprises will accept the goals of environmental management only if they are motivated enough, comprehensible and useful tools should be generated to support environmentally oriented business decision-making. For that reason, a general optimisation model of the multiphase business process is presented in this paper. This model includes the possibilities for an integrated approach to environmental protection so that it can be applied as a scenario by the business process simulation for the evaluation of environmentally oriented business decisions on business performance. Furthermore, development and application possibilities of the presented model are introduced. Some measures of resource efficiency are developed using the presented optimisation model.

  17. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  18. Federal/State cooperation in the licensing of a nuclear power project. A joint licensing process between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents a joint environmental review and licensing process established between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) in 1980-1983 for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear Project (S/HNP). It documents the agreements made between the agencies to prepare a joint environmental impact statement responsive to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act. These agreements also established protocol to conduct joint public evidentiary hearings on matters of mutual jurisdiction, thereby reducing the duplication of effort and increasing the efficiency of the use of resources of federal and state governments and other entities involved in the process. This report may provide guidance and rationale to licensing bodies that may wish to adopt some of the procedures discussed in the report in the event that they become involved in the licensing of a nuclear power plant project. The history of the S/HNP and of the agreement processes are discussed. Discussions are provided on implementing the joint review process. A separate section is included which presents independent evaluations of the process by the applicant, NRC, and EFSEC

  19. Design of environmentally benign processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Martin; Harper, Peter Mathias; Gani, Rafiqul

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for design of environmentally benign processes. The hybrid method integrates mathematical modelling with heuristic approaches to solving the optimisation problems related to separation process synthesis and solvent design and selection. A structured method...... of solution, which employs thermodynamic insights to reduce the complexity and size of the mathematical problem by eliminating redundant alternatives, has been developed for the hybrid method. Separation process synthesis and design problems related to the removal of a chemical species from process streams...... because of environmental constraints are particularly suited for solution with the hybrid method. Application of the hybrid method is highlighted through two illustrative examples. The first example involves the determination of an optimal flowsheet for the removal of a chemical species from an azeotropic...

  20. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.A.; King, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement

  1. Environmental assessment proposed license renewal of Nuclear Metals, Inc. Concord, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Easterly, C.E.; Lombardi, C.E.; Treitler, I.E.; Winbow, R.T.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to evaluate environmental issues associated with the renewal of licenses issued by NRC for facilities operated by Nuclear Metals, Inc. (NMI) in Concord, Massachusetts. By renewing the licenses, NRC proposes to allow the continuation of ongoing operations involving radioactive materials at NMI's facilities. This EA focuses on the potential impacts related to air emissions at NMI during normal (incident-free) operations and accidental releases. Findings indicate that there are only two areas of potential concern. First, modeling results for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from the boilers during normal operations indicate that the potential exists for exceeding the short-term National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). NMI is prepared to undertake mitigative action to prevent potential exceedances of the short-term SO 2 NAAQS, and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection is prepared to resolve the issue via a permit/approval change or through a Consent Order. Second, in the unlikely event of a severe fire, predicted sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) concentrations based on conservative (upper bound) modeling exceed the Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) levels. NMI has committed to NRC to give a briefing for local emergency response officials regarding the potential for an accidental H 2 SO 4 release

  2. Environmental assessment proposed license renewal of Nuclear Metals, Inc. Concord, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Easterly, C.E.; Lombardi, C.E.; Treitler, I.E.; Winbow, R.T.; Zimmerman, G.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to evaluate environmental issues associated with the renewal of licenses issued by NRC for facilities operated by Nuclear Metals, Inc. (NMI) in Concord, Massachusetts. By renewing the licenses, NRC proposes to allow the continuation of ongoing operations involving radioactive materials at NMI`s facilities. This EA focuses on the potential impacts related to air emissions at NMI during normal (incident-free) operations and accidental releases. Findings indicate that there are only two areas of potential concern. First, modeling results for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the boilers during normal operations indicate that the potential exists for exceeding the short-term National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). NMI is prepared to undertake mitigative action to prevent potential exceedances of the short-term SO{sub 2} NAAQS, and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection is prepared to resolve the issue via a permit/approval change or through a Consent Order. Second, in the unlikely event of a severe fire, predicted sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) concentrations based on conservative (upper bound) modeling exceed the Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) levels. NMI has committed to NRC to give a briefing for local emergency response officials regarding the potential for an accidental H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} release.

  3. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  4. Contribution of studies for environmental licensing to the knowledge of Santa Catarina avifauna in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge generated by studies for environmental licensing, even with reduced field samplings, can contribute to the recording of species of avifauna or actually extends the distribution in places of low knowledge. This study presents data obtained from preliminary reports of impact where the avifauna in seven projects in different ecosystems of Santa Catarina state was diagnosed between January 2001 and January 2004. Sightings had occurred, mainly, by visual or auditory contacts, using binoculars, hand-recorders and field guides. A total of 232 species of birds had been registered, increasing the known distribution by 66 species in different regions of Santa Catarina. The habitat most damaged by entrepreneurial activity was the forest, a factor of concern regarding the conservation of the avifauna that relied upon it. In general, the risk factors associated with the avifauna in Santa Catarina state are environmental degradation, capture of wildlife for breeding in captivity and, hunting for food.

  5. Organization and practices on regulatory review in the licensing process of nuclear power plants in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, P.

    1979-01-01

    The actual organisation, practices and experience of the JEN Nuclear Safety Department on the regulatory review in the licensing process of nuclear power plants in Spain, are presented. Topics to be covered are: The structure, organisation, staff and principal functional areas of the NSD, the academic qualifications and work experience of the NSD personnel, recruiting and training, the conduct of the regulatory review during the licensing process and working procedures, the manpower and coverage of the different technical areas, the principal problems and conclusions. (author)

  6. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  7. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A., E-mail: emotta@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  8. Design scope and level for standard design certification under a two step licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Chang Wook; Suh, Nam Duk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    A small integral reactor SMART (System Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), being developed in Korea since late 1990s and targeted to obtaining a standard design approval by the end of 2011, is introduced. The design scope and level for design certification (DC) is well described in the U.S. NRC SECY documents published the early 1990s. However, the documents are valid for a one-step licensing process called a combined operating license (COL) by the U.S. NRC, while Korea still uses a two-step licensing process. Thus, referencing the concept of the SECY documents, we have established the design scope and level for the SMART DC using the contexts of the standard review plan (SRP). Some examples of the results and issues raised during our review are briefly presented in this paper. The same methodology will be applied to other types of reactor under development in Korea, such as future VHTR reactors.

  9. Use of social communication as a tool for environmental licensing of small-scale hydroelectric power plants; Uso da comunicacao social como instrumento para o licenciamento ambiental de PCH - pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: tiago@unifei.edu.br; Galhardo, Camila Rocha [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: pchnoticias@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work intends to study the process of environmental licensing of the Small ones Central Hydroelectric (PCHs) through the rising of the legal framework of the referred process and to analyze the application of tools of social communication in the mitigation of the social impacts in the zone of influence of the enterprise. Through the analysis of the critical points in the environmental licensing of small hydroelectric uses and evaluation of communication actions taking in consideration the environmental costs for the enterprise. (author)

  10. Electric energy production and environmental licensing: citizenship in Brazil in time of ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2017-01-01

    The choices of energy sources gain relevance in the face of the ecological crisis which has a central questioning on the modes of production and consumption and that stems from a system which changes everything into merchandise. On one hand, brazilian electricity generation has the advantage of using clean energy in great part of its composition, at least in discourse. On the other hand, though, there are high social and environmental costs, especially for communities living near the regions where projects for the electricity sector are built. This research aimed to identify and analyse different modes society takes part in the process of choosing energy sources for electricity generation in Brazil. It discusses the links between the ecological crisis and the production of electrical energy; how the institutional mechanisms for social participation on issues related to the production of electric power in Brazil work; and, how civil society participates in environmental licensing in the National Environment Council (CONAMA). A set of related approaches to the nature of the ecological crisis and the forms of social participation was adopted in the theoretical framework and an analysis of the electric sector panorama in Brazil has been drawn up. In order to investigate the forms society participates in issues related to the composition of the brazilian electricity matrix, the methodology comprised a documentary analysis and a case study. They included three categories of actors: (1) CONAMA's councilors, (2) experts from the Field; and (3) actors involved in the diagnosis study, planning and management of the electricity sector. The research identified inconsistencies, ambiguities and other relevant issues about the participation of society in the production of electrical energy. Such issues are related to: deficiencies in the mechanisms for information access; lack of transparency and patterns in internal documents; lack of social participation in the elaboration

  11. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  12. Public participation in the licensing of large-scale projects with environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As a rule, public participation in licensing and planning procedures for large-scale projects with environmental impact is as controversial as the projects themselves. Against this background, an interdisciplinary examination of several 'cases' of public participation in administrative procedures with varying legal forms is being conducted in a joint research project run by the Department for Applied Systems Analysis (Karlsruher Nuclear Centre) and the Research Institute for Public Administration at the College for Administrative Sciences in Speyer. The actual course of events and the practical experience of the groups involved (authorities, applicants, objectors, experts) are related to the applicable legal arrangements for public participation. The question to be answered is: which expected and unexpected functions do the procedures actually fulfill and which not. Proposals for the amendment of legal policy could be developed upon the foundation of such a diagnosis. The report contains the results of the 'pilot study' on public participation in the licensing of the nuclear power plant GKN-2 in Neckarwestheim and further contributions on the issue of 'public participation', presented within the framework of a research colloquium at the School for Nuclear Technology/Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  14. 78 FR 62322 - Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013; Notice of Rescheduled Two-Year Licensing Process Workshop The Federal... recommendations on the feasibility of a two-year process for the issuance of a license for hydropower development...., Washington, DC 20426, (202) 502-8328, [email protected] . Sarah McKinley (Logistical Information...

  15. A Study on the regulation improvement through the analysis of domestic and international categorization and licensing process for large particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Da-Yeong; Jeon, Yeo-Ryeong; Kim, Yong-Min [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Hee-Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many foreign countries use separate criteria and regulation procedure according to the categorization of accelerators. In Korea, nuclear and radiation related facilities are divided into 4 groups: 1) Nuclear Reactor and related facilities, 2) Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear material facilities, 3) Disposal and transport, 4) Radioisotope and radiation generating devices related facilities. All accelerator facilities are categorized as group 4 regardless of their size and type. For facilities that belong to group 1 and 2, Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment Report(REIR) and Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Report(PDPR) should be submitted in construction licensing stage, but there are no rules about above documents for large particle accelerator facilities. Facilities that belong to 4) RI and RG, only two documents of Radiation Safety Report(RSR) and Safety Control Regulation(SCR) are submitted in licensing stage. Because there is no detailed guidelines according to facilities type, properties of each facility are not considered in preparation and licensing process. If we set up the categorization of accelerator facilities, we can expect the effective and safe construction and operation of the large accelerator facilities on the licensing and operation process. Similarly to other counties' criteria, 50 MeV of particle energy could be used as energy band of large particle accelerator. According to categorization, it is necessary to adopt graded licensing stages and separated safety documents. In case of large particle accelerators, it is appropriate to divide the licensing stages to construction and operation. We currently submit PDPR in case of reactor and related facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, and nuclear material facilities. Depending on the energy of particle accelerators, it is necessary to prepare the decontamination and decommissioning for the decrease of current and future burden from radioactive waste. From the arrangement of separated guidelines on

  16. A model record of technologies for use in a compatible projects for environmental licensing of wind farms; Um modelo de registro das tecnologias para uso na compatibilizacao de projetos para licenciamento ambiental de parques eolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares Junior, Wandemberg; Oliveira, Lucia Maria Barbosa [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the development of a model for survey and registration of technologies that can be inserted in the process of reconciliation of the subjects of the project for environmental licensing of wind farms. It was used a basis for the theoretical model of the Simultaneous Engineering and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis - FMEA. Given the importance that the wind has for the pursuit of sustainable development, this work had as its main objective to contribute to the reduction of negative indices, proposing improvements to the process of project for environmental licensing of wind farms. (author)

  17. Applicability of IBAMA normative instruction 146-2007 to pipeline environmental licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda. (SEEBLA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ(Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been conducting several wildlife programs in response to environmental licensing requirements from IBAMA (Brazilian environmental agency). Since 2007, IBAMA has been requiring the application of the Normative Instruction n. 146 (NI), which establishes criteria for wildlife management in the influence areas of new enterprises. However, experience from PETROBRAS has shown that many of the NI articles are not applicable to pipelines. Thus, a critical analysis of this NI was done based on data from company's wildlife programs. Our analysis indicated that the main NI items that do not apply to pipelines are: 1 - Animal rescue programs in deforested areas and selection of release areas, 2 - More than two fauna monitoring campaigns a year, 3 - Monitoring programs involving all groups of terrestrial vertebrates and also invertebrate classes. The non-applicability of these items is due to: 1 - The majority of pipelines are built in areas without significant native vegetation or with small fragments only, which are usually in secondary stage of ecological succession. Most pipelines scarcely involve removal of primary vegetation, 2 - Pipelines have an influence area restricted to a range of 800 m and the construction directly affects only strips from 20 m to 30 m, 3 - The most relevant impacts associated with pipelines are temporary, and do not persist during their operation. (author)

  18. Making licensed venues safer for patrons: what environmental factors should be the focus of interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Ross; Carvolth, Russell; Hauritz, Marge; McIlwain, Gillian; Teague, Rosie

    2004-03-01

    The Queensland Safety Action Projects operationalized a problem-focused responsive regulatory model in order to make nightclubs and other venues safer. A problem-focused approach requires a careful analysis of the total environment of licensed venues, including drinking and its controls but also the social and physical environments, patron mix and management practices. We present new analyses of observational data collected in 1994 and 1996 in the north Queensland cities of Cairns, Townsville and Mackay. Major reductions in aggression and violence were observed, as well as improvements in many aspects of the venue environment and management practices. We do not argue in this paper that the interventions caused the environmental and management changes, although we believe this to be true. Rather, our assumption is that whatever caused them, some of the environmental and management changes were critical to the reductions in aggression. Regression techniques were used to identify those factors that best explained the declines in aggression. For reduced physical violence four key predictors were identified: improved comfort, availability of public transport, less overt sexual activity and fewer highly drunk men. For reduced non-physical aggression, four key predictors were: fewer Pacific Islander patrons, less male swearing, fewer intoxicated patrons requiring that management be called and more chairs with armrests. The analyses are consistent with the argument that the control of drinking is necessary but not sufficient to reduce aggression and violence.

  19. Accident consequence analysis models applied to licensing process of nuclear installations, radioactive and conventional industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, Murillo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    The industrial accidents happened in the last years, particularly in the eighty's decade, had contributed in a significant way to call the attention to government authorities, industry and society as a whole, demanding mechanisms for preventing episodes that could affect people's safety and environment quality. Techniques and methods already thoroughly used in the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries were then adapted for performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. Some models for analyzing the consequences of accidents involving fire and explosion, used in the licensing processes of nuclear and radioactive facilities, are presented in this paper. These models have also application in the licensing of conventional industrial facilities. (author)

  20. Establishing credibility in the environmental models used for safety and licensing calculations in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Models that simulate the transport and behaviour of radionuclides in the environment are used extensively in the nuclear industry for safety and licensing purposes. They are needed to calculate derived release limits for new and operating facilities, to estimate consequences following hypothetical accidents and to help manage a real emergency. But predictions generated for these purposes are essentially meaningless unless they are accompanied by a quantitative estimate of the confidence that can be placed in them. For example, in an emergency where there has been an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, decisions based on a validated model with small uncertainties would likely be very different from those based on an untested model, or on one with large uncertainties. This paper begins with a discussion of some general methods for establishing the credibility of model predictions. The focus will be on environmental transport models but the principles apply to models of all kinds. Establishing the credibility of a model is not a trivial task, It involves a number of tasks including face validation, verification, experimental validation and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The remainder of the paper will present quantitative results relating to the credibility of environmental transport models. Model formation, choice of parameter values and the influence of the user will all be discussed as sources of uncertainty in predictions. The magnitude of uncertainties that must be expected in various applications of the models will be presented. The examples used throughout the paper are drawn largely from recent work carried out in BIOMOVS and VAMP. (DM)

  1. A comparative analysis of the domestic and foreign licensing processes for power and non-power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, J. C.; Youn, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small to medium sized integral type Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been developed in Korea. Now, SMART-P, a 1/5 scaled-down of the SMART, is being developed for the purpose of demonstrating the safety and performance of SMART design. The SMART-P is a first-of-a-kind reactor which is utilized for the research and development of a power reactor. Since the licensing process of such a reactor is not clearly specified in the current Atomic Energy Act, a comparative survey and analysis of domestic and foreign licensing processes for power and non-power reactors has been carried out to develop the rationale and technical basis for establishing the licensing process of such a reactor. The domestic and foreign licensing processes of power and non-power reactors have been surveyed and compared, including those of the U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA. The general trends in nuclear reactor classification, licensing procedures, regulatory technical requirements, and other licensing requirements and regulations have been investigated. The results of this study will be used as the rationale and technical basis for establishing the licensing process of reactors at development stage such as SMART-P

  2. The need for review of environmental licensing rules taking into accounts innovations in the area of onshore seismic data acquisition; A necessidade de revisao das regras de licenciamento ambiental considerando inovacoes na area de aquisicao de dados sismicos terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Victor M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias - FTC, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Stilgoe, George [GeoDynamics Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Geofisica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    Activities involving seismic data acquisition aimed at the exploration, characterization, and monitoring of onshore oil and gas fields are expected to cause environmental impacts. Therefore, all seismic-related activities which require the use of traditional technologies must be licensed beforehand. The environmental licensing process is complex and subjected to interruptions and delays which will affect project schedule and cash flow. Some innovations in this field and other alternative techniques will allow data acquisition with reduced or insignificant environmental impacts. Within this context, the present paper proposes a description of the current onshore seismic acquisition techniques commonly used and their potential environmental impacts; presents and describes the innovative technique known as Infrasonic Passive Differential Spectroscopy (IPDS); and proposes a regulatory model which will allow a simplified licensing process. Additionally, this paper considers some positive impacts of regulatory flexibility, including: the possibility of using innovative techniques to fulfill obligations under the ANP Initial Work Program (PTI); time and cost reduction within the environmental licensing process; potential impacts on the recently-created market of oil production in fields with marginal accumulations. (author)

  3. Legal aspects of public participation in the planning/licensing of environmentally related large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, A.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of legal problems arise in the planning/licensing of environmentally related large-scale projects associated with the control and evaluation of technical conditions and the ramifications in social and legal policy of the acceptance of, and resistance to, such projects. On the basis of a number of partial studies e.g. of the licensing procedure of a nuclear power plant (Neckar-2 reactor) the author examines the legal aspects of public participation in the administrative procedures of licensing/plans approval. The dichotomy of law and technology is covered, and public participation in administrative procedures is derived legally from the basic constitutional rights and the principle of fair hearing. After an outline of specific administrative procedures, public participation as part of administrative procedures is included in the broad legal framework of licensing/plans approval of environmentally related large-scale projects. The author concludes that public participation, within the framework of the basic decisions established by legislature, is not a tool to be used in deciding basic political conflicts. Instead, public participations in the application of law serves to protect the rights of the individual by ensuring fair proceedings paying attention to the subjective rights of the individual. As it is unable to decide political conflicts, it is also an unsuitable means of establishing of basic societal consensus, or of seeking acceptance of large-scale projects. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Regulatory analysis for amendments to regulations for the environmental review for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This regulatory analysis provides the supporting information for a proposed rule that will amend the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's environmental review requirements for applications for renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses. The objective of the proposed rulemaking is to improve regulatory efficiency by providing for the generic evaluation of certain environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal. After considering various options, the staff identified and analyzed two major alternatives. With Alternative A, the existing regulations would not be amended. This option requires that environmental reviews be performed under the existing regulations. Alternative B is to assess, on a generic basis, the environmental impacts of renewing the operating license of individual nuclear power plants, and define the issues that will need to be further analyzed on a case-by-case basis. In addition, Alternative B removes from NRC's review certain economics-related issues. The findings of this assessment are to be codified in 10 CFR 51. The staff has selected Alternative B as the preferred alternative

  5. Licensing Process for Nuclear Power Plants in Pakistan and its comparison with other Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Javed; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established in January 2001 with the promulgation of the Ordinance, No-III of 2001. Pakistan is one of the countries in the world who intend to expand its nuclear power program for energy generation upto 8800 MWe by 2030. Presently, there are two research reactors and three nuclear power plants in operation and two power plants are under various stages of construction which are expected to be in commercial operation in 2016. It is obvious that the primary responsibility of ensuring safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) operation rests with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). However, PNRA's prime mission is to ensure the safe operation of nuclear and radiation facilities, safe use of radioactive sources and protection of the radiation workers, general public and the environment from the harmful hazards of radiation by formulating and implementing effective regulations. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority issues authorizations for nuclear power plants in three stages i.e. site permit, construction license and operation license after detailed safety review. This paper presents the licensing process for NPPs in Pakistan and its comparison with SSG-12, USA and Finland

  6. ITER Licensing Process Follow-up: A Part of K-DEMO Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoungsuk; Oh, Kyemin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoen Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The fusion DEMO program of Korea (referred as K-DEMO) has been progressed since 2009 to take advantages of an early mover, while carrying out scientific researches on KSTAR and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The K-DEMO program is a huge program and is in second phase planed for R and D from 2012 to 2021. One of the big part of this program, the fusion regulation and licensing in South Korea, can be classified into following three stages: the licensing of the KSTAR classified to a radiation generating device on the basis of the existing nuclear regulations, the verification of the design of the Test Blanket Module (TBM) and minimization of occupational irradiation damages due to tritium behaviors for ITER, and fundamental safety analysis, as a part of K-DEMO program with domestic universities funded by National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI). Kyung Hee University has studied safety analysis of K-DEMO since 2010, and surveyed ITER safety regulation and licensing process since 2012. In 2013, NFRI has carried out 'Development, Operation, and Management of core technologies for ITER' to secure the core original technologies and expend the base of domestic specialist at a fusion area by pursuing and developing non-supply technologies for ITER.

  7. Environmental-impact appraisal related to special nuclear materials. License No. SNM-696; Docket No. 70-734

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This Environmental Impact Appraisal is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to an application by GA Technologies, Inc., (GA) for renewal of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) License No. SNM-696 covering plant operations at San Diego, California. The proposed action provides for continuing research, development, and production activities involving SNM, uranium enriched in the U-235 and U-233 isotopes, and plutonium

  8. Regulatory guidance for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed 10 CFR Part 54 rule proceduralizes the process for license renewal by identifying both the administrative and technical requirements for a renewal application. To amplify and support this regulation, written guidance has been provided in the form of a draft Regulatory Guide (DG 1009) and a draft Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (NUREG 1299). This guidance is scheduled to be finalized in 1992. Similar guidance will be provided for the proposed revisions to 10 CFR Part 51 concerning the environmental aspects of license renewal. (author)

  9. Categorisation of Practices and Sources- A Key Issue in Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.; Vokal, B.; Petrovic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a radioactive sources inventory in countries with a nuclear programme usually comprises nearly all possible man-made sources available today, from sources related to nuclear power plants to calibration sources used for educational purposes. The risk based licensing process of radiation sources and exposures is a demanding task which could be internationally harmonised by introducing sources and practice related categorisation. The detailed categorisation of radioisotopes, replacing [1], was recently published [2]. The activity ratio (A/D ratio) is used as a basic parameter which is proportional to a risk involved in a use of a radioisotope. Radioisotopes as well as related practices are categorised. No categorisation of ionising sources related to electrical apparatus producing ionising radiation without radioisotopes has been given in literature. In addition, licensees usually perform many different activities with a specific source, so the categorisation of practice should be done, based on a risk involved with a specific practice. The risk is related to the probability of a specific event as well as to the consequences of that event. It is strongly related to the categorisation of source. The main issues related to a licensing process of sources and practices are presented. The review of possible categorisation of radioisotopes and related practices is given and a proposal of a combined harmonised approach of categorisation of sources and practices, based on risk, is given. (Author) 19 refs

  10. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R ampersand D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  11. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R&D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Screening Analysis of Criticality Features, Events, and Processes for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. McClure

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the screening analysis of postclosure criticality features, events, and processes. It addresses the probability of criticality events resulting from degradation processes as well as disruptive events (i.e., seismic, rock fall, and igneous). Probability evaluations are performed utilizing the configuration generator described in ''Configuration Generator Model'', a component of the methodology from ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report''. The total probability per package of criticality is compared against the regulatory probability criterion for inclusion of events established in 10 CFR 63.114(d) (consider only events that have at least one chance in 10,000 of occurring over 10,000 years). The total probability of criticality accounts for the evaluation of identified potential critical configurations of all baselined commercial and U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel waste form and waste package combinations, both internal and external to the waste packages. This criticality screening analysis utilizes available information for the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor Absorber Plate, 12-Pressurized Water Reactor Absorber Plate, 44-Boiling Water Reactor Absorber Plate, 24-Boiling Water Reactor Absorber Plate, and the 5-Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste/U.S. Department of Energy Short waste package types. Where defensible, assumptions have been made for the evaluation of the following waste package types in order to perform a complete criticality screening analysis: 21-Pressurized Water Reactor Control Rod, 5-Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste/U.S. Department of Energy Long, and 2-Multi-Canister Overpack/2-Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste package types. The inputs used to establish probabilities for this analysis report are based on information and data generated for the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application, where available. This analysis report determines whether criticality is to be

  13. Safeguards material control at licensed processing facilities. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.; Maimoni, A.; Spogen, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    This is the third quarterly report of progress at LLL on assessment methodologies and tools to assist the NRC in the development and enforcement of performance based regulations pertaining to special nuclear material safeguards at licensed facilities. The first quarterly report presented an overview of LLL's approach as of February, 1977. The second quarterly report describes the design of a hypothetical material control system referred to as the ''test bed design'' which is being used at LLL in the development of techniques for the assessment of material control system effectiveness. This report describes one of these techniques, a specialized computer simulation program for determination of material control system responses to particular adversary action sequences that constitute a material diversion attempt. The report contains an overview description of the Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program and its role in the LLL assessment procedure. The complete MCSS User's Manual is available in the LLL report UCID 17727. This and the previous quarterly are detailed topical reports and do not present progress made in other areas of this program. Future quarterly reports will resume broad coverage of all aspects of LLL's assistance to the NRC on Safeguards Material Control at Licensed Processing Facilities

  14. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision

  15. Composable Data Processing in Environmental Science - A Process View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Data processing in environmental science is essential for doing science. The heterogeneity of data sources, data processing operations and infrastructures results in a lot of manual data and process integration work done by each scientist individually. This is very inefficient and time consuming.

