WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental governance approaches

  1. Governance of environmental risk: new approaches to managing stakeholder involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter; Martin, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Disputes concerning industrial legacies such as the disposal of toxic wastes illustrate changing pressures on corporations and governments. Business and governments are now confronted with managing the expectations of a society increasingly aware of the social and environmental impacts and risks associated with economic development and demanding more equitable distribution and democratic management of such risks. The closed managerialist decision-making of the powerful bureaucracies and corporations of the industrial era is informed by traditional management theory which cannot provide a framework for the adequate governance of these risks. Recent socio-political theories have conceptualised some key themes that must be addressed in a more fitting approach to governance. We identify more recent management and governance theory which addresses these themes and develop a process-based approach to governance of environmental disputes that allows for the evolving nature of stakeholder relations in a highly complex multiple stakeholder arena.

  2. Participatory approaches for environmental governance: theoretical justifications and practical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, Sybille

    2003-01-01

    A key justification for the rapid development of participatory approaches for environment and sustainable development governance stems from the characteristics of environmental issues. Environmental issues - and radioactive waste disposal is a good example - typically present four important physical characteristics: complexity, uncertainty, large temporal and spatial scales, and irreversibility, which all have consequences on what can be called the social characteristics of environmental issues. These include: social complexity and conflicts of interests, transversality, diffuse responsibilities and impacts, no clear division between micro- and macro-levels, and short-term costs of dealing with the issue associated with benefits which might occur only in the long-term. In turn, these physical and social characteristics determine the type of problem-solving processes needed to tackle environmental issues. It appears that the problem-solving processes best suited to confront global environmental issues will be dynamic processes of capacity-building, - aiming at innovative, flexible and adjustable answers, - allowing for the progressive integration of information as it becomes available, and of different value judgements and logics, - involving various actors from different backgrounds and levels. In promoting more democratic practices, these processes additionally should supersede traditional politics and allow co-ordination across different policy areas. It is deemed that participatory approaches have the potential to meet these problem-solving requirements

  3. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  4. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  5. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  6. A conceptual approach to a citizens' observatory--supporting community-based environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-12-12

    programme as a system that supports and promotes community-based environmental governance. Next, we discuss some of the challenges involved in developing this approach. This work seeks to initiate a debate and help defining what is the Citizens' Observatory, its potential role in environmental governance, and its validity as a tool for environmental research.

  7. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  8. Transformations in Environmental Governance and Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Dana; Fritsch, Oliver; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how ecological modernization theory has approached transformations taking place in environmental governance and participation by social actors beyond the state. In other words, how has ecological modernization scholarship addressed changes in environmental governance and t...

  9. Decentralized environmental governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tula

    Human Development, a Road to the. Future. Systematization of ... Opportunities for Sustainability and Natural Resources Access for Poor. Rural Areas ... natural resource management. Under this ... Governance is defined as the formal and informal ... approval of the Environmental Impact Study, the strong oppo- sition of the ...

  10. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  11. Theorizing benefits and constraints in collaborative environmental governance: a transdisciplinary social-ecological network approach for empirical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Bodin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When environmental processes cut across socioeconomic boundaries, traditional top-down government approaches struggle to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems. In such cases, governance arrangements that foster multiactor collaboration are needed. The effectiveness of such arrangements, however, depends on how well any ecological interdependencies across governed ecosystems are aligned with patterns of collaboration. This inherent interdisciplinary and complex problem has impeded progress in developing a better understanding of how to govern ecosystems for conservation in an increasingly interconnected world. We argue for the development of empirically informed theories, which are not only able to transcend disciplinary boundaries, but are also explicit in taking these complex social-ecological interdependences into account. We show how this emerging research frontier can be significantly improved by incorporating recent advances in stochastic modeling of multilevel social networks. An empirical case study from an agricultural landscape in Madagascar is reanalyzed to demonstrate these improvements.

  12. Environmental Health Risk Governance in Practice: Lessons Learned from a Flemish Case Study Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, K.R.; Leroy, P.; Gislason, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Risk governance is being successfully inserted into scientific and political agendas as a way to understand and address complex problems, such as health problems that have both social and ecological dimensions. However, to date, the debate on risk governance has remained rather conceptual.

  13. Urban environmental services and the state in East Africa; between neo-developmental and network governance approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although governments are generally expected to provide environmental services such as sanitation and solid waste collection for their citizens, most (municipal) governments in Sub-Saharan Africa seem hardly able to take up this task. Without ignoring the lack of material resources resulting from

  14. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  15. Environmental Governance in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multiple purposes of nature - livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists - have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a recourse-rich region, unequal power relations,

  16. Special Issue Environmental Governance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, N.T.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  17. Addressing Complexity in Environmental Management and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kirschke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Governance for complex problem solving has been increasingly discussed in environmental sustainability research. Above all, researchers continuously observe that sustainability problems are complex or “wicked”, and suggest participatory models to address these problems in practice. In order to add to this debate, this study suggests a more differentiated theoretical approach to define governance for complex environmental problem solving than in previous studies. The approach consists of two vital steps: First, we operationalize complexity and define management strategies for solving environmental sustainability problems based on findings from psychology research. Second, we identify governance strategies that facilitate these management strategies. Linking those strategies suggests that the role of diverse institutions, actors, and interactions differs for five key dimensions of complexity: goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and informational uncertainty. The results strengthen systematic analyses of environmental sustainability problems in both theory and practice.

  18. Public participation, Good Environmental Governance and fulfilment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public participation, Good Environmental Governance and fulfilment of Environmental rights. ... international developments the role that public participation is expected to play in state governments\\' fulfilment of citizens\\' environmental rights.

  19. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  20. Integrative environmental governance: enhancing governance in the era of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    The issue of regime complexity in global environmental governance is widely recognized. The academic debate on regime fragmentation has itself however been rather fragmented, with discussions circling around different concepts, including inter-organizational relations, polycentric governance,

  1. Strategic alliance for environmental restoration -- An innovative approach to government and industry collaboration for decontamination and decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aker, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The world's largest environmental cleanup effort is focused upon the DOE weapons complex. These cleanup efforts parallel those which will be required as the commercial nuclear industry reaches the end of licensed life. The Strategic Alliance for Environmental Restoration (Strategic Alliance), reflects the cooperative interest of industry, commercial nuclear utilities, university and national laboratory team members to bring a collaborative best-in-class approach to finding, and providing effective delivery of innovative environmental remediation technologies to the DOE Complex and subsequently to industry. The collaborative team of the Strategic Alliance includes ComEd, Duke Engineering and Services, 3M, ICF Kaiser, Florida International University, Argonne National Laboratory in concert with DOE. The Strategic Alliance approach to technology qualification and deployment provides DOE, through a Cooperative Agreement, with a new way of bringing industry principles to technology research and developed activities. This paper will describe the approach and activities the Strategic Alliance is taking to provide cost effective technology solutions to DOE/Industry needs for decontamination and decommissioning needs

  2. Improving Unsustainable Environmental Governance in South Africa: the Case for Holistic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Kotze

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law in South Africa has developed in a rapid fashion since the inception of the new constitutional dispensation in 1994. This development is evident from, inter alia, the constitutionalisation of the environmental right in section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 24 contains amongst other provisions, directive principles that impose duties on government to protect the environment for present and future generations through reasonable legislative and other measures. It is apparent from section 24 that these measures should ensure environmental governance practices that are aimed at the achievement of sustainable results. The South African environmental governance regime is, however, characterised by fragmentation that may negate the achievement of sustainable environmental governance. It is argued in this article that, for environmental governance to become sustainable, it is necessary to integrate environmental governance efforts, possibly by way of a holistic approach to environmental governance. In light of the above, this article: investigates the nature and extent of fragmentation; explores reasons for fragmentation; discusses disadvantages of fragmented governance efforts in South Africa; investigates the concept of integration and holistic governance as means to achieve sustainable environmental governance results; and makes recommendations regarding the eventual achievement of integrated, holistic and sustainable environmental governance.

  3. Governing Forest Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Environmental Governance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Governing forest ecosystem services as a forest socio-ecological system is an evolving concept in the face of different environmental and social challenges. Therefore, different modes of ecosystem governance such as hierarchical, scientific–technical, and adaptive–collaborative governance have been developed. Although each form of governance offers important features, no one form on its own is sufficient to attain sustainable environmental governance (SEG. Thus, the blending of important features of each mode of governance could contribute to SEG, through a combination of both hierarchical and collaborative governance systems supported by scientifically and technically aided knowledge. This should be further reinforced by the broad engagement of stakeholders to ensure the improved well-being of both ecosystems and humans. Some form of governance and forest management measures, including sustainable forest management, forest certification, and payment for ecosystem services mechanisms, are also contributing to that end. While issues around commodification and putting a price on nature are still contested due to the complex relationship between different services, if these limitations are taken into account, the governance of forest ecosystem services will serve as a means of effective environmental governance and the sustainable management of forest resources. Therefore, forest ecosystem services governance has a promising future for SEG, provided limitations are tackled with due care in future governance endeavors.

  4. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis

  5. Environmental governance through information: China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of environmental governance information is starting to become increasingly important, not least because of globalization and the information and communication technologies revolution. The notion of informational governance is a recent coinage that acknowledges the (partial) switch from

  6. Towards good environmental governance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Michiel A.

    2005-01-01

    This article is about good governance, as presented in the 2001 EC White Paper, in relation to environmental legal policy making in Europe. First a concise analysis is made of the concept of good governance. Then, in a ``tour d’horizon’’, environmental policy programmes, legal cornerstones and

  7. Public Orchestration, Social Networks, and Transnational Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Ponte, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to current debates on the potential and limitations of transnational environmental governance, addressing in particular the issue of how private and public regulation compete and/or reinforce each other - and with what results. One of the most influential approaches...... that a social network analytical perspective on orchestration can improve our understanding of how governments and international organizations can shape transnational environmental governance. Through a case study of aviation, we provide two contributions to these debates: first, we propose four analytical...... and institutions that provide the infrastructure of governance....

  8. ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR GOVERNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview of the document, ISO 14001 - A Tool for Supporting Government Environmental Programs and Policies, recently published by USEPA/s Office of Research and Development. It is an informational document, explaining the backjground and development ...

  9. Environmental, Social og Governance og aktivt ejerskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.

    2016-01-01

    Den første artikel i dette nummer af Finans/Invest diskuterer Environmental, Social og Governance (ESG) i forhold til at skabe forbedret aktieafkast. Den tredje artikel går i dybden med udviklingen i danske børsnoterede bankers corporate governance karakteristika hen over bankkrisen. ESG og...

  10. Governance in Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from the Portuguese practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Margarida B.; Partidário, Maria Rosário

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of governance in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) can help understand why, whether and how strategic decision-making happens. Understanding the governance context is strategic to improve the role and capacity of SEA to stimulate, and legitimate decisions that integrate environmental issues and are sustainability driven. The objective of this paper is to discuss why governance is important in SEA. In the SEA literature governance is mostly addressed in silos (i.e. public participation or decisions transparency or accountability) rather than in an integrated way. In addition few authors adopt a strategic view to address the governance context within which SEA is used. In this paper we address the heuristics of governance in SEA based on theoretical and empirical evidence, suggesting how SEA may incorporate the governance dimension. First a review of the SEA literature in relation to governance sets the context to the analysis on how governance is approached in practice, based on 60 Portuguese SEA cases. This is followed by the presentation of an empirical SEA case conducted in Portugal to illustrate what, in our understanding, can be an example of good practice in considering governance in SEA. Final discussion reflects on the role of governance in SEA in promoting engagement, enabling collaborative action, learning processes and dialogues, concluding on the relevance of governance in creating development contexts that can deal with change.

  11. Corporate Governance and Environmental Reporting in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Rafique

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study is to investigate the association between environmental reporting and corporate governance traits in Pakistan. The prior studies related to the association between environmental disclosure and corporate governance characteristics show fickle findings. This study fills the gap by using cross sectional data of 100 randomly selected firms registered at Karachi Stock Exchange for the year 2015. The results of the present research showed a positive association between the level of environmental disclosure and fraction of independent directors on the board. Negative relationship was found between environmental disclosure and institutional investors. The result shows a positive association between the level of environmental reporting and board size. It confirms a positive association. The analysis revealed a lack of association between level of environmental reporting and fraction of female directors on a board. In case of control variables, positive relationship was found between firms profitability and level of environmental disclosure, whereas, no correlation was found between firm size and the level of environmental reporting. Moreover, the results of incremental regression indicate that ownership concentration is the most important independent variable among all the independent variables in the model.

  12. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article argues that, inadequate or lack of accountability in enforcing the Environmental Management Act is a governance failure, that renders the EIA process ineffective. The article calls for a re-assessment of the theoretical arguments used to understand effectiveness to include sociological and psychological factors, ...

  13. Environmental Governance as a Model of Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Kristianto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of environmental governance does not promise practical solutions and provides short guidance in solving intertwined environmental problems in Indonesia. But at least environmental concept is useful when we try to realize environmental management in Indonesia currently. The worst is that the mistake has become routine manifesting in pragmatism in environmental management. Before it all too late, it is better that we keep in mind a German proverb in the beginning of this writing, which more or less, means “ we do not know what the future brings, but we know that we should act.”

  14. Environmental management: A system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petak, William J.

    1981-05-01

    This paper presents a system framework whose purpose is to improve understanding of environmental management. By analyzing the links between elements of the environmental management system, it is possible to construct a model that aids thinking systematically about the decision-making subsystem, and other subsystems, of the entire environmental management system. Through a multidisciplinary environmental approach, each of the individual subsystems is able to adapt to threats and opportunities. The fields of government, market economics, social responsibility and ecology, for example, are so complex that it is extremely difficult to develop a framework that gives full consideration to all aspects. This paper, through the application of a highly idealized system framework, attempts to show the general relationships that exist between complex system elements.

  15. Participatory Aspirations of Environmental Governance in East Africa - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available New ways of thinking about governance are challenging our basic understandings about how we organise ourselves in a world that is increasingly characterised by uncertainty, ambiguity and unpredictability, and about how we should organise ourselves (emphasis added. Through consideration of developments in East Africa under the auspices of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-administered project, the Partnership for Development of Environmental Laws and Institutions (PADELIA, two important considerations clearly stand out. First, in regional approaches to environmental governance law-makers and policy-makers need to go beyond a formalist understanding of governance which lays sole emphasis upon respective countries' institutions and legal frameworks. An appreciation of the extent to which shared understandings and common approaches to problem-solving may be tempered by contingent social, cultural and political circumstances is also necessary. Secondly, given the present trend in environmental governance where governmental authority is increasingly shifting away from state institutions towards civil actors, ever-increasing opportunities are presented to civil actors to shape and reshape their environmental laws and policy. As a result, what is left is for these actors is to be proactive and to take more initiative in safeguarding their own environment.

  16. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion.

  17. Governing environmental conflicts in China: Under what conditions do local government compromise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Li (Yanwei); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); S. Verweij (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn recent years, governing environmental conflicts concerning the planning, construction, and operation of urban facilities has increasingly become a challenge for Chinese local governments. Chinese governments seek adequate responses to deal with these conflicts, for instance by

  18. Governing environmental conflicts in China : Under what conditions do local governments compromise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yanwei; Koppenjan, Joop; Verweij, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, governing environmental conflicts concerning the planning, construction, and operation of urban facilities has increasingly become a challenge for Chinese local governments. Chinese governments seek adequate responses to deal with these conflicts, for instance by ignoring criticism

  19. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate......, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress....

  20. Environmental governance and role of judiciary in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the role of judiciary in environmental governance of India in terms of judiciary intervention in the environmental policy making process as well as its role in the implementation of existing environmental laws and shaping its implementation process. In consonance with this exercise, the paper has highlighted the contributing factors influencing judiciary role in environmental governance and thereby examines the impact of judicial intervention in environmental governance of India. The discussion in the paper is drawn from the case studies of a few environmental cases where the role of judiciary in environmental governance can be observed. (author)

  1. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frame...

  2. A Stakeholder Approach to Media Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Historically, government regulation has significantly impacted the room for manoeuvre enjoyed by media managers, especially in public service media but increasingly also in privately owned firms. Currently stakeholders of many different kinds attempt to influence media industries, using a number...... of the world arguably features the most complex and continuous development in these aspects. Our particular interest investigates media governance, which is not understood as an external given but considered as a premise of strategic management. It is argued that to secure an appropriate remit for an industry...... or firm to that guarantees a longer-term licence to operate, media managers must engage different audiences and authorities in relation to restrictive as well as prescriptive regulation. Achieving that requires approaching media governance from a stakeholder perspective, which inherently involves a broad...