  16. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  17. Environmental assessment for renewal and consolidation of Materials License Nos. SNM-362, SMB-405, 08-00566-05, 08-00566-10, and 08-00566-12 (Docket No. 70-398)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The proposed action for which this Environmental Assessment is prepared is the renewal and consolidation of five nuclear materials licenses for radiological activities at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) site. These licenses cover most uses of radioactive material at NBS except that controlled by the license for operation of the NBS reactor. The reactor license is not associated with and will not be affected by the currently proposed licensing action

  18. Emerging Adults without a Driver’s License Engage in More Transportation-Related Physical Activity to School/Work in Certain Environmental Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indra Neal; Li, Kaigang; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to examine the moderation effect of driving licensure status on the association between different environmental contexts and transportation-related physical activity to and from school and/or work (TPA-SW) among emerging adults. The data were from Wave 4 (n = 2,026, year 2013) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, an annual assessment of a nationally representative cohort across the nine U.S. Census Divisions. The outcome variable, TPA-SW, was derived from walking or cycling as modes of travel to and from school and/or work. Environmental context variables included residence, college attendance, and work status. Driving licensure status indicated whether or not participants had an independent driver’s license. Poisson regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to test interactions between environmental context and driving licensure. There were significant interactions between environmental context and licensure. Interaction contrasts indicated that participants who did not have a driver’s license engaged in more TPA-SW than their licensed counterparts if they were living at home (β = 1.10, p license engaged in less TPA-SW than participants with a license (β = − 0.22, p = 0.05). Among emerging adults in certain environmental contexts, delayed driver licensing may result in more physical activity with the possible tradeoff of less transportation mobility. PMID:28011136

  19. Need for improving the federal and state siting and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety regulatory process has slowly evolved into a vast number of complex and uncoordinated institutional processes. These processes add unnecessary project costs, in addition to stifling and deterring government and industry from meeting their full responsibilities. The regulatory process is weighted down with inflexibility, staff bureaucracies, duplication of effort, and confusing court cases. The process has become so complex and bureaucratic that it appears incapable of being patched up or reformed from within. Thus, a whole new regulatory process, more integrated, simplified, and expeditious is needed

  20. Developing a workable public input process for aesthetics and recreational needs during hydropower licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.; Stimac, M.

    1993-01-01

    Aesthetics and recreation are becoming increasingly important issues during hydropower licensing. A variety of regulations and legislation mandate the protection of instream flows for aesthetic and recreational resources. These have provided impetus for determining the effects of instream flows on recreation and aesthetic resources. A public survey designed for a proposed small hydropower project, located in a heavily used recreation area, attempts to determine the aesthetic and recreational preferences for instream flows. The major components in designing the survey are discussed. The public input process is still underway, however, preliminary results indicate lower flows in the river are generally preferable by visitors of the area. This is likely because of the types of users and the recreation activities performed

  1. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions: water supplies and the nuclear licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, F.S.

    1977-07-01

    The Interstate Conference on Water Problems (ICWP) is a national association of State, intrastate, and interstate officials concerned with water resources administration and related matters. The Conference was established in 1959 as an outgrowth of regional conferences on water problems as recognized in the same year by action of the General Assembly of the States. This report was produced by the Interstate Conference on Water Problems in an effort to provide a compilation and summary of the views of selected States regarding relationships of water supplies to the nuclear power plant licensing process. This publication does not represent the official position of the U.S Water Resources Council, or the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor does it represent the position of any single state or the ICWP

  2. Environmental impact appraisal for renewal of source material license No. SUB-526 (Docket No. 40-3392)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Allied Chemical Company operates a privately owned UF 6 production facility at Metropolis, Illinois, At this facility, uranium ore concentrates are converted into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). The UF 6 product from this facility is shipped to Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants for enrichment of the 235 U isotope. This assessment: (1) reviews the operation of the facility during the recent license period by comparing the plant effluent releases or environmental monitoring data with permissible levels of contaminants; and (2) determines the impact on the environment from continued operation of the facility in its current configuration. 10 figures, 44 tables

  3. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M. L.

    2012-10-01

    So that the construction stages, of operation, closing, dismantlement and the radioactive waste disposal of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are carried out in Mexico, is necessary that the operator has a license, permission or authorization for each stage. In Mexico, these licenses, permissions or authorizations are granted by the Energy Secretariat with base in the verdict of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The operation licenses ar the moment effective for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) they will expire respectively in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit 1 and Unit 2, for what the CNSNS has begun its preparation before a potential solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. Defining the process to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this phase as normalization, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc., is the task that intends to be carried out the regulator body so that the evaluation process is effective and efficient, so much for the same regulator body as for the licensee. This work exposes the advance that the CNSNS has in this aspect and is centered specifically in the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude, taking as base what the regulator body of the United States of North America (US NRC) established and following to the IAEA. Also, this work includes statistical of electric power production in Mexico, licensing antecedents for the NPP-L V, a world perspective of the license renovations and the regulation of the US NRC related to the license renovation of a NPP. (Author)

  4. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Regulator process for the authorization of an amendment to the operation license of a nuclear power plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.; Espinosa V, J.M.; Salgado, J.R.; Mamani, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    The regulator process by which an authorization is granted from an amendment to the License of Operation of a nuclear power station in Mexico is described. It makes an appointment the effective legal mark, the technical characteristics of the modification, the evaluation process and deposition upon oath of tests and finally the elaboration of the Safety report and the Technical Verdict that is a correspondent for the regulator organism to the Secretary of Energy, the one that in turn is the responsible of granting the amendment the License just as it establishes it the Law. (Author)

  6. Process of licensing nuclear facilities (resume from the Spanish National Report for the Joint Convention, 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, N.

    2007-01-01

    The process of licensing both nuclear and radioactive facilities is governed by the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities (Span. Reglamento de Instalaciones Nucleares y Radiactivas, RINR), approved by Royal Decree 1836/1999, of 3 December. According to the RINR, these authorizations are granted by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (Span. Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio, MITYC), to which the corresponding requests should be addressed, along with the documentation required in each case, The MITYC sends a copy of each request and accompanying documentation to the Nuclear Safety Council (Span. Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN) for its mandatory report.) The CSN reports are mandatory and binding, both were negative or withholding in nature with respect to the request and, when positive, as regards the conditions established. On receiving the report from the CSN, and following whatever decisions or further reports might be required in each case, the MITYC will adopt the appropriate resolution. System for the licensing of nuclear facilities. According to the definitions included in the RINR, the following are nuclear facilities: - Nuclear power plants. - Nuclear reactors. - Manufacturing facilities using nuclear fuels to produce nuclear substances and those at which nuclear substances are treated. - Facilities for the permanent storage of nuclear substances. In compliance with the RINR, the nuclear facilities require different permits or administrative authorizations for their operation, these being the preliminary or site authorization, the construction permit, the operating permit, the authorization for modification and the dismantling permit. The procedure for the awarding of each of these authorizations is regulated by the Regulation itself and is briefly described below. (author)

  7. Environmental impact appraisal for renewal of Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-1097 (Docket No. 70-1113)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The proposed action, the full 5-year renewal of License SNM-1097, is necessary for GE to continue producing fuel used in light-water nuclear reactors. The fuel manufacturing operation principally involves converting UF 6 to UO 2 powder, pressing the UO 2 powder into pellets, sintering and grinding the pellets, loading the pellets into Zircaloy tubes, and then assembling the loaded tubes into fuel bundles. A variety of radiological and nonradiological gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are generated. After treatment, some of the wastes are released to the environment. In addition to the nuclear fuel fabrication operation, there are other operations performed at GE which do not require NRC licensing (e.g., zirconium metal processing, production of fuel bundle and mechanical reactor components, and the manufacture of aircraft engine parts) and are not associated with the proposed action. 28 references, 15 figures, 21 tables

  8. Environmental law in Brazil: analysis of environmental licensing of wind power plants in permanently preserved areas; Direito ambiental no Brasil: analise do licenciamento ambiental de usinas eolicas de preservacao permante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Cristiano Abijaode; Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Bleil, Julia Rechia [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@abiape.com.br, adriana@abiape.com.br, julia@abiape.com.br

    2011-04-15

    The Brazilian electric energy matrix is mostly renewable. According to the Generation Information Base (BIG) of the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL), hydroelectricity is responsible for 67.31% of the country's energy. The additional generation comes mostly from fossil fuels, whose use is questioned when it comes to environmental quality and climate change. Despite its abundance, hydroelectric power generation has physical, socioeconomic and environmental limitations. Thus, it is essential to develop alternative technologies, providing security in the supply of electric energy and the maintenance of a clean matrix. Among the alternative technologies available, wind power is the one that has been gaining prominence, domestically and internationally speaking. In the last auction of renewable sources held in August 2010 in Brazil, the energy produced by the plants of sugarcane bagasse (biomass) was traded at an average of R$ 144.20 MWh; wind energy, which was the cheapest, was traded at R$ 130.86, and the energy from small hydropower plants (PCH), at R$ 141.93 MWh. The wind power plants accounted for 70% of the auction, which resulted in a plan for increasing its installed capacity by fivefold, by the year 2013. Brazil has great potential to be explored (estimated 143,000 MW), yet despite being appealing, wind energy still face some challenges. One of them is due to the fact that most potential areas for such energy are found in permanently preservation areas and areas considered national assets, subject to special protection measures. This study aims to investigate whether the regulatory, legal and environmental issues are considered an obstacle to an effective inclusion of wind power generation in Brazil. The study examines the process of environmental licensing of wind power plants, especially those established in permanently preservation areas (APPs) and Coastal Areas. The research methodology consisted of normative framework, judicial decisions

  9. The delay of the environmental licensing in oil activities and legal implications regarding the oil block; O atraso do licenciamento ambiental nas atividades petroliferas e as implicacoes atinentes ao cumprimento de prazo de bloco licitados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work intends to demonstrate how the delay in issuing environmental licenses by the appropriate bodies affect the correct fulfillment of the exploratory phase of blocks already bid and rendered to the lessees. Thus, it will be conducted a study of the pertaining legislation to the subject, such as Law n. 6.938/81 and its recent amendment by Complementary Law n. 140/2011, as well as the Resolutions issued by the National Environmental Council (CONAMA), addressing the vital importance of the environmental licensing process to the preservation of the environment ante the installation of potentially harmful activities. It is also acknowledged, through the analysis of articles and paragraphs, that there is a legal gap concerning the deadline for issuance of certain documents required to start the licensing procedure by the companies, which ultimately jeopardizes the fulfillment of their exploration activities in due time. Furthermore, there is not a provision regarding the return of the deadline to the lessee when it is suspended or extended due to licensing delays for reasons beyond its control, which cannot lack a reasonable answer. Therefore, as a conclusion, it will be presented a possible solution, so as to ensure the proper accomplishment of the oil activities combined with the preservation of the environment. (author)

  10. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderholm, K., E-mail: kristina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The SMR licensing process has been under discussion in the USA and this trend is to be seen also in Europe. The current licensing practices in European countries vary from one another and some harmonization will be needed in the future for SMR licensing. This study goes through SMR specific features affecting the licensing process. Licensing processes in selected countries are studied in high level, trying to indicate the features that could be suitable for SMR licensing. (author)

  11. Environmental Process Control: Strategies and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mathematical presentation of the optimal strategy for environmental process control is presented. This approach covers a wide variety of control systems, which have been constructed and analysed at the Institute of Environmental Engineering during the last fifteen years. Special attention is paid to the preventive environmental control and its tools: pollution prevention, life cycle assessment. The implementation results of preventive environmental control from more than 150 companies are presented in the paper.The investigations on water quality control issues are evaluated from the point of view of the interface between physico-ecological and socio-economical systems and decision support system based on river water quality model is suggested.

  12. 78 FR 12998 - Establishment of Due Process Procedures on License-Like Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Electronic Invoice Program (EIP). See 19 CFR 143.42(b). Section 1414(a)(2) of title 19 of the U.S. Code sets... process in a completely electronic data interchange, filed from a location other than where the goods are...) operational on the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) (or any other CBP-approved method of electronic payment), for...

  13. Expert judgment in NRC licensing proceedings and its impact on the regulatory decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minwalla, H.

    1995-01-01

    Expert judgment will be widely used in the site characterization, repository performance assessment and the licensing of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Technical expert judgment relates to the consideration of parameters for which little or no experimental data exists. The use of technical expert judgment in repository performance assessment is intended to complement and interpret available data rather than to substitute for technical data and scientific information. Decision-maker expert judgment will be used on the other hand by the NRC or by the Hearing Licensing Board to choose among conflicting technical expert judgments during licensing hearings or review, and gauge the limitations in scientific understanding of repository performance. This paper examines the use of expert judgment by the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board on the proper seismic and geologic design bases in the show cause licensing proceeding for the restart of the Vallecitor - General Electric Test Reactor

  14. Environmental assessment for renewal of Materials License No. SNM-778 (Docket no. 70-824)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Environmental Assessment includes discussions of the need for the proposed renewal action, alternatives to the action, and the environmental impacts of the proposed action. The staff has determined that the methods of waste confinement and effluent controls meet all applicable state and federal standards. The environmental impact of continued operation is insignificant

  15. Emerging adults without a driver's license engage in more transportation-related physical activity to school/work in certain environmental contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indra Neal; Li, Kaigang; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to examine the moderation effect of driving licensure status on the association between different environmental contexts and transportation-related physical activity to and from school and/or work (TPA-SW) among emerging adults. The data were from Wave 4 (n=2026, year 2013) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, an annual assessment of a nationally representative cohort across the nine U.S. Census Divisions. The outcome variable, TPA-SW, was derived from walking or cycling as modes of travel to and from school and/or work. Environmental context variables included residence, college attendance, and work status. Driving licensure status indicated whether or not participants had an independent driver's license. Poisson regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to test interactions between environmental context and driving licensure. There were significant interactions between environmental context and licensure. Interaction contrasts indicated that participants who did not have a driver's license engaged in more TPA-SW than their licensed counterparts if they were living at home (β=1.10, plicense engaged in less TPA-SW than participants with a license (β=-0.22, p=0.05). Among emerging adults in certain environmental contexts, delayed driver licensing may result in more physical activity with the possible tradeoff of less transportation mobility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Environmental Technology Transfer in a Cournot Duopoly: The Case of Fixed-Fee Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Miyaoka

    2014-01-01

    This study considers a Cournot duopoly market in which a clean firm can transfer its less polluting technology to a dirty firm through a fixed-fee licensing contract. We analyze the impacts of emissions taxes on the incentives of firms to transfer technology as well as on the total pollution level, and examine the properties of the optimal emissions tax policy. We first show that higher emissions taxes weaken incentives for technology transfer and that this can lead to a perverse increase in ...

  17. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  18. The activities of the Technical Independent Supervision Organization (OSTI) on the licensing process of the nucleoelectric installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The basic responsibility for licensing nuclear facilities belongs to the government to urban is up to take care of the safety and public health as well as for the installations environment impact. In practicing such responsibility the government should be assured that the operational safety and nucleoelectric installation construction has to be subjected to checks and controls by an independent organism apart from the owners organization responsible for the construction and operation. This paper presents the main activities of the technical independent supervision organization in conformity with the regulations for the licensing process of nuclear facilities as one of the safety principles adopted for Angra 2 nuclear power plant. (B.C.A.)

  19. Transcending the Myth of Law’s Stifling Technological Innovation : How Adaptive Drug Licensing Processes Are Maintaining Legitimate Regulatory Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen

    This chapter explores the lessons that can be drawn from how adaptive drug licensing processes cope with legitimacy issues of regulatory connections. The exploration assumes that a responsive approach to technology regulation offers opportunities to meet legitimacy requirements. Looking at existing

  20. Environmental risk communication as an educational process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottenfeld, Faith

    The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of the environmental risk communication process. The goal was to look at the totality of the process by examining the different components: entry to communication (what brings people into the process), maintenance of communication (behaviors of participants, pathways to successful risk communication, barriers to successful risk communication, characteristics of the dialogue) and outcomes of risk communication (what has been learned, what moves the process to social action, what else can come of the process). Interviews and critical incidents were used to explore the experiences of risk communicators in four different practice settings: academia, industry/trade groups, community-based organizations and government. Twenty-four people completed critical incident stories and sixteen participated in in-depth interviews. Data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings illustrated that successful risk communication results from a deliberative, or purposeful process. This process includes a systematic approach to identifying and inviting people to participate, while considering specific motivating factors that affect participation. Risk communication is maintained by creating and nurturing structured forums for dialogue by acknowledging the varying perspectives of the people who participate and the contextual settings of environmental risks. The result of effective dialogue may range from increased knowledge, to transformative learning to social action and policy change. The researcher recommended that a multi-disciplinary team including risk communicators, adult educators and scientists can work most effectively to plan, implement and evaluate a risk communication process.

  1. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  2. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  3. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, W.J.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with 3 H, 85 Kr, or 147 Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process

  4. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, W.J.; O' Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with /sup 3/H, /sup 85/Kr, or /sup 147/Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process.

  5. Environmental challenges for the Egg Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie

    industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg-processing......Environmental regulation within the European Union and its Member States has evolved from command-and-control regulation to more complex ways of regulation. Different industries may be more or less ‘vulnerable’ towards an increased level of environmental regulation. The food industry is among those...... industry has been selected as a case study in order to be capable of illustrating the impact of such regulation on industry...

  6. Medical review practices for driver licensing volume 3: guidelines and processes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This is the third of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how : they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically or : functionally at-risk drivers. ...

  7. Perspectives on compliance: non-compliance with environmental licenses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.; van de Peppel, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Compliance with environmental law is not self-evident. In many instances enforcement of environmental regulations is a necessary means for achieving compliance. Assuming that an enforcement strategy, in order to be effective, has to fit the type of non-compliance, we integrate six different

  8. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Revision 1 to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.2, Supplement 1 (RG 4.2S1), ``Preparation of Environmental Reports... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 51 and 54 [NRC-2008-0608] RIN 3150-AI42 Preparation of... applicants in the preparation of environmental reports that are submitted with the application for the...

  9. Reformed and reforming: Adapting the licensing process to meet new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    The NRC has engaged in a steady, albeit modest, examination of its preparedness for advanced designs over the past few years. These efforts have included examination of its own guidance and processes as well as co-operation with the US Department of Energy (US DOE) in identifying key issues and potential strategies. But the NRC is constrained in some respects from devoting substantial resources to the development of new or revised regulatory approaches due to statutory requirements that the NRC recover most of its appropriated funds through user fees imposed on the industry. Unless designers are prepared to put up the funds necessary to cover the fees for review of the new designs, the NRC is not able to review them, and licensees of operating facilities paying annual fees may not all be supportive of the NRC expending resources to develop infrastructure for the review of advanced reactor designs. Given the current context, this article will attempt to reflect on the NRC's current framework for licensing, the lessons from NRC's regulations in 10 CFR Part 52 and strategies for adapting to the new demands that may be made on the agency

  10. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M. de L.

    2013-10-01

    At the present time the operation licenses in force for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) will expire in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit-1 and Unit-2, respectively, for which the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) has begun its preparation to assist a solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. The present work has the purpose of defining the steps to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this process, as the normative, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc. so that the evaluation process will be effective and efficient, as much for the regulator organ as for the licensee. The advance carried out in the continuation of the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude is also exposed, taking like base the requirements established by the CNSNS, the regulator organ of the United States (US NRC), and the IAEA for license renovation solicitude of this type. A summary of the licenses granted from the beginning of commercial operation of the NPP-L V is included, both units and the amendments to these licenses, explaining the reason of the amendment shortly and in the dates they were granted. A brief exposition of the nuclear power plants to world level that have received extension of its operation is included. The normative that can be applied in a life extension evaluation is presented, the evaluation process to continue with the guides of the US NRC, the reach of the evaluation and the minimum information required to the licensee that should accompany to their solicitude. (author)

  11. Environmental information document defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report documents the impact analysis of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing high-level waste currently being stored on an interim basis at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The DWPF will process the waste into a form suitable for shipment to and disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will convert the high-level waste into: a leach-resistant form containing above 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residue of slightly contaminated salt. The document describes the SRP site and environs, including population, land and water uses; surface and subsurface soils and waters; meteorology; and ecology. A conceptual integrated facility for concurrently producing glass waste and saltcrete is described, and the environmental effects of constructing and operating the facility are presented. Alternative sites and waste disposal options are addressed. Also environmental consultations and permits are discussed

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without

  13. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  14. Better Demand Signal, Better Decisions? Evaluation of Big Data in a Licensed Remanufacturing Supply Chain with Environmental Risk Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Baozhuang; Zou, Zongbao

    2017-08-01

    Big data ability helps obtain more accurate demand signal. However, is better demand signal always beneficial for the supply chain parties? To answer this question, we investigate a remanufacturing supply chain (RSC), where demand uncertainty is significant, and the value to reduce environmental risk is large. Specifically, we focus on a licensed RSC comprising an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and a third-party remanufacturer (3PR). The latter pays a unit license fee to the former, and can be risk averse to the demand of remanufactured products. We show that the OEM and the risk-neutral 3PR always have incentives to improve their big data abilities to increase their profits. However, when the 3PR is risk averse, big data might hurt its profit: the value of big data is positive if its demand signal accuracy is sufficiently low. Interestingly, we find that while information sharing hurts the 3PR, it benefits the OEM as well as the supply chain. Thus, if costly information sharing is allowed, a win-win situation can be achieved. We also find that information sharing generates more valuation when the 3PR is risk averse than that when the 3PR is risk neutral. More importantly, we find that the 3PR's risk attitude and demand signal accuracy can significantly mitigate the negative environmental impact (measured by the amount of the waste): (1) the more risk neutral the 3PR is, the better the environment is; (2) the more accurate demand signal is, the better the environment is. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. The SHP's environmental licensing and the social communication: case study analysis of Funil and Carangola; O licenciamento ambiental de PCH e a comunicacao social: analise dos estudos de caso de Funil e Carangola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Camila Rocha

    2007-07-01

    Lately, concepts and paradigms have gone through constant alterations, due to high-speed growth the globe faces the dilemma of how to keep this growing and guarantee the survival conditions for next generations. Consequently, it comes into view the requirement for the discussion towards environment preservation and sustainability. In addition to this, humanity has been seeking for solutions to this impasse and the Brazilian Electric Sector equally has looked for alternatives since the beginning of electrification in the country, in early 19{sup th} Century, when the first Small Hydropower Plants (SHPs) were installed to provide energy to the industrial development period. Moreover, at present, this same category of energy generation plant represents a good opportunity, for the reason that they are framed as one of the sources of energy that is considered renewable or less pollutant. In the past years, technological evolution has been accompanied by the national industry of equipment and also the environmental legislation has created tools to mitigate the impacts of a Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHPs). The present research has aimed not only to present in its bibliographical revision the evolution of SHPs concept associated with the environmental aspects but also the application of techniques of social communication in the environmental license process. Furthermore it has looked for new communicative applicable tools in search of a larger public participation among the involved players, which results in important premises for the sustainability course of action. In order to attend those goals, two processes of SHP licensing were analyzed in Minas Gerais State, with main focus in the included Social Communication Program in the Plan of Environmental Control foreseen by the resolution number 006/87 of CONAMA (National Environmental Council). Finally, this research intended to present communicative feasible tools in the dimensioning of the participating actions in the

  16. Humanoid environmental perception with Gaussian process regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingsheng Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, humanoids are increasingly expected acting in the real world to complete some high-level tasks humanly and intelligently. However, this is a hard issue due to that the real world is always extremely complicated and full of miscellaneous variations. As a consequence, for a real-world-acting robot, precisely perceiving the environmental changes might be an essential premise. Unlike human being, humanoid robot usually turns out to be with much less sensors to get enough information from the real world, which further leads the environmental perception problem to be more challenging. Although it can be tackled by establishing direct sensory mappings or adopting probabilistic filtering methods, the nonlinearity and uncertainty caused by both the complexity of the environment and the high degree of freedom of the robots will result in tough modeling difficulties. In our study, with the Gaussian process regression framework, an alternative learning approach to address such a modeling problem is proposed and discussed. Meanwhile, to debase the influence derived from limited sensors, the idea of fusing multiple sensory information is also involved. To evaluate the effectiveness, with two representative environment changing tasks, that is, suffering unknown external pushing and suddenly encountering sloped terrains, the proposed approach is applied to a humanoid, which is only equipped with a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Experimental results reveal that the proposed Gaussian process regression-based approach is effective in coping with the nonlinearity and uncertainty of the humanoid environmental perception problem. Further, a humanoid balancing controller is developed, which takes the output of the Gaussian process regression-based environmental perception as the seed to activate the corresponding balancing strategy. Both simulated and hardware experiments consistently show that our approach is valuable and leads to a

  17. Licensing aspects regarding the RBMN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Sacramento, Arivaldo M.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The licensing process of a waste disposal facility is a complex and demanding undertaking. It proceeds in phases, starting with the site selection and ending many decades later, when the radionuclides decayed and no longer offer possible hazard. That is one of the reasons why the licensing process for the Brazilian repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (RBMN Project) is a challenge for all the technicians involved. Besides that, the only national experience associated to this subject arose after a radiological accident in the State of Goias, in 1987. Two different institutions are involved in this licensing process: IBAMA, for environmental licensing, and CNEN, for nuclear licensing. Both of them will evaluate the possible impacts caused by the waste disposal, so it is essential to avoid conflicts and duplications of activities. The RBMN project has different teams for each main activity, and one of them is the Licensing group. This team has been planning the licensing activities for the repository, studying the legal framework and estimating costs and execution time for each step. This paper presents the status of the licensing activities regarding to the RBMN project done by the CNEN staff. (author)

  18. Licensing aspects regarding the RBMN project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Sacramento, Arivaldo M.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: ams@cdtn.br, E-mail: bla@cdtn.br, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The licensing process of a waste disposal facility is a complex and demanding undertaking. It proceeds in phases, starting with the site selection and ending many decades later, when the radionuclides decayed and no longer offer possible hazard. That is one of the reasons why the licensing process for the Brazilian repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (RBMN Project) is a challenge for all the technicians involved. Besides that, the only national experience associated to this subject arose after a radiological accident in the State of Goias, in 1987. Two different institutions are involved in this licensing process: IBAMA, for environmental licensing, and CNEN, for nuclear licensing. Both of them will evaluate the possible impacts caused by the waste disposal, so it is essential to avoid conflicts and duplications of activities. The RBMN project has different teams for each main activity, and one of them is the Licensing group. This team has been planning the licensing activities for the repository, studying the legal framework and estimating costs and execution time for each step. This paper presents the status of the licensing activities regarding to the RBMN project done by the CNEN staff. (author)

  19. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  20. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century

  1. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  2. [Strengthening process of the licensing system for physicians in the Republic of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxu

    2002-04-01

    The Provisional Regulation for Administration of Physician, issued by the Internal Affairs Department of the Northern Warlords Government on March 9, 1922; The Provisional Regulation of Physician, issued and carried out by Ministry of Health of Nanjing National Government on January 15, 1929; and The Provisional Regulation of Physician, issued and carried out by Executive Yuan of Nanjing National Government on August 8, 1940 marked preliminary formation of the licensing system for physicians. The Standards of Physician, issued and carried out by Nanjing National Government on September 22, 1943 marked formation of the licensing system for physicians in the Republic of China. In the later stage of the War of Resistance Against Japan, some legal documents, like Detailed Rules of the Standards of Physician etc. issued and carried out by Nanjing National Government were the additional remarks for the administration of the Standards of Physician. All of these showed that the licensing system for physicians was strengthened step by step.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in

  4. Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant. Environmental impact appraisal related to license amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The environmental aspects of the proposed amendment to increase the spent fuel receipt and storage capacity at the Morris Operation facility from 100 metric tons of uranium to 750 metric tons of uranium by redesigning storage baskets and racks are discussed

  5. Harmonisation of licensing processes for decommissioning. Options and limitations; Genehmigungsverfahren fuer die Stilllegung der deutschen Kernkraftwerke. Konvoi oder Kakophonie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-03-15

    The shutdown of eight reactors in Germany in the wake of Fukushima 2011 and the scheduled phase-out of the remaining units in several steps ending 2022 has obviously triggered a wave of applications for decommissioning and dismantling licences. It would seem natural to strive for a harmonised handling of these processes, analogous to the 'convoi' concept which was successfully employed for licensing and construction of the three most recent German NPPs in the 1980s. However, a comparative analysis shows that the motivation of all players is much different from that of earlier times and that harmonisation of licensing processes for dismantling is not as crucial for operators, authorities and technical support organisations as it was for construction.

  6. Environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: analysis and optimization proposals for Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Licenciamento ambiental para implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas: analise e propostas de otimizacao para Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: adriana@unifei.edu.br; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: dupas@unifei.edu.brT

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPP). Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. It also highlights the importance of environmental zoning as a tool of environmental management for the procedure to obtain these licenses. The results show that 80% of the cases, the institutions do not respect the deadlines, 40% of the studies presented by the enterprises are insufficient, 60% there is lack of human resource and technical capacities of the environment institutions, and 80% non-fulfilment of the laws and non-integration of the institutions. Finally, the study concludes that the difficulties to obtain these licenses are based on the facts mentioned which are, the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, it is suggested that deadlines should be imposed for the institutions and the enterprises. There should be training, fund raising for the hiring of technicians, fulfillment of the law and above all, transparency in order to supply the electrical energy demand and guarantee the sustainable development. (author)

  7. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  8. Análise técnico-jurídica do licenciamento ambiental e sua interface com a certificação ambiental Technician-juridicial analysis of the environmental licensing and its interface with the environmental certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Cristiano Viana

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi promover uma análise comparativa do licenciamento e da certificação ambiental, para daí extrair uma fundamentação técnica e jurídica que possibilite verificar a interface entre eles. Utilizou-se uma abordagem teórico-metodológica da pesquisa social aplicada e jurídica, através de uma vertente jurídico-dogmática, bem como uma pesquisa dos fundamentos técnicos e sociais, para avaliação dos processos de certificação ambiental. Objetivou-se comprovar a existência de uma nítida interface entre licenciamento e certificação ambiental, embora n��o se possa admitir a suplantação da atividade estatal ou sequer a modificação das estruturas básicas da certificação. Recomenda-se um diálogo maior entre o Poder Público e as organizações privadas na busca de um desenvolvimento econômico que concretamente visa a sustentabilidade.This study aims to carry out a comparative analysis of licensing and environmental certification to extract a technical and juridical basis to verify the interface between them. A theoretical-methodological approach of the applied and juridical social research was utilized from a juridical-dogmatic viewpoint, as well as a research of the technical and social foundations to evaluate the processes of environmental certification. This research aimed to prove the existence of a clear interface between licensing and environmental certification although the replacement of the state action or even the modification of the basic structures of certification cannot be admitted. Further discussion between the public government and private organizations is recommended to pursue an economic development concretely aiming at sustainability.

  9. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  10. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  11. The management of the Special Government Take by the Ministry of the Environment: a proposal to integrate with the environmental licensing system; A gestao da Participacao Especial pelo Ministerio do Meio Ambiente: uma proposta de integracao com o licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo Neto, Eduardo [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Special Government Take has a function of compensate the municipal, states and federal government for the resulting from externally exploration and production process in a legal percentage system. That financial compensation correspond to a tax in oil exploration for Brazilian Environment Ministry, in consequence of the excess volume of production or the surplus profitability obtained from petroleum or natural gas concession industry, estimated about four billions and three hundred millions of reals in the period of 1999 to 2008. This study analyze the Special Government Take, concluding that no exist the use for the environmental control, as well as applied in projects and studies to get better environmental licensing process, and also no have effects of financial resources to environmental preservation and damages recuperation produced by petroleum industry. (author)

  12. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  13. 75 FR 8754 - Notice of Environmental Assessment Related to the Issuance of a License Amendment to Masters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend a materials permit held under Master Byproduct Materials License No... Licensee will continue its operation of other facilities under this permit and its master materials license. The Licensee requested this action in a letter dated October 29, 2009 (ML093060270). The NRC has...

  14. Environmental study of nylon flocking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J; Piacitelli, C; Schwegler-Berry, D; Jones, W

    1999-05-14

    Environmental measurements for a variety of gas, particulate, and microbiological agents have been made in order to characterize exposures associated with the nylon flocking process. Of all agents measured, particulate is the predominant exposure. Levels of total particulate ranged from O.1 to 240 mg/m3 (x = 11.4 mg/m3). Average respirable particulate was 2.2 mg/m3, ranging from 0.5 to 39.9 mg/m3. Highest levels of particulates were found in the flocking room, and direct reading dust measurements indicate that the highest peak exposures are associated with "blowdown" (a cleaning procedure used between flocking runs). The nature of the airborne particles was investigated using polarized light and scanning electron microscopy. Air samples were found to contain flock particles (fibers nominally 10-15 microm in diameter by about 1000 microm in length) and a variety of respirable particles types, several of which were linked directly to the process. Of special interest were elongated respirable particles, which by microscopic analysis, complemented with melting-point determination, were found to be shreds of nylon.

  15. Licensing of away-from-reactor (AFR) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of spent fuel at Away-From-Reactor (AFR) installations will allow reactors to continue to operate until reprocessing or other fuel disposal means are available. AFR installations must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although wide experience in licensing reactors exists, the licensing of an AFR installation is a relatively new activity. Only one has been licensed to date. This paper delineates the requirements for licensing an AFR installation and projects a licensing schedule. Because the NRC is developing specific AFR requirements, this schedule is based primarily on draft NRC documents. The major documents needed for an AFR license application are similar to those for a reactor. They include: a Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and Environmental Report (ER), safeguards and security plans, decommissioning plans, proposed technical specifications, and others. However, the licensing effort has one major difference in that for AFR installations it will be a one-step effort, with follow-up, rather than the two-step process used for reactors. The projected licensing schedule shows that the elapsed time between filing an application and issuance of a license will be about 32 months, assuming intervention. The legal procedural steps will determine the time schedule and will override considerations of technical complexity. A license could be issued in about 14 months in the absence of intervention

  16. Implantation of hydroelectric power plants and the environmental licensing: the importance of the articulation among the electrical and environment sectors in Brazil; A implantacao de usinas hidreletricas e o processo de licenciamento ambiental: a importancia da articulacao entre os setores eletrico e de meio ambiente no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facuri, Micheline Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Hydroelectric power plants stand for the main generation source in Brazil. The basis of the national generator park installed capacity is the exploration of hydraulic potency when the Brazilian energetic die is observed. The atmosphere that the Brazilian electric sector is found now asks for new generator units. In this sense, it would decrease energy offer deficit risk, which collaborates to the electric energy offer expansion effort. This research aims to join and to comment on a group of data and information regarding to the process of implantation of hydroelectric power plants already bid. It includes up to date data on hydroelectric power plants bid since 1996. This data describe the main implications found in the enterprises that are late in their schedules. It shows that the greater the environmental management instruments incorporation in hydroelectric projects planning process, the greater the possibility of new hydraulic generation enterprises with better quality of environmental studies implantation. In this way, it makes even better the process of environmental licensing that could occur in a more adequate deadline. As a result, 28 - out of 54 - enterprises bid are found with environmental problems, which represent 43.30% of bestowed potency. It is possible to infer, thus, that there is a need of more interaction between the electric and the environmental sectors. After analyzing the results, it is concluded that the generation enterprises environmental licensing has been worrying the electric sector agents. This happens due to the need of refinement on environmental studies or due to the need of bureaucracy to get licenses - mainly regarding to judicial actions and environmental issues. Finally, the adequate identification of environmental licensing drags allows a more efficient process to hydroelectric power plants implantation, which generates more consistent and faster results. (author)

  17. Licenciamento Ambiental e ampliação da cidadania: o Caso da Hidrelétrica de Tijuco Alto [Environmental Licensing and citizenship increasing: the Tijuco Alto Hydroelectric case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Roberto Jacobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma reflexão sobre as práticas sociais em torno de um conflito ambiental. Busca-se identificar e analisar o contexto das conflituosas relações entre o movimento social e populações atingidas de um lado; e IBAMA (Estado, e CBA/CNEC (Empreendedor do outro, durante o longo processo de licenciamento ambiental do aproveitamento de Tijuco Alto no Estado de São Paulo. O texto se apóia em pesquisas empírica e documental e tem na noção da mudança estrutural da esfera pública de Habermas sua base conceitual da reflexão. A hipótese do estudo é que a democratização traz à cena novos atores sociais portadores de novas demandas, e que a ampliação dos espaços de participação social não foi acompanhada pelo processo de licenciamento ambiental. Um descompasso que se observa entre a experiência desses atores sociais nos espaços de participação política com caráter deliberativo, em muitos deles, com a experiência vivenciada nos processos de licenciamento ambiental. --- Environmental Licensing and citizenship increasing: the Tijuco Alto Hydroelectric case --- Abstract --- This article presents a reflection on social practices around an environmental conflict. It searches to identify and to describe the context of conflicting relations between social movement representing affected people on one side, and state-owned IBAMA (which stands for Brazilian Environment Institute and CBA/NEC (private stakeholders on the other, along the enduring environmental licensing process of the use of Tijuco Alto – SP hydroelectric potential. The writing is based on empirical and documental researches and has as theoretical concept the notion of Habermas’ public sector structural changes. Our hypothesis is that democratization brings to light new social actors with new demands and that the licensing processes did not keep up with the increase of the social participation turns. A gap is seen between the experience of these social

  18. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  19. Libraries and licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Žumer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 90s, the abundance of various electronic publications exposed libraries to the problems of licensing electronic content. Various licensing principles have been prepared recently to help libraries in the process; it can be said that in general, the knowledge of licensing issues has improved in libraries of all types. Libraries form consortia in order to gain stronger negotiating positions and obtain better conditions.In the article, new licensing principles are presented in more detail, as well as some domestic and foreign experiences with consortia forming.

  20. Environmental Impact Analysis Process Chemical Release Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force proposes to conduct an experiment to identify the potential environmental consequences of an inadvertent release of hydrazine rocket propellant in space, during orbital or suborbital operations...

  1. Final environmental statement concerning rule making. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60. Docket No. PRM 30-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts and adverse environmental effects from distribution, use only in commercial-sized oil burners, and disposal of 6000 spark-gap irradiators per year that contain 60 Co are summarized. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this statement and after weighing the environmental, economic, technical, and other benefits against environmental costs and after considering available alternatives, it is concluded that the action called for under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 is the issuance of an exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain 60 Co, subject to the following conditions for the protection of the environment: persons who apply 60 Co to, or persons who incorporate 60 Co into, spark-gap irradiators or persons who import for sale or distribution spark-gap irradiators containing 60 Co are not exempt from the requirements for a license; each spark-gap irradiator shall contain no more than 1 μCi of 60 Co; and the 60 Co shall be applied to the spark-gap irradiators for use in electrically ignited fuel-oil burners having a firing rate of at least 3 gal/h

  2. Aspectos do licenciamento ambiental da carcinicultura na APA do Delta do Parnaíba Aspects of environmental licensing for carciniculture in EPA of the Delta of Parnaíba River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Gondim de Alencar Araripe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como foco uma análise do valor do licenciamento ambiental da carcinicultura na APA do Delta do Parnaíba. Realizou-se visitas técnicas a todos empreendimentos instalados até o primeiro semestre de 2004, levantou-se a legislação pertinente, avaliou-se estudos ambientais e relatórios de vistorias técnicas realizadas pelo IBAMA. Concluiu-se que o enquadramento feito pelo IBAMA no processo de licenciamento do que seja área de preservação permanente (APP no manguezal é o ponto crítico para a atividade de carcinicultura.The present research examines the environmental matter in the Environmental Protection Area (EPA of the Delta of the Parnaíba River, focusing on the ambient licensing value. Technical visits to all companies installed in the area until the first semester of 2004 and non-structured interviews were carried out; the existing legislation was raised; and the environmental studies and reports of technical inspections performed by IBAMA were evaluated. The conclusion was that the adjustment made by IBAMA in the ambient licensing process of what is an Area of Permanent Preservation (APP in the mangrove is the critical point to the carciniculture activity.

  3. The Swedish radiological environmental protection regulations applied in a review of a license application for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pål; Stark, Karolina; Xu, Shulan; Nordén, Maria; Dverstorp, Björn

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences. SKB's environmental risk assessment uses the freely available ERICA Tool. Environmental media activity concentrations needed as input to the tool are calculated by means of complex biosphere modelling based on site-specific information gathered from site investigations, as well as from supporting modelling studies and projections of future biosphere conditions in response to climate change and land rise due to glacial rebound. SKB's application is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). In addition to a traditional document review with an aim to determine whether SKB's models are relevant, correctly implemented and adequately parametrized, SSM has performed independent modelling in order to gain confidence in the robustness of SKB's assessment. Thus, SSM has used alternative stylized reference biosphere models to calculate environmental activity concentrations for use in subsequent exposure calculations. Secondly, an alternative dose model (RESRAD-BIOTA) is used to calculate doses to biota that are compared with SKB's calculations with the ERICA tool. SSM's experience from this review is that existing tools for environmental dose assessment are possible to use in order to show compliance with Swedish legislation. However, care is needed when site representative species are assessed with the aim to contrast them to generic reference organism. The alternative modelling of environmental concentrations resulted in much lower

  4. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for license termination of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Final report, main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The action being considered in this Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the final GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, conclusions on radiological criteria for decommissioning were provided. Contained in the GEIS are results and conclusions related to achieving, as an objective of decommissioning ALARA, reduction to preexisting background, the radiological criterion for unrestricted use, decommissioning ALARA analysis for soils and structures containing contamination, restricted use and alternative analysis for special site specific situations, and groundwater cleanup. In its analyses, the final GEIS includes consideration of comments made on the draft GEIS during the public comment period

  5. Expertise and participation of the population in the context of nuclear risk: democracy and environmental licensing of Angra 3 nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the specificity of citizens' "participation" in contexts of decision-making on the acceptance of nuclear risk, demonstrating that such acceptance depends on mediation by professionals who are willing to translate the typical scientific jargon of technical reports and/or produce their own reports, by way of counter-expertise; otherwise, lay people are unable to confer scientific legitimacy to their arguments. The basic empirical references for the current analysis are the recurrent themes from public hearings organized for the licensing of two Brazilian nuclear power plants using German technology, Angra 2 and Angra 3, with emphasis on the latter, now undergoing prior environmental licensing. The forms of "social control" engendered in France serve as a counterpoint for developing the article's argument.

  6. Analytic Hierarchy Process for Personalising Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabassi, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents how a Geographical Information System (GIS) can be incorporated in an intelligent learning software system for environmental matters. The system is called ALGIS and incorporates the GIS in order to present effectively information about the physical and anthropogenic environment of Greece in a more interactive way. The system…

  7. The SLOWPOKE licensing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System (SES-10) is a 10 MW heating reactor that has been developed in Canada. It will be capable of running without a licensed operator in continuous attendance, and will be sited in urban areas. It has forgiving safety characteristics, including transient time-scales of the order of hours. A process called 'up-front' licensing has been evolved in Canada to identify, and resolve, regulatory concerns early in the process. Because of the potential market in Hungary for nuclear district heating, a licensing plan has been developed that incorporates Canadian licensing experience, identifies specific Hungarian requirements, and reduces the risk of licensing delays by seeking agreement of all parties at an early stage in the program. (orig.)

  8. The SLOWPOKE licensing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Takats, F.; Szivos, K.

    1989-08-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System (SES-10) is a 10 MW heating reactor that has been developed in Canada. It will be capable of running without a licensed operator in continuous attendance, and will be sited in urban areas. It has forgiving safety characteristics, including transient time-scales of the order of hours. A process called 'up-front' licensing has been evolved in Canada to identify, and resolve, regulatory concerns early in the process. Because of the potential market in Hungary for nuclear district heating, a licensing plan has been developed that incorporates Canadian licensing experience, identifies specific Hungarian requirements, and reduces the risk of licensing delays by seeking agreement of all parties at an early stage in the program

  9. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  10. Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma Process Improvement Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, Karen S [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-20

    An overview of the Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma improvement project covers LANL’s environmental data processing following receipt from the analytical laboratories. The Six Sigma project identified thirty-three process improvements, many of which focused on cutting costs or reducing the time it took to deliver data to clients.

  11. The dynamics of local processes towards environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    1999-01-01

    The paper explores and discusses the dynamics of local leading towards the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system. processes......The paper explores and discusses the dynamics of local leading towards the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system. processes...

  12. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be licensed to businesses or individuals for further development and sale in the marketplace. These technologies relate to ecological research, human health, and manufacturing.

  13. Oil and gas development in Greenland: A social license to operate, trust and legitimacy in environmental governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.; Leeuwen, van J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, Greenland has been examining the possibilities to develop its potential oil and gas resources. The large scale oil and gas activities will impact the small Greenlandic society, both positively and negatively. In this paper we employ the concept of a social license to

  14. Software Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Nygrýnová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Software Licensing The thesis deals with different practical aspects of commercial software licensing from the perspective of the Czech legal system. The focus is put on software license agreement as the most important legal instrument granting rights of use for computer programs. The thesis opens with a summary of Czech legislation in force in this area in the context of European community law and international law. The legislation in effect is largely governed by the Copyright Act....

  15. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... warehouses. An example of a processed agricultural product is apple juice concentrate. In the past, USDA has... FSA to notify the public and provide the opportunity to comment on agricultural products that are... warehouses. This proposal covers specific processed agricultural products such as apple juice concentrate and...

  16. Membranes for Environmentally Friendly Energy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuezhong; Hägg, May-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Membrane separation systems require no or very little chemicals compared to standard unit operations. They are also easy to scale up, energy efficient, and already widely used in various gas and liquid separation processes. Different types of membranes such as common polymers, microporous organic polymers, fixed-site-carrier membranes, mixed matrix membranes, carbon membranes as well as inorganic membranes have been investigated for CO2 capture/removal and other energy processes in the last two decades. The aim of this work is to review the membrane systems applied in different energy processes, such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel combustion, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, hydrogen production, volatile organic compounds (VOC) recovery and pressure retarded osmosis for power generation. Although different membranes could probably be used in a specific separation process, choosing a suitable membrane material will mainly depend on the membrane permeance and selectivity, process conditions (e.g., operating pressure, temperature) and the impurities in a gas stream (such as SO2, NOx, H2S, etc.). Moreover, process design and the challenges relevant to a membrane system are also being discussed to illustrate the membrane process feasibility for a specific application based on process simulation and economic cost estimation. PMID:24958426

  17. Membranes for Environmentally Friendly Energy Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane separation systems require no or very little chemicals compared to standard unit operations. They are also easy to scale up, energy efficient, and already widely used in various gas and liquid separation processes. Different types of membranes such as common polymers, microporous organic polymers, fixed-site-carrier membranes, mixed matrix membranes, carbon membranes as well as inorganic membranes have been investigated for CO2 capture/removal and other energy processes in the last two decades. The aim of this work is to review the membrane systems applied in different energy processes, such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel combustion, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, hydrogen production, volatile organic compounds (VOC recovery and pressure retarded osmosis for power generation. Although different membranes could probably be used in a specific separation process, choosing a suitable membrane material will mainly depend on the membrane permeance and selectivity, process conditions (e.g., operating pressure, temperature and the impurities in a gas stream (such as SO2, NOx, H2S, etc.. Moreover, process design and the challenges relevant to a membrane system are also being discussed to illustrate the membrane process feasibility for a specific application based on process simulation and economic cost estimation.

  18. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  19. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  20. Managing environmental knowledge through learning processes in Spanish hospitality companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Martinez Martinez, Aurora

    2010-11-01

    The major focus of this research is to investigate whether environmental knowledge has any impact on organizational outcomes through an empirical investigation of 127 Spanish hospitality companies, using structural equation models. Our results show that environmental knowledge is an important determiner for developing organizational outcomes. However, this relationship is completed with just two related constructs: Firstly, the company's acquisition process plays a key role in managing the tension between the knowledge necessary to develop the appropriated environmental initiatives and current knowledge. Secondly, the company's distribution process also sheds light on tangible means for managers to enhance their company's outcomes through environmental knowledge.

  1. Radiopharmaceutical licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent health service legislation, and especially the loss of crown immunity has once again focussed attention on the arrangements for licensing of radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of the article is to describe in general terms the UK licensing system and in particular to provide guidance to those responsible for the supply of radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. (author)

  2. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  3. 76 FR 60941 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... feed as material other than natural uranium ores. Alternate feed can, therefore, be certain wastes... waste would be considered as 11e.(2) byproduct material. To constitute equivalent feed, resin must be... facilities, the wastes associated with processing equivalent feed (i.e., unloaded resin) are considered...

  4. Environmental assessment of the hot-dip galvanization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karkoszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of the hot-dip galvanization, refraining from application of dangerous chemical substances together with the necessity of ensuring the high temperatures, both pose a special threat to the environment. Therefore, the subject of analysis was environmental impact of the hot-dip galvanization process. Here has been done the identification and the assessment of the environmental aspects as well as has been pointed at the key-aspects requiring the special supervision. The developed assessment methodology can be applied by each of the organization wanting to master the processes by minimizing their environmental influence.

  5. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  6. Environmental Modeling Framework using Stacked Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelfatah, Kareem; Bao, Junshu; Terejanu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A network of independently trained Gaussian processes (StackedGP) is introduced to obtain predictions of quantities of interest with quantified uncertainties. The main applications of the StackedGP framework are to integrate different datasets through model composition, enhance predictions of quantities of interest through a cascade of intermediate predictions, and to propagate uncertainties through emulated dynamical systems driven by uncertain forcing variables. By using analytical first an...

  7. 'Culture and memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande/MG Quilombola community' program - case study: environmental licensing progress for the Rio de Janeiro-Belo Horizonte Gas Pipeline (GASBEL II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Environmental Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States); Bartolini, Marcia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The 'Culture and Memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande Quilombola Community' Program was included in the environmental licensing process of the Rio de Janeiro-Minas Gerais gas pipeline ('GASBEL II'), as requested by the Palmares Cultural Foundation (Fundacao Cultural Palmares), which stipulates the elaboration and implementation of this program as a condition for obtaining the installation license. To develop the program and submit it to this institution, we used methodological procedures in the form of an anthropological social research, such as: interviews with the community's older or most active residents, and a preliminary recognition of the territory and the local culture; all in order to learn more about the community's history and current needs and to identify the remaining 'quilombolas' still living in the community. Analyzing the information raised the need for guided actions designed to rescue the community's cultural memory as an ethnic group and to contribute to its process of affirmation as a Traditional Rural 'Quilombola' Community. This led to the creation of the proposed 'Culture and Memory of the Sto. Antonio do Morro Grande Quilombola Community' Program, currently being developed for the Quilombola Community located in Ressaquinha, in the State of Minas Gerais. (author)

  8. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

  9. Sustainable Process Design under uncertainty analysis: targeting environmental indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Gargalo, Carina; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on uncertainty analysis of environmental indicators used to support sustainable process design efforts. To this end, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology is extended with a comprehensive uncertainty analysis to propagate the uncertainties in input LCA data to the environmental...

  10. Biophysical Chemistry of Fractal Structures and Processes in Environmental Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffle, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book aims to provide the scientific community with a novel and valuable approach based on fractal geometry concepts on the important properties and processes of diverse environmental systems. The interpretation of complex environmental systems using modern fractal approaches is compared and

  11. Proposed rulemaking exemption from licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low-enriched uranium. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This environmental statement is concerned with the costs and benefits to be incurred in the exemption from federal (NRC) licensing requirements for smelted alloys containing residual technetium-99 and low enriched uranium at concentrations of 5 ppM and 17.5 ppM, respectively. The contaminated metals considered explicitly in the statement for smelting are the scrap copper, nickel, and iron resulting from the improvement and upgrading of the Department of Energy's gaseous diffusion plants. The environmental impacts considered are primarily the radiological doses derived from the smelted metal by the general public including foundary and fabrication workers. Economic impacts associated with building and operating the facilities to smelt the scrap are also considered. In addition, the energy savings through recycling of these materials back into the commercial marketplace instead of burying them is estimated. The principal alternatives to this proposed action are the sale of surface decontaminated scrap, recycle of decontaminated equipment, burial of contaminated scrap, surface storage of contaminated scrap; and issuance of either a general or specific license for scrap disposal

  12. Final Environmental Statement related to license renewal and power increase for the National Bureau of Standards Reactor: Docket No. 50-184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    This Final Environmental Statement contains an assessment of the environmental impact associated with renewal of Operating License No. TR-5 for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reactor for a period of 20 years at a power level of 20 MW. This reactor is located on the 576-acre NBS site near Gaithersburg in Montgomery County, Maryland, about 20 mi northwest of the center of Washington, DC. The reactor is a high-flux heavy-water-moderated, cooled and reflected test reactor, which first went critical on December 7, 1967. Though the reactor was originally designed for 20-MW operation, it has been operating for 14 years at a maximum authorized power level to 10 MW. Program demand is now great enough to warrant operation at a power level of 20 MW. No additional major changes to the physical plant are required to operate at 20 MW

  13. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  14. General information on licensing process in Bulgaria and disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.