  3. Environmental governance in Latin America: towards an integrative research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, M.; de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    Latin America plays an important international role with regard to environmental governance. Knowledge generated by empirical and theoretical studies on environmental challenges can support the renewed efforts in the region to achieve equitable and sustainable natural resource use. Although link

  4. Summaries of foreign government environmental reports, Number 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Under a series of document exchange agreements with environmental agencies in other countries, EPA is building a collection of environmental reports issued by foreign governments and international organizations. This is a monthly announcement listing of foreign documents received through the exchange agreements. This series, devoted to summaries of government reports and other pertinent literature and focusing on the legislative, organizational, economic, and social aspects of environmental protection, supplements foreign scientific and technical literature abstracted by other EPA information services

  5. A feminist approach to open government: investing in gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A feminist approach to open government: investing in gender equality to drive sustainable ... Current open government practices limit the ability of women and other ... accessing government information at the local level as compared to men.

  6. public participation, good environmental governance and fulfilment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    Basic rights to a qualified environment beneficial to human life and ... processes that potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. ... each of the three functions and flexibility to meet the needs of a given .... government failed to strike a fair balance between the interest of the town's economic ...... schedule(s).

  7. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Cap 191. This Act promotes Environmental Assessment, gives it the legal support and defines the institutional set up for the management of the environment. However ..... Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, built along a very busy road ...

  8. Environmental governance in Latin America: Towards an integrative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Latin America plays an important international role with regard to environmental governance. Knowledge generated by empirical and theoretical studies on environmental challenges can support the renewed efforts to achieve equitable and sustainable natural resource use in the region. Although linkages between social and environmental dimensions have been academically explored since the 1990s, new trends in environmental governance in Latin America deserve a comprehensive analytical approach. This Exploration presents relevant emerging research topics and provides a brief overview of relevant elements and ‘cross-overs’ for an integrative analysis. The authors argue that in order to enhance ‘Latin American perspectives’ to solving socioenvironmental dilemmas, several research streams need to be brought together in integrative frameworks that can address complex questions related to interactions between state, civil society and market actors at multiple scales. With a consortium of ten Latin American and European institutions, they aim to contribute to the development of such frameworks through the project Environmental Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean: Developing Frameworks for Sustainable and Equitable Natural Resource Use (ENGOV.Resumen: Gobernanza ambiental en América Latina: Hacia un programa integrado de investigaciónAmérica Latina juega un importante papel internacional en el ámbito de la gobernanza ambiental. El conocimiento generado por estudios teóricos y empíricos sobre retos ambientales puede sostener renovados esfuerzos por llegar a un uso equitativo y sostenible de los recursos naturales en la región. Aunque las conexiones entre las dimensiones social y ambiental han sido estudiadas en la academia desde los años noventa, nuevas tendencias en gobernanza ambiental en América Latina merecen un enfoque analítico comprehensivo. Esta Exploración presenta nuevos y relevantes temas de investigación y ofrece una

  9. Transparency in Global Environmental Governance: A Coming of Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article draws on the contributions to this special issue to consider the implications of a transparency turn in global environmental and sustainability governance. Three interrelated aspects are addressed: why transparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? And what

  10. Digital Environmental Governance in China: Information Disclosure, Pollution Control, and Environmental Activism in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese water bureaucracy increasingly utilises information and communications technology (ICT in order to strengthen interaction with the population, which is severely affected by industrial pollution. Government webpages, mailboxes, and online interviews with officers have become prevalent tools for environmental governance, including information disclosure, and a virtual communication forum between the state and its citizens. The present study employs a mixed methods approach with a qualitative emphasis to explore the process of communication and interaction between government agencies and local residents in Dongying, Shandong Province. The results show that information disclosure of pollution data remains far from being transparent, despite the fact that the local government has implemented digital environmental governance, as encouraged by the central Chinese state. Internet technologies empower resource-poor environmental activists in Dongying to strengthen their social network and build communication with the authorities. The application of bureaucratic techniques, however, is key for them to enter the communication interface with government agencies in order to influence political decisions. Results suggest that local cadres tend to send mixed signals to activists and display wariness towards them. They also tend to take preventive measures to keep the situation under control when environmental disputes arise. The proposed communication interface approach sheds a clearer light on the complexity among the emergent ICTs, environmental activism, and digital governance.

  11. Strategic environmental assessment for policies: an instrument for good governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    World Bank; Ahmed, Kulsum; Sánchez Triana, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    ... , The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment “This book suggests how an institutional lens can be applied systematically to improve public policy design and implementation and sectoral governance both from supply and demand perspectives. Environmental and natural resources policies are the focus of the book, but the lessons are much broader and shou...

  12. Transparency and information disclosure in China's environmental governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; He, G.

    2016-01-01

    Given its past as a so-called information-poor and authoritarian country, China has recently made remarkable progress in information disclosure and environmental transparency. Since enacting the Open Government Information Regulations and the Environmental Information Disclosure Measures in 2008,

  13. Global environmental problems, voluntary action and government intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, A.; van Soest, D.P.; Brousseau, E.; Dedeurwaerdere, T.; Jouvet, P.A.; Willonger, M.

    2012-01-01

    The global community faces several very pressing environmental challenges such as climate change, depletion of the high-sea fisheries, and unprecedented rates of biodiversity loss. Governments are in the process of designing environmental policies to address these problems unilaterally, but also

  14. Environmental governance in the Information Age: the emergence of informational governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Castells's influential work on the Information Age has hardly impacted on the environmental social sciences; and where it has, it has been mainly in terms of intrusions of global flows and networks in fragile environments. This paper explores to what extent and how environmental governance is

  15. Electricity company managers' views of environmental issues: Implications for environmental groups and government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, Maya E.

    2007-01-01

    The electricity industry's environmental impacts are a matter of acute interest to many outsiders, including government and environmental groups-and they have sought to affect those impacts through regulations, public pressure, and technical assistance. These approaches reflect outsiders' intuitive theories regarding the industry's goals, practices, and capabilities. The research reported here provides a systematic insiders' view on these processes, based on in-depth interviews with 70 middle managers in two electricity companies heavily reliant on coal. It finds managers sincerely committed to environmental action, but often frustrated by confusing regulatory requirements, perceived costs, and other challenges. It identifies ways of enabling middle managers to act on their commitment, with lessons relevant for outside groups and those within companies seeking to effect change

  16. 5th environmental report submitted by the Hessian Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 5th environmental report submitted by the Hessian Government informs about the success of environmental policies in the period under review and discuss the future tasks and targets with emphasis on I) environmental quality in Hesse (A. Nature and ladscape, B. water, C. air, D. noise, E. chemicals, industrial monitoring, F. wastes, G. pollutants in the food chain, H. radioactivity and radiation protection), II) selected instruments and points of main effort, III) work and environment; Appendix. (BBR) [de

  17. [Environmental justice as an approach to tackle environmental health inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Gabriele; Bunge, Christiane; Hornberg, Claudia; Köckler, Heike

    2018-06-01

    Current international studies show that environment-related diseases disproportionately affect vulnerable people. This is a case of environmental injustice. Environmental justice goes beyond the mere description of environment- and health-related social inequalities by comprising two dimensions of justice as a normative approach: distributional and procedural justice. Attempts to explain the link between social circumstances, the environment and health deal with both the socially unequal distribution of environmental hazards and environmental resources (exposure variation) and social differences in vulnerability to the health effects of environmental exposures (effect modification). Integrated monitoring approaches provide the basis for deriving interventions under various aspects of environmental justice. Parting from public health research and embedded in the Health in All Policies (HiAP) concept, environmental justice has now been taken up in a number of fields, including politics, administration and practice. There are strategic considerations and attempts to anchor it in politics at the federal, state and the communal level, both by government and non-government groups. Health-promoting urban development is a core field for intervention. The Soziale Stadt (Social City) programme for promoting urban planning and construction as well as place oriented sectoral planning make an important contribution by helping to focus on urban spaces with multiple health hazards and to implement target group-oriented participation processes. There continues to be a need to develop methods and systematically implemented evaluations of political strategies and corresponding interventions regarding their effects on inequalities in health and environmental justice.

  18. Corporate governance and innovation : A conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, T.J.B.M.; van Ees, H.; Chai, K.H.; Hang, C.C.; Xie, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between innovation and corporate governance. Corporate governance is relevant for innovation, because the characteristics of innovative investment strategies are dependent on the incentives and abilities of the stakeholders who are in control. The purpose of

  19. The use of 'macro' legal analysis in the development of global environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This talk will discuss the challenges that are faced by lawyers in assessing the constituent elements of global environmental governance. It takes into account the different and sometimes disparate approaches that have been taken to the subject and the different interpretations of the term ‘global environmental governance’ itself. It suggests that in the face of such challenges an approach which includes ‘macro’ legal analysis should be developed to ensure that all relevant factors are includ...

  20. Corporate Governance and Environmental Disclosure in the Indonesian Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Trireksani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and corporate governance issues are now considered to be important and integral aspects of company performance. Both have established themselves as well-studied topics in the organisational and accountability areas. While there has been a growing interest to study the relationship between these two areas, research publication in this topic is still mainly focused on the Western societies. This study focuses on the corporate governance and sustainability disclosure practices in one of the emerging economies, Indonesia, and assesses the relationships between corporate governance variables and the extent of environmental disclosures made by the mining companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in their annual reports. The main findings of this study show that the extent of environmental disclosure made by these companies was moderate, and that there is a significant positive relationship between the size of board of directors and the extent of environmental disclosure.

  1. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs: A Discursive Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public-management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem solving and public innovation. Although aspects of for example stakeholder inclusion and power are conceptualized in the literature......, these issues remain challenging in practice. Therefore, the interest in understanding the emerging processes of collaborative governance is growing. This article contributes to theorizing discursive aspects of such processes by conceptualizing and exploring the meaning negotiations through which collaborative...... governance designs emerge and change. The findings of a case study of local governments’ efforts to innovate quality management in education through collaborative governance suggest that such form of governance is continuingly negotiated in communication during both design and implementation phases. Through...

  2. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  3. Strategic environmental policy when the governments are threatened by relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaker, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the threat of relocation influences environmental policy. The stringency of environmental policy is determined in a game between two governments. There is one firm in each jurisdiction, and both firms threaten to relocate their production to the other jurisdiction. Because there is asymmetric information about the cost of relocation, the governments do not know the credibility of the threat. We compare the outcome of this game with the outcome of a game in which relocation is not possible. We find that the threat of relocation can increase both the level of environmental regulation and welfare. The profit tax level proves to be the most decisive for the result; that is, the higher the profit tax level, the lower the level of environmental regulation

  4. The Politics of Stakeholder Influence in Corporate Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    In this article I analyse how the multinational oil company Shell has responded to the increasing institutional pressures (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983) related to corporate environmental governance. The corporate culture in Shell appears favourable (Hoffman, 2001) towards the adoption of corporate...... environmental governance practices. The Shell top management is to this end appearing sincere in the way they monitor (Meyer and Rowan, 1977) the progress in giving secondary stakeholders (Clarkson, 1995) access to environmental information and to environmental decision-making in Shell. Based on the Shell case...... I contribute in this article to descriptive stakeholder engagement theory by conceptualising a number of new internal influence strategies that engaged secondary stakeholders can use in their new face-to-face interactions with the corporations. These internal stakeholder influence strategies should...

  5. Electronic Democracy and Environmental Governance: A Survey of the States

    OpenAIRE

    Beierle, Thomas; Cahill, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Just as information technology is rapidly changing how we work, shop, and play, it is changing how we practice democracy. This paper focuses on one area where the Internet is broadening public participation in governance: the administration of environmental laws and regulations. It describes a survey of how each of the 50 states is using the Internet to provide citizens with environmental information, gather public input on agency decisions, and foster networks of interested citizens. As "lab...

  6. Green power and performance in global environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Never, Babette

    2013-01-01

    From 10 to 11 June 2013, the Global Green Growth Summit will take place in Seoul. Policymakers, international organizations and experts from various fi elds will once again discuss how the transformation toward a green economy and more sustainable development paths can be managed. Global environmental governance is characterized by a high number of international activities, but actual environmental outcomes vary. The ability to develop green political and economic power that leads to bett er ...

  7. Environmental report of the Government of Lower Saxony 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report examines environmental conditions, describes actions of the government of Lower Saxony and gives prospects for the development of the environmental situation. For the description of the environmental situation and development in Lower Saxony available data is used. The following chapters are contained: A) introduction, B) basic conditions of environmental policy in Lower Saxony, C) environmental protection in different fields, C1) natural preservation and landscape preservation, C2) forest, C3) soil, C4) water, C5) air, C6) waste, C7) noise, C8) radioactivity and nuclear energy, C9) food and commodity goods, C10) chemicals and C11) climate. A list of abbreviations, a list of addresses and of important reports and programs of environmental policy is given in the appendix. (BBR). 1 separate map [de

  8. Systems approach to waste governance: unpacking the challenges facing local government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available and Tourism (DEAT, 2007) highlighted the obstacles that are faced by local government in achieving service delivery for waste. The three identified obstacles included Financial Capacity; Institutional Capacity; Technical Capacity. 2 Opportunity cost... the systems diagrams show (Figure 2), is that without intervention by national government departments, e.g. National Treasury, Department of Provincial and Local Government, or Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, municipalities will be unable...

  9. Government Approaches to Foster Competitive Intelligence Practice in SMEs: A Comparative Study of Eight Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a study examining approaches developed by seven governments to foster competitive intelligence practice in SMEs (small and medium enterprises) and compares them with the approach taken by the government of Quebec. Suggests a need for a better understanding of information needs and uses in SMEs. (Contains 22 references.)…

  10. The Environmental Performance of Dutch Government Bond Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the implications of using different indicators to assess the sustainability performance of investment funds. In particular, we look into the environmental performance of Dutch government bond funds. We find that it does matter a lot which particular indicator is used. This suggests

  11. Shareholder Engagement on Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkó, Tamás; Cremers, M.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study investor activism promoting environmental, social and governance (ESG) improvements using a proprietary dataset covering 660 companies globally over 2005-2014. Targets have a higher market share, analyst coverage, stock returns, and liquidity. The engagements lead to significant ESG rating

  12. Transparency Under Scrutiny: Information Disclosure in Global Environmental Governance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Although transparency is a key concept of our times, it remains a relatively understudied phenomenon in global environmental politics. The link between transparency and accountable, legitimate and effective governance is assumed, yet the nature and workings of this link require further scrutiny.

  13. Environmental permits in Arab Gulf countries - local government perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczynski, L.

    2002-01-01

    The legacy of past environmentally careless oil and gas exploration practices is becoming more apparent as time goes by and our understanding of causes and results increase. In many petroleum producing countries and in Arab Gulf countries in particular, this understanding has resulted in greater social demand for environmental protection and responsible exploitation of limited resources. In response to this demand, governments of the Gulf Region are paying increasingly more attention to the responsible management of environmental impacts of new developments. As a result, most of them require developers to obtain environmental permits supported by a variety of environmental baseline studies, Environmental Impact Assessments and comprehensive Environmental Management Plans. These local environmental requirements are similar to those in North America and Europe, although there are some important differences on account of local environmental, historical and socioeconomic conditions. Developers, who choose to ignore them, often find their projects caught in a web of unfamiliar environmental regulations or administrative procedures that may cause costly and unnecessary delays. Based on the author's Canadian and Arab Gulf regulatory experience, this paper describes some common causes that may delay obtaining environmental permits or cause cancellation of a project, and provides ideas to assist companies in securing necessary permits and licenses. (author)

  14. A lifecycle approach to SOA Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, T.G.J.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Eck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Due to the distributed nature of Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), maintaining control in a SOA environment becomes more difficult as services spread over different lines-of-business. The concept of SOA governance has emerged as a way to implement control mechanisms in a SOA. In this paper we

  15. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One goal was to transform structures and institutions of global governance while another aim was to place developmental goals on the global agenda. As South Africa targeted UN agencies, notably the Security Council, the IMF, World Bank, WTO and more recently the G20, the curious question begs: will South Africa ...

  16. Towards a networked governance approach in Danish hospitals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang; Brambini, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    Hospitals across the globe are prone to numerous wicked problems. Wicked problems are difficult to solve and continue to negatively influence hospital systems. The proponents of the networked governance approach suggest that a new governance mode embracing a collaborative innovation approach to s...

  17. Governing Academic Medical Center Systems: Evaluating and Choosing Among Alternative Governance Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Ramya; O'Hanlon, Claire; Chen, Peggy; Leuschner, Kristin; Nelson, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The ability of academic medical centers (AMCs) to fulfill their triple mission of patient care, medical education, and research is increasingly being threatened by rising financial pressures and resource constraints. Many AMCs are, therefore, looking to expand into academic medical systems, increasing their scale through consolidation or affiliation with other health care systems. As clinical operations grow, though, the need for effective governance becomes even more critical to ensure that the business of patient care does not compromise the rest of the triple mission. Multi-AMC systems, a model in which multiple AMCs are governed by a single body, pose a particular challenge in balancing unity with the needs of component AMCs, and therefore offer lessons for designing AMC governance approaches. This article describes the development and application of a set of criteria to evaluate governance options for one multi-AMC system-the University of California (UC) and its five AMCs. Based on a literature review and key informant interviews, the authors identified criteria for evaluating governance approaches (structures and processes), assessed current governance approaches using the criteria, identified alternative governance options, and assessed each option using the identified criteria. The assessment aided UC in streamlining governance operations to enhance their ability to respond efficiently to change and to act collectively. Although designed for UC and a multi-AMC model, the criteria may provide a systematic way for any AMC to assess the strengths and weaknesses of its governance approaches.

  18. International environmental governance: Lessons learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)

  19. Governance through information: environmental monitoring from a citizen-consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The function of environmental monitoring and information in governing the environment has changed considerably in recent times. Traditionally, environmental monitoring was geared towards governments and producers; it provided them with the information required to formulate environmental policies and

  20. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  1. Global Environmental Governance as a Regulatory and Guarantee Criterion for Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schmitt Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theme of Global Environmental Governance to the achievement of Environmental Justice, presenting as general objective to analyze the importance of the first in its public, business and civil society spheres for the regulation and guarantee of the second. Noting up at the end that the Environmental Justice, as a common humanitarian problem, presents itself as the main objective of Global Environmental Governance. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  2. Board Governance: Transformational Approaches Under Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastocki, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Previous successes of healthcare organizations and effective governance practices in the pre-reform environment are not predictive of future success. Healthcare has been through numerous phases of growth and development using tried-and-true strategies. The challenge is that our toolbox does not contain what is needed to build the future healthcare delivery systems required in the post-reform world. Healthcare has had a parochial focus at the local level, with some broadening of horizons at the state and national levels. But healthcare delivery is now a global issue that requires a totally different perspective, and many countries are confronting similar issues. US healthcare reform initiatives have far-reaching implications. Compounding the reform dynamics are the simultaneously occurring, gamechanging accelerants such as enabling information technologies and mobile health, new providers of healthcare, increased consumer demands, and limited healthcare dollars, to name a few. Operating in this turbulent environment requires transformational board, executive, and physician leadership because traditional ways of planning for incremental change and attempting to time those adjustments can prove disastrous. Creating the legacy healthcare system for tomorrow requires governing boards and executive leadership to act today as they would in the desired future system. Boards need to create a culture that fosters.innovation with a tolerance for risk and some failure. To provide effective governance, boards must essentially develop new skills, expertise, and ways of thinking. The rapid rate of change requires board members to possess certain capabilities, including the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty while demonstrating flexibility and adaptability, all with a driving commitment to metrics and results. This requires development plans for both individual members and the overall board. In short, the board needs to function differently, particularly regarding the

  3. Legal and institutional foundations of adaptive environmental governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frameworks for legal and institutional design, limiting our ability to promote adaptation and social-ecological resilience. We develop an overarching framework that describes the current and potential role of law in enabling adaptation. We apply this framework to different social-ecological settings, centers of activity, and scales, illustrating the multidimensional and polycentric nature of water governance. Adaptation typically emerges organically among multiple centers of agency and authority in society as a relatively self-organized or autonomous process marked by innovation, social learning, and political deliberation. This self-directed and emergent process is difficult to create in an exogenous, top-down fashion. However, traditional centers of authority may establish enabling conditions for adaptation using a suite of legal, economic, and democratic tools to legitimize and facilitate self-organization, coordination, and collaboration across scales. The principles outlined here provide preliminary legal and institutional foundations for adaptive environmental governance, which may inform institutional design and guide future scholarship.

  4. Nesting, Subsidiarity, and Community-based environmental Governance beyond the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Marshall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-based approaches to environmental management have become widely adopted over the last two decades. From their origins in grassroots frustrations with governmental inabilities to solve local environmental problems, these approaches are now sponsored frequently by governments as a way of dealing with such problems at much higher spatial levels. However, this 'up-scaling' of community-based approaches has run well ahead of knowledge about how they might work. This article explores how Elinor Ostrom's 'nesting principle' for robust common property governance of large-scale common-pool resources might inform future up-scaling efforts. In particular, I consider how the design of nested governance systems for large-scale environmental problems might be guided by the principle of subsidiarity. The challenges of applying this principle are illustrated by Australia's experience in up-scaling community-based natural resource management from local groups comprising 20-30 members to regional bodies representing hundreds of thousands of people. Seven lessons are distilled for fostering community-based environmental governance as a multi-level system of nested enterprises.

  5. The emerging knowledge governance approach : challenges and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    The “knowledge governance approach” is characterized as a distinctive, emerging approach that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy, and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear micro (behavioural) foundations, adopts an economizing perspective, and examines the links between knowledg...

  6. A practice based approach to forest governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Bas; Behagel, Jelle; Turnhout, Esther; de Koning, Jessica; van Bommel, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    ‘Forest governance’ refers to new modes of regulation in the forest sector, such as decentralized, community-based and market-oriented policy instruments and management approaches. Its main theoretical basis consists of two mainstream models: rational choice and neo-institutionalism. Since these

  7. A Government Action Approach to First Amendment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Suggests focusing on the actions of government that restrict free expression rather than focusing on the values served by freedom of expression. Bases the approach on the premise that the court's function is to determine when a particular government action violates the First Amendment, not whether the expression at issue is entitled to…

  8. Megatrend environmental innovation. On the ecological modernization of economy and government; Megatrend Umweltinnovation. Zur oekologischen Modernisierung von Wirtschaft und Staat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaenicke, M.

    2008-07-01

    The book is based on recent publications on the topics environmental innovations and ecological modernization. The 6 chapters cover the following topics: environmental innovation as a megatrend; ecological modernization - new perspectives; trendsetting within the ''regulative capitalism'' - the example of environmental-politics in several pioneer countries; new approaches of environmental politics control - environmental integration in Germany as an example; steps on the way toward an ''environmental government'' - environmental integration in Germany as an example; challenges within the German environmental politics.

  9. Environmental education and indigenous approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, S.M.; Hussain, M.; Mahmood, T.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)

  10. Privatizing government operations - a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.A.; Sailor, W.C.; Schmieman, E.A.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Area is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation in Southeastern Washington, where the primary mission for nearly fifty years was production of nuclear weapons materials. It is now the nation's largest superfund site and its sole mission is environmental remediation of the mixed wastes generated during plutonium production. A large fraction of these wastes are stored in 177 underground tanks and are the subject of the DOE's Tank Waste Remediation system (TWRS) Program. Since its inception the TWRS Program has been managed by a Maintenance and Operations (M ampersand O) contractor. The DOE is now considering the privatization of a portion of this program and has recently issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) seeking new, qualified, private vendors. Successful bidders will be expected to build waste processing facilities with their own financial resources and to recover their costs by charging fixed prices for the various products delivered to the DOE. Because the TWRS Program is such a large, complex, and expensive undertaking, the privatization initiative will be conducted in two phases: a small proof-of-concept phase, followed by full-scale production. The key to a successful demonstration is establishing the right set of requirements to be satisfied by the private vendors. These requirements must be consistent with the existing requirements set developed over the past three years by the M ampersand O contractor. This paper presents the results of a systems engineering effort that was conducted in support of the RFP preparation and had to be coordinated with an ongoing program. Much of the effort was focused on the specification of new proof-of-concept requirements that are directly traceable to corresponding requirements in the M ampersand O's RDD-100 reg-sign database. A new functions and requirements database was created for this first privatization phase using CORE reg-sign, a systems engineering support tool, produced by Vitech Corporation

  11. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance...

  12. Environmental Governance by Transnational Municipal Networks : The Case of Indonesian Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiharani, Annisa; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental governance has developed a multi-layer of government from the global to the local. Transnational Municipal Networks (TMNs) are a newly emerging form of organization within global environmental governance. The TMNs are an institutional mechanism to enhance how local governments

  13. Towards e-Government project assessment: European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mates

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse current approaches to the assessment of e-Government projects as the specifi c public projects and to suggest how to improve these approaches in order to eliminate their shortcomings. The nonnormative theoretical methods are used to analyse empirical results of previous researches; particularly the deduction method is used to prove that current approaches to the evaluation of e-Government projects have some inequalities, the analogy and comparison methods are used to create general typology of e-Government projects and the induction method is used to seek examples of the indicators and metrics. The results are based on analysis of extensive amount of e-Government projects, which have been realized in different European countries in the past twenty years. The basic result of the research is creation of the ten most common types of e-Government projects typology. The fundamental conclusion obtained from the results of this research is that this typology can be used as the core of new E-Government General Assessment Framework, which eliminates problems of previous approaches, allows adjusting metrics and indicators to each type of projects, keeps comparability of results and thus making possible the use of benchmarking methods.

  14. Urbanism, climate change and health: systems approaches to governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Synnott, Emma S; Holliday, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epidemic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution - indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved decision support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.

  15. Operationalizing the One Health approach: the global governance challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2013-10-01

    While there has been wide-ranging commitment to the One Health approach, its operationalisation has so far proven challenging. One Health calls upon the human, animal and environmental health sectors to cross professional, disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and to work in a more integrated fashion. At the global level, this paper argues that this vision is hindered by dysfunctions characterising current forms of global health governance (GHG), namely institutional proliferation, fragmentation, competition for scarce resources, lack of an overarching authority, and donor-driven vertical programmes. This has contributed, in part, to shortcomings in how One Health has been articulated to date. An agreed operational definition of One Health among key global institutions, efforts to build One Health institutions from the ground up, comparative case studies of what works or does not work institutionally, and high-level global support for research, training and career opportunities would all help to enable One Health to help remedy, and not be subsumed by, existing dysfunctions in GHG.

  16. Collaborative Environmental Governance, Inter-Agency Cooperation and Local Water Sustainability in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrative fragmentation among government agencies has posed a significant challenge to environmental governance. However, few studies have theoretically examined and empirically measured how local governments in China address this with collaborative approaches. Informed by the ecology of games framework (EGF, this paper examined the status of inter-agency water governance in Dongguan City: the pilot city of aquatic ecologically friendly city of China. The research question we seek to address is: What are the main characteristics of the water governance network in local China? With empirical data collected via survey questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews following the EGF, we find that local agencies have realized the need for cooperation in water resource management. However, they were not substantially familiar with each other in the local policy network, failing to reach their full potential in collaboration. Social network analysis was used to analyze the collaborative network. We found that the network has a weak to moderate density, allowing for collective action problems and leading to insufficient cooperative governance. The network has presented central actors with strong bridging capital to control information and resource flows. We also find strong bonding capital among some policy actors as shown in high reciprocity, clustering coefficient and transitivity. To strengthen the effectiveness of local water governance, efforts should be made to establish a functional department and extend the boundary of collaborative network.

  17. Enlisting municipal governments in a national approach to clean air and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) and the Government of Canada have a shared commitment to improve environmental performance and protect the health of Canadians. Air pollution and climate change are also a shared responsibility among federal, municipal and provincial/territorial governments. Although they operate independently, their policies and programs tend to overlap. This is both costly and inefficient. In order to create synergies and leverage the role and potential of each level of government, the FCM proposed a national approach to clean air and climate change. The approach involves all levels of government in a nationally coordinated effort, with roles appropriate to their capacities. The municipal role in clean air and climate change action, roles and responsibilities of municipal governments, and guiding principles of a new Canadian approach were discussed in this document. Recommendations and next steps were also identified. They centred on the following themes: enhancing public transit, clean transportation and related infrastructure; improving commercial and residential building efficiency; stimulating ongoing productivity and pollution prevention within municipal operations through incentives and policies; enhancing clean energy; strengthened and enforceable air quality standards; emissions trading; climate change adaptation; public education and awareness; and demonstrating success and ensuring accountability. The document concluded that only a long-term intergovernmental partnership can meet the challenges posed by climate change and air pollution. FCM urged the Government of Canada to adopt an integrative and strategic approach to clean air and climate change by enlisting municipal governments as partners in both its development and implementation

  18. Rio+20. Financial resources for improved international environmental governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstetter, Christiane; Goerlach, Benjamin; Stoessel, Susanah; Ivanova, Maria; Cavalieri, Sandra; Tedsen, Elizabeth; Bar-On, Haran [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the run-up to the Rio+20 summit, which takes place in June 2012, this study investigates the current system for financing international environmental governance (IEG). The current architecture for IEG finance consists of a growing number of bilateral and multilateral actors, funds and financial mechanisms which leads to incoherence, inefficiencies and extra burdens on recipient countries. The resulting intransparency is exerbated by the lack of a comprehensive system for tracking. Against this background, this study investigates the current state of the IEG funding system from a qualitative and - to a lesser degree - quantitative angle. Some of its flaws are discussed as are options for its improvement - all with a view to formulating recommendations for the Rio+20 summit.

  19. Exploring the agency of global environmental consultancy firms in earth system governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouteligier, S.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary global environmental governance, private companies are both recipients of as well as contributors to the development and spread of environmental practices, norms, standards, and legislation. One sector that seems to be of particular significance is the environmental consultancy

  20. Trans-Boundary Haze Pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through Plural Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saidul Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent haze in Southeast Asian countries including Singapore is largely attributable to rampant forest fires in Indonesia due to, for example, extensive slash-and-burn (S & B culture. Drawing on the “treadmill of production” and environmental governance approach, we examine causes and consequences of this culture. We found that, despite some perceived benefits, its environmental consequences include deforestation, soil erosion and degradation, global warming, threats to biodiversity, and trans-boundary haze pollution, while the societal consequences comprise regional tension, health risks, economic and productivity losses, as well as food insecurity. We propose sustainability through a plural coexistence framework of governance for targeting S & B that incorporates strategies of incentives, education and community resource management.

  1. Creating sustainable directions. Collaborative stakeholder approach of governments and businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keijzers, G.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this study it is demonstrated that the increasing complexity of sustainable development processes makes it necessary to intensify the collaboration between public and private parties to ensure effective, committed and enduring change. It is also demonstrated that this applies to both the development of government and business strategies and policies for sustainability. Report is given on research into the development of collaborative stakeholder and consensus-building approach for sustainable development. The emergence of new processes of collaboration and the increased intensity of collaboration between governments, businesses and societal groups is illustrated. The main research questions of this dissertation were formulated as: How does the complex and broadening range of sustainability issues affect policy processes for governments and businesses?; and How can enterprises manage the strategic processes of adapting their resources and capabilities to the evolving sustainability demands from a growing number of stakeholders?

  2. Neo-Institutional Approach to the Study of Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan I. Vaslavskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the neo-institutional approach as a methodological basis in the study of electronic government. In this article substantiates the choice of neo-institutional approach to the study of the processes of implementation of information and communication technologies in the activity of state institutions, analyzes the differences of neoinstitutionalism from traditional institutional approach, considers the features of the different directions of neo-institutionalism, namely sociological, historical and rational choice theory. Attention is paid to the reasons for the renewed interest in political institutions in political science. The article emphasizes the importance of considering the electronic government as an institution, and the conditions for its implementation in the Russian political system as the institutional environment. The authors pay special attention to the variety of sociological neo-institutionalism, used, in addition to political science in sociology of organizations. The article substantiates the value of using sociological institutionalism to explore the electronic government based on a comparative analysis of e-government projects in Russia and abroad and explores its heuristic capabilities. It examines the impact of the system of norms and values of the institutional environment on the processes of formation and development of electronic government in Russia. The research capacity of this theory is due to the fact that it allows us to trace the reasons for copying and replication of inefficient practices and organizational and management schemes, to identify the factors impeding innovation use by the state of electronic interaction technologies. It is emphasized that the use of the theory of institutional isomorphism is useful in the sphere of implementation of electronic technologies, in which a key role play pluralism, horizontal managerial communication, inter-agency coordination.

  3. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG and Investment Decision in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayema Sultana

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As a key facet of sustainable development, environmental, social and governance (ESG discretion on stock market investment decision is gaining prevalence following the global financial crisis. ESG considers the sustainable return, risk reduction, and accountability aspects of investments. This study is an exploration of the individual stock market investors’ preferences for ESG issues and the influence that purpose of investment has on investment decision-making, by testing the investment horizon as a moderator. The theoretical background was taken from the theory of planned behavior (TPB, goal setting theory (GST, and the behavioral asset pricing model (BAPM. The study uses the sequential mix method of research, starting with an interview followed by a survey, which was conducted among individual stock market investors in Bangladesh, using simple random sampling. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis was carried out using Warp PLS version 6.0. The key findings of this study delineate the effect of ESG issues and the purpose of investment on investment decision-making. The contribution of the study signifies the moderating role of the investment horizon, which confirms the importance of the long-term horizon as a time and risk diversification factor. The sparse utilization of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC (2004 and Thomson Reuters Corporate Responsibility Index (TRCRI (2013 as measurement scales in this study is mentioned. This study has made practical contributions for managers, investors, and regulators.