    2003-01-01

    The basic legal framework for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources is given in the report. The authorisation process is described. Actual data for the system of authorisation about SIR during 2002/2003 are given. The planned activities related to RAW management are:commissioning of the complex for treatment, conditioning and storage of RAW in Kozloduy NPP - by the end of 2003; investigation of Gabra site for construction of institutional waste disposal facility - by the end of 2004; implementation of program for reconstruction and modernisation of Novi Han Repository - by the end of 2007; site selection for the national RAW disposal facility - by the end of 2008. The Nuclear Energy Act defines the following future activities: establishment of the State Enterprise 'RAW' in 2004; development of new secondary legislation for safe management of SF and RAW until July 2004; update of the National Strategy for Safe Management of SF and RAW until the end of 2003

  15. Simultaneous environmental and economic process synthesis of Isobutane Alkylation

    OpenAIRE

    García, Norberto; Fernandez-Torres, Maria J.; Caballero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study concerns the optimal design of processes with a view to both maximizing profit and minimizing environmental impacts. This can be achieved by a combination of traditional chemical process design methods, measurements of environmental impacts and advanced mathematical optimization techniques. More to the point, this paper presents a hybrid simulation-multiobjective optimization approach that at once optimizes the production cost and minimizes the associated environm...

  16. Nuclear power plant licensing: opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    On April 20, 1977, the Commission directed that recently completed licensing actions be reviewed by the staff for the purpose of identifying ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of NRC nuclear power plant licensing activities. This report summarizes the results of a study undertaken by an internal ad hoc Study Group established in response to that directive. The Study Group limited its considerations to safety and environmental review activities. The background, scope, assumptions and objectives of the study are discussed. A prime assumption of this study was that improvements in the efficiency should not be permitted to reduce the current quality achieved in the licensing process. This consideration underlies the conclusions and recommendations of the study

  17. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  18. Nuclear facilities licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.J.M. de.

    1978-01-01

    The need for the adoption of a legal and normative system, defining objectives, pescriptions and the process of nuclear licensing and building of nuclear power plants in Brazil is enphasized. General rules for the development of this system are presented. The Brazilian rules on the matter are discussed. A general view of the German legal system for nuclear power plant licensing and the IAEA recommendations on the subject are finally presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  19. The Development of Environmental Conservation Youth Camping Using Environmental Education Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okrit Tee-ngarm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: to make youths camp activities using environmental education process, to study and to compare the knowledge and attitude before and after the camp activities for conserving environment by using the process of environmental education. The sample were 30 youths in Mueng district, Sisaket province. The tools used in the research including activity manual, knowledge test, attitudes test and participation measurement. The data were analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Paired t-test at significant level .05. The result showed that After camp activities for conserving environment by using the process of environmental education, the participats had mean score of knowledge and attitude toward environmental conservation at was higher than before the activities at statistical significantly level .05. And they had participation in youths camp activities for environmental conservation at the most level.

  20. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  2. Flexible licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-01-01

    The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs) to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they ar...

  3. Nuclear licensing in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prah, M.; Spiler, J.; Vojnovic, D.; Pristavec, M.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents the approach to nuclear licensing in Slovenia. The paper describes, the initialization, internal authorization and review process in the Krsko NPP. The overall process includes preparation, internal independent evaluation, the Krsko Operating Committee and the Krsko Safety Committee review and internal approval. In addition, the continuation of the licensing process is discussed which includes independent evaluation by an authorized institution and a regulatory body approval process. This regulatory body approval process includes official hearing of the licensee, communication with the licensee, and final issuance of a license amendment. The internal evaluation, which follows the methodology of US NRC (defined in 10 CFR 50.59 and NUMARC 125) is described. This concept is partially implemented in domestic legislation.(author)

  4. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, Mª Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina

    2017-02-18

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group of countries, known as "Green 7", in the European Union. Environmental criteria is the fourth criterion in importance, but its weight in the global of the process is much lower than other criteria such as price, memory of the construction process and the delivery time. National administrations use environmental criteria more frequently because they have more resources and staff training about environmental issues. Environmental criteria are more used in the tendering of civil projects and works whose budget exceeds ten million euro due to the environmental impact of these kind and/or size of projects.

  5. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green Public Procurement (GPP is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group of countries, known as “Green 7”, in the European Union. Environmental criteria is the fourth criterion in importance, but its weight in the global of the process is much lower than other criteria such as price, memory of the construction process and the delivery time. National administrations use environmental criteria more frequently because they have more resources and staff training about environmental issues. Environmental criteria are more used in the tendering of civil projects and works whose budget exceeds ten million euro due to the environmental impact of these kind and/or size of projects.

  6. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  7. Process benchmarking for improvement of environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celorie, J.A. [CH2M Hill, Corvallis, OR (United States); Selman, J.R.; Larson, N.B. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A process benchmarking study was initiated by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to analyze and improve the department`s environmental assessment and environmental restoration (ER) processes. The purpose of this study was to identify specific differences in the processes and implementation procedures used at comparable remediation sites to determine best practices which had the greatest potential to minimize the cost and time required to conduct remedial investigation/ feasibility study (RI/FS) activities. Technical criteria were identified and used to select four DOE, two Department of Defense (DOD), and two Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restoration sites that exhibited comparable characteristics and regulatory environments. By comparing the process elements and activities executed at the different sites for similar endpoints, best practices were identified for streamlining process elements and minimizing non-value-added activities. Critical measures that influenced process performance were identified and characterized for the sites. This benchmarking study focused on two processes and the internal/external review of documents and the development of the initial evaluation and data collection plan (IEDCP)--since these had a great potential for savings, a high impact on other processes, and a high probability for implementation.

  8. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  9. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...in their decision-making process. The President’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has issued regulations to implement NEPA that include...Order (EO) 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, was issued by the President on

  10. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  11. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  12. Environmental assessment for renewal of special nuclear material, License No. SUB-1010 (Docket No. 40-8027)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of the license necessary for continued operation of the SFC production plant at Gore, Oklahoma. The plant has been in operation with authority to use source material for the production of UF 6 since February 1970. In addition to facilities for production of UF 6 the site also includes: (1) a storage area for drums of uranium ore concentrates received from uranium mills, (2) a uranium sampling facility, (3) bulk storage of hazardous chemicals such as hydrofluoric (HF), nitric (HNO 3 ), and sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) acids and tributyl phosphate-hexane solvent, (4) a facility for electrolytic production of fluorine from HF, (5) separate treatment systems and storage ponds for radiological and nonradiological liquid wastes, and (6) a program for disposal of raffinate from a solvent extraction system in the UF 6 production as fertilizer on land owned by SFC. 13 figs., 30 tabs

  13. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  14. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti

    2016-01-01

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  15. Environmental criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, María-Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain g...

  16. Environmental Criteria in the Spanish Public Works Procurement Process

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues; Mª Carmen González-Cruz; Cristina González-Gaya

    2017-01-01

    Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group ...

  17. Predictive Model for Environmental Assessment in Additive Manufacturing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bourhis , Florent; Kerbrat , Olivier; Dembinski , Lucas; Hascoët , Jean-Yves; Mognol , Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Additive Manufacturing is an innovative way to produce parts. However its environmental impact is unknown. To ensure the development of additive manufacturing processes it seems important to develop the concept of DFSAM (Design for Sustainable Additive Manufacturing). In fact, one of the objectives of environmental sustainable manufacturing is to minimize the whole flux consumption (electricity, material and fluids) during manufacturing step. To achieve this goal, it i...

  18. Evaluation of Terminated Nuclear Material Licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.M.; Zeighami, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-year project that reviewed material licenses that had been terminated during the period from inception of licensing until approximately late-1994. The material licenses covered in the review project were Part 30, byproduct material licenses; Part 40, source material licenses; and Part 70, special nuclear material licenses. This report describes the methodology developed for the project, summarizes the findings of the license file inventory process, and describes the findings of the reviews or evaluations of the license files. The evaluation identified nuclear material use sites that need review of the licensing material or more direct follow-up of some type. The review process also identified licenses authorized to possess sealed sources for which there was incomplete or missing documentation of the fate of the sources

  19. Early environmental planning: A process for power line corridor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, T.; Bare, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted an environmental planning study in the fall of 1997 to help determine the best alternative for upgrading the Laboratory's electrical power system. Alternatives considered included an on-site power generation facility and two corridors for a 10-mile-long 115-kV power line. This planning process was conducted prior to the formal National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review. The goals were to help select the best proposed action, to recommend modifications and mitigation measures for each alternative for a more environmentally sound project, and to avoid potential delays once the formal Department of Energy review process began. Significant constraints existed from a planning perspective, including operational issues such as existing outdoor high explosives testing areas, as well as environmental issues including threatened and endangered species habitats, multiple archeological sites, contaminated areas, and aesthetics. The study had to be completed within 45 days to meet project schedule needs. The process resulted in a number of important recommendations. While the construction and operation of the on-site power generation facility could have minimal environmental impacts, the need for a new air quality permit would create severe cost and schedule constraints for the project. From an environmental perspective, construction and operation of a power line within either corridor was concluded to be a viable alternative. However, impacts with either corridor would have to be reduced through specific recommended alignment modifications and mitigation measures

  20. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  1. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to miscellaneous areas of environmental experties and invention that are available for licensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be...

  2. The environmental accountability of efficiency evaluation of processing technogenic formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeyevna Bryantseva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers environmental and economic aspects of inclusion of man-made iron and steel resources. Theoretical approaches to the concept of damage from environmental pollution caused by activities of metallurgical enterprises are investigated, in particular, the problem of disposal. The importance of categories of damage in the development of economic instruments to address environmental problems of industrial waste storage is emphasized. The total damage from pollution is regarded as a synergistic set of economic and environmental damage. Thus, the basic criterion in determining the economic damage appears to be the cost of resources needed to compensate for the damage to the environment - the time required for self-healing of the system. The possibilities of using waste steel from electric melting production as feedstock for the production of zinc are discussed. An assessment of the effectiveness of the investment project to engage in the processing of industrial wastes in Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant is made. The high efficiency of commercial and financial viability of the proposed technology for processing zinc-containing industrial wastes is shown. Calculations are performed to assess the damage avoided as a result of the processing of man-made structures, which is composed of damage prevention and land degradation and damage from pollution by chemicals. It is shown that cost-effective processing of man-made iron and steel resources is essential to address environmental problems of the metallurgical complex.

  3. Systems engineering and the licensing of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesa, T., E-mail: tkulesa@us.ibm.com [IBM, Philidelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Soderholm, K., E-mail: Kristiina.Soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Fechtelkotter, P., E-mail: pfech@us.ibm.com [IBM, Boston, Massacheusets (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Both global warming and the need for dependable sources of energy continue to make nuclear power generation an appealing option. But a history of cost overruns, project delays, and environmental disaster has pushed the industry to innovate and design a more flexible, scalable, and safe source of nuclear energy - the small modular reactor. Innovation in generation technology creates disruption in already complex licensing and regulatory processes. This paper discusses how the application of systems engineering and requirements management can help combat confusion, rework, and efficiency problems across the engineering and compliance life cycle. The paper is based on the PhD Dissertation 'Licensing Model Development for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) - Focusing on Finnish Regulatory Framework', approved in 2013. The result of the study gives recommendations and tools to develop and optimize the licensing process for SMRs. The most important SMR-specific feature, in terms of licensing, is the modularity of the design. Here the modularity indicates multi-module SMR designs, which creates new challenges in the licensing process. Another feature impacting licensing feasibility is the plan to build many standardized power plants in series and use factory-fabricated modules to optimize the construction costs. SMR licensing challenges are under discussion in many international forums, such as World Nuclear Association Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing Small Modular Reactor group (WNA CORDEL SMR) group and IAEA INPRO regulators' forum. This paper also presents an application of the new licensing process using Systems Engineering, Requirements Management, and Project Management practices and tools. (author)

  4. Special feature of the facilities for final disposal of radioactive waste and its potential impact on the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Gonzales, Horacio M.; Medici, Marcela A.; Alvarez, Daniela E.; Biaggio, Alfredo L.

    2009-01-01

    During the lifetime of a radioactive waste disposal facility it is possible to identify five stages: design, construction, operation, closure and post-closure. While the design, and pre-operation stages are, to some extent, similar to other kind of nuclear or radioactive facilities; construction, operation, closure and post-closure have quite special meanings in the case of radioactive waste disposal systems. For instance, the 'closure' stage of a final disposal facility seems to be equivalent to the commissioning stage of a conventional nuclear or radioactive facility. This paper describes the unique characteristics of these stages of final disposal systems, that lead to concluded that their licensing procedure can not be assimilated to the standard licensing procedures in use for other nuclear or radioactive facilities, making it necessary to develop a tailored license system. (author)

  5. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Tom; Watson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved

  6. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of high level Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing processes in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their different licensing processes and recent actions in new NPP construction. After discussing their similarities and differences, suitable features for Small Modular Reactor licensing can be emphasized and suggested. Some of the studied licensing processes have elements that are already quite well suited for application to SMRs, but all of these different national processes can benefit from studying and implementing lessons learned from SMR specific licensing needs. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are standardization of the design, modularity, mass production and serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single unit facility constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g., construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second is a facility structure composed of many reactor modules where modules are manufactured in factories and installed into the facility as needed (e.g., NuScale Power SMR design). Short construction schedules will not be fully benefited from if the long licensing process prolongs the commissioning and approach to full-power operation. The focus area of this study is to better understand the possibility of SMR deployment in small nuclear countries, such as Finland, which currently has four operating NPPs. The licensing process needs to be simple and clear to make SMR deployment feasible from an economical point of view. This paper uses public information and interviews with experts to establish the overview of the different licensing processes and their main steps. A high-level comparison of the licensing steps has been carried out. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and certain

  7. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderholm, K., E-mail: kristiina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of high level Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing processes in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their different licensing processes and recent actions in new NPP construction. After discussing their similarities and differences, suitable features for Small Modular Reactor licensing can be emphasized and suggested. Some of the studied licensing processes have elements that are already quite well suited for application to SMRs, but all of these different national processes can benefit from studying and implementing lessons learned from SMR specific licensing needs. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are standardization of the design, modularity, mass production and serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single unit facility constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g., construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second is a facility structure composed of many reactor modules where modules are manufactured in factories and installed into the facility as needed (e.g., NuScale Power SMR design). Short construction schedules will not be fully benefited from if the long licensing process prolongs the commissioning and approach to full-power operation. The focus area of this study is to better understand the possibility of SMR deployment in small nuclear countries, such as Finland, which currently has four operating NPPs. The licensing process needs to be simple and clear to make SMR deployment feasible from an economical point of view. This paper uses public information and interviews with experts to establish the overview of the different licensing processes and their main steps. A high-level comparison of the licensing steps has been carried out. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and certain

  8. DEEP ECOLOGY: THE AWAKENING PROCESS TO A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing the contemporary environmental crisis, the environmental education emerges as a tool for coping and minimizing the impacts of human civilization on natural resources. So, in most of the works, what is observed is the predominance of environmental thinking, often devoid of ecosystem vision. The speech is limited to the need of preserving resources related to a distorted and uncritical development. Little attention is given to the dimensions of sustainability, the environment being treated as a part of the individual, mere outer portion of the human body. This perspective demonstrates the fragility of this speech to an effective awareness by revealing the disorder of the actions that occur within a deterministic ecological process, with little attention to the educational sphere, related to cognitive, ethical and cultural factors. Within these aspects, Complex Environmental Education suggests self-knowledge, awareness and environmental action in pursuit of the development that considers the integral quality of life, rather than the economic variable. In this sense, the deep ecology booster acts as an agent in the process of awakening to environmental education that is self-sustainability and so complex, because it helps the human perception on the integrative and dependent view of all beings, unifying them for the life.

  9. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  10. The Center for Environmental Technology Innovative Technology Screening Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, C.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Center for Environmental Technology's (CET) mission is to provide a fully integrated system for accelerated evaluation, development, commercialization, and public acceptance of creative environmental solutions which match the foremost demands in today's environmentally sensitive world. In short, CET will create a means to provide quick, effective solutions for environmental needs. To meet this mission objective, CET has created a unique and innovative approach to eliminating the usual barriers in developing and testing environmental technologies. The approach paves the way for these emerging, cutting-edge technologies by coordinating environmental restoration and waste management activities of industry, universities, and the government to: efficiently and effectively transfer technology to these users, provide market-driven, cost-effective technology programs to the public and DOE, and aid in developing innovative ideas by initiating efforts between DOE facilities and private industry. The central part to this mission is selecting and evaluating specific innovative technologies for demonstration and application at United States Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The methodology and criteria used for this selection, which is called the CET Innovative Technology Screening Process, is the subject of this paper. The selection criteria used for the screening process were modeled after other DOE technology transfer programs and were further developed by CET's Technology Screening and Evaluation Board (TSEB). The process benefits both CET and the proposing vendors by providing objective selection procedures based on predefined criteria. The selection process ensures a rapid response to proposing vendors, all technologies will have the opportunity to enter the selection process, and all technologies are evaluated on the same scale and with identical criteria

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  13. Data Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This talk is intended to help workshop participants decide how to apply a licence to their research data, and which licence would be most suitable. It covers why licensing data is important, the impact licences have on future research, and the potential pitfalls to avoid.

  14. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Amendment No. 4 of the application for licensing the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant is presented. Information is included on: the quantity and characteristics of nuclear fuel assemblies which can be received and stored; specifications limiting the outside washdown of contaminated casks received for unloading; and definition of environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  15. 78 FR 48158 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9843-9] Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... the invention described and claimed in the U.S. patent entitled PROCESS FOR THE BIODEGRADATION OF..., filed as U.S. serial number 10/395,893 on March 25, 2003 and issued as U.S. Patent 7,252,986 on August 7...

  16. How Is Environmental Proactivity Accomplished? Drivers and Barriers in Firms’ Pro-Environmental Change Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Valero-Gil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The contaminating effects of economic activity and the scarcity of natural resources has led firms to a situation in which corporate strategy has been compromised by environmental issues. The objective of this paper is to analyse some of the factors determining the pro-environmental change process by considering the drivers encouraging firms to progress in environmental protection and the barriers that curb this progress. Using a structural equation model implemented on a sample of 303 firms, our results confirm a direct and positive effect of stakeholder pressure and of the expectations of obtaining competitive advantages from the pro-environmental change process. The results also confirmed the indirect effect of stakeholder pressure on pro-environmental change through managers’ expectations of obtaining competitive advantages, which play a mediating role in the firm’s response. Although managers interpret the barriers we have studied as obstacles to adopting environmental protection measures, they do not prevent any firm from reaching advanced levels of pro-environmental change.

  17. Environmental assessment for sustainable development: process, actors and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.; Delisle, C.E.; Reveret, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple environmental problems afflict our contemporary world and have been the subject of discussions during many international meetings. All declarations resulting from these meetings insist on including environmental problems and on environmental assessment (EA) as an important tool to achieve this. This book aims to reach three objectives. First, it introduces EA to people from different disciplines, and therefore it opens up the perspective of new disciplinary horizons. Second, the authors discuss EA as a socio-political process rather than emphasizing methodologies. Third, this book draws mainly on the experience in Francophone countries which is still poorly disseminated. This book focusses on process and actors. Thus, the subject matter is divided into five major parts: the history and major issues of EA from a sustainable development perspective (Chapters 1 to 3); the actors, i.e. the Project Proponent and consulting firms, the public, the decision maker and international actors (Chapters 4 to 7); methods and tools including public participation (Chapters 8 and 9); processes in practice through step by step processes in practice and case studies (Chapters 10 and 11); and, finally, recent and upcoming developments in EA, including elements of strategic environmental assessment (Chapters 12 and 13). An index facilitates searching for information. The reader is also invited to consult the book's website

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility staged operations: environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Environmental information is presented relating to a staged version of the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The information is intended to provide the basis for an Environmental Impact Statement. In either the integral or the staged design, the DWPF will convert the high-level waste currently stored in tanks into: a leach-resistant form containing about 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residual, slightly contaminated salt, which is disposed of as saltcrete. In the first stage of the staged version, the insoluble sludge portion of the waste and the long lived radionuclides contained therein will be vitrified. The waste glass will be sealed in canisters and stored onsite until shipped to a Federal repository. In the second stage, the supernate portion of the waste will be decontaminated by ion exchange. The recovered radionuclides will be transferred to the Stage 1 facility, and mixed with the sludge feed before vitrification. The residual, slightly contaminated salt solution will be mixed with Portland cement to form a concrete product (saltcrete) which will be buried onsite in an engineered landfill. This document describes the conceptual facilities and processes for producing glass waste and decontaminated salt. The environmental effects of facility construction, normal operations, and accidents are then presented. Descriptions of site and environs, alternative sites and waste disposal options, and environmental consultations and permits are given in the base Environmental Information Document

  19. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    environmental processes has been developed. Based on past 3 decades of research on microbial dye detoxification, the current state of knowledge has been analyzed, environmental relevance of these studies was ascertained, research gaps in microbe-mediated azo dye detoxification have been identified and a research framework emphasizing a better understanding of complex interactions between dye-microbe and environmental processes has been proposed. It provides directions for undertaking environmentally sound microbial dye detoxification research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Progress of electron processing system useful for environmental preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yasuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Electron Processing has been used in the field of industrial application, mainly to process plastics or polymers, which is represented by the cross-linking of Polyethylene to improve heat resistance. On the other hand, there has been many research studies to use Electron Beam for an environmental preservation. Typical examples are Sterilization of Food, Flue Gas Treatment, Sterilization of Waste Water Sludge, Purification of Water, Removal of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), etc. These research works have been done in the USA, Germany, Austria, Japan, etc. They reported some of the features of electron beam method. In addition, there is an unique report that the combination of Ozone and Electron Beam provides a better efficiency of the purification of the water. Recently, they have started the investigation for the practical use of Electron Beam in the environmental application. Flue gas treatment is a remarkable example of the investigation. They built the demonstration plant last year and they started the operation last fall. Presently, the system is in a demonstrative operation. This paper will report an outline of the R and D works of environmental applications of Electron Beam and also will introduce the latest technologies of Electron Processing Systems which will be available for the environmental preservation. (author)

  1. Lessons learned from the licensing process and the operational performance of the important to safety digital application implemented at the Mexican nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma-Carrion, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the main concerns detected during the licensing processes performed by the Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNSNS) for the NUMAC-PRNM, the Integrated Computer Systems at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station (LVNPS) and for the Digital Control Console of the Triga Mark III Research Reactor (TMRR). The review and approval process was performed following the guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC); the regulatory frame applied includes the Code of Federal Regulation (10CFR50), some Regulatory Guides, such as: RG 1.152, RG 1.153, some Industrial Standards, for example: IEEE-279, IEEE-603, IEEE-7.4.3-2. Also, based on the operational experience taken from the LVNPS License Event Report (LER) reported under the 10CFR50.72 and 10CFR50.73 USNRC rules, and from the Report of Events to be Analyzed (REA) issued for a CNSNS agreement with the utility stated by the necessity to determine failure rates of digital equipment, some case studies and a preliminary failure cause classification is shown. The Event Report evaluation covered topics related to the software, hardware and firmware issues. Finally, the lessons learned from the licensing assessments and from the operational experience of the digital applications implemented are presented. It will also give the regulatory activities related to an IAEA international cooperation project on I and C digital upgrade concerns. (author)

  2. Application of up-front licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S.D.; Snell, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    AECL has been pioneering 'up-front' licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  4. 77 FR 59921 - Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assets & Licensing, Integrys Business Support, LLC, 700 North Adams Street, P.O. Box 19001, Green... view the projects' facilities and surrounding areas. Under the Commission's Integrated Licensing... Commission's Integrated Licensing Process may be directed to Lee Emery of the Commission's staff at (202) 502...

  5. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  6. Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  7. The Canadian environmental assessment process: current process, expected reforms, and implications for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order (EARP) was the Canadian federal law governing environmental assessment of projects. EARP had been subject to misinterpretation, had been significantly modified in different directions as a result of numerous court cases, and no longer accurately reflected government policy. Parliament therefore passed the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), which received Royal Assent in 1992, but had still not been proclaimed at the time of the conference, pending a review of draft regulations. CEAA will speed up stalled projects, particularly in the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry, by removing uncertainty and by permitting more focussed, flexible, and consistent public reviews; it defines what kind of government projects require approval; it provides for integration of environmental concerns into federal decision making, e.g. by the AECB; it will allow less expensive and more timely environmental assessments

  8. A real-time material control concept for safeguarding special nuclear material in United States licensed processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes general safeguards research being undertaken by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Efforts to improve the ability of United States licensed plants to contend with the perceived threat of covert material theft are emphasized. The framework for this improvement is to break down the internal control and accounting system into subsystems to achieve material isolation, inventory control, inventory characterization, and inventory containment analysis. A general programme is outlined to develop and evaluate appropriate mechanisms, integrate selected mechanisms into subsystems, and evaluate the subsystems in the context of policy requirements. (author)

  9. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  10. Products and Processes Innovation from the Perspective of Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Theis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the present scenario of globalization of the economy, the dynamics of the market determines the speed of change in business models, environmental aspects can contribute to the design of technological innovations. Given this perception, the general objective of this research was to investigate how industrial organizations in the metal-mechanic sector, located in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos region, reconcile the product innovation activities and processes, with the structuring principles of environmental management. This economic segment is characterized as one that has the highest rates of innovation and greater investment in research and development. Data were collected through a survey research with managers of 159 companies of the analysis unit. Evidence collected provided the realization that innovations tend to be adjustments made to the legal provisions that require the mitigation of environmental impacts in the production process, especially in reducing pollution and using less toxic assets, which does not generate sufficient stimulus to the development of new products.