  4. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  5. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  6. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  7. Environmental management: The bank's policy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In order to play a leadership role in the environmental recovery of central and eastern Europe, the Bank will pursue the following policy priorities: assistance to the countries of operations in environmental policy formulation, including the development of effective legal and regulatory instruments, the adoption of appropriate emissions and effluents standards and the creation of the institutional and human resources capacity to monitor and enforce them; promoting the use of a variety of economic instruments to address the underlying cause of environmental degradation and the adoption of market-based techniques in environmental management programmes; encouraging the development of an environmental goods and services industry in the countries of operations, of commercially viable investments in environmental technologies and pollution prevention and control, and by funding environmental infrastructure projects; initiation of, or support for, special studies and programmes to address regional and national environmental problems and to promote environmental education within the population and institutions of the countries of operations; adoption of adequate environmental assessment, management planning, audit and monitoring procedures throughout its activities; and promoting the adoption and implementation of procedures for provision of information to, and consultation with, all levels of government and the general public - especially potentially affected parties - concerning environmental matters

  8. Environmental non-government organizations' perceptions of geologic sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha; Farrell, Alexander E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been influential in shaping public perceptions of environmental problems, their causes and potential solutions. Over the last decade, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a potentially important technological response to climate change. In this paper we investigate how leading US NGOs perceive geologic sequestration, a potentially controversial part of CCS. We examine how and why their perceptions and strategies might differ, and if and how they plan to shape public perceptions of geologic sequestration. We approach these questions through semi-structured interviews with representatives from a range of NGOs, supplemented by content analysis of their documents. We find that while all the NGOs are committed to combating climate change, their views on CCS as a mitigation strategy vary considerably. We find that these views are correlated with NGOs' histories of activism and advocacy, as well as with their sources of funding. Overall, most of these NGOs accept the necessity of geologic sequestration, while only a small fraction do not

  9. Measuring the Amount of Effects of Capability Approach on Developing E-government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behroz Zarei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In capability approach (C.A., the concepts of developed and undeveloped and their realization instruments are different from other common approaches. Just those who are provided with personal capabilities and environmental conditions can be the messengers of development. In this approach background of our country in planning is ignored and resolved the challenges of development in e- government.  So at first, main challenges in developing e-government are identified, then models of C.A. and factors affecting it are extracted and classified. Next, the amount of effects of human capabilities on different challenges of e-government is surveyed based on QFD and ranked regarding Shannon Entropy. The results showed in e-government developing, considering the capabilities of people along with different ideas of the government can be influential. The important capabilities are as follows: the ability to create a democratic, free environment in the information community, accessing to this information, the ability to learn the electronic knowledge and the ability to offer services with electronic quality and the ability to preserve one’s rights in an electronic environment.

  10. A FUZZY MULTICRITERIA APPROACH FOR IT GOVERNANCE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Cobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to provide a new multi-criteria approach to assess IT Governance (ITG in the area of Strategic Alignment. The complete methodological development process is described. The evaluation model uses Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP and it is targeted to IT processes, more specifically to the COBIT© IT maturity levels, domains and processes, thus providing a differentiated analysis of importance for each item. Its relevance is related to addressing isolated and individual evaluation criteria that are normally practiced in audits of processes. The model allows generating information that extends the guarantees of compliance and corporate governance from different organizations. This research demonstrates that the combined use of multi-criteria decision methodologies and soft computing proves to be particularly suitable for Strategic Alignment such as the focal area of COBIT. The model was applied in a big retail Brazilian company.

  11. Influence of Environmental Governance on Deforestation in Municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Fernandes Oliveira Dias

    Full Text Available It has been argued that measuring governance at scales smaller than global could be an important management tool. However, current studies are conducted on a global scale and use expensive methods. In the present study, we assess whether the reported governance of Amazonian municipalities is related to reductions in deforestation. Economic activity (EA affected general governance (G positively (G = 0.81 +1.19 * EA, F1, 98 = 77.36, p < 0.001. Environmental governance (EG was not affected significantly (p = 0.43 by deforestation before 2000 (PD, but increased significantly (p < 0.001 with general governance (G (EG = -0.29 + 0.04 PD+0.98*OG, F2,97 = 42.6, p <0.001. Deforestation was not significantly related to environmental governance (p = 0.82. The only indirect effect of significant magnitude was the effect of the density of forest reserves on recent deforestation through deforestation before 2000, which was strongly negative (-0.49. It is possible to assess reported actions to promote municipal governance through official data. However, it is not enough to assume that general governance or environmental governance at the municipal level, as reflected in the official statistics, benefits environmental conservation. In fact, even at the level of nation states, at which most quantification of governance has been undertaken, it seems that the relationship between governance and environmental preservation is only an assumption, because we are aware of no study that supports that hypothesis quantitatively.

  12. Multilevel governance in community-based environmental management: a case study comparison from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sattler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze four case studies from Latin America using the concept of multilevel governance to assess at what vertical and horizontal levels and in what roles various state, market, and civil society actors interact for successful community-based environmental management (CBEM. In particular, we address the problem of how a conflict over natural resources with high negative impacts on the livelihoods of the respective communities could be overcome by a governance change that resulted in a multilevel governance arrangement for CBEM. The analysis involves a mixed-methods approach that combines a variety of empirical methods in social research such as field visits, personal interviews, participant observations, and stakeholder workshops. To visualize results, we introduce two schemes to present the composition of the governance structures for cross-case comparison. The first scheme plots the different actors into an arrangement that shows their associations with different societal spheres and at which territorial scales they are primarily involved. The second scheme differentiates these actors based on their complementing governance roles. Active roles are attributed to actors who implement activities on the ground, whereas passive roles are assigned to actors who provide specific resources such as knowledge, funding, legislative framework, or others. All cases involved governance actors from more than one societal sphere who operate on at least three different territorial levels (local to international and in distinct roles. Results show that multilevel governance can strengthen CBEM in different ways. First, the success of CBEM is an outcome of the sum of horizontal and vertical interactions of all involved actors, and there is no most appropriate single level of social organization at which a problem can best be addressed. Only the cooperation of actors from different societal spheres within and across levels ensures accessibility to needed

  13. A meta-level analysis of major trends in environmental health risk governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bree, L. van; Sluijs, J.P. van der

    2010-01-01

    Internationally but also within countries, large differences exist regarding how environmental health risks (EHRs) are governed. Despite these differences, at a meta-level some general trends can be discerned that may point to a convergence of EHR governance regimes. One, EHR governance regimes are

  14. Measuring Corporate Sustainability and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a model for measuring sustainable value which would complexly assess environmental, social, and corporate governance contribution to value creation. In the paper the concept of the Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is presented. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is based on the Sustainable Value Added model and combines weighted environmental, social, and corporate governance indicators with their benchmarks determined by Data Envelopment Analysis. Benchmark values of indicators were set for each company separately and determine the optimal combination of environmental, social, and corporate governance inputs to economic outcomes. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added methodology is applied on real-life corporate data and presented through a case study. The value added of most of the selected companies was negative, even though economic indicators of all of them are positive. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is intended to help owners, investors, and other stakeholders in their decision-making and sustainability assessment. The use of environmental, social, and corporate governance factors helps identify the company’s strengths and weaknesses, and provides a more sophisticated insight into it than the one-dimensional methods based on economic performance alone.

  15. A System Approach to Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A system approach to environmental education (EE is developed. By making use of it the educators will be able to introduce successfully ecological principles and global environmental problems in the educational system for the development of environmental culture, consciousness and behavior. It embraces a long period of thinking, designing, experimenting and rethinking in the light of the new ideas, concerning humanity-nature relationships. The core of the system approach is represented by environmental consciousness, which is the driving force of environmentally responsible behavior. The system approach is concerned with constructing an innovative model of EE, which consists of three elements: didactical, conceptual and technological and six integrating concepts, uniting the studies of the different school subjects under the global movement for sustainable development. EE is regarded to be an essential part of the education for sustainable development (ESD.

  16. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  17. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  18. Multi-level Governance in Environmental Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hiller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines regulatory strategies in the field of ecological disaster management with reference to the sociology of risk. The risk perspective draws attention to the fact that political strategies of regulation are to be understood as processes of risk transformation. The behavior of regulatory agencies is related to their perception of risks and opportunities. From this point of view, efforts in the field of disaster management appear as processes that turn perceived environmental threats into risks and opportunities for the agencies involved. The article shows the course of such a governance process which transforms environmental disasters into organizational risks and opportunities. This leads to the following research question: Which types of organizations favor strategies of risk avoidance and which organizations rather allow active pursuit of opportunities? The empirical part of this study is based on data obtained by field research in a multi-level negotiation system set up for managing hazardous wastes. Empirical findings support the assumption that organizational stability is a central condition for active pursuit of opportunities whereas organizational instability supports an orientation towards the avoidance of organizational risk. El artículo examina las estrategias reguladoras en el ámbito de la gestión de los desastres ecológicos, haciendo referencia a la sociología del riesgo. La perspectiva de riesgo pone su atención sobre el hecho de que las estrategias políticas de regulación se deben entender como procesos de transformación de riesgos. El comportamiento de las agencias reguladoras se relaciona con su percepción de los riesgos y oportunidades. Desde este punto de vista, los esfuerzos en el campo de la gestión de catástrofes se convierten en procesos que transforman las amenazas medioambientales (percibidas en riesgos y oportunidades para las agencias involucradas. El artículo muestra el desarrollo de este

  19. Approaching Environmental Issues in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The research presented here takes its point of departure in the design process with a specific focus on how it is approached when designing energy efficient architecture. This is done through a case-study of a design process in a Danish architectural office. This study shows the importance...

  20. The Influence of “Business World” in Global Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vinholi Rampazo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Rio 92 there has been a constant growth in the participation of non-environmental and the private sector in environmental conferences promoted by United Nations (UN, and therefore in global environmental governance. Thus, norms, rules and procedures governing environmental protection around the world are eventually influenced by organizations like the World Bank, private banks and other private companies in various sectors. In this context, the objective of this study is to discuss the inclusion of environmental nongovernmental organizations and the private sector in global environmental governance in recent years. To this end, we developed a bibliographic and documentary study based on scientific articles, institutional and journalistic, and official documents. At the end of the work it was established that environmental nongovernmental organizations and the private sector, through lobbying, its power structure and the networks that form (business associations, are increasingly inserted in environmental discussions and thus end up to influence the decisions taken.

  1. Towards a conceptual framework for the study of shifts in modes of environmental governance : experiences form the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.P.J.; Dieperink, C.; Laerhoven, F.S.J. van; Runhaar, H.A.C.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, many authors have observed shifts from government to governance in the environmental policy domain. However, a clear conceptual framework to differentiate between modes of environmental governance is lacking and our understanding of when, how and why environmental governance

  2. Development of EarthCube Governance: An Agile Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearthree, G.; Allison, M. L.; Patten, K.

    2013-12-01

    Governance of geosciences cyberinfrastructure is a complex and essential undertaking, critical in enabling distributed knowledge communities to collaborate and communicate across disciplines, distances, and cultures. Advancing science with respect to 'grand challenges," such as global climate change, weather prediction, and core fundamental science, depends not just on technical cyber systems, but also on social systems for strategic planning, decision-making, project management, learning, teaching, and building a community of practice. Simply put, a robust, agile technical system depends on an equally robust and agile social system. Cyberinfrastructure development is wrapped in social, organizational and governance challenges, which may significantly impede progress. An agile development process is underway for governance of transformative investments in geosciences cyberinfrastructure through the NSF EarthCube initiative. Agile development is iterative and incremental, and promotes adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness. A project Secretariat acts as the coordinating body, carrying out duties for planning, organizing, communicating, and reporting. A broad coalition of stakeholder groups comprises an Assembly (Mainstream Scientists, Cyberinfrastructure Institutions, Information Technology/Computer Sciences, NSF EarthCube Investigators, Science Communities, EarthCube End-User Workshop Organizers, Professional Societies) to serve as a preliminary venue for identifying, evaluating, and testing potential governance models. To offer opportunity for broader end-user input, a crowd-source approach will engage stakeholders not involved otherwise. An Advisory Committee from the Earth, ocean, atmosphere, social, computer and library sciences is guiding the process from a high-level policy point of view. Developmental

  3. The Effects of Environmental, Social and Governance on the Corporate Performance of Malaysian Government-Linked Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweh Qian Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of ESG on the corporate performance government-linked companies (GLCs in Malaysia. For the period 2006-2012, ESG disclosure data were extracted from the Sustainalytics ESG performance reports, while financial data were obtained from the Bloomberg database. Data development analysis (DEA was used to estimate efficiency in the first stage; a regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between ESG and efficiency in the second stage. The empirical results of this study show that GLCs focused more on governance disclosures, followed by social and environmental aspects. Moreover, governance will improve firm efficiency, but social and environmental factors have no similar effect. In conclusion, this study provides insight on the limited literature on ESG and informs the relevant stakeholders on the important ESG components for financial and investment decisions.

  4. Incommensurate Environmental Risks and the Regulator’s Dilemma in the Governance of Emergency Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century humans face with the great risk how to protect themselves from disasters of different kinds. Emergencies happened in many countries and caused a great suffering of humans. The main question of stakeholders is: ‘’how to protect human health and environment in an adequate way’’. Emergency management is an issue which is included in numerous education institutions all over the globe and the action of various national and international organizations. Therefore it is interesting that in the process of fostering emergency management many countries neglect the need of creating more effective tools for response, preparedness and recovery in environmental emergencies. The paper is based on analyzes of Serbian approach in the governance of emergency situation followed by incommensurate environmental risks. Serbia had to accept International environmental emergency help after the floods in 2014. The Joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP / Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA Environment Unit (JEU helped Serbia to mitigate consequences of horrified environmental emergency in “Stolice” mine near city Krupanj. This assistance was needed because Serbia did not have enough capacity to struggle with the consequences of breaking the dam and contamination of soil and rivers. This study shows that a similar disaster in the future could be solved only by strengthening multilateral response of different actors at local and national level. After all, Serbia is at the beginning of the path, and need to highlight strategic challenges in the governance of emergency situation followed by environmental emergencies. Only with full implementation of positive practice of the international community Serbia could avoid long term impact on life support functions, nature and humans.

  5. A proposed approach to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of my presentation today is to present our thinking to date on the subject of environmental protection at nuclear facilities. What I intend to present is not a finished product, but the first steps in establishing a new and systematic approach to environmental protection. An important factor that will affect the progress of this process is the current assessment of radionuclides (released from nuclear facilities) under the aegis of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is expected that the CEPA assessment will take in the order of two years to complete. In keeping with this schedule, we expect the overall process of establishing a new and systematic approach to environmental protection to be a long-term project taking up to five years to complete. It will start with the establishment of an AECB policy regarding environmental protection and continue with the development of programs, procedures, guides, standards and criteria to implement the policy. (author)

  6. Obesogenic environments: environmental approaches to obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipek, Tobias; Igel, Ulrike; Gausche, Ruth; Kiess, Wieland; Grande, Gesine

    2015-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a major concern for public health. There are multiple factors (e.g., genetic, social, and environmental) that contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Drawing from findings on "obesogenic environments" and core principles of preventive strategies to reduce health inequalities, this paper gives an overview of recent childhood prevention programs that target aspects of the physical environment ("environmental changes"). Out of the ten reviews we screened (including more than 300 studies), we identified very few that addressed aspects of the environment. We focus here on 14 programs that follow different approaches to environmental changes (e.g., access to/quality of playgrounds, changes in school cafeterias). Altering the environment offers opportunities for healthier behaviors and seems to be an effective strategy to prevent childhood obesity. However, the evaluation of those (mostly) multidimensional interventions does not allow drawing firm conclusions about the single effect of environmental changes. We conclude that obesity prevention programs should combine person-based and environmental approaches.

  7. Environmental governance in China: Interactions between the state and "nonstate actors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Dan; Young, Oran; Jing, Yijia; Bramble, Barbara; Bu, Maoliang; Chen, Carmen; Furst, Kathinka; Hu, Tao; Li, Yifei; Logan, Kate; Liu, Lingxuan; Price, Lydia; Spencer, Michael; Suh, Sangwon; Sun, Xiaopu; Tan, Bowen; Wang, Harold; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zeidan, Rodrigo

    2018-08-15

    In the West, limited government capacity to solve environmental problems has triggered the rise of a variety of "nonstate actors" to supplement government efforts or provide alternative mechanisms for addressing environmental issues. How does this development - along with our efforts to understand it - map onto environmental governance processes in China? China's efforts to address environmental issues reflect institutionalized governance processes that differ from parallel western processes in ways that have major consequences for domestic environmental governance practices and the governance of China "going abroad." China's governance processes blur the distinction between the state and other actors; the "shadow of the state" is a major factor in all efforts to address environmental issues. The space occupied by nonstate actors in western systems is occupied by shiye danwei ("public service units"), she hui tuanti ("social associations") and e-platforms, all of which have close links to the state. Meanwhile, international NGOs and multinational corporations are also significant players in China. As a result, the mechanisms of influence that produce effects in China differ in important ways from mechanisms familiar from the western experience. This conclusion has far-reaching implications for those seeking to address global environmental concerns, given the importance of China's growing economy and burgeoning network of trade relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Environmental Governance on Deforestation in Municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lilian Fernandes Oliveira; Dias, David Valentim; Magnusson, William Ernest

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that measuring governance at scales smaller than global could be an important management tool. However, current studies are conducted on a global scale and use expensive methods. In the present study, we assess whether the reported governance of Amazonian municipalities is related to reductions in deforestation. Economic activity (EA) affected general governance (G) positively (G = 0.81 +1.19 * EA, F1, 98 = 77.36, p deforestation before 2000 (PD), but increased significantly (p Deforestation was not significantly related to environmental governance (p = 0.82). The only indirect effect of significant magnitude was the effect of the density of forest reserves on recent deforestation through deforestation before 2000, which was strongly negative (-0.49). It is possible to assess reported actions to promote municipal governance through official data. However, it is not enough to assume that general governance or environmental governance at the municipal level, as reflected in the official statistics, benefits environmental conservation. In fact, even at the level of nation states, at which most quantification of governance has been undertaken, it seems that the relationship between governance and environmental preservation is only an assumption, because we are aware of no study that supports that hypothesis quantitatively.

  9. Global justice and environmental governance: an analysis of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the major normative political theory contributions on global climate justice, the present paper analyzes the new international agreement on climate change, adopted at COP 21 in Paris (2015. Therefore, a literary review of the extensive normative theoretical discussion about global climate justice is made, with special attention to the two approaches that have permeated multilateral political negotiations - historical responsibility and equal per capita emissions. From this normative discussion, this paper recalls the global climate change negotiation process, focusing on the Kyoto Protocol. Next, the analysis emphasizes on the Paris Agreement in an effort to evaluate the normative questions on justice and equity within the environmental governance regime. Finally, the set of conclusions indicates that, although the flexibility of the Agreement has encompassed some dimensions of responsibility, necessity and ability to bear the costs, the most complex dimensions of justice and equity has not been completely solved, which may hinder the operation of environmental governance in a near future.

  10. Environmental Policy and Capital Movements: The Role of Government Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiliani, Laura; Renström, Thomas I

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less capital moving abr...

  11. Approach of ICT Application to Governance in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtudes, Ana; Sá, João

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) at the local level of governance in the field of urban planning. It is based on a literature review, in order to define a set of considerations about their use in the urban context and the challenges ahead on this domain. As a starting point, there is the need of rethinking the local governance through the use of ICT related to cities, focused on the modernization of the processes associated with urban planning. Nowadays, in several societies the paradigm about cities if shifting, from an expansionist way of acting towards a regeneration and rehabilitation approach. In the case of Portugal, the local authorities; the municipalities; are the main responsible for the coordination, and integration of policies with territorial impacts. However, these policies are generally onerous and inefficient, triggering communication and information failures in between local administration and citizens. In this sense, governance should support the decision-making process related to cities’ policies, engaging citizens and socio-economic agents. As the main result in this scenario, the use of ICT demonstrates the ability to play an important role in urban planning, by contributing as a simplifying tool, regarding the information and knowledge sharing, gathering local authorities, citizens and socio-economic agents. On the one hand, they promote the reduction of inefficiencies associated to the urban planning process. On the other hand, they boost the development of networks, and consequently the social and territorial cohesion. In summary, the use of ICT infrastructures works as a glue allowing the integration of several intelligence elements of the city, and operating as their base platform. Finally, the literature has revealed that the use of ICT in urban planning should be seen as a means to a wider social goal, and not as an end by itself. With the use of ICT, urban planning authorities are more

  12. Non-state global environmental governance : the emergence and effectiveness of forest and fisheries certification schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing scholarly interest in the role and function of non-state actors in global governance. A number of non-state governance schemes have been created in recent years to set environmental and social standards for the certification of private companies and producers. This thesis focuses on certification schemes in the forestry and fisheries sectors, as initiatives in these two sectors arguably represent the most advanced cases of non-state rulemaking and governance in the environmen...

  13. The observational approach in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Quinn, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to completing environmental restoration of its facilities within the next 28 years (DOE 1990b). In order to achieve this, DOE must ensure that its restoration activities are both effective and efficient. A key aspect of fulfilling this commitment is the recognition and management of uncertainty that is inherent in waste-site clean-up actions. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the applicability and implementation of what is known as the ''observational approach'' to better address these needs. PNL's initial investigation resulted in the positive conclusion that the observational approach had potential benefit to DOE during environmental restoration. In a follow-on effort, PNL supported by CH2M HILL, has been providing guidance to DOE field-offices on observational approach fundamentals, implementation, and application to waste-site remediation. This paper outlines the fundamentals of the observational approach and discusses the progress in integrating the observational approach in DOE's environmental restoration efforts. 9 refs., 2 figs

  14. Book Review: Jessica F Green, Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597......Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597...

  15. Bridging gaps : governing conflicts between transport and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Zuidema, Christian; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Developing new road infrastructure can be problematic in the face of environmental quality ambitions. These conflicts can even undermine the development of such new infrastructure, as occurred for example in the Netherlands in the mid-2000s as a result of European Union air quality standards. To

  16. Localising environmental governance: the Le Sueur case | Humby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the matter of Le Sueur v Ethekwini Municipality the KwaZulu-Natal High Court decided that municipalities had the power to legislate on environmental issues such as biodiversity and conservation. This note argues that the precedent established in this case is that municipalities have authority to legislate upon ...

  17. The Corporate Governance approach in the light of classical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of “Corporate Governance” derives from an analogy between the government of nations or states and the governance of corporations. Corporate Governance has had no precise and commonly accepted definition to date mainly due to the standing point of departure of the one defining it. Each definition has ...

  18. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-30

    To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. Analizar la conceptualización del término gobernanza en las políticas de salud mental. En esta revisión sistemática se analizó literatura científica publicada en el ámbito internacional durante 15 años (de 2000 hasta 2015). Las bases de datos analizadas fueron: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO y PubMed. Los descriptores fueron gobernanza y salud mental. Fueron incluidos artículos relevantes de acuerdo a nuestro objeto de estudio y niveles de análisis: (i) concepto de gobernanza en salud mental; (ii) proceso y espacios de decisión; (iii) actores estratégicos y de interés que intervienen en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud, y (iv) normas sociales. Se excluyeron cartas al editor, noticias, comentarios y reporte de caso

  19. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  20. Research on Financial Pressure, Poverty Governance, and Environmental Pollution in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenglian Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional environmental governance theory attributes pollution to the result of market failure, but ignores the institution-level factors and the possibility of government failure. Using provincial panel data from 2001 to 2016 in China, and by drawing impulse response function graphs and building PVAR models, this paper studies the financial pressure and poor governance effect on environmental pollution. Financial pressure represents fiscal decentralization and debt pressure. The study finds that the increase of fiscal autonomy brings about the reduction of various types of pollutant emissions; the expansion of the scale of government debt causes very large pressure on the local governments to repay their debts and exacerbates environmental pollution in order to obtain debt repayment funds. For a long time, there was indeed a phenomenon in China in which the goal of reducing poverty was achieved at the cost of the environment. However, since 2012, the reduction of the poverty-stricken population has brought about a good trend of reducing emissions of various types of pollutants. There are no “PPE vicious circles” and “environmental traps” in China. There has been no contradiction between poverty reduction and the green development strategy implementation since 2012. There is a win-win trend in the process of environmental protection and poverty governance in China.

  1. Global Internet Governance: Russian Approach and International Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the processes of Internet governance at the international level in the context of the position and interests of Russia in this area. The theory of global governance was used as a theoretical and methodological framework of the study. Initially, Internet governance was carried out on the state level, with coordination carried out in the interests of the United States created the Internet. At the present stage states and other actors in world politics has to be integrated into the existing system of Internet governance, resulting in development of multi-level or multi-directional diplomacy, formation of the so-called "hybrid" organizations and new models of cooperation. There are new formats of regulation of international relations formed under the influence of scientific and technological progress. Russia's position on Internet governance is based on the goal to ensure equal consideration of interests of all states in the governance of the Internet.

  2. Steps toward a shared governance response for achieving Good Environmental Status in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cinnirella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is of fundamental importance to Europe given its strategic position. The responsibility for its overall ecosystem integrity is shared by European Union Member States (EU-MS and other Mediterranean countries. A juxtaposition of overlapping governance instruments occurred recently in the region, with the implementation of both the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD for EU-MS and the Ecosystem Approach Strategy (ECAP for all Mediterranean countries, including EU-MS. Both MSFD and ECAP are structured around vision-driven processes to achieve Good Environmental Status and a Healthy Environment, respectively. These processes have clear ecosystem-based, integrated policy objectives to guarantee the preservation and integrity of Mediterranean marine ecosystem goods and services. However, adoption of these instruments, especially those related to the new EU-MS directives on marine policy, could result in a governance gap in addition to the well-known economic gap between the EU and the non-EU political blocs. We identify two complementary requirements for effective implementation of both MSFD and ECAP that could work together to reduce this gap, to ensure a better alignment between MSFD and ECAP and better planning for stakeholder engagement. These are key issues for the future success of these instruments in a Mediterranean region where discrepancies between societal and ecological objectives may pose a challenge to these processes.

  3. Causes analysis on the failure of government environmental responsibility—Based on the perspective of law and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    As the important Environmental Interests of Subjects, government behooves to undertake the corresponding responsibility of Pollution Control and Environmental Protection. The current situations in our country, however, appear as government environmental responsibility failure. Based on the analysis of law and economics, this article reaches the conclusion through game analysis, principle-agency relationship and utility theory that the prisoners dilemma of environmental interest game between government and enterprise, and the inherent defect of the principal-agency relationship between central government and local government are the inherent causes of government environmental responsibility failure. Many officials tends to graft and corrupt to maximum their own benefit, thus leading to the government failure among environmental pollution treatment and the environmental responsibility to undertake.

  4. Governance Analytical Framework : an Approach to Health Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will develop and test a methodology - Governance Analytical Framework - for analyzing and assessing the influence of governance pattern on health ... IDRC and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) signed a scientific and technological cooperation agreement to support joint research projects in ...

  5. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1 encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2 garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3 cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people's decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people's fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance.

  6. Bureaucracy Versus Environment: The Environmental Costs of Bureaucratic Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    The 15 contributors to this volume have an important message. They are convinced that both environmental and economic costs of bureaucratic management of natural resources are too high, and unnecessarily so. The main reason is an institutional one: Authority is given to those who do not bear responsibility for the consequences o f their actions.A classic case is the set of specific numerical emission standards for automobiles in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. Congress arrived at these standards without a scientific basis, without technical analysis, and certainly without any consideration of costs and benefits. Only 3 years later did Senator Muskie ask the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a cost-benefit analysis. The NAS results were presented in a fashion that seemed to support the action of Congress; yet, the statutory emissions standards yielded marginal costs well beyond their marginal benefits. They had a major impact on Detroit during the 1970's, and very likely damaged, perhaps irreversibly, the competitive standing of the American automobile industry, a major segment of the U.S. economy. But the economic costs of these actions were never considered, least of all by the responsible bureaucrats. They were completely buffered from any consequences flowing from the exercise of their authority.

  7. Integrative Governance of Environmental Water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin: Evolving Challenges and Emerging Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Mattson, Zachary; Lynch, Amanda H

    2017-07-01

    Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins. Our critical assessment of integrative governance practices in that context emerges through analysis of interviews with policy participants and documents pertaining to environmental water management in the tri-state area of southwestern New South Wales, northwestern Victoria, and the South Australian Riverland. We identify four linked challenges: (i) decision support for developing socially robust environmental water management goals, (ii) resource constraints on adaptive practice, (iii) inter-state differences in participatory decision-making and devolution of authority, and (iv) representative inclusion in decision-making. Our appraisal demonstrates these as pivotal challenges for integrative governance in the common interest. We conclude by offering a perspective on the potential for supporting integrative governance through the bridging capacity of Australia's Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

  8. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  9. Approaches to the Understanding of the Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Кукарцев, Олег Вікторович

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in this paper is the origins and specific character of global governance discourse that formed at the turn of the twenty-first century. The new discourse marked a gradual exclusion of most early discourses – «international relations» and «world government». It is demonstrated that new term «global governance» signalizes about grand reconstruction of previous international relations discourse where international society was considered as the complex of states and their governme...

  10. Opportunism Motivation of Environmental Protection Activism and Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study of environmental protection issues for more than forty years, research on the impact of financial performance on environmental protection has been one of the important branches. In the framework of principal-agent theory, this paper explores the opportunism motives in a company’s environmental protection activism and the moderating role of corporate governance using the data of Chinese listed companies from 2005 to 2016. The study finds that: (1 the company’s environmental protection activism is driven by the opportunist motives of policymakers who want to mask their inability; and (2 environmental protection activism does not enhance the company’s future performance and value creation capability. Further studies find that corporate governance mechanisms play different moderating roles. Fund Shareholders play a positive governance role and reduce the correlation between financial performance and environmental protection activism. However, independence of the board of directors intensifies the opportunist motives. This paper provides new theoretical explanations for environmental protection decision-making, provides novel enlightenment for the protection of environmental protection policies in developing countries and regions.

  11. Toward an Understanding of Citywide Urban Environmental Governance: An Examination of Stewardship Networks in Baltimore and Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romolini, Michele; Morgan Grove, J; Ventriss, Curtis L; Koliba, Christopher J; Krymkowski, Daniel H

    2016-08-01

    Efforts to create more sustainable cities are evident in the proliferation of sustainability policies in cities worldwide. It has become widely proposed that the success of these urban sustainability initiatives will require city agencies to partner with, and even cede authority to, organizations from other sectors and levels of government. Yet the resulting collaborative networks are often poorly understood, and the study of large whole networks has been a challenge for researchers. We believe that a better understanding of citywide environmental governance networks can inform evaluations of their effectiveness, thus contributing to improved environmental management. Through two citywide surveys in Baltimore and Seattle, we collected data on the attributes of environmental stewardship organizations and their network relationships. We applied missing data treatment approaches and conducted social network and comparative analyses to examine (a) the organizational composition of the network, and (b) how information and knowledge are shared throughout the network. Findings revealed similarities in the number of actors and their distribution across sectors, but considerable variation in the types and locations of environmental stewardship activities, and in the number and distribution of network ties in the networks of each city. We discuss the results and potential implications of network research for urban sustainability governance.

  12. Local Government Capacity to Respond to Environmental Change: Insights from Towns in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lincoln R; Lauber, T Bruce; Kay, David L; Cutts, Bethany B

    2017-07-01

    Local governments attempting to respond to environmental change face an array of challenges. To better understand policy responses and factors influencing local government capacity to respond to environmental change, we studied three environmental issues affecting rural or peri-urban towns in different regions of New York State: climate change in the Adirondacks (n = 63 towns), loss of open space due to residential/commercial development in the Hudson Valley (n = 50), and natural gas development in the Southern Tier (n = 62). Our analysis focused on towns' progression through three key stages of the environmental policy process (issue awareness and salience, common goals and agenda setting, policy development and implementation) and the factors that affect this progression and overall capacity for environmental governance. We found that-when compared to towns addressing open space development and natural gas development-towns confronted with climate change were at a much earlier stage in the policy process and were generally less likely to display the essential resources, social support, and political legitimacy needed for an effective policy response. Social capital cultivated through collaboration and networking was strongly associated with towns' policy response across all regions and could help municipalities overcome omnipresent resource constraints. By comparing and contrasting municipal responses to each issue, this study highlights the processes and factors influencing local government capacity to address a range of environmental changes across diverse management contexts.

  13. Teaching Negotiation in the Context of Environmental Regulatory Enforcement: An Experiential Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Marisa S.; Johnson, Stephen A.; Ortolano, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a simulation-based teaching approach that helps university students learn about negotiation in the context of environmental regulatory enforcement. The approach centers on negotiation of a penalty between government agencies and a fictitious corporation that has violated provisions of the U.S. Clean Water Act. The exercise…

  14. Aggressive Tax Strategies and Corporate Tax Governance: An Institutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of tax-aggressive strategies on corporate governance by adopting an agency perspective of the firm and discusses how certain corporate tax governance measures may limit these kinds of managerial actions. We first clarify a few basic concepts such as tax minimization, effective tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion, which are important to understand in the discussion about aggressive tax behaviour. We further define the regulative concept of effective ta...

  15. Proposing and testing SOA governance process: A case study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) integration challenges drove healthcare organisations to invest in new paradigms like Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Yet, SOA holds challenges of its own, with SOA Governance surfacing on the top. This research depicts the development......, grounded in the normative literature and further developed to include healthcare aspects. The proposition is tested in a large Greek hospital utilising qualitative methods and the findings presented herein. This proposal aims to pinpoint attributes and guidelines for SOA Governance Process, required...