  11. An environmentally benign plutonium processing future at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has elevated environmental restoration and waste management to major mission areas, and it has established the reduction of wastes from DOE facilities as a major objective. The DOE facilities must now comply with all environmental regulations, including special regulations required of federal facilities. In recognition of this shift in philosophy, the plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has adopted the goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste. Becoming a facility with zero radionuclide and mixed-waste discharge is an extremely challenging goal and one that requires the technical contributions of a multidisciplinary team of experts. While all the technologies necessary to achieve this goal are not yet available, an extensive knowledge base does exist that can be applied to solving the remaining problems. Working toward this goal is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for LANL, but for the nuclear complex of the future

  12. Evaluation process of global environmental impact: assessment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In developed and developing countries, the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) is becoming mandatory for the approval of Industrial projects and projects of Environmental hazards. The approving authority of each country has its own guidelines to get projects approved and make project proponents responsible to submit Environmental Impact Statement for the its detailed assessment. In this paper authors have studied an existing EIA Global guidelines and its evaluation process of altogether 40 countries from four continents, Asia, Pacific/Middle East, Europe, Australia and America/Canada. This evaluation process is recorded in the tabulation form and it has been formulated stage wise in which stage one highlights the inception of EIA guidelines of each country and stage two and three gives implementation process. The inception stage of guidelines gives an idea that when EIA was started and an implementation stages provide all information that when EIA become a part of legislation that provide an opportunity to the reader to understand the decision making process for project approvals. The main objective of writing EIA guidelines is to monitor the sustain ability of various types of the projects under different sectoral guidelines, therefore Projects related with different Sectors have been chosen and a detailed record in tabulation form gives an idea to understand the interaction of these guidelines. To make this paper more comprehensive, authors have gone thorough the sectoral guidelines of altogether 64 countries and studied 21 sector oriented project fields. These are of Agriculture/Irrigation, Biodiversity, Coastal/Marine, Community Participation, Extractive industries, Fisheries, Forestry, Hazard Risk, Health, Human settlement, Industry, Multi sectorial, Ports and Harbors, Power, refugees/resettlement, Social, Strategies/Planning, Tourism/Recreational, transportation, Waste Pollution and Wetlands/Water resources. (author)

  13. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreldin, A.A.

    2008-10-01

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  14. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  15. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for the electrokinetic phenomena is described. Numerical simulations of different applications of electrokinetic techniques to the fields of civil and environmental engineering are included, showing the versatility and consistency of the model. The electrokinetics phenomena c...... to hinder the acid penetration; and an acid-enhanced electrokinetic soil remediation process, where the basic front is neutralized in order to avoid the precipitation of hydroxides of the target heavy metal....... the porous materials undergoes an electroosmotic flow subject to externally applied electric fields. Electroosmotic transport makes electrokinetic techniques suitable for the mobilization of non-charged particles within the pore structure, such as the organic contaminants in soil. Chemical equilibrium...

  16. Aquatic environmental risk assessment of manganese processing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Becky; Peters, Adam; McGough, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) has been conducted for sites producing and processing manganese and its inorganic compounds, focussing on potential risks to freshwater. A site specific questionnaire was used to collect information. Sites fall into three broad categories: mining sites, refining sites, and sites producing chemicals and pigments. Waste disposal is principally carried out by the treatment of liquid wastes to separate solids for disposal off-site with a consented wastewater discharge, or disposal on-site using evaporation or settlement ponds in order to maintain the waste materials in a suitable manner following site closure. The main source of emissions from refining and alloying sites is from the treatment of emissions to air using wet scrubber air filters. There is also the potential for fugitive environmental emissions of manganese from stockpiles of raw material held on-site. Data provided from the questionnaires were both site-specific and also commercially sensitive. Therefore, this paper has undertaken the manganese exposure assessment, using a probabilistic approach to reflect the distribution of emissions of manganese and also to maintain the confidentiality of site specific data. An inverse correlation was observed between the total annual tonnage of manganese processed at the site and the emission factor, such that sites processing larger quantities resulted in lower emissions of manganese per tonne processed. The hazard assessment determined a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for freshwater using a species sensitivity distribution approach, resulting in a freshwater PNEC of 0.075mgL -1 for soluble manganese. Based on the exposure data and the freshwater PNEC derived for this study, the distributions of risk characterisation ratios using the probabilistic approach indicates that two thirds of manganese processing sites would not be expected to pose a potential risk to the local aquatic environment due to wastewater emissions

  17. Evaluation of British Columbia's environmental assessment process : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, B.

    1997-11-01

    An independent and impartial review of the experience in implementing British Columbia's Environmental Assessment (EA) process was presented. B.C.'s EA Act was established on June 30, 1995. The Act was designed to evaluate major development proposals such as oil and gas projects, mine projects and highway projects. A commitment was made at that time to examine the process at an early stage to determine how well it was working. This is the final report of that evaluation. The report was based on a survey questionnaire and consultations with stakeholders and participants in the EA process. While a number of 'systemic' 'strategic' or 'specific' issues have been raised by participants, it was generally concluded that B.C.'s EA Act provides for a consistent, vigorous and neutrally-administered review process for all major development proposals. Recommendations were made on how the EA process might be improved and strengthened. Participation by First Nations representatives on project committees was also reviewed. 6 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental

  19. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  20. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO 2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO 2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  1. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Governmental Entities Regarding Environmental Portion of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding February 24... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of... environmental impact statement (FEIS) analyzing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related...

  2. Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC's acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information

  3. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    According to information collected by United Nations. Environmental Programme (UNEP), EIA provisions now exist in the framework environmental legislation of 55 developing countries (Hartley and Wood, 2005). Public participation in environmental impact assessment— implementing the Aarhus Convention.

  4. Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Garry; Miller, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory process for new power plant licensing in Canada, from receipt of the initial application to commercial operation, can be divided into three phases: - Environmental Assessment (EA) and License to Prepare Site; - License to Construct; and - License to Operate. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) does not have provisions for combined licenses for site preparation, construction, or operation. Separate licenses must, therefore, be granted for each phase, and would be issued in sequence. However, applications to prepare a site, to construct and to operate a new nuclear power plant could be assessed in parallel. The total duration from the application for the License to Prepare Site to the issuance of the License to Operate (which is a prerequisite for first fuel load) has been established as 9 years subject to certain factors. To help facilitate this timeline, the CNSC has undertaken an aggressive program of documenting regulatory practices, requirements and guidance to assist applicants in submitting complete applications. Working level procedures to assist CNSC staff in their review of submissions are also under development. Extensive program and project management has been introduced to ensure that timelines will be achieved. In parallel with the above activities, regulatory oversight measures to be employed during site preparation activities and plant construction and commissioning are also being developed. On the international front, the CNSC is participating in the MDEP program to leverage the resources and knowledge of other national regulatory authorities in reviews the CNSC is undertaking. The CNSC also participates in IAEA and other international activities to utilize/adapt international practices as appropriate in Canada. (authors)

  5. SSM's licensing review of a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorpand, Bjoern; Stroemberg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    On 16 March 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted license applications for a general license to construct, possess and operate a KBS-3 type spent nuclear fuel repository at the Forsmark site, in Oesthammar municipality, and an encapsulation plant in Oskarshamn municipality. The KBS-3 method, which has been developed by SKB over a period of more than 30 years, entails disposing of the spent fuel in copper canisters, surrounded by a swelling bentonite clay, at about 500 m depth in crystalline basement rock. SKB's applications are being evaluated in parallel by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) according to the Act on Nuclear Activities and by the Land and Environmental Court according to the Environmental Code. During the review SSM will act as an expert review body to the Land and Environmental Court in the areas of radiation protection, safety and security/non-proliferation. Both SSM and the court will produce a statement with a recommendation regarding a licensing decision and licensing conditions to the government. The government will make the final decision after consulting the municipalities concerned by SKB's facilities (municipal veto applies). The current licensing decision is just one of several licensing decisions that will be required for the repository. However it is arguably the most important one, because it is the last licensing stage with a broad societal involvement including an environmental impact assessment (EIA) process, national consultations and municipal veto for the concerned municipalities. The licensing steps to follow, should SKB be granted a license by the government, only require approval by SSM. These steps include application for start of actual construction work, test operation and routine operation. (authors)

  6. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. License Agreements concerning trademarks

    OpenAIRE

    Dráb, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with license agreements in relation to trademarks, specially the trademark license agreement. The thesis contains in its theoretical interpretation of the concept and sources of the license agreement. There are also analyzed various types of license agreements, including modifying the license agreement in the new Civil Code, and related types of contracts as a franchising or merchandising. Another interpretation is more concerned with trademark and trademark license agreement...

  8. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-07-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  9. “Terms and conditions of use” for journal articles and scholarly journals : A survey on the licensing processes associated with electronic scholarly materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Masako

    Copyright policies and terms directly affect the approach taken by journal editors, authors and readers regarding dealing with of articles and/or copyrighted materials. However Japanese academic society publishers have some trouble in licensing processes for copyrighted materials as previous studies pointed out. In 2011 we conducted a survey on “terms and conditions of use” of electronic journal and the licensing practices associated with electronic scholarly materials. The survey showed commercial publishers have enough announcements on reuse of copyrighted materials for readers. On the other hand Japanese academic societies' cares for readers tend to not enough. They publish journals both in Japanese and in English. Subsequently, English and Japanese templates of “terms and conditions of use” for Japanese academic society publishers were proposed. The templates were developed based on an understanding of the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers' “STM Permissions Guidelines,” which were designed to establish a standard and reasonable approach to granting permission for republication to all signatory publishers.The survey showed that Japanese academic society publishers and commercial publishers are facing the same issues regarding acceptable use of electronic supplemental materials for journal articles. This issue remains to be solved.

  10. 2015 Business Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data displays all business license information for the year of 2015. This information details license classifications and status. This information will updated...

  11. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  12. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  13. INCORPORATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO PROCESS DESIGN: THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WASR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory integrates environmental impact assessment into chemical process design Potential en...

  14. Data Processing and Programming Applied to an Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Palacios, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is the original research work presented for the attainment of the author master degree and its main objective has been the resolution -by means of friendly programming- of some of the observed problems in the environmental radioactivity laboratory belonging to the Department of Radiological Surveillance and Environmental Radioactivity from CIEMAT. The software has been developed in Visual Basic for applications in Excel files and it solves by macro orders three of the detected problems: a) calculation of characteristic limits for the measurements of the beta total and beta rest activity concentrations according to standards MARLAP, ISO and UNE and the comparison of the three results b) Pb-210 and Po-210 decontamination factor determination in the ultra-low level Am-241 analysis in air samples by alpha spectrometry and c) comparison of two analytical techniques for measuring Pb-210 in air ( direct-by gamma spectrometry- and indirect -by radiochemical separation and alpha spectrometry). The organization processes of the different excel files implied in the subroutines, calculations and required formulae are explained graphically for its comprehension. The advantage of using this kind of programmes is based on their versatility and the ease for obtaining data that lately are required by tables that can be modified as time goes by and the laboratory gets more data with the special applications for describing a method (Pb-210 decontamination factors for americium analysis in air) or comparing temporal series of Pb-210 data analysed by different methods (Pb-210 in air). (Author)

  15. NUMARC view of license renewal criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and the implementing regulations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) permit the renewal of nuclear plant operating licenses upon expiration of their 40-year license term. However, the regulatory process by which license renewal may be accomplished and the requirements for the scope and content of renewal applications are yet to be established. On August 29, 1988, the NRC published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding the subject of license renewal. This Advanced Notice and the NUREG which it references, NUREG-1317, Regulatory Options for Nuclear Plant License Renewal, provide the most recent regulatory thought on this issue. The basic issue addressed by NUREG-1317 is the definition of an adequate licensing basis for the renewal of a plant license. The report contemplates three alternatives in this regard. This paper discusses each of these three proposals. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working Group endorses a license renewal process based on a plant's current licensing basis along with an evaluation of the pertinent components, systems, and structures affected by age-related degradation. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working group believes that an appropriate scope for NRC review of the license renewal application should focus on those safety-significant structures systems, and components subject to significant age-related degradation that are not subject to existing recognized effective replacement, refurbishment, or inspection programs. The paper also briefly discusses NUMARC's view of the role of the Backfit Rule in the license renewal process

  16. Environmental aspects of the production process of ceramic tiles (wet process), with emphasis in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Katia Regina

    2000-01-01

    Present study developed a simplified methodology to evaluate the environmental impacts of the wet process of production of ceramic tiles. In order to subsidize the development of the model of environmental evaluation and to achieve a better understanding of the productive process, there were elaborated matrices in which was correlated the stages of the productive system with the respective types and volumes of residues generated. To these matrices there were related the technical norms of the Brazilian Association of Norms and Techniques (ABNT), which determines the sampling methodologies, characterizations, monitoring and treatment of the solid residues and liquid and gaseous effluents; and the pertinent Federal and State Legislations which dispose on the control of the environmental pollution. The evaluation of the environmental impact model here proposed was developed fram the Interaction Matrix of Leopold and from the Risk Matrix proposed by Moura, in which identified the pollutant effects (critical, significant, reduced, marginal) of the stages of this productive process. The validation of these results was obtained through the accomplishment of analytic assays in the used raw materials and in the residues generated in the productive process. The results of the chemical analyses reinforce that the positive toxicity in the liquid effluent is related with the chemical composition of the synthetic raw material used in the decoration. It was concluded that the solid residues that more damage cause to the environment are those coming from the enamel and dying preparation and application sections. Concomitantly, it was performed a study of characterization of the natural raw materials and of the product, using different techniques as fluorescence X ray, differential thermal analysis with thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X ray diffraction, in order to understand the interactions of the components of the mass of the ceramic body, during the stage of

  17. Energy and environmental analysis of a rapeseed biorefinery conversion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Balzan, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    positive effects on the greenhouse gases (GHG) footprint of the biorefinery system, with improvements in the range of 9 % to 29 %, depending on the considered alternative. The mass and energy balances showed the potential for improvement of straw treatment processes (hydrothermal pre-treatment and dark......The need for biofuels is steadily increasing as a result of political strategies and the need for energy security. Biorefineries have the potential to improve the sustainability of biofuels through further recovery of valuable bioproducts and bioenergy. A life cycle assessment (LCA......)-based environmental assessment of a Danish biorefinery system was carried out to thoroughly analyze and optimize the concept and address future research. The LCA study was based on case-specific mass and energy balances and inventory data, and was conducted using consequential LCA approach to take into account market...

  18. A Framework for Building Efficient Environmental Permitting Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ulibarri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as a tool for protecting air and water quality, and for mitigating impacts to protected species and ecosystems, the environmental permitting process is widely recognized to be inefficient and marked by delays. This article draws on a literature review and interviews with permitting practitioners to identify factors that contribute to delayed permit decisions. The sociopolitical context, projects that are complex or use novel technology, a fragmented and bureaucratic regulatory regime, serial permit applications and reviews, and applicant and permitting agency knowledge and resources each contribute to permitting inefficiency when they foster uncertainty, increase transaction costs, and allow divergent interests to multiply, yet remain unresolved. We then use the interviews to consider the potential of a collaborative dialogue between permitting agencies and applicants to mitigate these challenges, and argue that collaboration is well positioned to lessen permitting inefficiency.

  19. Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swor, Tom; Canter, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: → Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. → EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. → EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. → EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. → EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration

  20. Assessment of the licensing aspects of HTGR in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varazdinec, Z.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals not only with the licensing procedure in Yugoslavia, but also reflects the Utility/Owner approach to the assessment of the licensability of the HTGR during the site selection process and especially during bid evaluation process. Besides the description of the existing procedure which was implemented on licensing of LWR program, the assessment of some licensing aspects of HTGR has been presented to describe possible implementation on licensing procedure. (author)

  1. Nuclear powerplant licensing: need for additional improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staats, E.B.

    1978-01-01

    In this report GAO reviews the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's management process for evaluating nuclear powerplant designs and sites and makes recommendations for improvements. The report also discusses the Commission staff's perspective on the adequacy of the licensing process, Commission staff's ability to raise dissenting technical opinions without experiencing adverse personnel actions, and administration's proposed legislation to streamline the licensing process

  2. Electron collision data for polyatomic molecules in plasma processing and environmental processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Kitajima, M.; Cho, H.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental studies for electron-polyatomic molecule collision are reviewed in connection with the plasma processing and environmental issues. Recent developments in electron scattering experiments on the differential cross section measurements for various processes such as elastic scattering, vibrational, and electronic excitations are summarized from high to low energy regions (1-100 eV). The need for cross-section data for a broad variety of molecular species is also discussed because there is an urgent need to develop an international program to provide the scientific and technological communities with authoritative cross sections for electron-molecule interactions

  3. Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerman, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded

  4. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  5. Validation, acceptance and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    The licensing process requires communication of complex scientific and technical information. In this paper transfer of such information is discussed using concepts and ideas from systems analysis, cybernetics and argumentation theory. A simple model for the decision process is developed. The analysis stresses the need for careful design of the communication channels between the three systems involved: the political system, the judicial-regulatory system and the scientific-technical community. The Dialogue - Scenario project initiated by the Swedish nuclear Inspectorate is briefly presented

  6. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(9), pp. 586-594 ... environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in ... the lowest (3%) is in each of the hotel and tourism development, irrigation and apartment buildings, respectively.

  7. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system of decision making for sustainable socioeconomic development, with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in order to implement the government policy of environmental protection and safety at the regional ...

  8. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    So that the construction stages, of operation, closing, dismantlement and the radioactive waste disposal of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are carried out in Mexico, is necessary that the operator has a license, permission or authorization for each stage. In Mexico, these licenses, permissions or authorizations are granted by the Energy Secretariat with base in the verdict of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The operation licenses ar the moment effective for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) they will expire respectively in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit 1 and Unit 2, for what the CNSNS has begun its preparation before a potential solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. Defining the process to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this phase as normalization, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc., is the task that intends to be carried out the regulator body so that the evaluation process is effective and efficient, so much for the same regulator body as for the licensee. This work exposes the advance that the CNSNS has in this aspect and is centered specifically in the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude, taking as base what the regulator body of the United States of North America (US NRC) established and following to the IAEA. Also, this work includes statistical of electric power production in Mexico, licensing antecedents for the NPP-L V, a world perspective of the license renovations and the regulation of the US NRC related to the license renovation of a NPP. (Author)

  9. Oil and gas property transfers: Analyzing the environmental risk through the environmental site assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratberg, D.; Hocker, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Superfund Act made anyone buying contaminated real estate liable for cleanup costs whether they know about the contamination or contributed to the contamination. In 1986, SARA amended the Superfund Act to include a provision known as the ''Innocent Landowner Defense.'' This provision created a defense for purchasers of contaminated property who did not contribute to the contamination and had no reason to believe that the property was contaminated at the time of the real estate transfer. SARA allows the purchasers and lenders to perform an environmental assessment using ''due diligence'' to identify contamination problems existing at a site. Since the passing of SARA, the environmental site assessment (ESA) process has become commonplace during the transfer of commercial real estate. Since the introduction of SARA, many professional associations, governmental agencies, and proposed federal legislation have struggled to produce a standard for conducting Phase 1 ESAs. Only recently has a standard been produced. Until recently, the domestic oil and gas industry has been relatively unconcerned about the Superfund liability issues. This approach was created by Congress's decision in 1980 to temporarily exempt the majority of oil and gas exploration and production wastes from federal hazardous waste rulings. However, new stringent rules governing oil and gas waste management practices are being considered by federal and state regulatory agencies. Based upon this knowledge and the awakening of public awareness, the use of ESAs for oil and gas transactions is increasing

  10. Regulator process for the authorization of an amendment to the operation license of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Proceso regulador para la autorizacion de una enmienda a la licencia de operacion de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Espinosa V, J.M.; Salgado, J.R.; Mamani, Y.R. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The regulator process by which an authorization is granted from an amendment to the License of Operation of a nuclear power station in Mexico is described. It makes an appointment the effective legal mark, the technical characteristics of the modification, the evaluation process and deposition upon oath of tests and finally the elaboration of the Safety report and the Technical Verdict that is a correspondent for the regulator organism to the Secretary of Energy, the one that in turn is the responsible of granting the amendment the License just as it establishes it the Law. (Author)

  11. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ten, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flowability to that of spraydried powders. The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,… changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la viabilidad de fabricar gres porcelánico esmaltado utilizando un sistema de preparación de la composición del soporte más respetuoso con el medio ambiente, lo que implica una reducción importante de los consumos de agua y de energía térmica. El proceso que se estudia en el presente trabajo es el consistente en la molienda vía seca en molino pendular y en la posterior granulación (para obtener un polvo de prensas con fluidez similar a la de los polvos atomizados. La distinta morfología de los nuevos gránulos obtenidos respecto al polvo atomizado actual, modifica la microestuctura en crudo de las piezas y, con ello, el comportamiento y propiedades finales de las baldosas obtenidas. Por ello, ha sido necesario

  12. Reduction of environmental pollution from fuel and target manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, H.A.

    1976-10-01

    Nuclear fuel and target manufacturing processes in the 300 Area generate potential environmental pollutants. Efforts to eliminate or reduce their harmful effects have been pursued for many years by the Raw Materials and Raw Materials Technology departments with assistance from other groups, primarily the Project and Health Physics departments. This report documents: methods adopted to reduce pollution; cost of these methods; amount of pollution reduction achieved; and other benefits in cost savings or quality improvement for January 1968 through December 1975. Capital funds totaling $915,000 were spent on these programs. Annual cost savings of $65,000 were realized, and incidental but significant improvements in product quality were obtained. In no case was product quality degraded. Reductions in releases of pollutants are summarized for water pollution, air pollution, and land pollution. In addition to these reductions, intangible benefits were realized including reduced corrosion of structures and equipment; improved working conditions for personnel; energy savings, both on and offplant; improved utilization of natural resources; and reduced impact to environment, both on and offplant

  13. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  14. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for Combat Survivor/Evader Locator System Testing and Deployment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental issues associated with the Developmental Testing and Operational Assessment of 35 production CSEL radios by DoD personnel at various existing DoD facilities...

  15. Yankee nuclear power station license renewal assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are initially licensed to operate for 40 years. Recent changes to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations allow licenses to be renewed for up to 20 additional years. The new regulations require a comprehensive plant assessment to ensure continued effective aging management of equipment important to license renewal (ILR). Under the industry's lead plant program, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has assisted with development and demonstration of a generic license renewal assessment process. The generic assessment process developed under the lead plant program is the Nuclear Management and Resources Council methodology

  16. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  17. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts......In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...

  18. Development of simplified process for environmentally resistant cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    A program to develop a simple, foolproof, all-vacuum solar cell manufacturing process which can be completely automated and which results in medium efficiency cells which are inherently environmentally resistant is described. All components of the completed cells are integrated into a monolithic structure with no material interfaces. The exposed materials (Si, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, Ni) are all resistant to atmospheric attack and the junction, per se, is passivated to prevent long term degradation. Such cells are intended to be incorporated into a simple module consisting basically of a press-formed metallic superstructure with a separated glass cover for missile, etc., protection. A 5 cm x 5 cm test cell configuration was designed in which the various efficiency loss factors were adjusted to yield a 10% AMI cell. Each of the cell elements was individually optimized for combination with the others. The basic cell consists of alloyed front (Al) and back (Ag plus Ni) contacts, a multi-purpose (AR, hermetic seal, implantation oxide) front surface coating of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and an implanted front junction. Implantation damage annealing and contact alloying are carried out in a simple one step thermal treatment at 870/sup 0/C using a resistance heated furnace in vacuum. The use of non-analyzed and semi-analyzed beams for fabricating these cells was developed by KCI. A final lot of 50 cells made using the semi-analyzed beam method had an average efficiency of 10.4% at AMI (28 +- 1/sup 0/C). An economic analysis predicts a manufacturing cost of $.45/peak-watt for these cells using a one machine automatic method.

  19. Site suitability, selection and characterization: Branch technical position--Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, D.; Pangburn, G.; Pennifill, R.; Starmer, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    The staff provides an expanded interpretation of the site suitability requirements in the proposed rule 10 CFR Part 61, a description of the anticipated site selection process, and a detailed discussion of the site characterization program needed to support a license application and environmental report. The paper provides early-on guidance to prospective applicants in these three subject areas

  20. Environmental Education across the Tertiary Curriculum: A Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Kyle, Louise; Alvarez, Amaya

    1999-01-01

    Describes a project to introduce waste-minimization education into four disciplinary-based courses. Provides a model for the introduction of the broader concepts of environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  1. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing......The approach to pollution prevention in Danish industries in the late-1980s and in the beginning of the 1990s met criticism, because the cleaner technology projects focused too narrowly on technical solutions implemented by experts. The objective of the project “Employee Participation...... working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able...

  2. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    … in ..... documentation, in keeping with the broad understanding of policy outlined at the beginning of this paper, the audit showed .... School environmental policy development is an emerging trend in the southern African region. Initiatives like ...

  3. A saúde no licenciamento ambiental: uma proposta metodológica para a avaliação dos impactos da indústria de petróleo e gás Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Macedo Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância dos impactos da indústria do petróleo sobre a saúde humana, este artigo apresenta uma proposta metodológica para a análise desses aspectos nos estudos de avaliação de impacto ambiental, a partir dos parâmetros legais estabelecidos e da adaptação de uma matriz validada para o setor hidrelétrico. A análise dos relatórios ambientais de 21 empreendimentos nacionais de produção de petróleo, licenciados no período de 1º de janeiro de 2004 a 31 de outubro de 2009, constatou a inexistência de evidências da incorporação de aspectos de saúde na maioria dos seus respectivos estudos de avaliação de impacto ambiental. A matriz mostrou-se um instrumento metodológico adequado para analisar a inserção da saúde no licenciamento ambiental e orientar a tomada de decisão e intervenções para a gestão socioambiental.Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  4. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines

  5. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines.

  6. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms of the n......We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...

  7. State Licenses & Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  8. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  9. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  10. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  12. Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant......-back clause, shifting incentives from licensee to licensor. Also, the effect is significantly reduced if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology. The effect of the grant-back clause is offset if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology, suggesting that the licensee retains...

  13. Multi-objective optimization model of CNC machining to minimize processing time and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aulia; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing processing time in a production system can increase the efficiency of a manufacturing company. Processing time are influenced by application of modern technology and machining parameter. Application of modern technology can be apply by use of CNC machining, one of the machining process can be done with a CNC machining is turning. However, the machining parameters not only affect the processing time but also affect the environmental impact. Hence, optimization model is needed to optimize the machining parameters to minimize the processing time and environmental impact. This research developed a multi-objective optimization to minimize the processing time and environmental impact in CNC turning process which will result in optimal decision variables of cutting speed and feed rate. Environmental impact is converted from environmental burden through the use of eco-indicator 99. The model were solved by using OptQuest optimization software from Oracle Crystal Ball.

  14. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  15. Licensing and Patent Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Aniruddha Bagchi; Arijit Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    We show the impact of technology licensing on optimal patent policy. Strong patent protection that eliminates imitation may not be the equilibrium outcome in the presence of licensing. Depending on the cost of innovation, licensing may either increase or reduce the strength of the patent protection.

  16. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration programs at DOE facilities. An integral part of this mission involves the safe and cost-effective environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. For over 40 years the Hanford Site supported United States national defense programs, largely through the production of nuclear materials. One legacy of historical Hanford Site operations is a significant waste inventory of radioactive and/or regulated chemical materials. Releases of these materials have, in some cases, contaminated the Hanford Site environment. The DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment from potential Hanford Site environmental hazards by identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks posed by contaminated sites.

  17. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration programs at DOE facilities. An integral part of this mission involves the safe and cost-effective environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. For over 40 years the Hanford Site supported United States national defense programs, largely through the production of nuclear materials. One legacy of historical Hanford Site operations is a significant waste inventory of radioactive and/or regulated chemical materials. Releases of these materials have, in some cases, contaminated the Hanford Site environment. The DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment from potential Hanford Site environmental hazards by identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks posed by contaminated sites

  18. Environmental accounting in Spain: structured review process and theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricia Silva da Rosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to perceive and understand the level of development of environmental accounting is to study the main features of its publications. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the profile of Spanish publications in accounting journals. To this end, 15 journals were selected and analyzed 74 articles in the period 2001 to 2010. The results show that the peak years of publication are 2001, 2003 and 2006, and authors with more articles in the sample are Moneva Abadía, Larrinaga González, Fernández Cuesta and Archel Domench. In terms of methodology, the works of review, case studies and content analysis, addressing standardization issues, fundamentals of environmental accounting, environmental sustainability indicators and reporting.

  19. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts...... influence the environment in the long run. The paper points to the need for further studies of the long term interplay between new technologies, everyday life and the environment....

  20. 42 CFR 137.294 - What is the typical IHS environmental review process for construction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.294 What is the typical IHS environmental review... impact on the environment, and therefore do not require environmental impact statements (EIS). Under current IHS procedures, an environmental review is performed on all construction projects. During the IHS...

  1. Alternatives and implication in process of environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauš Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EIA is an interactive, rule-based expert system for the environmental impact assessment. It is designed for a screening level assessment of development projects at a pre-feasibility stage. Typical problems for the evaluation include: resettlement; watershed degradation; encroachment upon precious ecosystems; encroachment on historical/cultural values; watershed erosion; reservoir siltation; impairment of navigation; changes in groundwater hydrology, waterlogging; seepage and evaporation losses; migration of valuable fish species; inundation of mineral resources/forests; other inundation losses and adverse effects. It is important to prevent environmental pollution when carrying out large-scale development projects, such as artificial change of landscapes and building of certain structures that may cause a tremendous impact on the environment. In accordance with Cities Environmental Impact Assessment Departments it is necessary to provide project organisers with a necessary advice and instructions concerning the environmental impact assessment a survey to predict and evaluate environmental impact to be conducted by project organisers. Prior to offering the advice and instructions, cities need to hear the opinions of residents of the areas concerned, mayors of related municipalities and other opinion leaders, including specialists, to reflect their views in the environmental preservation. The first aspect in any quality assessment is to determine the representativeness of data both in terms of physical siting and data collected. It must be recognised the environment is a dynamic fluid; quality therefore varies over space and time. There will be locations in any community that experience poorer quality than recorded at a monitoring station. Likewise other sites will have a better quality. Most communities have only a single monitoring site. Therefore, the air quality monitors are sited to provide a representative estimate of the community exposure

  2. Conformation of an evaluation process for a license renovation solicitude of a nuclear power plant in Mexico. Part 2; Conformacion de un proceso de evaluacion para una solicitud de renovacion de licencia de una central nuclear en Mexico. Parte 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. de L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    At the present time the operation licenses in force for the reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) will expire in the year 2020 and 2025 for the Unit-1 and Unit-2, respectively, for which the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) has begun its preparation to assist a solicitude of the licensee to continue the operation of the NPP-L V. The present work has the purpose of defining the steps to continue and to generate the documents that would help in this process, as the normative, guides, procedures, regulations, controls, etc. so that the evaluation process will be effective and efficient, as much for the regulator organ as for the licensee. The advance carried out in the continuation of the conformation of an evaluation process of license renovation solicitude is also exposed, taking like base the requirements established by the CNSNS, the regulator organ of the United States (US NRC), and the IAEA for license renovation solicitude of this type. A summary of the licenses granted from the beginning of commercial operation of the NPP-L V is included, both units and the amendments to these licenses, explaining the reason of the amendment shortly and in the dates they were granted. A brief exposition of the nuclear power plants to world level that have received extension of its operation is included. The normative that can be applied in a life extension evaluation is presented, the evaluation process to continue with the guides of the US NRC, the reach of the evaluation and the minimum information required to the licensee that should accompany to their solicitude. (author)

  3. Finding solutions to environmental problems: a process guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wert, J.M.; Magnoli, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A guide to independent or group study of environmental problems, this guideline stresses an approach of research and information gathering in place of emotional appeal in efforts to identify and solve local problems. The methodology calls for interviews, first-hand observations, questionnaires, and both attitude and independent data testing. Criteria for evaluating data and suggested agencies and institutions for reference are listed. Chronological recording of events as they occur is essential to the success of any project. Three projects are described as models. Project No. 1 suggests three methods of increasing difficulty for identifying an environmental problem and lowering its impact on the community. Project No. 2 assesses the impact of a development project on the local life-style and environment. Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Council on Environmental Quality provide a basis for the assessment and written report. Project no. 3 is research-oriented. Problems, such as pollution abatement, waste recycling, etc., are studied with the goal of conserving energy and using it more efficiently. The final report should outline the problem, the approach to solving it, the present status of development and remaining obstacles, and the projected costs. (DCK)

  4. Environmental life cycle assessments for water treatment processes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to generate information on the environmental profile of the life cycle of water, including treatment, distribution and collection and disposal (including recycling), in an urban context. As a case study the eThekwini Municipality (with its main city Durban) in South Africa was used. Another aim of ...

  5. Transformative Processes in Environmental Education: A Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social–ecological system, and on an environmental-education initiative that aimed to support the lake's transformation ... Boksburg Lake is a severely degraded dam situated in the central business district of Boksburg city, a mining .... aim was to establish networks, to receive input regarding the general initiative and content.

  6. Nuclear reactor operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which was amended in 1974 by the Energy Reorganization Act, established the requirement that individuals who had the responsibility of operating the reactors in nuclear power plants must be licensed. Section 107 of the act states ''the Commission shall (1) prescribe uniform conditions for licensing individuals; (2) determine the qualifications of such individuals; and (3) issue licenses to such individuals in such form as the Commission may prescribe.'' The article discusses the types of licenses, the selection and training of individuals, and the administration of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing examinations

  7. Environmental aspects of the process of globalization: Negative implications and crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Ivana; Hafner, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Growing environmental problems of modern age capture attention of the global society. Man, as a major factor in the process of disturbing the optimal environmental balance, is considered to be the most responsible for the emergence of the environmental crisis that manifests itself in all spheres of life. Due to a growing number of environmental problems that require urgent attention, it is necessary to increase awareness of the problems that surround us. In the future, it is necessary to deve...

  8. Recent developments in Canadian nuclear power plant licensing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchildon, P.

    1985-06-01

    This paper examines the dominant factors which have influenced the safety evaluation and licensing process of current 600 MW reactors. It describes possible modifications to the process which are being considered for the licensing of a second 600 MW reactor at Point Lepreau. The key element is a firm licensing agreement covering the entire licensing cycle, to be established between the proponent and the AECB before a construction licence is issued. Progress accomplished to date in reaching such an agreement is described

  9. Harmonization of the licensing process for digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to the recommendation of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI). This recommendation was based on the recognition of the present diversity in national practices in licensing digital Instrumentation and control (I and C). The goal of this report is to promote harmonization of I and C licensing requirements in the Member States. It applies to I and C modernization, retrofits, upgrades, replacement, new installation, and other aspects of digital I and C in both existing and new nuclear power plants. It should be pointed out that a single publication, like this report, can only take the first step towards initiating a process leading to licensing requirements, which are more harmonized. It is therefore hoped that that this report will get a broad readership among those who can influence requirements that are set on digital I and C. This report provides general and high level recommendations to assist senior officials at utilities, vendor organizations, regulatory bodies, and their support organizations who are involved in the licensing of digital I and C. It is also intended to be read by persons participating in technical committees which are writing standards. The authors of this report believe that harmonization can be achieved through a consideration of the technical and scientific basis of high integrity digital I and C systems. It is also believed that many benefits can be reached in resolving various issues of a technical and engineering nature, which presently are creating controversies in the licensing of digital I and C in NPP safety applications. This publication is based on a consideration of the licensing process of I and C in a top down fashion to discuss generic principles to be applied when assessing digital I and C in NPP safety applications. This report gives an overview of the confidence building process in which evidence is created that digital I and C fulfils

  10. Proposal of a new process of products environmental assessment/ improvement on CAD phase

    OpenAIRE

    Gaha, Raoudha; YANNOU, Bernard; Benamara, Abdelmajid

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Most of methodologies, concepts and tools, which integrate Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) systems and aim at ecodesigning, are generally oriented to the environmental assessment. The environmental improvement is treated only in a few works; however it is a pivotal phase in the eco-design process. In this paper, we propose a new environmental improvement process based on the remaining Degrees of Freedom (DoFs) for CAD designer on which he ca...

  11. Integrating environmental impact assessment into new product development and processing-technology selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depping, Verena; Grunow, Martin; Middelaar, van Corina; Dumpler, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Environmental-impact reduction potential is great early in new product development. To exploit this potential, this study evaluates novel combinations of existent processing technologies. Process engineering is combined with an environmental product assessment along the supply chain. In the dairy

  12. Environmental Transport and Fate Process Descriptors for Propellant Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Denitration of glycerol trinitrate by resting cells and cell extracts of Bacillus / thuringiensis /cereus and Enterobacter agglomerans. Applied and Environmental...for download at http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/techpub/CRREL_Reports/reports/TR05-13. pdf . Hinckley, D. A., T. R. Bidleman, W. T. Foreman, and J. R...http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/techpub/CRREL_Reports/reports/TR05-2. pdf . National Academy of Sciences. 1999. Hormonally active agents in the

  13. Environmental impact monitoring in the EIA process of South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammed, A.K.M. Rafique; Nixon, Bronte Merrick

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study of environmental impact monitoring (EIM) in South Australia by first establishing a context for EIM in the form of a literature review, and by then conducting a detailed content and practice analysis on EIA documents and on actual monitoring in practice. EIM in practice for specific projects was found to not correspond with either EIM proposals in the corresponding environmental impact statement, or EIM recommendations in the government's assessment report. EIM programmes appeared to be carried out at the discretion of the proponent, and no projects were found to have environmental impact monitoring that directly corresponded to either proposals in the EIS or recommendations in the assessment report. Reasons for this lack of correlation have been postulated to be a combination of a serious lack of the following factors: clearly assigned monitoring responsibilities, public accountability, clearly outlined monitoring timeframes, clearly outlined aims and objectives, lack of human resources, and lack of any EIM legislation. It should be noted that the study, upon which this paper is predominantly based, was undertaken in 1998. This study looked at developments that were approved (and subsequently built) under the Planning Act 1982. This Act was later replaced by the South Australian Development Act 1993. Relevant information from this study that has been reproduced in this paper was accurate at that time

  14. Electric energy production and environmental licensing: citizenship in Brazil in time of ecological crisis; Producao de energia eletrica e licenciamento ambiental: cidadania no Brasil em tempo de crise ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2017-11-01

    The choices of energy sources gain relevance in the face of the ecological crisis which has a central questioning on the modes of production and consumption and that stems from a system which changes everything into merchandise. On one hand, brazilian electricity generation has the advantage of using clean energy in great part of its composition, at least in discourse. On the other hand, though, there are high social and environmental costs, especially for communities living near the regions where projects for the electricity sector are built. This research aimed to identify and analyse different modes society takes part in the process of choosing energy sources for electricity generation in Brazil. It discusses the links between the ecological crisis and the production of electrical energy; how the institutional mechanisms for social participation on issues related to the production of electric power in Brazil work; and, how civil society participates in environmental licensing in the National Environment Council (CONAMA). A set of related approaches to the nature of the ecological crisis and the forms of social participation was adopted in the theoretical framework and an analysis of the electric sector panorama in Brazil has been drawn up. In order to investigate the forms society participates in issues related to the composition of the brazilian electricity matrix, the methodology comprised a documentary analysis and a case study. They included three categories of actors: (1) CONAMA's councilors, (2) experts from the Field; and (3) actors involved in the diagnosis study, planning and management of the electricity sector. The research identified inconsistencies, ambiguities and other relevant issues about the participation of society in the production of electrical energy. Such issues are related to: deficiencies in the mechanisms for information access; lack of transparency and patterns in internal documents; lack of social participation in the elaboration

  15. "Just another hoop to jump through?" using environmental laws and processes to protect indigenous rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a "back door" to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes-the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)-to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  16. EPRI support of license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, Jeff; Carey, John J.

    1991-01-01

    During the early 1980's, the US utility industry recognized that Light Water Reactors (LWRs) could have a useful life substantially in excess of the current licensed term of 40 years service. These observations were confirmed by two plant specific studies and have led to a major initiative undertaken by EPRI and DOE to demonstrate the technical and institutional basis for a predictable, rational, and stable life extension option. The primary objective of the lead plants project is to establish and demonstrate, by the end of 1993, nuclear plant license renewal as a viable option. As part of this initiative, the lead plants project will result in a complete license renewal application to the NRC and will document the license renewal process for use by other utilities. A number of EPRI and DOE sponsored projects are providing technical support for the license renewal process. These projects are identifying deteriorating service environments for key components, systems, and structures and are establishing methods of assessing consequences and remedial actions. Other projects include economic evaluations and life cycle management assessment tools to address deterioration mechanisms. However, the principal means for providing technical support for license renewal is the generic Industry Reports (IRs), which as of October 1990, have all been submitted to the NRC for review. The IRs discussed in this paper are intended to identify and resolve key technical issues associated with extended operation of major LWR components, structures, and systems. The principle means of providing technical support for license renewal is the IRs whose objective is to document results of generic component, structure, or system evaluations to support life extension by addressing potential impacts of aging on components, structures, or systems as it relates to the plant's performance for extended service. Ten IRs on major components or systems have been completed and submitted to the NRC. The

  17. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysen, A.; Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  18. Licensing of ''grandfather's'' facilities: Ukrainian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Bogdan, L.; Steinberg, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the former USSR, unlike most countries, radioactive waste management activities including waste disposal needed no license. But after the USSR breakdown the Ukrainian Parliament -- Verkhovna Rada -- invoked the revised Law on Business activities. According to Article 4 of the Law, in order to treat or to dispose radioactive waste every enterprise has to get a special permission or license. In compliance with the Law, the Cabinet of Ministers by its Ordinance of January 13, 1993, authorized the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (UkrSCNRS) to issue special permissions or licenses for waste treatment and disposal. And that requirement was valid not only for future activities but also for existing facilities in operation. Taking into account the undergoing legislative process, SCNRS began to develop its licensing process without waiting for the special nuclear laws to be passed. On the basis of the legislation already in effect, first of all the Law on Enterprises (full responsibility of enterprises for their activities) and Law on Business activities (requirement to have a license for special types of activities), the newly formed national regulatory body had to identify all the enterprises that needed to be licensed, to establish relevant procedures, to develop related regulatory documents, to implement these procedures and documents at operating enterprises, and for each case to make a decision concerning feasibility of issuing a license, period of validity and license conditions

  19. Neutrophils Induced Licensing of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishiro Amano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells acquire effector function through a licensing process and exert anti-leukemia/tumor effect. However, there is no means to promote a licensing effect of allogeneic NK cells other than cytomegalovirus reactivation-induced licensing in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in human. In mice, a licensing process is mediated by Ly49 receptors which recognize self-major histocompatibility complex class I. The distribution of four Ly49 receptors showed similar pattern in congenic mice, B10, B10.BR, and B10.D2, which have B10 background. Forty Gy-irradiated 2×106 B10.D2 cells including splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells in untreated mice, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treated mice were injected intraperitoneally into B10 mice. We found that murine NK cells were effectively licensed by intraperitoneal injection of donor neutrophils with its corresponding NK receptor ligand in B10 mice as a recipient and B10.D2 as a donor. Mechanistic studies revealed that NK cells showed the upregulation of intracellular interferon-γ and CD107a expression as markers of NK cell activation. Moreover, enriched neutrophils enhanced licensing effect of NK cells; meanwhile, licensing effect was diminished by depletion of neutrophils. Collectively, injection of neutrophils induced NK cell licensing (activation via NK receptor ligand interaction.

  20. Geoprocessing semiautomated applied to licensing of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline Fabiane Gonçalves de

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Brazilian environmental legislation has undergone considerable evolution. This fact occurs concurrently with changes related to environmental studies, which aim increasingly to guarantee sustainability and environmental balance. Thus, it is important to use technological resources to optimize the environmental studies involved in the licensing processes. The present work sought to analyze and direct the application of geotechnologies (Geoprocessing) in environmental studies of the Local Report (RL) of the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN). The proposal to apply the Geoprocessing tools and the possibilities inherent to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology, as a tool to subsidize the environmental studies in accordance with the requirements of the RL was aimed at contributing to the modernization of the stages involved in the process of Nuclear licensing, such as in the structuring and execution of environmental studies, as well as in the activities of environmental monitoring, always considering the precepts in force in the laws and resolutions and standards in force of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for nuclear licensing. In order to achieve the objective, the ArcGis application was adopted and one of its analytical tools Model Builder. This allowed the macro (schematization) of the methodology from the GIS tools applied, presenting as an advantage the efficiency and optimization of the execution time of the procedures in situations where it is necessary to apply the same routine of tasks, besides being editable, Which provides possibilities for adaptations and improvements. In order to achieve this objective, the applicability of the methodology was highly feasible, the model developed by Model Builder / ArcMap, provided a semi-automated process, and provided a flowchart that depicts the procedure to be performed in order to reach the Final process to make inferences and analyzes with greater

  1. Trends in nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of nuclear safety and licensing is briefly reviewed in four stages namely: The Formative Period (1946-1959), The Expansive Period (1960-1969), The Mature Period (1970-1979) and the Apprehensive Period (1980-1989). Particular safety issues in the respective periods are highlighted to indicate the changing emphasis of nuclear licensing over the past thirty years or so. Against this background, nuclear licensing. (author)

  2. ``Just Another Hoop to Jump Through?'' Using Environmental Laws and Processes to Protect Indigenous Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth Rose

    2013-11-01

    Protection of culturally important indigenous landscapes has become an increasingly important component of environmental management processes, for both companies and individuals striving to comply with environmental regulations, and for indigenous groups seeking stronger laws to support site protection and cultural/human rights. Given that indigenous stewardship of culturally important sites, species, and practices continues to be threatened or prohibited on lands out of indigenous ownership, this paper examines whether or not indigenous people can meaningfully apply mainstream environmental management laws and processes to achieve protection of traditional sites and associated stewardship activities. While environmental laws can provide a “back door” to protect traditional sites and practices, they are not made for this purpose, and, as such, require specific amendments to become more useful for indigenous practitioners. Acknowledging thoughtful critiques of the cultural incommensurability of environmental law with indigenous environmental stewardship of sacred sites, I interrogate the ability of four specific environmental laws and processes—the Uniform Conservation Easement Act; the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act; the Pacific Stewardship Council land divestiture process; and Senate Bill 18 (CA-2004)—to protect culturally important landscapes and practices. I offer suggestions for improving these laws and processes to make them more applicable to indigenous stewardship of traditional landscapes.

  3. Experience acquired by Furnas for licensing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.C. da; Xavier, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The system for licensing of Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant-Unit 1 is presented. The process phases for reactor construction and operation are described: preliminary site approval; bases for safety review; partial construction permits; final construction permits; emission of final report of safety analysis; initial operation license and permanent operation license. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. 18 CFR 5.16 - Preliminary licensing proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary licensing proposal. 5.16 Section 5.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.16 Preliminary licensing proposal. (a)...

  5. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  6. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  7. Scalable and Environmentally Benign Process for Smart Textile Nanofinishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Jicheng; Hontañón, Esther; Blanes, Maria; Meyer, Jörg; Guo, Xiaoai; Santos, Laura; Paltrinieri, Laura; Ramlawi, Nabil; Smet, de Louis C.P.M.; Nirschl, Hermann; Kruis, Frank Einar; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in nanotechnology is that of determining how to introduce green and sustainable principles when assembling individual nanoscale elements to create working devices. For instance, textile nanofinishing is restricted by the many constraints of traditional pad-dry-cure processes,

  8. Risk Assessment Method for Identification of Environmental Aspects and Impacts at Ore Processing Industry in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Susanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ore processing industry in Indonesia applies the international standard of environmental management system based on ISO 14001:2015. The implementation of clause 6.1.2 requires every organization to identify the environmental aspects of its operations, as an initial step in environmental management. The objective of this research is to develop a structured approach in identifying the environmental aspects and impacts so that an evaluation on the risks, opportunities as well as severity of possible environmental impacts can be conducted. The employed methods involve life-cycle approach and risk assessment method with four-cell risk assessment matrix in environmental risk determination. The results of this risk assessment can give an overview of environmental aspects and impacts, so that control priority can be determined in order to reduce the risks.

  9. The environmental evaluation of substation based on the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenxiao; Zuo, Xiujiang; Chen, Yuandong; Ye, Ming; Fang, Zhankai; Yang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies on the different influences on the environment of the substations and puts forward an index system of environmental protection through the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. A comprehensive environmental evaluation on a substation is carried out through investigation and measurement of the current environmental factors, and the statistical data has validated the effectiveness and feasibility of this evaluation index system. The results indicate that the proposed model has high efficiency.

  10. Earth Surface Processes and Environmental Changes in Lake-catchment Systems(Earth Surface Processes, Natural Disasters and Historical Environmental Changes)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji, KASHIWAYA; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University

    2012-01-01

    Lake-catchment systems including continuous records of various climatic regimes are discussed for combining earth surface processes with temporal environmental changes. Three types of external forces (climatic, tectonic and anthropogenic), which are printed in lacustrine sediments and drainage landforms, are significant for understanding processes and changes. Present observations on small lake-catchment systems in Japan and past information on large lake-catchment systems in east Eurasia sho...

  11. A Process of Environmental Education Communication through Community Cultural Activity Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpaibool, Duangporn; Rawang, Wee; Supapongpichate, Ratchanont; Pichayapibool, Pataraboon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was: 1. To investigate social context, environment, way of life and community culture. 2. To gather the views and opinions regarding environmental conservation and restoration. 3. To synthesize a process of environmental education communication based on community cultural activity area. 4. To evaluate the efficacy of…

  12. Are screening processes effective instruments and what are the environmental benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake...

  13. The Relationship between University Students' Environmental Identity, Decision-Making Process, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Allison

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education scholars have argued for the need to focus on identity as a more predictive factor than attitude of individuals' environmental behavior. We examine individuals' decision-making as a mediating process between identity and behavior. University undergraduates (N = 299) were surveyed, with a select sub-sample interviewed. As…

  14. Ecological modernization and environmental policy reform in Thailand: the case of food processing SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattanapinyo, A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate environmental pollution from a rapidly expanding Thai food processing industry, different options and technologies can be identifi ed. However, actually implementing these environmental improvements within small and medium-sized agro-food companies requires governing efforts of a variety

  15. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  16. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  17. Mindless decision making and environmental issues: gestalt/feature-intensive processing and contextual reasoning in environmental decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Matthew J; Hess, Adam B; Ranes, Bethany

    2007-09-01

    In the absence of relevant information in working memory during decision consideration, respondents tend to rely on a style of cognitive processing that may result in premature or inaccurate decision making (M. J. Sharps, 2003). M. J. Sharps and S. S. Martin (2002) demonstrated this effect in executive decision making. In the present study, the authors extended these methods to decisions about environmental issues. Respondents rated decisions about issues such as overpopulation, energy policy, and food production in the presence or absence of simple pertinent information. The presence of such information in the immediate context of environmental decisions, and therefore in working memory, significantly improved respondents' ability to understand negative decision consequences. These results demonstrate the importance of contextual information in environmental decision making.

  18. Balancing environmental and economic performance in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decisions to explore effect...

  19. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  20. Materials licensing study, Phase 1. Volume 2. Findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.M.; Arcuni, A.A.; Immerman, W.H.; Welles, B.W.; Varnado, G.B.

    1983-11-01

    This is one of a series of seven reports which describe a study of nuclear material licensing conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Material Safety and Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purposes of this project are to analyze the process used by NRC to license nuclear materials, and based upon this analysis to recommend measures to improve the efficiency of such license application review. This report presents summary findings and recommendations relevant to the data collection effort documented in SAND83-7081/1 of 3. Recommendations are based upon findings derived from review of deficiency letters, dockets, application guides, the license application review process, and the license renewal process. Several of the eleven (11) recommendations address the need for an improved regulatory base which would integrate and streamline all the diverse regulatory documents and procedures. In addition, the report proposes implementation of a computer based nuclear materials licensing support system to aid in all phases of materials license review

  1. A model evaluation checklist for process-based environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Blake, Leah

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistic catchment-scale phosphorus models appear to perform poorly where diffuse sources dominate. The reasons for this were investigated for one commonly-applied model, the INtegrated model of CAtchment Phosphorus (INCA-P). Model output was compared to 18 months of daily water quality monitoring data in a small agricultural catchment in Scotland, and model structure, key model processes and internal model responses were examined. Although the model broadly reproduced dissolved phosphorus dynamics, it struggled with particulates. The reasons for poor performance were explored, together with ways in which improvements could be made. The process of critiquing and assessing model performance was then generalised to provide a broadly-applicable model evaluation checklist, incorporating: (1) Calibration challenges, relating to difficulties in thoroughly searching a high-dimensional parameter space and in selecting appropriate means of evaluating model performance. In this study, for example, model simplification was identified as a necessary improvement to reduce the number of parameters requiring calibration, whilst the traditionally-used Nash Sutcliffe model performance statistic was not able to discriminate between realistic and unrealistic model simulations, and alternative statistics were needed. (2) Data limitations, relating to a lack of (or uncertainty in) input data, data to constrain model parameters, data for model calibration and testing, and data to test internal model processes. In this study, model reliability could be improved by addressing all four kinds of data limitation. For example, there was insufficient surface water monitoring data for model testing against an independent dataset to that used in calibration, whilst additional monitoring of groundwater and effluent phosphorus inputs would help distinguish between alternative plausible model parameterisations. (3) Model structural inadequacies, whereby model structure may inadequately represent

  2. Putting ecology in environmental remediation: The strategic planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional ecological studies have been conducted on many sites impacted by hazardous wastes. Yet in many cases, the information obtained has had limited value in the selection of remediation options. This paper discusses the importance of developing an ecological risk-based strategic plan to fulfill the scientific and social needs demanded in the remediation and restoration of hazardous waste sites. Ecological issues need to be considered seriously at the earliest phases of the scoping process. The decisions regarding selection of assessment endpoints and data quality objectives must be incorporated from the start to insure that cost-efficient and useful measurements are used. It is too late to develop effective ecological studies after the engineering decisions have been made. Strategic planning that integrates ecological concerns will minimize the frustration and the cost associated with clean up of hazardous waste sites and maximize the likelihood of successful site restoration

  3. Licensing by modification Licensing by modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Dayal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.Licensing by modification Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general

  4. Programmatic environmental assessment of the DOE Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The program's potential environmental impacts are evaluated to ensure that environmental issues are considered at the earliest meaningful point in the decision-making process. The existing environment is studied for the following: grain drying; crop drying; livestock shelter heating; food processing; textile products; lumber and wood products; paper products; chemicals; petroleum refining; stone, clay, and glass products; and primary metals industries. Environmental impacts of the proposed action on the following are studied: air quality, water quality, ecosystems, health and safety, land use, esthetics, and social and institutional impacts. (MHR)

  5. The legal process of environmental evaluation and examination in North America and in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpiano, V.