  16. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    social sciences. The implementation of a multi-risk approach can be strengthened through the creation of multi-risk platforms and multi-risk commissions, which can liaise between risk management experts and local communities and to unify numerous actions on natural hazard management. However, the multi-risk approach cannot be a subsidiary to a single risk approach, and both have to be pursued. References: IRGC. (2011). Concept note: Improving the management of emerging risks: Risks from new technologies, system interactions, and unforeseen or changing circumstances. International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), Geneva. Kappes, M. S., Keiler, M., Elverfeldt, von K., & Glade, T, (2012). Challenges of analyzing multi-hazard risk: A review. Natural Hazards, 64(2), 1925-1958. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0294-2. Komendantova N, Scolobig A, Vinchon C (2013). Multi-risk approach in centralized and decentralized risk governance systems: Case studies of Naples, Italy and Guadeloupe, France. International Relations and Diplomacy, 1(3):224-239 (December 2013) Scolobig, A., Vichon, C., Komendantova, N., Bengoubou-Valerius, M., & Patt, A. (2013). Social and institutional barriers to effective multi-hazard and multi-risk decision-making governance. D6.3 MATRIX project. Selva, J. (2013). Long-term multi-risk assessment: statistical treatment of interaction among risks. Natural Hazards, 67(2),701-722. UNISDR. (2013). Implementing the HYOGO framework for action in Europe: Regional synthesis report 2011-2013. Verweij, M., & Thompson, M. (Eds.). (2006). Clumsy solutions for a complex world: Governance, politics, and plural perceptions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. White, G., Kates, R., & Burton, I. (2001). Knowing better and losing even more: the use of knowledge in hazards management. Environmental Hazards, 3, 81-92.

  17. Origins of executive pay & corporate governance reform codes : Essays on an institutional approach to corporate governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Typically corporate governance is analyzed and understood on the basis of agency theory. This theory is not only the dominant one in academic research, it is also understood as the dominant lens by which policy makers and practitioners ought to see the field. Nevertheless, in order to provide more

  18. Environmental sustainability versus economic interests: a search for good governance in a macroeconomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stecyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding the proper balance between economic benefit and sustainable development has been an issue for many local governments, especially in the regions that depend strongly on natural resources. One of Canada’s largest contributors to environmental degradation is the oil sands in Alberta. The degradation occurs on land, in water, and in the air as a result of oil extraction and tailings ponds. The purpose of the paper is to argue that although the government of the province of Alberta and the federal government have developed legislation including licensing and policies (frameworks and directives to reduce and prevent environmental degradation, they fail to ensure compliance with the legislation and policies because the governments prefer economic gain to environmental sustainability. The lack of strong compliance enforcement suggests a lack of effectiveness and efficiency. Subsequently, a failure in the rule of law occurs because oil corporations, due to their economic impact, are treated as above the law. The bias for the corporation over the environment hinders good governance. Overall, both governments find balancing protecting the environment and gaining financial benefits challenging.

  19. 42 CFR 137.305 - May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.305 May Self-Governance...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509...

  20. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...

  1. Sociology in Global Environmental Governance? Neoliberalism, Protectionism and the Methyl Bromide Controversy in the Montreal Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological studies of global agriculture need to pay close attention to the protectionist aspects of neoliberalism at the global scale of environmental governance. With agri-food studies in the social sciences broadening interrogations of the impact of neoliberalism on agri-food systems and their alternatives, investigating global environmental governance (GEG will help reveal its impacts on the global environment, global science/knowledge, and the potential emergence of ecologically sensible alternatives. It is argued here that as agri-food studies of neoliberalism sharpen the focus on these dimensions the widespread consequences of protectionism of US agri-industry in GEG will become better understood, and the solutions more readily identifiable. This paper illustrates how the delayed phase out of the toxic substance methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol exemplifies the degree to which the US agri-industry may be protected at the global scale of environmental governance, thus prolonging the transition to ozone-friendly alternatives. Additionally, it is clear that protectionism has had a significant impact on the dissemination and interpretation of science/knowledge of methyl bromide and its alternatives. Revealing the role that protectionism plays more broadly in the agriculture/environmental governance interface, and its oftentimes negative impacts on science and potential alternatives, can shed light on how protectionism can be made to serve ends that are at odds with environmental protection.

  2. The Influence of Corporate Governance Perception Index, Profit Management, and Industrial Type To Environmental Disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Chrysanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisresearchaims to empirically analyze the influence ofCorporate Governance Perception Index, earnings management,and industry type on environmental disclosure. Environmental Disclosure is the dependent variables in this research were measured by scoring technique based on GRI3.1 Guidelines. For the independent variables in this research, using Corporate Governance Perception Index were measured by CGPI index score, earnings management were measured by discretionary accruals, and industry type were measured bycategorial. This research uses secondary data which population are companies entered Corporate Governance Perception Index in 2009-2012. While the sampling method used was purposive sampling method which is overall 44 sample choose. This research uses multiple regression method to test the hypothesis with SPSS computer program. From the analysis performed in this research, it can be concluded that Corporate Governance Perception Index has positively and significant influence to environmental disclosure. The other hand earnings management has no significant influence to environmental disclosure. The last one industry type has negatively and significant influence to environmental disclosure.

  3. Goal specificity: a proxy measure for improvements in environmental outcomes in collaborative governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Jennifer C; Koontz, Tomas M

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative governance critics continually call for evidence to support its prevalent use. As is often the case in environmental policy, environmental outcomes occur at a rate incompatible with political agendas. In addition, a multitude of possibly confounding variables makes it difficult to correlate collaborative governance processes with environmental outcomes. The findings of this study offer empirical evidence that collaborative processes have a measurable, beneficial effect on environmental outcomes. Through the use of a unique paired-waterbody design, our dataset reduced the potential for confounding variables to impact our environmental outcome measurements. The results of a path analysis indicate that the output of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is significantly related to watershed partnerships' level of attainment of their environmental improvement goals. The action of setting specific goals (e.g. percentage of load reductions in pollutant levels) is fostered by sustained participation from partnership members throughout the lifecycle of the collaborative. In addition, this study demonstrates the utility of logic modeling for environmental planning and management, and suggests that the process of setting specific pollutant reduction goals is a useful proxy measure for reporting progress towards improvements in environmental outcomes when long-term environmental data are not available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nepal - Country Environmental Analysis : Strengthening Institutions and Management Systems for Enhanced Environmental Governance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) in Nepal is to identify opportunities for enhancing the overall performance of select environmental management systems through improvements in the effectiveness of institutions, policies, and processes. CEA has been built upon the following three primary study components: (a) an examination of the environmental issues associate...

  5. Whole-of-Government Approaches to Fragile States in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years fragile states have been high on the foreign policy agendas of the USA and the EU. Both actors look upon fragile states with great concern and consider them as security threats. Officially they give priority to ‘whole-of-government approaches’ (wga) when addressing the threats...

  6. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance . It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  7. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

  8. The City Blueprint Approach: Urban Water Management and Governance in Cities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Koop, Stef; van Leeuwen, Kees

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the challenges of water, waste and climate change in six cities across the U.S.: New York City, Boston, Milwaukee, Phoenix, Portland and Los Angeles. We apply the City Blueprint ® Approach which consists of three indicator assessments: (1) the Trends and Pressures Framework (TPF), (2) the City Blueprint Framework (CBF) and (3) the water Governance Capacity Framework (GCF). The TPF summarizes the main social, environmental and financial pressures that may impede water management. The CBF provides an integrated overview of the management performances within the urban watercycle. Finally, the GCF provides a framework to identify key barriers and opportunities to develop governance capacity. The GCF has only been applied in NYC. Results show that all cities face pressures from heat risk. The management performances regarding resource efficiency and resource recovery from wastewater and solid waste show considerable room for improvement. Moreover, stormwater separation, infrastructure maintenance and green space require improvement in order to achieve a resilient urban watercycle. Finally, in New York City, the GCF results show that learning through smart monitoring, evaluation and cross-stakeholder learning is a limiting condition that needs to be addressed. We conclude that the City Blueprint Approach has large potential to assist cities in their strategic planning and exchange of knowledge, experiences and lessons. Because the methodology is well-structured, easy to understand, and concise, it may bridge the gap between science, policy and practice. It could therefore enable other cities to address their challenges of water, waste and climate change.

  9. Cyber as a Team Sport: Operationalizing a Whole-Of-Government Approach to Cyberspace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    July 2010-7 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE • -~ ·- ~ I 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER CYBER AS A "TEAM SPORT ": OPERATIONALIZING A WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT APPROACH...JOINT FORCES STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL CYBER AS A “TEAM SPORT ”: OPERATIONALIZING A WHOLE-OF- GOVERNMENT APPROACH...TO CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS by Elizabeth A. Myers Department of Defense CYBER AS A "TEAM SPORT ": OPERATIONALIZING A WHOLE-OF· GOVERNMENT

  10. The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stoker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of local governance has been too focused on the institutional arrangements of the Systems of different nation states rather than the more fundamental issue of the societal functions performed by local government. This article focuses attention on four societal roles that local government systems undertake. They can support political identity, underwrite economic development, facilitate social welfare provision or act as a lifestyle co-ordinator through the practice of community governance. Linking our investigation to the embedded societal roles of local government in different systems opens up the opportunity for a more genuinely global comparative perspective. It also helps us to understand the likely forms of politics associated with different systems of local governance. It also enables us to explore the sustainability of different systems of local governance. It is suggested that a strong system of local government is likely to be one that is able to combine societal roles to a substantial degree. A vulnerable local government system is one trapped with one function that in changing societal and economic circumstances could find itself under threat.El estudio comparado de la gobernanza local se ha focalizado excesivamente en los arreglos institucionales de los sistemas de los diferentes Estados-nación en lugar de centrarse en el tema esencial de las funciones sociales que desempeñan los gobiernos locales. Este artículo centra su atención en cuatro roles sociales que desempeñan los sistemas de gobierno local. Pueden proporcionar identidad política, garantizar el desarrollo económico, facilitar la provisión de servicios sociales o actuar como coordinador de la forma de vida mediante la práctica de la gobernanza comunitaria. La vinculación de la investigación a los roles sociales asumidos por los gobiernos locales en los diferentes sistemas proporciona la posibilidad de adoptar una perspectiva global comparada

  11. Information by the Federal Government. Report of the Federal Governement on 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation load in 1975'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report on environmental radioactivity and radiation load, to be published annually by the Federal government, contains data on artificial exposure from nuclear facilities, data on the application of radioactive substances and ionizing rays in research and technology, on occupational activities, medical application and special occurrences. Not only the annual release of radioactive substances from nuclear fcilities is presented but also data on the maximum permissible radiation exposures and the average gonadal exposure within the vicinity of plants. Furthermore, data is presented on the influence of X-ray investigations on the genetically significant dose as well as on the proportion in percent of the various radionuclides when applied in nuclear medicine. (ORU) [de

  12. Cities, Networks, and Global Environmental Governance - Spaces of Innovation, Places of Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouteligier, S.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of global dynamics—the increasing interconnection of people and places—innovations in global environmental governance haved altered the role of cities in shaping the future of the planet. This book is a timely study of the importance of these social transformations in our increasingly

  13. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance and sovereign bond spreads : an empirical analysis of OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle-Blancard, Gunther; Crifo, Patricia; Oueghlissi, Rim; Scholtens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    What are the determinants of borrowing cost in international capital markets? Apart from macroeconomic fundamentals, are there any qualitative factors that might capture sovereign bond spreads? In this paper we consider to what extent Environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance can affect

  14. Governing the Environmental and Social Dimensions of Pangasius Production in Vietnam: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Nguyen Tri Khiem,; Xuan Sinh, Le

    2009-01-01

    The Vietnamese government's policies for an export-led economy have supported the rapid growth of Pangasius production but have had limited success in mitigating the environmental and social impacts stemming from unplanned and ad hoc expansion. Recognising the poor performance of state regulation

  15. Multilevel governance of global environmental change: perspectives from science, sociology and the law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    ...-regulation, of horizontal transfer of national policies, of regional integration, and of improved coordination between international environmental organisations, as well as basic principles for sustainable use of resources. Addressing both academics and politicians, this book will stimulate the debate about the means of improving global governance. ...

  16. Informational institutions in the agrifood sector: meta-information and meta-governance of environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.; Brewster, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In the agrifood sector, the explosive increase in information about environmental sustainability, often in uncoordinated information systems, has created a new form of ignorance (‘meta-ignorance’) that diminishes the effectiveness of information on decision-makers. Flows of information are governed

  17. Collaborative innovation as a tool for environmental, economic and social sustainability in regional governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Hofstad, Hege

    2015-01-01

    solutions to common problems. The paper analyses the efforts of Norwegian regions to enhance collaborative innovation through the formation of interactive governance arenas. It compares three different policy areas in order to better understand how different forms of interactive governance enhance...... collaborative innovation for economic, social and environmental sustainability. The ultimate goal is to assess the ability and potential of Norwegian regions to solve wicked and unruly problems through collaborative innovation.......In the Scandinavian countries, the regional level of governance is neither the locus of large-scale policy reforms nor a significant provider of welfare to citizens. Nevertheless, it has some important policy tasks in the area of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. These policy...

  18. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Policy uncertainty and corporate performance in government-sponsored voluntary environmental programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Zhan, Xueyong; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung

    2018-08-01

    This study combines insights from the policy uncertainty literature and neo-institutional theory to examine corporate performance in implementing a government-sponsored voluntary environmental program (VEP) during 2004-2012 in Guangzhou, China. In this regulatory context, characterized by rapid policy changes, corporate performance in VEPs is affected by government surveillance, policy uncertainty, and peer pressures. Specifically, if VEP participants have experienced more government surveillance, they tend to perform better in program implementation. Such positive influence of government surveillance is particularly evident among those joining under high and low, rather than moderate uncertainty. Participants also perform better if they belong to an industry with more certified VEP firms, but worse if they are located in a regulatory jurisdiction with more certified VEP firms. At a moderate level of policy uncertainty, within-industry imitation is most likely to occur but within-jurisdiction imitation is least likely to occur. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corporate governance and proactive environmental management in Novo Hamburgo and neighbouring cities, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Naime

    Full Text Available This study compiled data on environmental auditing and voluntary certification of environment-friendly businesses of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Novo Hamburgo, Campo Bom and Estância Velha and analysed them according to classical environmental management principles: sustainable development and corporate governance. It assessed the level of application of the concepts of corporate governance to everyday business in companies and organisations and estimated how the interconnection and vertical permeability of these concepts might help to make bureaucratic environmental management systemic, proactive and evaluative, changes that may add great value to the operations evaluated. Results showed that, when analysing only audited items not directly defined in legislation, no significant changes were identified. The inclusion of more advanced indices may promote the transition from bureaucratic management, which meets regulated environmental standards only satisfactorily, into proactive and systemic environmental management, which adds value to companies and helps to perpetuate them. Audited and analysed data did not reveal actions that depend on the internal redistribution of power and the interconnection or verticality of attitudes that may materialize concepts of corporate governance.

  1. Corporate governance and proactive environmental management in Novo Hamburgo and neighbouring cities, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naime, R; Spilki, F R; Nascimento, C A

    2015-05-01

    This study compiled data on environmental auditing and voluntary certification of environment-friendly businesses of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Novo Hamburgo, Campo Bom and Estância Velha and analysed them according to classical environmental management principles: sustainable development and corporate governance. It assessed the level of application of the concepts of corporate governance to everyday business in companies and organisations and estimated how the interconnection and vertical permeability of these concepts might help to make bureaucratic environmental management systemic, proactive and evaluative, changes that may add great value to the operations evaluated. Results showed that, when analysing only audited items not directly defined in legislation, no significant changes were identified. The inclusion of more advanced indices may promote the transition from bureaucratic management, which meets regulated environmental standards only satisfactorily, into proactive and systemic environmental management, which adds value to companies and helps to perpetuate them. Audited and analysed data did not reveal actions that depend on the internal redistribution of power and the interconnection or verticality of attitudes that may materialize concepts of corporate governance.

  2. Conceptualizing strategic environmental assessment: Principles, approaches and research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Bram, E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5 (Canada); Nwanekezie, Kelechi [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on transitioning strategic environmental assessment (SEA) away from its environmental impact assessment (EIA) roots. Scholars have argued the need to conceptualize SEA as a process designed to facilitate strategic thinking, thus enabling transitions toward sustainability. The practice of SEA, however, remains deeply rooted in the EIA tradition and scholars and practitioners often appear divided on the nature and purpose of SEA. This paper revisits the strategic principles of SEA and conceptualizes SEA as a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessment process. It is suggested that SEA can be conceptualized as series of approaches operating along a spectrum from less to more strategic – from impact assessment-based to strategy-based – with each approach to SEA differentiated by the specific objectives of SEA application and the extent to which strategic principles are reflected in its design and implementation. Advancing the effectiveness of SEA requires a continued research agenda focused on improving the traditional SEA approach, as a tool to assess the impacts of policies, plans and programs (PPPs). Realizing the full potential of SEA, however, requires a new research agenda — one focused on the development and testing of a deliberative governance approach to SEA that can facilitate strategic innovations in PPP formulation and drive transitions in short-term policy and initiatives based on longer-term thinking. - Highlights: • SEA facilitates strategic thinking, enabling transitions toward sustainability. • SEA is conceptualized as a spectrum of approaches, from IA-based to strategy-based. • Each approach variably emphasizes strategic principles in its design and practice. • There is no one conceptualization of SEA that is best, SEA is fit for PPP purpose. • Research is needed to advance SEA to facilitate strategic PPP transformations.

  3. Conceptualizing strategic environmental assessment: Principles, approaches and research directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Nwanekezie, Kelechi

    2017-01-01

    Increasing emphasis has been placed in recent years on transitioning strategic environmental assessment (SEA) away from its environmental impact assessment (EIA) roots. Scholars have argued the need to conceptualize SEA as a process designed to facilitate strategic thinking, thus enabling transitions toward sustainability. The practice of SEA, however, remains deeply rooted in the EIA tradition and scholars and practitioners often appear divided on the nature and purpose of SEA. This paper revisits the strategic principles of SEA and conceptualizes SEA as a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional assessment process. It is suggested that SEA can be conceptualized as series of approaches operating along a spectrum from less to more strategic – from impact assessment-based to strategy-based – with each approach to SEA differentiated by the specific objectives of SEA application and the extent to which strategic principles are reflected in its design and implementation. Advancing the effectiveness of SEA requires a continued research agenda focused on improving the traditional SEA approach, as a tool to assess the impacts of policies, plans and programs (PPPs). Realizing the full potential of SEA, however, requires a new research agenda — one focused on the development and testing of a deliberative governance approach to SEA that can facilitate strategic innovations in PPP formulation and drive transitions in short-term policy and initiatives based on longer-term thinking. - Highlights: • SEA facilitates strategic thinking, enabling transitions toward sustainability. • SEA is conceptualized as a spectrum of approaches, from IA-based to strategy-based. • Each approach variably emphasizes strategic principles in its design and practice. • There is no one conceptualization of SEA that is best, SEA is fit for PPP purpose. • Research is needed to advance SEA to facilitate strategic PPP transformations.

  4. The conflicting economic and environmental logics of North American governance : NAFTA, energy subsidies, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, R.J.; Krajnc, A.; Clarkson, S.

    2003-01-01

    One of the incentives behind the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was to promote a green economy. It offered the hope that environmentally sustainable trade was possible through provisions against downward harmonization, the respect for state autonomy in environmental regulation, and the creation of the Commission for Environmental Co-operation. However, cleaner energy trade has actually been inhibited by subsidies for fossil fuel development, government's inability to regulate the rate of resource depletion, and by favoring the priorities of transnational corporations. The authors reviewed perverse subsidies and recommended a combination of environmentally sensitive policy changes, such as the elimination of perverse subsidies, the subsidization of environmentally friendly energy sources, and the imposition of carbon taxes and demand-side management initiatives. 67 refs., 1 fig

  5. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  6. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the ‘legal requirement’ discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The ‘common ground’ regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less

  7. Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment and Implications for Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend of crop plantation expansion. This trend has been spurred by policies in the European Union, United States, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance energy security and reduce carbon emissions, as well as by the desire of governments in developing countries to harness the stimulus that new commercial investments provide to the agricultural sector and to national economies. Despite these potential benefits, a number of concerns have been raised about the local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion. We shed light on this debate through a synthesis of findings from case studies in six biofuel producer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and a seventh paper exploring the implications of the land-use changes observed in these case studies for the climate mitigation potential of biofuels. We also explore the implications for governing the environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock production, protecting the rights of customary land users, and enabling smallholder-inclusive business models. Our analysis suggests that better governance of the sector's impacts is not the exclusive preserve of unitary sets of actors, but instead requires concerted and coordinated efforts by governments of producer and consumer countries, investors, civil society, and the financial sector to better capture the sector's potential while minimizing its social and environmental costs.

  8. Political and environmental attitude toward participatory energy and environmental governance: A survey in post-Fukushima Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident triggered citizen dialogue on energy and environmental management in Japan. However, an international survey has shown that the willingness of Japanese citizens to participate in political and social activities has declined since the Fukushima accident. Employing an internet-based survey in four urban or nuclear power plant-hosting prefectures in Japan, this study examines the willingness to participate in random sampling deliberation on post-disaster energy and environmental policy. It focuses on the effects of political, environmental, and social attitudes towards willingness to participate in citizen dialogue. The survey shows around 40% of respondents may participate in energy and environmental deliberation. Statistical analysis reveals that environmental consciousness raises the propensity to participate in deliberation, while political obedience and social hesitation decreases the will to participate. The effect of environmental attitudes is larger than that of political and social attitudes. The survey also finds that governmental response to deliberation, i.e., information generation and disclosure based on requests from citizen dialogue, encourages participation in deliberation in a conservative prefecture, when citizen dialogue is held at the national level. Random sampling deliberation opens a new mode of environmental governance regardless of local political and social characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Open Economy, Institutional Quality, and Environmental Performance: A Macroeconomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaryllis Mavragani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the subject of how economic development affects the quality of the natural environment has gained great momentum, this paper focuses on examining the extent to which the openness of a market economy and the quality of the institution affect environmental performance. The majority of the current studies focus on the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the level of economic growth. This paper addresses this question by relating environmental (“Environmental Performance Index” to macroeconomic (Gross Domestic Product per capita, “Open Markets Index” and governance indicators (“Worldwide Governance Indicators”. The sample consists of 75 countries, including all G20 and EU members, comprising “more than 90% of global trade and investment”. Findings show that the Environmental Performance Index is positively correlated to each of the (institutional indicators, so as to confirm that the selected indices are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that environmental performance increases in line with economic development and that good governance increases a country’s levels of environmental protection. By applying factor analysis, an empirical model of the Environmental Performance Index is estimated, suggesting that there is a significant positive correlation between a country’s economic growth, the openness of an economy, high levels of effective governance, and its environmental performance.

  10. The Aalborg Approach to Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    2002-01-01

    The Article Briefly Presents the Master Programme in Environmental Management at Aalborg University......The Article Briefly Presents the Master Programme in Environmental Management at Aalborg University...

  11. A Running Start or a Clean Slate? How a History of Cooperation Affects the Ability of Cities to Cooperate on Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the Chinese central government has pushed cooperation on environmental governance in Urban Agglomerations (UAs. In some of these UAs, cities have previously been developing environmental governance activities autonomously, in the absence of inter-city cooperation, while on others, spontaneous cooperation has previously taken place. These differences in historical context provide us with an opportunity to study, in a comparative way, how a history of cooperation influences the effectiveness of inter-city cooperation on environmental governance. Our approach to carrying out this comparison is to reconstruct the trajectories of events that describe the evolution of environmental governance in two UAs (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River Delta, covering the period from the early 90s to 2016. The main findings of this study are that the trajectory of environmental governance in a historical context of prior spontaneous cooperation is more effective in achieving goal intertwinement than that in a historical context of no prior cooperation; and that informal forms of cooperation, along with decentralized coordination by local actors, are critical and more influential in bringing about more effective cooperation. On the other hand, in a historical context of no prior cooperation there is an opportunity to design a cooperative structure from scratch; in this process attention should be paid to the creation of an equal playing ground, with balanced costs and benefits for all partners. By contrast, cooperation on environmental governance in a context where there is a history of spontaneous cooperation the central government can still play a role in the further facilitation of cooperation.

  12. Committing to place: the potential of open collaborations for trusted environmental governance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Waterton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional modes of environmental governance, which typically exclude those stakeholders that are most directly linked to the specific place, frequently fail to have the desired impact. Using the example of lake water management in Loweswater, a small hamlet within the English Lake District, we consider the ways in which new "collectives" for local, bottom-up governance of water bodies can reframe problems in ways which both bind lay and professional people to place, and also recast the meaning of "solutions" in thought-provoking ways.

  13. Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sutherland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity plays a critical role in improving the quality of life and resilience of poor urban communities in Durban. Objectives: However, the rapid densification that is taking place in the ‘rural periphery’ of the city is impacting significantly on the integrity of ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystem services. It is also changing the relations between people and the environment. Mzinyathi and eSkebheni, in the north-west of Durban, are peri-urban areas located on Ingonyama Trust land and hence they are governed by both the traditional authority and the eThekwini Municipality. The settlement pattern is changing rapidly here as middle and upper income residents move into the area, changing the way of life from being rural and ‘traditional’ to urban and ‘modern’. Method: This paper focused on the nexus of rapid urban growth, dual governance systems, biodiversity loss and cultural change in these two areas. It adopted a qualitative methodology and social constructivist approach. Data on the value of environmental services in the area was collected through interviewing the traditional authority, provincial and municipal planners and environmentalists, and household members. Results: The paper revealed that environmental services are constructed in multiple ways within a particular socio-historical and political context, that they have value to peri-urban communities, and that their function and use is changing as a result of the ‘modernisation’ of the area. The impact of the dual governance system and traditional land allocation process on environmental services is significant. This has implications for long term sustainability, for the quality of life of peri-urban residents and for planning and urban governance.

  14. Research on evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingsheng; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution, and determines the evaluation indicator system composed of 5 primary indicators as the basic competence of enterprise, operation of equipment, technique economics, environmental benefit and management level, and 26 secondary indicators via policies and regulations, standards, literature research and expert consultation in combination with the composition elements, service value judgment factors and full-life cycle of the work, providing theoretical support for the effect evaluation of third-governance over the environmental pollution in China. Then, the hierarchical analytic matrix is formed by analyzing the environmental pollution governance evaluation indicator system via analytic hierarchy process and scoring the importance of various indicators by experts by applying the Delphi method. The feature vector of the matrix is then calculated to obtain the weight of each indicator and verify the effectiveness of the Delphi method and obtain the comprehensive weight by judging the consistency of the matrix, so as to finally determine the overall ordering level of the importance of secondary indicators.

  15. A Study on Technology Architecture and Serving Approaches of Electronic Government System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunnian; Huang, Yiyun; Pan, Qin

    As E-government becomes a very active research area, a lot of solutions to solve citizens' needs are being deployed. This paper provides technology architecture of E-government system and approaches of service in Public Administrations. The proposed electronic system addresses the basic E-government requirements of user friendliness, security, interoperability, transparency and effectiveness in the communication between small and medium sized public organizations and their citizens, businesses and other public organizations. The paper has provided several serving approaches of E-government, which includes SOA, web service, mobile E-government, public library and every has its own characteristics and application scenes. Still, there are a number of E-government issues for further research on organization structure change, including research methodology, data collection analysis, etc.

  16. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...

  17. Analysis of the Danish Approach to E-Government benefit relalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nielsen, Morten Meyerhoff

    2014-01-01

    national strategies for electronic government (eGovernment) are attracting attention. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), in July 2014, adopted a number of recommendations for public sector digitisation and eGovernment strategies. The recommendations address the strategic...... direction of eGovernment, implementation, governance, and cooperation models. The recommendations focus on the successful benefit realisation of ICT infrastructure and online services investments, rather than a technological and supply-orientated approach. To achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness......, a public- sector governance model and multi-stakeholder cooperation are essential for the successful use and implementation of information technology (IT). In light of the OECD’s recommendations, this paper investigates the three most-important aspects of eGovernment implementation in Denmark...

  18. Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance in China: In Need of Strong Government Backing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; He, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution liability insurance was officially introduced in China only in 2006, as part of new market-based approaches for managing environmental risks. By 2012, trial applications of pollution insurance had been launched in 14 provinces and cities. More than ten insurance companies

  19. Exploring the Role of Relational Practices in Water Governance Using a Game-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Magnuszewski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing complexity and interdependence of water management processes requires the involvement of multiple stakeholders in water governance. Multi-party collaboration is increasingly vital at both the strategy development and implementation levels. Multi-party collaboration involves a process of joint decision-making among key stakeholders in a problem domain directed towards the future of that domain. However, the common goal is not present from the beginning; rather, the common goal emerges during the process of collaboration. Unfortunately, when the conflicting interests of different actors are at stake, the large majority of environmental multi-party efforts often do not reliably deliver sustainable improvements to policy and/or practice. One of the reasons for this, which has been long established by many case studies, is that social learning with a focus on relational practices is missing. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and initial results of a pilot study that utilized a game-based approach to explore the effects of relational practices on the effectiveness of water governance. This paper verifies the methods used by addressing the following question: are game mechanisms, protocols for facilitation and observation, the recording of decisions and results, and participant surveys adequate to reliably test hypotheses about behavioral decisions related to water governance? We used the “Lords of the Valley” (LOV game, which focuses on the local-level management of a hypothetical river valley involving many stakeholders. We used an observation protocol to collect data on the quality of relational practices and compared this data with the quantitative outcomes achieved by participants in the game. In this pilot study, we ran the game three times with different groups of participants, and here we provide the outcomes within the context of verifying and improving the methods.

  20. Concept for integrated environmental monitoring. Scientific approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, W [comp.; Schoenthaler, K; Kerner, H F; Koeppel, J; Spandau, L

    1998-09-01

    Despite considerable expenditures for environmental protection and intensified efforts in the areas of environmental research and monitoring, environmental damage increasingly occurs, sometimes with global effects, largely due to the lack of early diagnosis. In the past few years various institutions have therefore demanded improvements in environmental monitoring. The Council of Experts on Environmental Issues (`Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen`, SRU), in particular, in its `Environmental Report` of 1987 and in its Special Report on `General Ecological Environmental Monitoring` (1990) presented far-reaching demands for a nationwide ecological early warning system which should integrate the various local, regional, national, and even global monitoring levels, and which should encompass an environmental monitoring of entire ecosystems at representative locations. This is aimed at creating the prerequisites for - detection of long-term gradual environmental change, - confirmation of refutation of initial assumptions regarding the causes of these environmental changes, - permitting decisions on preventive actions to stabilize or improve environmental conditions and - making it possible to assess the success of environmental protection policies. This report includes an abbreviated version and documentation of the conference on the `Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring` and the final report `Specification of the Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring from the Perspective of Nature Conservation`. (orig.)

  1. Cooperation in Global Environmental Governance for Building A Conflict Prevention Architecture in Natural Resources Torno

    OpenAIRE

    Padilha, Norma Sueli; Cardoso, Simone Alves

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and the importance of cooperation in global environmental governance arrangements to prevent conflicts and promote pea- cebuilding through analysis the partnership between the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) around the natural resources and conflict prevention. The problem to be addressed and the challenge to overcome by the international community is the fra- gility of some countries in creating and maintaining institutions t...

  2. The City Blueprint Approach: Urban Water Management and Governance in Cities in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Koop, Stef; van Leeuwen, Kees

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the challenges of water, waste and climate change in six cities across the U.S.: New York City, Boston, Milwaukee, Phoenix, Portland and Los Angeles. We apply the City Blueprint® Approach which consists of three indicator assessments: (1) the Trends and Pressures Framework (TPF), (2) the City Blueprint Framework (CBF) and (3) the water Governance Capacity Framework (GCF). The TPF summarizes the main social, environmental and financial pressures that may impede water management. The CBF provides an integrated overview of the management performances within the urban watercycle. Finally, the GCF provides a framework to identify key barriers and opportunities to develop governance capacity. The GCF has only been applied in NYC. Results show that all cities face pressures from heat risk. The management performances regarding resource efficiency and resource recovery from wastewater and solid waste show considerable room for improvement. Moreover, stormwater separation, infrastructure maintenance and green space require improvement in order to achieve a resilient urban watercycle. Finally, in New York City, the GCF results show that learning through smart monitoring, evaluation and cross-stakeholder learning is a limiting condition that needs to be addressed. We conclude that the City Blueprint Approach has large potential to assist cities in their strategic planning and exchange of knowledge, experiences and lessons. Because the methodology is well-structured, easy to understand, and concise, it may bridge the gap between science, policy and practice. It could therefore enable other cities to address their challenges of water, waste and climate change.

  3. Efficient data analysis approaches to enhance the quality of customer service in Saudi Government sector

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Baz

    2016-01-01

    The common aim of all our daily activities is providing services to others or ourselves. Services provided by the government are called public services while those provided by some people to some others are called private services. Both types differ from country to country and from region to region. In Saudi Arabia, public services include education, health, police, trading, and environmental services. It is the aim of all government agencies in Saudi Arabia and other countries around the wor...

  4. The Causality between Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adebayo Ajayi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between government expenditure and economic growth has been an issue of debate over the years. This study investigates the causality between government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria between 1985 and 2014. Following the Toda-Yamamoto non-Granger causality testing approach, it finds that government expenditure and economic growth have no causal effect on each other. This offers evidence to invalidate Wagner’s law and the Keynesian proposition in Nigeria. This study recommends that government should strengthen its efforts to curtail corruption as well as introduce stricter checks and controls to reduce or eliminate the profligacy of public funds.