    1999-01-01

    The most important goal of the Environmental Law is to maximize the prevention approach. As so far, a scheme has been initiated since a few years to reach this objective: a legal environmental process with a lot of mechanisms whose the objective is to estimate the environmental impact of a project in order to control it. This legal environmental process including for example the Environmental Impact Assessment is more and more integrated in the environmental policies of the industrialized countries. It began in North America, first in the U.S.A. but also in Canada. A few years after, the countries of the Western Europe, particularly the European Unions, have introduced a similar legal process taking into account the specificities of these European countries. So if the goals of this legal environmental preventive approach are similar in North America and in Western Europe, the implementation is often different according to the legal, economic but also sociological structures of these two major regions. This Phd Thesis try to study the two major impacts of this legal evaluating process: it is implemented by the public authorities to reach with a best result a Sustainable Development. But also, it tries to combine the protection of the Environment and the utilisation of legal, economic and financial mechanisms of the Market to obtain a fair trade competition. (authors)

  6. PBMR-SA licensing project organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.; Mysen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The South African nuclear regulatory authority, the Council for Nuclear Safety (CNS), is beginning the safety review of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design under development by the South African National Electrical Utility, Eskom. This paper describes the CNS licensing process, including the establishment of basic licensing criteria, general design criteria, and specific design rules, as well the safety assessment to be conducted in accordance with the established structure. It also summarises the CNS PBMR review project activities, including the overall organisational arrangements, licensing basis, safety and risk assessment, general operating rules and plant design engineering, and pre-operational testing. (author)

  7. Environmental assessment requirements and process for hydroelectric rehabilitation in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) requirements for modifications to Ontario Hydro's hydroelectric generating stations were reviewed. The environmental assessment requirements put forward by the Ministry of Natural Resources for modifications and upgrading of stations were described. The 3 main phases of the EA planning process i.e. (1) the concept stage, involving early feasibility studies, (2) the environmental assessment, external consultation and preliminary engineering investigations stage, and (3) project implementation and monitoring phase, were highlighted.. Screening mechanisms and means for EA harmonization of projects were discussed. The jurisdictions of the federal Environmental Assessment Review Process and the provincial EA processes were compared with regard to their application to hydroelectric rehabilitation. It was concluded thatat the federal and provincial regulatory levels harmonization efforts have been successful in avoiding duplication. . 5 figs

  8. Background as a residual radioactivity criterion for decommissioning: Appendix A to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffert, A.M.; Meck, R.A.; Miller, K.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report was originally published as an appendix to the draft U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) document entitled, open-quotes Generic Environmental Impact Statement in Support of Rulemaking on Radiological Criteria for Decommissioning of NRC-Licensed Nuclear Facilities.close quotes Because of the great interest in this report by members of the public, citizen and environmental organizations, academicians, licensees, and regulators, the NRC staff is publishing this report separately, so that it can be readily available to a diverse audience. This report was created to assist both the NRC staff and interested members of the public in evaluating background radiation (background) as a decommissioning criterion, by serving as a primer on background and providing information on the existing applications of background in regulatory criteria and standards. This report also discusses some of the methods available to measure and distinguish between the very low radiation levels associated with background and man-made sources of radiation. Two approaches are considered for applying background as a decommissioning criterion; these are the use of background dose rates and background radionuclide concentrations. This report concludes that the temporal and spatial variability of background produces a wide range of doses to United States residents, which prevents the application of background dose rates as a decommissioning criterion. Instead, this report recommends that local background radionuclide concentrations serve as a benchmark for decommissioning criteria, while taking into account the concept of reducing residual radioactivity to a level as low as is reasonably achievable

  9. Reducing Environmental Impacts of Aluminium Cable Recycling Process with Life Cycle Assessment Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMAUD, Guilhem; PERRY, Nicolas; LARATTE, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Life cycle impact of European generic primary and secondary aluminium are well defined. However specific recycling processes are not available in literature. In this study, the environmental assessment of cable recycling processing is examined using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The data come from a recycling plant (MTB Recycling) in France. MTB process relies only on mechanical separation and optical sorting processes on shredder cables. The LCA results...

  10. Reducing Environmental Impacts of Aluminium Cable Recycling Process with Life Cycle Assessment Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMAUD, Guilhem; PERRY, Nicolas; LARATTE, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle impact of European generic primary and secondary aluminium are well defined. However specific recycling processes are not available in literature. In this study, the environmental assessment of cable recycling processing is examined using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The data come from a recycling plant (MTB Recycling) in France. MTB process relies only on mechanical separation and optical sorting processes on shredder cables. The LCA results demonstrate huge enviro...

  11. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  12. The method of multispectral image processing of phytoplankton processing for environmental control of water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Vasil; Kvaternyuk, Sergii; Yasynska, Victoria; Kozachuk, Anastasia; Kotyra, Andrzej; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Askarova, Nursanat

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents improvement of the method of environmental monitoring of water bodies based on bioindication by phytoplankton, which identify phytoplankton particles carried out on the basis of comparison array multispectral images using Bayesian classifier of solving function based on Mahalanobis distance. It allows to evaluate objectively complex anthropogenic and technological impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  13. An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Navarro, Tomas; Garcia-Melon, Monica; Acuna-Dutra, Silvia; Diaz-Martin, Diego

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

  14. Environmental changes affect the assembly of soil bacterial community primarily by mediating stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Liu, Wei; Li, Linghao; Han, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Both 'species fitness difference'-based deterministic processes, such as competitive exclusion and environmental filtering, and 'species fitness difference'-independent stochastic processes, such as birth/death and dispersal/colonization, can influence the assembly of soil microbial communities. However, how both types of processes are mediated by anthropogenic environmental changes has rarely been explored. Here we report a novel and general pattern that almost all anthropogenic environmental changes that took place in a grassland ecosystem affected soil bacterial community assembly primarily through promoting or restraining stochastic processes. We performed four experiments mimicking 16 types of environmental changes and separated the compositional variation of soil bacterial communities caused by each environmental change into deterministic and stochastic components, with a recently developed method. Briefly, because the difference between control and treatment communities is primarily caused by deterministic processes, the deterministic change was quantified as (mean compositional variation between treatment and control) - (mean compositional variation within control). The difference among replicate treatment communities is primarily caused by stochastic processes, so the stochastic change was estimated as (mean compositional variation within treatment) - (mean compositional variation within control). The absolute of the stochastic change was greater than that of the deterministic change across almost all environmental changes, which was robust for both taxonomic and functional-based criterion. Although the deterministic change may become more important as environmental changes last longer, our findings showed that changes usually occurred through mediating stochastic processes over 5 years, challenging the traditional determinism-dominated view. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  16. Using radial metallicity gradients in dwarf galaxies to study environmental processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leaman, R.; Venn, K.; Brooks, A.; Battaglia, G.; Cole, A.; Ibata, R.; Irwin, M.; McConnachie, A.; Mendel, T.; Tolstoy, E.; Starkenburg, E.

    2014-01-01

    The observed morphology-density relation in the Local Group suggests that some amount of environmental processing has occurred, however the nature and efficiency of tidal and ram pressure stripping is not well constrained. A possible avenue to test these processes is to study the radial distribution

  17. Inherent health and environmental risk assessment of nanostructured metal oxide production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabifard, Mina; Arjmandi, Reza; Rashidi, Alimorad; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2018-01-10

    The health and environmental effects of chemical processes can be assessed during the initial stage of their production. In this paper, the Chemical Screening Tool for Exposure and Environmental Release (ChemSTEER) software was used to compare the health and environmental risks of spray pyrolysis and wet chemical techniques for the fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide on a semi-industrial scale with a capacity of 300 kg/day in Iran. The pollution sources identified in each production process were pairwise compared in Expert Choice software using indicators including respiratory damage, skin damage, and environmental damages including air, water, and soil pollution. The synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide using the wet chemical technique (with 0.523 wt%) leads to lower health and environmental risks compared to when spray pyrolysis is used (with 0.477 wt%). The health and environmental risk assessment of nanomaterial production processes can help select safer processes, modify the operation conditions, and select or modify raw materials that can help eliminate the risks.

  18. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  19. PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS ON PROCESSING WASTES INTO CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social and economical development, investing activities, and ensuring environmental safety are the main strategic components of sustainable development of the Russian Federation. Considering that any economic activities are related to using natural resources, and environmental impact, the economically and ecologically effective investments in modern competitive resources- and energy-saving, environment-safe industrial and other innovative technologies are the integral conditions of ensuring favorable conditions for life activities, achieving balance of the ecological-economic system of the country However, there is a number of environmental and business factors, which prevent full-scale implementation of modern resource-saving and environmental protection technologies in production, ensuring, on the one hand, achievement of pay-back of investments in the shortest times (economic result in the form of profit, and on the other hand, observation of all environmental, sanitary-and-hygienic, technical norms, demands and rules set forth by the legislation. At the stage of business planning, all the possible future environmental costs and environmental and financial damages caused by the manufacturing activities during implementation and post-implementation periods are not taken into account as a practice of assessment of environmental efficiency and practicality of investment projects. This article covers methodical and scientific methodological approaches to the solution of the given problem within the limits of development of recommendations on environmental and economic assessment of investment projects that would ensure environmental safety and economic efficiency of the investments. Results of own researches in the field, including the developed software for environmental and economic assessment of investment projects in the building industry, in the waste processing into secondary raw materials and products, which allows to analyze efficiency of

  20. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  1. License to build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntelaar, Mark; Vos, Renate de; Roobol, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A new license under the nuclear power act is applied for at the Dutch Government for the building of a High Active Repackaging Unit (HAVA-VU in Dutch) at NRG in Petten, The Netherlands. This new building is necessary to comply with our nuclear license to dispose of high active nuclear waste at Petten to the intermediate storage facility (COVRA). In the first part of this paper attention is given to the formal procedure followed by the Government, what type of documents are to be submitted, what time frames are followed, how citizen participation is organized, and as final result a new license. In the second part more detailed information is given about the present license renewal needed for the High Active Repackaging Unit

  2. Credentialing, Licensing, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Credentialing, Licensing, and Education Share: On This Page Introduction Key Points Keep ... their patients, while other states specifically prohibit it. Education and Training Professional organizations offer certification examinations to ...

  3. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60: (Docket No. PRM 30-54): Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    This Draft Statement on environmental considerations associated with the proposed exemption of cobalt-60 in spark-gap irradiators was prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Standards Development (the staff), in accordance with the Commission's regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The NEPA states, among other things, that the federal government has the continuing responsibility to use all practicable means, consistent with other essential considerations of national policy, to improve and to coordinate federal plans, functions, programs, and resources to the end that the nation may: fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as trustee of the environment for succeeding generations; assure for all Americans safe, healthful, productive, and esthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings; attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety, or other undesirable and unintended consequences; preserve important historic, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage, and maintain, wherever possible, an environment which supports diversity and variety of individual choice; achieve a balance between population and resource use which will permit high standards of living and a wide sharing of life's amenities; and enhance the quality of renewable resources and approach the maximum attainable recycling of depletable resources. 42 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Main report; Draft report for comment: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The action being considered in this draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, preliminary recommendations were provided. Contained in the GEIS are recommendations related to the definition of decommissioning, the scope of rulemaking, the radiological criteria, restrictions on use, citizen participation, use of the GEIS in site-specific cases, and minimization of contamination

  5. Generic environmental impact statement in support of rulemaking on radiological criteria for decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. Appendices; Draft report for comment -- Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The action being considered in this draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) is an amendment to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations in 10 CFR Part 20 to include radiological criteria for decommissioning of lands and structures at nuclear facilities. Under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), all Federal agencies must consider the effect of their actions on the environment. To fulfill NRC's responsibilities under NEPA, the Commission is preparing this GEIS which analyzes alternative courses of action and the costs and impacts associated with those alternatives. In preparing the GEIS, the following approach was taken: (1) a listing was developed of regulatory alternatives for establishing radiological criteria for decommissioning; (2) for each alternative, a detailed analysis and comparison of incremental impacts, both radiological and nonradiological, to workers, members of the public, and the environment, and costs, were performed; and (3) based on the analysis of impacts and costs, preliminary recommendations were provided. Contained in the GEIS are recommendations related to the definition of decommissioning, the scope of rulemaking, the radiological criteria, restrictions on use, citizen participation, use of the GEIS in site-specific cases, and minimization of contamination

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. Summary and main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  7. Using the analytical hierarchy process to assess the environmental vulnerabilities of basins in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Chao, Yu-Chi

    2012-05-01

    Every year, Taiwan endures typhoons and earthquakes; these natural hazards often induce landslides and debris flows. Therefore, watershed management strategies must consider the environmental vulnerabilities of local basins. Because many factors affect basin ecosystems, this study applied multiple criteria analysis and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate seven criteria in three phases (geographic phase, hydrologic phase, and societal phase). This study focused on five major basins in Taiwan: the Tan-Shui River Basin, the Ta-Chia River Basin, the Cho-Shui River Basin, the Tseng-Wen River Basin, and the Kao-Ping River Basin. The objectives were a comprehensive examination of the environmental characteristics of these basins and a comprehensive assessment of their environmental vulnerabilities. The results of a survey and AHP analysis showed that landslide area is the most important factor for basin environmental vulnerability. Of all these basins, the Cho-Shui River Basin in central Taiwan has the greatest environmental vulnerability.

  8. Patent Licensing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Doh-Shin Jeon; Yassine Lefouili

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the patent licensing networks formed by competing firms. Assuming that licensing agreements can involve the payment of fixed fees only and that firms compete à la Cournot, we show that the complete network is always bilaterally efficient and that the monopoly network is bilaterally efficient if the patents are complementary enough. In the case of independent patents, we fully characterize the bilaterally efficient networks and find that when the cost reduction resultin...

  9. Problems of Trademark Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Želvys, Arūnas

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of dissertation is focused on problematic aspects of trademark license agreement that exist throughout the conclusion, validity and termination of a contract. Problematic aspects are understood as legal interpretation cases where common and special norms have to be interpreted taking into account specifics of a contract object (right to a trademark). Problematic aspects are conditioned by two reasons: non comprehensive regulation of trademark license and sui generis nature of a contr...

  10. 77 FR 21619 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ..., Change 1, Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures, as part of its licensing and permitting process... Transportation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Open a Public Scoping Period... prepare the EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA; 42 United States...

  11. The environmental impact assessment process for nuclear facilities: An examination of the Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, Divya Badami

    2010-01-01

    India plans to construct numerous nuclear plants and uranium mines across the country, which could have significant environmental, health, and social impacts. The national Environmental Impact Assessment process is supposed to regulate these impacts. This paper examines how effective this process has been, and the extent to which public inputs have been taken into account. In addition to generic problems associated with the EIA process for all kinds of projects in India, there are concerns that are specific to nuclear facilities. One is that some nuclear facilities are exempt from the environmental clearance process. The second is that data regarding radiation baseline levels and future releases, which is the principle environmental concern with respect to nuclear facilities, is controlled entirely by the nuclear establishment. The third is that members of the nuclear establishment take part in almost every level of the environmental clearance procedure. For these reasons and others, the EIA process with regard to nuclear projects in India is of dubious quality. We make a number of recommendations that could address these lacunae, and more generally the imbalance of power between the nuclear establishment on the one hand, and civil society and the regulatory agencies on the other.

  12. An (even) broader perspective: Combining environmental processes and natural hazards education in a MSc programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Trappe, Martin; Cyffka, Bernd; Becht, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards are processes occurring in the natural environment that negatively affect human society. In most instances, the definition of natural hazards implies sudden events as different as earthquakes, floods or landslides. In addition, there are other phenomena that occur more subtly or slowly, and nevertheless may have serious adverse effects on the human environment. Hence, a comprehensive study programme in natural hazards has to include not only the conspicuous causes and effects of natural catastrophes, but of environmental processes in general. Geography as a discipline is located at the interface of natural, social and economic sciences; the physical geography programme described here is designed to include the social and economic dimension as well as management issues. Modules strengthening the theoretical background of geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological processes and hazards are complemented by practical work in the field and the laboratory, dealing with measuring and monitoring environmental processes. On this basis, modeling and managing skills are developed. Another thread in the transdisciplinary programme deals with sustainability and environmental policy issues, and environmental psychology (e.g. perception of and reaction to hazards). This will improve the communication and team working skills of students wherever they are part of an interdisciplinary working group. Through the involvement in research programmes, students are confronted ‘hands on' with the different aspects of environmental processes and their consequences; thus, they will be excellently but not exclusively qualified for positions in the ‘natural hazards' sector.

  13. 76 FR 26718 - Verdant Power, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    .... Staff have prepared an environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes the potential environmental effects of licensing the project and concludes that licensing the project, with appropriate environmental..., LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental...

  14. Evaluation of Internalisation Processes in Environmental Management Systems: Aquaculture and Offshore Mussel Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Malorgio, Giulio

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, particular attention has been paid to fishing activities, and more specifically to aquaculture, a production process whose environmental impact at present is not being adequately submitted to any sort of serious assessment and control. The impact of aquaculture on the environment has nonetheless become an important issue for both potential customers and public opinion. The purpose of this study is to appraise environmental protection costs if and when a certified program of e...

  15. Licensing of the Process Uranium Plant Mineral, Retortillo-Santidad; Licenciamiento de la Planta de Proceso de Mineral de Uranio Retortillo-Sanidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Arroyo, E.; Colilla Peletero, J.; Bellon del Rosal, F.; Mancipe Jimenez, D. C.; Garrido Delgado, C.; Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.

    2013-07-01

    Berkeley Minera Spain, S.A. provides for the operation of the concession Retortillo-Santidad (Salamanca) mining and construction of a beneficiation plant of uranium ore, for the production of uranium concentrate (Yellow cake). In Spain, the project Quercus, ENUSA, obtained the last prior authorization in 1979. Since then, there has been a continuous evolution in the aspects technical and regulatory. This paper is the documentation and content necessary for the licensing of a uranium production plant. In particular, to obtain the prior authorization as radioactive installation of 1st category (RINR).

  16. The Oil Point Method - A tool for indicative environmental evaluation in material and process selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2000-01-01

    to three essential assessment steps, the method enables rough environmental evaluations and supports in this way material- and process-related decision-making in the early stages of design. In its overall structure, the Oil Point Method is related to Life Cycle Assessment - except for two main differences...... of environmental evaluation and only approximate information about the product and its life cycle. This dissertation addresses this challenge in presenting a method, which is tailored to these requirements of designers - the Oil Point Method (OPM). In providing environmental key information and confining itself...

  17. Environmental Assessment for the vacuum process laboratory (VPL) relocation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental impacts of relocating a vacuum process laboratory (VPL) from Building 321 to Building 2231 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VPL provides the latest technology in the field of vacuum deposition of coatings onto various substrates for several weapons-related and energy-related programs at LLNL. Operations within the VPL at LLNL will not be expanded nor reduced by the relocation. No significant environmental impacts are expected as a result of the relocation of the VPL

  18. Participation of the public in the licensing of large-scale projects with environmental impact - theoretical framework and project conceptual outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses the dimensions and environmental impacts of large-scale projects, and public participation as an element of institutionalized problem management. The legal protection functions, the administrative and socio-political functions are subsumed under a concept of function which defines a function as a synthesis of a variety of possibilities, so that different 'achievements' are expected from public participation, depending on the reference system chosen for comparison. The paper explains the purpose of the examination of public participation and its functions, the design of analytical procedure which covers the three main stages of 'input, legal procedure, output', and instruments and aspects such as interdisciplinarity, representativity, comparison, relation between empirical research and the principles of the law. (HSCH) [de

  19. A comprehensive compensation technique for process variations and environmental fluctuations in digital integrated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Miceli, Dennis Michael; Calomarde Palomino, Antonio; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—Process variability and environmental fluctuations deeply affect the digital circuits performance in many different ways, one of them, the data processing time which may cause error on synchronous digital circuits due to underestimated time violations. This situation is commonly avoided adding time margins to the clock signal making it larger than nominal worstcase data process time, penalizing the global performance. In this paper a new mechanism for compensating both environm...

  20. Licensing process of the digital application: Nuclear measurement analysis and control power range neutron monitor (NUMAC-PRNM) system for their implementation in the Laguna Verde NPP unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma-Carrion, R.; Hernandez-Cortes, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describe the licensing process performed by the Mexican Regulatory Commission (CNSNS) for the NUclear Measurement Analysis and Control-Power Range Neutron Monitor (NUMAC-PRNM) system, which sends trip signals to the Reactor Protection System (RPS), and has been implemented in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit (LVNPP-U2) before its first fuel loading. The review and approval process was performed with the advise role of the United States of America Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC): the regulatory frame applied includes the Code of Federal Regulation, some Regulatory Guides and some Industrial Standards. The evaluation covered topics related with the software, hardware and firmware specifications, design, tests, training, maintenance and operational experience. After the revision of these topics, the NUMAC-PRNM was approved through the CNSNS Safety Evaluation Report (SER) and then installed in the LVNPP-U2. This paper include a description of the regulatory requirements to this digital application, the safety concerns involved, the compliance to these requirements by the utility and the results of the CNSNS evaluation, mentioning the experience acquired during the process and the method used to perform the evaluation. Additionally, the interface between the designer-vendor, the utility and the regulatory body during the licensing process is commented. Finally, the conclusion is presented, taking into account the operational experience of the NUMAC applications implemented in the LVNPP. It also gives the future regulatory tasks related to the assessment of digital performance equipment and upgrades. (author)

  1. Technology neutral licensing requirements: have we been successful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is Canada's nuclear regulator. In preparation for the licensing of the next generation of nuclear reactors in Canada, the CNSC has made major changes in its processes and procedures associated with all aspects of the licensing life cycle. These include: development of key regulatory documents outlining the CNSC expectations for the design and siting of new reactors; creation of applicant guidelines for completing licensing applications; creation of a comprehensive set of review guides, specifying how topics in applications are to be reviewed; performing pre-project design reviews for proposed new reactor technologies; and streamlining processes wherever possible, such as performing the environmental assessment and license to prepare site activities in parallel. The predicted workload associated with the nuclear renaissance in Canada is real. The CNSC is currently performing: 4 pre-project design reviews (for AECL's ACR-1000 and EC-6, Areva's EPR and Westinghouse's AP-1000), has received applications for 4 new builds (at Darlington, Bruce, Nanticoke and in Alberta) and is in the midst of performing the combined environmental assessment and license to prepare site phases for these sites. This is in addition to the work associated with: the licensing of new uranium mines; oversight of the existing reactor fleet; refurbishments at Bruce/Gentilly/Point Lepreau; license renewal for the NRU reactor; and oversight of our general client base of over 5000 licensees. In this presentation, experience to date with these new processes and procedures will be discussed, including: status of the current new build projects; anticipated new activities; lessons learned, especially the technology neutral approach; application to our other licensed activities, including non-power reactors; and work underway to further develop CNSC methods. Qualifications Needed to Design, Construct and Manufacture Nuclear Systems and Equipment, C. Voutsinos

  2. Process-based investigation of cross-boundary environmental pressure from urban household consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dewei; Lin, Yanjie; Gao, Lijie; Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Run; Zhang, Guoqin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability research at the city scale is increasingly focusing on urban household consumption in the context of global climate change. We use a complementary emergy accounting (EMA) and carbon footprint accounting (CFA) method to investigate the environmental pressure generated by household consumption in Xiamen, China. We distinguish between the resource extraction, consumption and disposal stages within an urban spatial conceptual framework, comprising the Urban Footprint Region (UFR) and Urban Sprawl Region (USR), and analyze five environmental footprint categories associated with cross-boundary household emergy and carbon flows. Cross-boundary activities, which link the USR with its UFR, contributed nearly 90% of total emergy and 70% of total GHG emissions in CFA. Transport fuel, building materials and food contribute most to environmental pressure in both EMA and CFA. The results indicate a significant cross-boundary resource burden and environmental footprint associated with household activities. The employed framework, method, and scope challenge the conventional spatial boundary of the urban system, and the results have important policy implications for urban sustainability and cross-boundary environmental management. - Highlights: ► We propose an urban spatial conceptual framework that includes USR and UFRs. ► A complementary EMA and CFA method is employed in urban household consumption system. ► Process-based cross-boundary environmental pressure of household consumption are evaluated. ► USR exerts pressure on its UFRs by extensive resource extraction and environmental emissions. ► We elucidate the USR–UFR environmental relationships and household energy policy

  3. Environmentally Sound Processing Technology: JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee and Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Joint Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Lorri A. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Topics covered include: Risk assessment of hazardous materials, Automated systems for pollution prevention and hazardous materials elimination, Study design for the toxicity evaluation of ammonium perchlorate, Plasma sprayed bondable stainless surface coatings, Development of CFC-free cleaning processes, New fluorinated solvent alternatives to ozone depleting solvents, Cleaning with highly fluorinated liquids, Biotreatment of propyleneglycol nitrate by anoxic denitrification, Treatment of hazardous waste with white rot fungus, Hydrothermal oxidation as an environmentally benign treatment technology, Treatment of solid propellant manufacturing wastes by base hydrolysis, Design considerations for cleaning using supercritical fluid technology, and Centrifugal shear carbon dioxide cleaning.

  4. 15 CFR 970.515 - Duration of a license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... exploration plan for good cause, such as significantly changed market conditions. However, a request for...

  5. Outline for embedded topical license renewal industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, Jacqueline

    1991-01-01

    This presentation describes the history of the project, selection of the Lead plant; project management, and project implementation, License renewal application contains: implementation plan; technical specifications and program changes; updated safety analysis report supplement; plant specific exemptions; environmental report update

  6. Licensing of the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1991 State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) has regulated Ignalina NPP operation by issuing annual operating permits. Those have been issued following submission of specified documents by the Ignalina NPP that have been reviewed by VATESI. However, according to to the procedures that are now established in the Law on Nuclear Energy and subordinate regulations the use of nuclear energy in the Republic of Lithuania is subject to strict licensing. Therefore a decision about the licence for continued operation of unit 1 should be taken. Licence would be granted by VATESI in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment and the institutions of local authorities. Ignalina NPP presented to the VATESI safety analysis report (SAR) with other documents. SAR was made mainly by foreign experts and financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). VATESI in this process is supported by western regulators. A special project LAP - Licensing Assistance Project was launched to help VATESI perform licensing according western practices

  7. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1994-02-01

    To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal

  9. From Conflict to Collaboration: How Tribal Ways of Knowing Can Improve the Environmental Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Tribal ways of knowing are often neglected during the process of creating science-based environmental policies and in conducting environmental reviews. Yet, because government-to-government consultation between Tribes and government agencies is a vital component to policy and project planning, it behooves all parties to bring an understanding of different epistemologies to the table. This presentation discusses cases where Tribal knowledge has been neglected and ignored, leading to destructive conflicts and even violence, and presents an alternative vision of how Tribal ecological and cultural knowledge can inform and enhance the policy-making and review process, thus leading to more positive outcomes.

  10. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Atadashi; M.K. Aroua; A.R. Abdul Aziz; N.M.N. Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar), temperature (°C) and flow rate (L/min) on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD) coupled with Response Surface Methodology (...

  11. Differences in the licensing requirements for Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 as compared to Cernavoda Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, Ioan; Dina, Dumitru; Ghita, Sorin; Stefanescu, Petre

    2000-01-01

    The main stages of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2 licensing process, according to CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities) requirements, are presented comparatively. The differences occur for the following licenses: - site license; - construction license; - PIF license, regarding the loading of D 2 O in the moderator and primary circuits, fuel loading, first criticality, power increase; - trial operating license; - operating license. The paper addresses the following items: steps in licensing and the Unit 1 corresponding documentation; - the process of Unit 2 licensing; - requirements to designer; - updating the nuclear safety guides; - editing codes, guides and reference standards and implications on NPP design; - NPP behavior during severe accidents (beyond the design accident consequence); - level 2 and 3 PSA issuing prior to operation licensing; - fulfilling ISO 9000 standard by equipment components already manufactured; improving the warning/display systems in the control room

  12. EARP [environmental assessment and review process] and the aboriginal women of James Bay: A structural bias?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, S.

    1993-07-01

    The massive James Bay hydroelectric development project in northern Quebec is studied to explore the themes of the impact on women of rapid resource development projects and the process of environmental assessment of such projects, particularly as it relates to aboriginal peoples. Field surveys were conducted in the Cree community of Fort George, now relocated to Chisasibi as a result of hydroelectric development on the LaGrande River. The surveys examined the kinds of social impacts, the impacts (if any) that were particular to women, the degree of gender bias in Cree society which may have affected those impacts and the participation of women in the environmental assessment process, and the possibility of a bias against women in the environmental assessment process. A number of direct and indirect social effects of the James Bay developments were identified, but the extent to which women and men experienced different impacts, or to which they experienced the same impacts differently, was not entirely clear. It is concluded that the original question of bias against women needs to be reframed: whether the environmental assessment process is adequate to address the range of indirect social impacts which accrue to many social sectors, including youths, elders, men, and women. It is then concluded that the process is not adequate, and a number of recommendations are offered which may help to facilitate cross-cultural impact assessment. 35 refs

  13. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  14. Drivers license display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  15. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2008-01-01

    The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly...... and efficient operations compared to the conventional methods. The aims of the present study has been to investigate whether the enzyme technology is a more environmentally sound alternative than the conventional ways of producing paper. The study addresses five enzyme applications by quantitative means...... improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given...

  16. The impact of Canada's environmental review process on new uranium mine developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    Canada introduced and environmental assessment process in the mid 1970s. It was designed to ensure that the environmental consequences of all project proposals with federal government involvement were assessed for potential adverse effects early in the planning stage. In 1984, a Guidelines Order was approved to clarify the rules, responsibilities and procedures of the environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP) that had evolved informally under earlier Cabinet directives. In 1989/1990, the Federal Court of Appeal effectively converted the Guidelines Order into a legal requirement for rigorous application. The Supreme Court of Canada upheld the constitutionally of the EARP Guidelines Order in 1992. Canada became the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium during the late 1980s. Since then, the Canadian public has become sensitized to numerous issues concerning environmental degradation, from the Chernobyl accident to ozone depletion. In 1991, during this period of increasing awareness, the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal nuclear regulator, referred six new Saskatchewan uranium mining projects for environmental review, pursuant to the EARP Guidelines Order. The public review process provided an extremely valuable focus on aspects of these developments that needed to be addressed by proponents and regulators. It has helped to demonstrate that new uranium mining projects are being developed in a responsible manner, after full consideration has been given to the potential impacts and public concerns associated with these facilities. 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth largest producer of crude oil. It discusses a range of reasons why the impacts of oil and gas projects are not being managed well, despite the legal requirements for EIAs. A review of Nigeria’s environmental governance is presented along with a comprehensive discussion of the EIA process and its significant deficiencies. We argue that the EIA system for oil and gas projects in Nigeria reflects tokenism, resulting in the concentration of benefits of developments in big corporations and government officials. The EIA process in Nigeria faces many challenges that must be addressed in order to improve its effectiveness and alleviate the environmental burdens on this rich oil-producing region.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Assessment Construction and Operation of Revised PACBAR III Radar Station Saipan, CNMI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    ...). Many project design features have already incorporated environmental concerns. In addition, discussions with Saipan environmental agencies have resulted in mitigation measures, which have been added to the design...

  19. An Environmentally Friendly Process for the Preparation of UHMWPE As-Spun Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waqar Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extrusion of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fibres cannot be achieved by conventional extrusion processes due to its very high melt viscosity. To overcome this limitation, UHMWPE is first dissolved in a petrochemical to form a gel before extrusion. The petrochemicals used to dissolve the polymer then need to be removed using other chemicals making the process unfriendly to the environment. This article is focused on finding an environmentally friendly, natural solution to replace these chemicals and altering the process to potentially reduce the process cost.

  20. Tools for environmental simulations and calculations in an Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is focused on how students at Architecture & Design, Aalborg University in Denmark, are working with an integrated design process where the environmental simulations and calculations are used from the beginning of the design process and even in the analysis phase of the project...... to address environmental issues. This paper in specific takes its starting point in a student project where the student is working with a building complex that have to fulfill the passive house standards and through that the student explores the use of the simulation and calculation tools in the design...... process. What the research shows is that the students can have great benefit from utilizing such tools in the design process if they are able to utilize them in a dynamic way where the simulation and calculation tools does not become the main focus. Furthermore the research reveals that the tools...

  1. Study on auto-plating process time versus recovery for polonium, Po-210 in environmental sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamed; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Yii Mei Wo; Kamarozaman Ishak; Siti Aminah Yusoff

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate time effectiveness and recovery 16 samples of 4 Kuala Muda stations during auto-plating process procedures for determination Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. The study was performed using Kuala Muda sediment as sample in the same methodology. The auto-plating process runs for 4, 12, 24 and 30 hours on a silver disc for 4 samples each station, and then counted for one (1) day using an alpha spectrometry counting system. The objectives for this study is to justify on time duration for auto-plating process effecting a chemical yield of Po-209.The results showed recovery are increasing versus time and constantly at 24 hour auto-plating. Its mean, 24 hour is an optimum time for auto-plating process for determination of Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. (Author)

  2. Incorporation of environmental impact criteria in the design and operation of chemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Bauer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment is becoming indispensable for the design and operation of chemical plants. Structured and consistent methods for this purpose have experienced a rapid development. The more rigorous and sophisticated these methods become, the greater is the demand for convenient tools. On the other hand, despite the incredible advances in process simulators, some aspects have still not been sufficiently covered. To date, applications of these programs to quantify environmental impacts have been restricted to straightforward examples of steady-state processes. In this work, a life-cycle assessment implementation with the aim of process design will be described, with a brief discussion of a dynamic simulation for analysis of transient state operations, such as process start-up. A case study shows the importance of this analysis in making possible operation at a high performance level with reduced risks to the environment.

  3. License to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Boccardelli, Paolo; Reichstein, Toke

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the distinction between thin and thick contracts to the investigation of licensing-in as a mechanism for technological learning. Thick contracts include a clause specifying that the licensors are obligated to assist the licensees in assimilating and integrating the technol......This article introduces the distinction between thin and thick contracts to the investigation of licensing-in as a mechanism for technological learning. Thick contracts include a clause specifying that the licensors are obligated to assist the licensees in assimilating and integrating....... Licensees that are more familiar with the licensed technology are in less need of assistance from the licensors to assimilate and integrate the knowledge. However, this substitution effect is neutralized once the hurdle of invention has been overcome, meaning that the licensees have succeeded to ignite...

  4. Software licenses: Stay honest!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you recall our article about copyright violation in the last issue of the CERN Bulletin, “Music, videos and the risk for CERN”? Now let’s be more precise. “Violating copyright” not only means the illegal download of music and videos, it also applies to software packages and applications.   Users must respect proprietary rights in compliance with the CERN Computing Rules (OC5). Not having legitimately obtained a program or the required licenses to run that software is not a minor offense. It violates CERN rules and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. Therefore, make sure that you have the right to use their software. In other words, you have bought the software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “Shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “Freeware” is complete...

  5. Do antibiotics have environmental side-effects? Impact of synthetic antibiotics on biogeochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose-Amsaleg, Céline; Laverman, Anniet M

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic use in the early 1900 vastly improved human health but at the same time started an arms race of antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in ubiquitous trace concentrations of many antibiotics in most environments. Little is known about the impact of these antibiotics on microbial processes or "non-target" organisms. This mini-review summarizes our knowledge of the effect of synthetically produced antibiotics on microorganisms involved in biogeochemical cycling. We found only 31 articles that dealt with the effects of antibiotics on such processes in soil, sediment, or freshwater. We compare the processes, antibiotics, concentration range, source, environment, and experimental approach of these studies. Examining the effects of antibiotics on biogeochemical processes should involve environmentally relevant concentrations (instead of therapeutic), chronic exposure (versus acute), and monitoring of the administered antibiotics. Furthermore, the lack of standardized tests hinders generalizations regarding the effects of antibiotics on biogeochemical processes. We investigated the effects of antibiotics on biogeochemical N cycling, specifically nitrification, denitrification, and anammox. We found that environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides could partially inhibit denitrification. So far, the only documented effects of antibiotic inhibitions were at therapeutic doses on anammox activities. The most studied and inhibited was nitrification (25-100 %) mainly at therapeutic doses and rarely environmentally relevant. We recommend that firm conclusions regarding inhibition of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations remain difficult due to the lack of studies testing low concentrations at chronic exposure. There is thus a need to test the effects of these environmental concentrations on biogeochemical processes to further establish the possible effects on ecosystem functioning.

  6. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Foteinis, S.; Chatzisymeon, E.; Fatta-Kassinos, D.

    2016-01-01

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1 m 3 of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. - Highlights: • The environmental sustainability of an

  7. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L.; Foteinis, S. [Nireas-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Chatzisymeon, E. [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Fatta-Kassinos, D., E-mail: dfatta@ucy.ac.cy [Nireas-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2016-10-15

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1 m{sup 3} of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. - Highlights: • The environmental sustainability of

  8. The problem of licensing and safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da.

    1987-01-01

    The historical evolution of licensing process of nuclear power plants is presented. The designs carried out by FURNAS for constructing Angra-1 reactor and its contribution to the Brazilian CNEN in de licensing process, are evaluated. The aims of FURNAS Research Programs are determined and the safety goals are established. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. The environmental footprint of a membrane bioreactor treatment process through Life Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L; Foteinis, S; Chatzisymeon, E; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2016-10-15

    This study includes an environmental analysis of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), the objective being to quantitatively define the inventory of the resources consumed and estimate the emissions produced during its construction, operation and end-of-life deconstruction. The environmental analysis was done by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, in order to establish with a broad perspective and in a rigorous and objective way the environmental footprint and the main environmental hotspots of the examined technology. Raw materials, equipment, transportation, energy use, as well as air- and waterborne emissions were quantified using as a functional unit, 1m(3) of urban wastewater. SimaPro 8.0.3.14 was used as the LCA analysis tool, and two impact assessment methods, i.e. IPCC 2013 version 1.00 and ReCiPe version 1.10, were employed. The main environmental hotspots of the MBR pilot unit were identified to be the following: (i) the energy demand, which is by far the most crucial parameter that affects the sustainability of the whole process, and (ii) the material of the membrane units. Overall, the MBR technology was found to be a sustainable solution for urban wastewater treatment, with the construction phase having a minimal environmental impact, compared to the operational phase. Moreover, several alternative scenarios and areas of potential improvement, such as the diversification of the electricity mix and the material of the membrane units, were examined, in order to minimize as much as possible the overall environmental footprint of this MBR system. It was shown that the energy mix can significantly affect the overall sustainability of the MBR pilot unit (i.e. up to 95% reduction of the total greenhouse gas emissions was achieved with the use of an environmentally friendly energy mix), and the contribution of the construction and operational phase to the overall environmental footprint of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Annie L.; Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  11. Integrating Process and Factor Understanding of Environmental Innovation by Water Utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, Marc; McIntosh, Brian S.; Seaton, Roger A.F.; Jeffrey, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in technology and organisations are central to enabling the water sector to adapt to major environmental changes such as climate change, land degradation or drinking water pollution. While there are literatures on innovation as a process and on the factors that influence it, there is

  12. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  13. Alternative Silver Production by Environmental Sound Processing of a Sulfo Salt Silver Mineral Found in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Birich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Very often, the production of silver causes devastating environmental issues, because of the use of toxic reagents like cyanide and mercury. Due to severe environmental damage caused by humans in the last decades, the social awareness regarding the sustainable production processes is on the rise. Terms like “sustainable” and “green” in product descriptions are becoming more and more popular and producers are forced to satisfy the rising environmental awareness of their customers. Within this work, an alternative environmental sound silver recovery process was developed for a vein type silver ore from Mina Porka, Bolivia. A foregoing characterization of the input material reveals its mineral composition. In the following mineral processing, around 92.9% silver was concentrated by separating 59.5 wt. % of non-silver minerals. Nitric acid leaching of the generated concentrate enabled a silver recovery of up to 98%. The dissolved silver was then separated via copper cementation to generate a metallic silver product of >99% purity. Summarizing all process steps, a silver yield of 87% was achieved in lab scale. A final upscaling trial was conducted to prove the process’ robustness. Within this trial, almost 4 kg of metallic silver with a purity of higher than 99.5 wt. % was produced.

  14. Infrared detection of ore variability that influences the environmental risks during perlite mining and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the mining of perlite deposits, controlling the generation of fine particles and the concentration of metals is of outstanding importance to meet the environmental and market requirements. Particle size and chemical purity are conventionally manipulated during the processing of the ore to achieve

  15. Environmentally friendly processing of photoresists in scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Christine Y.; Lee, Jin-Kyun; Sha, Jing; Ober, Christopher K.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical waste generated in today's microelectronic fabrication processes has driven the need to develop a more environmentally benign process. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has been evaluated as an environmentally friendly solvent for photoresist development. It is nontoxic, nonflammable, and inert under most conditions. It also possesses advantages such as liquid-like densities, gas-like diffusivity, and zero surface tension. Although scCO2 is a poor solvent for most polymers, certain fluorine-and silicon-containing polymers have shown solubility in scCO2. Previously, negative-tone patterns of 100nm have also been developed in scCO2 using conventional photoresists such as ESCAP and PBOCST with the aid of fluorinated quaternary ammonium salts (QAS). However, the incorporation of fluorine degrades plasma etch resistance, and because of their persistence in nature, fluorinated compounds are coming under increased scrutiny. In order to make the process more environmentally benign, the elimination of fluorine is desirable. Some molecular glass photoresists without the incorporation of fluorine and silicon have thus been designed and synthesized to be processed in scCO2. In addition to scCO2, another environmentally friendly, low VOC solvent, decamethyltetrasiloxane has also been investigated to develop conventional photoresists. In this paper, we demonstrate the patterning of photoresists in both scCO2 and decamethyltetrasiloxane.

  16. Multi objective optimization model for minimizing production cost and environmental impact in CNC turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing production cost in a manufacturing company will increase the profit of the company. The cutting parameters will affect total processing time which then will affect the production cost of machining process. Besides affecting the production cost and processing time, the cutting parameters will also affect the environment. An optimization model is needed to determine the optimum cutting parameters. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact in CNC turning process. The model is used a multi objective optimization. Cutting speed and feed rate are served as the decision variables. Constraints considered are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting force, output power, and surface roughness. The environmental impact is converted from the environmental burden by using eco-indicator 99. Numerical example is given to show the implementation of the model and solved using OptQuest of Oracle Crystal Ball software. The results of optimization indicate that the model can be used to optimize the cutting parameters to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact.

  17. Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-05-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

  18. 78 FR 143 - Desert Mining, Inc., Eagle Broadband, Inc., Endovasc, Inc., Environmental Oil Processing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Desert Mining, Inc., Eagle Broadband, Inc., Endovasc, Inc., Environmental Oil Processing Technology Corp., Falcon Ridge Development, Inc., Fellows... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Desert Mining...

  19. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions. 1021.4 Section 1021.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... detailed fashion. (See § 1021.10(a), below.) It contains sufficient information to form a basis for...

  20. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar, temperature (°C and flow rate (L/min on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The best retention coefficients (%R for free glycerol and soap were 97.5% and 96.6% respectively. Further, the physical properties measured were comparable to those obtained in ASTMD6751-03 and EN14214 standards.

  1. Licensing Trends for Construction of New Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Bae-Hyeuk; Ahn, Kyu-Suk; Kim, Young-Gyun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Baek, Jong-Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Currently in Korea, an SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) technology proving stage reactor called PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) is being developed by KAERI and KEPCO E and C to be constructed by 2028. After the accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plants, how to regulate and license newly developing nuclear reactors requiring higher safety goals has been issued. As a result, in leading nuclear nations developing new reactors, the close cooperation between the developer and the regulator is becoming very important. In this study, the licensing processes of leading nuclear countries were surveyed and compared with that of Korea, and a new licensing direction for PGSFR was suggested. Reviewing licensing processes for newly developing reactors of other countries, the first step of the licensing process is the pre-safety review, which is to review the reactor design. This process is not legally binding, but is a review process for a better understanding of newly applied technologies by regulators prior to starting the legally binding licensing process as the construction and operation licensing. This process provides an opportunity for the reactor developer to adopt the regulator's licensing direction and a goal to designing newly developing reactors to meet the safety requirements.

  2. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Arai, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  3. RM - ODP to express nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, E.A.; Martucci, M. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) is established by standards and procedures, which allow one context where several activities for nuclear licensing are realized by persons, machines and other entities of real world and by software systems. The CNEN objectives for licensing nuclear installations can be specified and they define how the systems are consisted, its nature, and which important elements were considered relevant for its constitution. The behavior, where the software will be operated, was likely defined in this paper through all aspects of its business process, which means from its licensing context. The concepts and definition showed here defined one specifics business domain, through ODP context. The functionalities of nuclear licensing process, the relationship scope and the rules of interaction that contributed for to specify the nuclear licensing process were defined, too. Therefore, the definition of the domain follows the orientation of architecture concepts and allows to implement the reflection model, where, with the auxiliary from IDEF0 (Integration Definition for Function Modeling) diagrams, the interactions between extern domains were mapped

  4. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C.; Arai, K.; Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B.

    2015-09-01

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  5. Sustainable manufacturing: Effect of material selection and design on the environmental impact in the manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, Mohd Hazwan Syafiq; Salaam, Hadi Abdul; Taha, Zahari

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of a manufacturing process is also dependent on the selection of the material and design of a product. This is because the manufacturing of a product is directly connected to the amount of carbon emitted in consuming the electrical energy for that manufacturing process. The difference in the general properties of materials such as strength, hardness and impact will have significant effect on the power consumption of the machine used to complete the product. In addition the environmental impact can also be reduced if the proposed designs use less material. In this study, an LCA tool called Eco-It is used. Evaluate the environmental impact caused by manufacturing simple jig. A simple jig with 4 parts was used as a case study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was to study the environmental effects of different material, and the second experiment was to study the environmental impact of different design. The materials used for the jig are Aluminium and mild steel. The results showed a decrease in the rate of carbon emissions by 60% when Aluminium is use instead from mild steel, and a decrease of 26% when the-design is modified

  6. Materials licensing study. Phase 1. Task 9 report: evaluation of medical license renewals using the preprinted form. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, B.W.; Varnado, G.B.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the trial use of a preprinted license renewal form to reduce processing time. Other analyses (SAND83-7081/1 of 3 and SAND83-7081/2 of 3) have concluded that license renewals generate more deficiency letters than other actions, and that these contribute significantly to license processing time. This effort developed a preprinted form which utilized existing license data and standardized responses to complete most of a renewal application. This was mailed to selected licensees in advance of their license expiration. Results are tabulated in the report, but do not provide a statistically valid basis for conclusion on the effectiveness of this procedure. The report recommends continuing the use of a modified procedure, establishing a better basis for evaluation, and identifying opportunities for use in other license categories

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of British Columbia's environmental assessment process for first nations' participation in mining development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Douglas C.; McLelland, James N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper applies effectiveness as a criterion to measure the participation of First Nations' participation in British Columbia's environmental assessment process. Effectiveness is reviewed as a means to measure policy implementation and an expanded framework is proposed to measure effectiveness. The framework is applied to three case studies in north-central British Columbia to measure the effectiveness of First Nations' participation in the EA process for mining development. All three cases failed to achieve procedural, substantive, and transactive efficacy and thereby failed to meet overall policy effectiveness. The policies used by the British Columbia government, including the relatively recent Environmental Assessment Act (1995), reflect a poor integration of First Nations people in the EA decision-making process with respect to mine development

  8. Hearing living symbols and nonliving icons: category specificities in the cognitive processing of environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Bruno L; McDonnell, John; McAdams, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    The neurocognitive processing of environmental sounds and linguistic stimuli shares common semantic resources and can lead to the activation of motor programs for the generation of the passively heard sound or speech. We investigated the extent to which the cognition of environmental sounds, like that of language, relies on symbolic mental representations independent of the acoustic input. In a hierarchical sorting task, we found that evaluation of nonliving sounds is consistently biased toward a focus on acoustical information. However, the evaluation of living sounds focuses spontaneously on sound-independent semantic information, but can rely on acoustical information after exposure to a context consisting of nonliving sounds. We interpret these results as support for a robust iconic processing strategy for nonliving sounds and a flexible symbolic processing strategy for living sounds. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integration of ICT in everyday life - exploration of transition processes in an environmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Presently, one of the fastest growing fields of consumption is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The integration of ICT in social practices is part of wide-ranging transition processes constructing new ‘normal standards’ in everyday life, and these changes have large en...... environmental impacts. The paper explores the ongoing processes in order to discuss whether they can be managed so as to better integrate environmental considerations.......Presently, one of the fastest growing fields of consumption is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The integration of ICT in social practices is part of wide-ranging transition processes constructing new ‘normal standards’ in everyday life, and these changes have large...

  10. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  11. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome,...

  12. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  13. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    -legislative) initiatives, which support the facilitation of multi-territorial licensing and cross-border access to content. It investigates the regulation of two online markets, which have recently been subject to scrutiny by the EU institutions: the audiovisual and the music sector, both addressed by ex ante sector...

  14. Biography and License

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitz, David

    2001-01-01

    What are the moral limits of artistic license? A strong case can be made for the view that there are none; that in viewing works of art people should resist ethical criticism, and, "a fortiori," resist moral strictures on the artist's inventiveness. This view has recently been defended by Richard Posner, who argues that people should not expect…

  15. Use 'em or lose 'em: the licensed practical nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Loralee R

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the process our gastroenterology unit has undergone in redesigning and enhancing the role of the licensed practical nurse. Within the department, there had existed some dissatisfaction among the licensed practical nurses regarding their role. The unit norm was to use these nurses as healthcare technicians or associates in the procedure and reprocessing rooms. The licensed practical nurses struggled with the restriction of their role and the unit reexamined the appropriate usage of licensed practical nurses. In this article, a literature review has been provided along with a description of the process of developing orientation tools and training of the licensed practical nurses to new roles. Barriers to staff acceptance has also been highlighted. Enhancement of the licensed practical nurse role has had a positive impact on our unit. This practice change has improved the job satisfaction of the licensed practical nurse as well as provided greater unit flexibility and improved teamwork within the department. Alice, a licensed practical nurse (LPN) with 30 years of experience, joined the gastrointestinal (GI) department 7 years ago. She recently corrected my introduction of her as "the tech" by explaining to our patient that: "I am a licensed nurse who will assist the doctor." This simple statement made me realize that Alice was actually a nurse! This initiated the exciting and somewhat painful process of reevaluating our use of staff, individual staff skills and competencies, and staffing patterns within our GI unit.

  16. The Impact of Environmental Complexity and Team Training on Team Processes and Performance in Multi-Team Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobb, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes...

  17. 31 CFR 596.309 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.309 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or...

  18. Asserting the primacy of health over patent rights: a comparative study of the processes that led to the use of compulsory licensing in Thailand and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stephanie T

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1970s, the United States has adopted a trade policy agenda that has forced countries to trade away flexible patent provisions for access to US markets. While pharmaceutical companies have argued that the recognition of patent rights is essential for recovering investments in research and development of pharmaceuticals and incentivizing future innovation, the lack of competition has had damaging consequences for public health, as companies tend to set the prices of treatments beyond the reach of consumers and government programs. Thailand and Brazil are bound by law to provide universal access to anti-retroviral treatment (ART) to People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This has been made possible in part due to the universal health care systems in each country and the countries' local technical and industrial capacities that provide the government with affordable generic medicines. The introduction of stronger intellectual property protection laws however, has limited possibilities for procuring generic medicines and inflated the cost of treatment. Between 2006-2008, Thailand and Brazil used compulsory licensing to authorize generic competition against the consent of the pharmaceutical companies in order to guarantee the right to health and ensure the viability of government health budgets. This paper will demonstrate how the interaction between individual / collective action and structural and institutional elements in Thailand and Brazil produced propitious conditions for each country to assert the primacy of health over patent rights. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  20. United States Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5