  5. A Universal Design Approach to Government Service Delivery: The Case of ChileAtiende.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A common challenge for government administrations that aim to improve the delivery of information and services to citizens is to go beyond a government-centred approach. By focusing on citizens and the needs of a wide range of citizens, Universal Design (UD) can help to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of government services. This paper examines the case of an internationally recognised Chilean government service delivery programme inspired by UD principles known as ChileAtiende ("ChileService"). A brief account of its creation and current status is provided.

  6. National Governance Approach for Agriculture Land in Natura 2000 Areas. Evidence from Plovdiv District, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yanka KAZAKOVA-MATEVA

    2018-01-01

    The designation and implementation of Natura 2000 sites faced many challenges across most of the member states in the EC. Some related to consultation and involvement of stakeholders, funding the conservation objectives and providing compensation to land owners, farmers and foresters for restrictions on their land use. The national governments adopted different approaches to address these issues. The aim of the paper is to assess the governance approach for agricultural land in Natura 2000 in...

  7. Information Extraction and Dependency on Open Government Data (ogd) for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmuttalib, Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Environmental monitoring practices support decision makers of different government / private institutions, besides environmentalists and planners among others. This support helps them act towards the sustainability of our environment, and also take efficient measures for protecting human beings in general, but it is difficult to explore useful information from 'OGD' and assure its quality for the purpose. On the other hand, Monitoring itself comprises detecting changes as happens, or within the mitigation period range, which means that any source of data, that is to be used for monitoring, should replicate the information related to the period of environmental monitoring, or otherwise it's considered almost useless or history. In this paper the assessment of information extraction and structuring from Open Government Data 'OGD', that can be useful to environmental monitoring is performed, looking into availability, usefulness to environmental monitoring of a certain type, checking its repetition period and dependences. The particular assessment is being performed on a small sample selected from OGD, bearing in mind the type of the environmental change monitored, such as the increase and concentrations of built up areas, and reduction of green areas, or monitoring the change of temperature in a specific area. The World Bank mentioned in its blog that Data is open if it satisfies both conditions of, being technically open, and legally open. The use of Open Data thus, is regulated by published terms of use, or an agreement which implies some conditions without violating the above mentioned two conditions. Within the scope of the paper I wish to share the experience of using some OGD for supporting an environmental monitoring work, that is performed to mitigate the production of carbon dioxide, by regulating energy consumption, and by properly designing the test area's landscapes, thus using Geodesign tactics, meanwhile wish to add to the results achieved by many

  8. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Annie L.; Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  9. Developing a More Comprehensive SOA Governance Framework by Using a Comparative Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilat Hojaji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many companies have adopted Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA as an approach to improve agility and increase performance of system development.However, deploying SOA has been encountered to some challenges and problems including difficulties in designing effective decision structures and building a SOA roadmap, lack of service funding and lack of consistent governance processes. Therefore, to address SOA challenges, organizations require a comprehensive and applicable SOA governance framework to implement management and control mechanisms. Study of existing SOA governance frameworks reveals that these frameworks are not expressive enough to cover all important elements of SOA governance and also, the y have very little discussions and clarifications regarding underpinning structures such as SOA processes and activities, governance procedures and measurement metrics. In this paper, in the process of proposing a new SOA governance framework, a set of important elements for a desired SOA governance framework is proposed. Based on these elements, a more comprehensive and expressive framework is developed based on governance structure of COBIT. It focuses on covering SOA governance elements and resolving the shortcomings of the existing frameworks and can delivers an appropriate solution to help enable effective SOA governance.

  10. An Integrated Computer-Aided Approach for Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Chen, Fei; Jaksland, Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    A general framework for an integrated computer-aided approach to solve process design, control, and environmental problems simultaneously is presented. Physicochemical properties and their relationships to the molecular structure play an important role in the proposed integrated approach. The sco...... and applicability of the integrated approach is highlighted through examples involving estimation of properties and environmental pollution prevention. The importance of mixture effects on some environmentally important properties is also demonstrated....

  11. Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: Analysis of three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Birgand

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Policy makers and governments are calling for coordination to address the crisis emerging from the ineffectiveness of current antibiotics and stagnated pipe-line of new ones – antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Wider contextual drivers and mechanisms are contributing to shifts in governance strategies in health care, but are national health system approaches aligned with strategies required to tackle antimicrobial resistance? This article provides an analysis of governance approaches within healthcare systems including: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability for AMR prevention in three European countries: England, France and Germany. Advantages and unresolved issues from these different experiences are reported, concluding that mechanisms are needed to support partnerships between healthcare professionals and patients with democratized decision-making and accountability via collaboration. But along with this multi-stakeholder approach to governance, a balance between regulation and persuasion is needed.

  12. A new method for E-government procurement using collaborative filtering and Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Xi, Chengyu; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wenyu; Chen, Yanhong

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, as the Internet services increase faster than ever before, government systems are reinvented as E-government services. Therefore, government procurement sectors have to face challenges brought by the explosion of service information. This paper presents a novel method for E-government procurement (eGP) to search for the optimal procurement scheme (OPS). Item-based collaborative filtering and Bayesian approach are used to evaluate and select the candidate services to get the top-M recommendations such that the involved computation load can be alleviated. A trapezoidal fuzzy number similarity algorithm is applied to support the item-based collaborative filtering and Bayesian approach, since some of the services' attributes can be hardly expressed as certain and static values but only be easily represented as fuzzy values. A prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example from eGP to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  13. A New Method for E-Government Procurement Using Collaborative Filtering and Bayesian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, as the Internet services increase faster than ever before, government systems are reinvented as E-government services. Therefore, government procurement sectors have to face challenges brought by the explosion of service information. This paper presents a novel method for E-government procurement (eGP to search for the optimal procurement scheme (OPS. Item-based collaborative filtering and Bayesian approach are used to evaluate and select the candidate services to get the top-M recommendations such that the involved computation load can be alleviated. A trapezoidal fuzzy number similarity algorithm is applied to support the item-based collaborative filtering and Bayesian approach, since some of the services’ attributes can be hardly expressed as certain and static values but only be easily represented as fuzzy values. A prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example from eGP to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  14. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  15. Governance Dynamics and the Application of the Multilevel Governance Approach in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the European Neighbourhood Countries: The Case of the ENPI South Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin Arribas, J. Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses moves towards good multilevel governance approaches in Vocational Education and Training (VET) as an effective way to improve VET policy making in transition and developing countries, focusing on the Southern Neighbourhood of the EU (ENPI South). The centralised approaches in public administration and to VET governance still…

  16. Toward Post-Sovereign Environmental Governance? Politics, Scale, and EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Johnson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The EU Water Framework Directive (EUWFD of 2000 requires that all EU member states "protect, enhance and restore" rivers to attain good surface water quality by 2015. To achieve this mandate, member states divide themselves into watershed basins (River Basin Districts for the purposes of monitoring and remediation, even if those districts cross international borders. This paper examines three key elements of the rescaling of governance along watershed lines. First, I draw on a cross section of literatures on territoriality of the state and the changing regulation of nature to argue that analyses of the EU tend to privilege the nation-state as an ontological starting point. Second, the EUWFD as a rescaling of environmental gCorey Johnsonvernance is explored. The third element of the paper considers the relationship between the de- and re-territorialisation of environmental governance on the one hand, and the changing character of sovereignty in the EU on the other. On this basis, the paper argues that the EUWFD represents a hybrid form of territoriality that is changing the political geography of the European Union and that the redrawing of political-administrative scales along physical geographical lines provides evidence of the emergence of a new, non-nested scalar politics of governance in Europe.

  17. Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO 2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Co-Producing a Vision and Approach for the Transition towards a Circular Economy: Perspectives from Government Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P. M. Velenturf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom’s (UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices that deplete finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk, and economic instability; it also produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on well-being in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits, and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach that will realise such a transition. Sharing the RRfW’s government engagement results, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society through waste and resource management practices that maximise the values of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Key themes, regulatory instruments, a stable policy framework, and an approach for effective academic–government collaboration are proposed. Comparing the results to government plans in four UK nations shows great differences in progress towards realising a circular economy. The article concludes with recommendations to capitalise on opportunities for growth, innovation, and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare throughout the UK.

  19. Evaluating Adaptive Governance Approaches to Sustainable Water Management in North-West Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julian R. A.; Semmahasak, Chutiwalanch

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive governance is advanced as a potent means of addressing institutional fit of natural resource systems with prevailing modes of political-administrative management. Its advocates also argue that it enhances participatory and learning opportunities for stakeholders over time. Yet an increasing number of studies demonstrate real difficulties in implementing adaptive governance `solutions'. This paper builds on these debates by examining the introduction of adaptive governance to water management in Chiang Mai province, north-west Thailand. The paper considers, first, the limitations of current water governance modes at the provincial scale, and the rationale for implementation of an adaptive approach. The new approach is then critically examined, with its initial performance and likely future success evaluated by (i) analysis of water stakeholders' opinions of its first year of operation; and (ii) comparison of its governance attributes against recent empirical accounts of implementation difficulty and failure of adaptive governance of natural resource management more generally. The analysis confirms the potentially significant role that the new approach can play in brokering and resolving the underlying differences in stakeholder representation and knowledge construction at the heart of the prevailing water governance modes in north-west Thailand.

  20. THE ROMANIAN ASPECT OF THE E.U. GOVERNANCE CASE STUDIES: EDUCATUION POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-ANDREEA ION

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper belongs to the domestic studies which try to connect the Romanian research to the current debates within the EU studies. The authors' aim is to analyze the aspects and the implications of the EU governance at the Member States' domestic policies level, as most of these policies are currently facing the challenges brought by the Europeanization process. Therefore, the theoretical framework selected is the theory of governance, focusing on the explanatory and analytical opportunities of two components – multi-level governance and governance networks; in this way, it is underlined the separation from the classic model of relation between the (multiplied levels of political authority (supranational, national, subnational and the exponential increase in the number and types of actors participating at the decisional process and implementation of European public policy. Within the selected case studies (environmental policy and education policy, the authors advance a research structure with the aims (a to identify the relevant actors involved in the policy-making process of these policies, at all stages of its cycle; (b to offer an explanation of the types of interactions between these actors, and (c to identify the influence these interactions exert on the communitarization pronounced tendency of some EU policy sectors. The analysis is performed in terms of the Treaty of Lisbon (the selected policies being part of distinct categories of the Union competences and it is oriented towards the national level of the making process of these policies.

  1. A Total Curricular Approach to Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Jerry L.

    1975-01-01

    Presented is an environmental education model based on an interdisciplinary curricular structure. The model consists of three two-dimensional matrices organizing objectives, strategies, and content. Each matrix lists environmental concepts along one axis and the disciplines along the other. One interpretation of the model is presented as a…

  2. The Value Relevance of Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance: The Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mar Miralles-Quirós

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature on the value relevance of social responsibility for companies that operate in developed countries. However, little is known about the influence of these practices on the price of assets listed on emerging economies, such as Brazil. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse whether social responsibility activities carried out by companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange during the 2010–2015 period play a significant role in enhancing firm value. Unlike previous studies, we distinguish between the three modern pillars of sustainability: environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG. Our overall results support the value enhancing theory rather than the shareholder expense theory. However, it is important to note that the results also show that the market does not significantly value the three ESG pillars. Specifically, the market positively and significantly values the environmental practices carried out by companies not related to environmentally sensitive industries. In contrast, the market positively and significantly values the social and corporate governance practices carried out by the companies belonging to these sensitive industries. These findings are relevant for both investors and the managers of these companies, policy makers, customers, and citizens concerned about ESG issues.

  3. Australian Public Universities: Are They Practising a Corporate Approach to Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and a qualitative research method to examine the extent to which the corporate approach is practised in Australian public universities. The findings reveal that in meeting the needs of multiple stakeholders, universities are faced with a number of structural, legalistic, and…

  4. Strategies for achieving environmental policy integration at the landscape level. A framework illustrated with an analysis of landscape governance in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van Cora; Uzamukunda, Assumpta; Runhaar, Hens

    2018-01-01

    Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) refers to the incorporation of environmental concerns into sectoral policies in order to reduce policy incoherence and achieve synergies to more effectively address environmental problems such as environmental degradation. Landscape governance can be considered

  5. Deciphering Corporate Governance and Environmental Commitments among Southeast Asian Transnationals: Uptake of Sustainability Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Roda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting tropical forest sustainability among corporate players is a major challenge. Many tools have been developed, but without much success. Southeast Asia has become a laboratory of globalization processes, where the development and success of agribusiness transnationals raises questions about their commitment to environmental concerns. An abundance of literature discusses what determines the behavior of Asian corporations, with a particular emphasis on cultural factors. Our hypothesis is that financial factors, such as ownership structure, may also have a fundamental role. We analyzed the audited accounts of four major Asian agribusiness transnationals. Using network analysis, we deciphered how the 931 companies relate to each other and determine the behavior of the transnationals to which they belong. We compared various metrics with the environmental commitment of these transnationals. We found that ownership structures reflect differences in flexibility, control and transaction costs, but not in ethnicities. Capital and its control, ownership structure, and flexibility explain 97% of the environmental behavior. It means that existing market-based tools to promote environmental sustainability do not engage transnationals at the scale where most of their behavior is determined. For the first time, the inner mechanisms of corporate governance are unraveled in agricultural and forest sustainability. New implications such as the convergence of environmental sustainability with family business sustainability emerged.

  6. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Linn B; Tong, Shilu; Aird, Rosemary; McRae, David

    2010-07-28

    There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health vulnerability, including literature

  7. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McRae David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15 involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems, and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental

  8. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    at filling that gap by presenting a new environmental flows assessment approach that explicitly links environmental flows to (socio)-economic values by focusing on ecosystem services. This Service Provision Index (SPI) approach is a novel contribution to the existing field of environmental flows assessment...... of sustaining ecosystems but also a matter of supporting humankind/livelihoods. One reason for the marginalisation of environmental flows is the lack of operational methods to demonstrate the inherently multi-disciplinary link between environmental flows, ecosystem services and economic value. This paper aims...

  9. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...... the dual purpose of conservation and sustainable livelihoods....

  10. Investigating Outcomes of T-Government Using a Public Value Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Veenstra , Anne; Janssen , Marijn

    2012-01-01

    Part 5: Evaluation; International audience; A main objective of transformational government (t-government) is to realize public sector reform. Initiatives of public sector reform, commonly referred to as New Public Management (NPM), often failed to achieve the desired results and led to undesired outcomes. Hence, a new reform approach, referred to as Public Value Management (PVM), emerged to overcome these negative effects and to which the use of information technology (IT) is central. This p...

  11. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010 includes five chapters. (I) Natural radiation exposure: radiation sources, contributions from cosmic radiation, contaminated construction materials, food and drinking water, and radon, evaluation of the different components of natural radiation exposure. (II) Civilization caused radiation exposure: nuclear power plants, research centers, nuclear fuel processing plants, other nuclear facilities (interim storage facilities, repositories); summarizing evaluation for nuclear facilities; environmental radioactivity due to mining; radioactive materials in research, technology and households; industrial and mining residues; fall-out as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear weapon testing. (III) Occupational radiation exposure: civil radiation sources, natural radiation sources, special events. (IV) Medical radiation exposure; X-ray diagnostics; nuclear medicine; radiotherapy using ionizing radiation; radiotherapy using open radioactive materials; evaluation of radiotherapy. (V) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields; optical radiation; certification of solaria.

  12. Water pollution and environmental governance systems of the Tai and Chao Lake Basins in China in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Qiu; M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter); H. Wang (Huimin)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Tai and Chao Lake basins are currently facing a serious water pollution crisis associated with the absence of an effective environmental governance system. The water pollution and the water governance system of the two basins will be compared. The reasons for water pollution in

  13. Building institutional capacity for environmental governance through social entrepreneurship: lessons from Canadian biosphere reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability-oriented organizations have typically adopted governance approaches that undertake community participation and collaboration through multistakeholder arrangements. Documented challenges of this model are associated with collaboration and institutional capacity, and include reactive accountability structures, inability to reach consensus, funding limitations, and lack of innovation. Social entrepreneurship is a model used successfully in other social sectors; yet, it has rarely been explored by sustainability-oriented organizations. Nevertheless, research in other sectors has found that social entrepreneurship models of governance can encourage diverse participation from a wide range of social groups. In this paper we consider the value of social entrepreneurship for sustainability-oriented organizations by examining whether it can help address governance-related challenges associated with collaboration and institutional capacity. Analysis of organizational documents and participant interviews in three biosphere reserves in Atlantic Canada revealed that, over time, these organizations have struggled to maintain their mission objectives, retain productivity, and respond to economic stress. By examining social entrepreneurship theory and its practice in a biosphere reserve in northern Quebec, we learned that social entrepreneurship strategies more effectively target values and expertise, encourage meaningful engagement, foster strategic direction, and promote diversified and stable funding models than the stakeholder models explored. We determined there are opportunities to develop hybrid governance models that offer the benefits of social entrepreneurship while addressing the procedural concerns outlined by the stakeholder model.

  14. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  15. Critical Evaluation of Environmental, Social and Governance Disclosures of Malaysian Property and Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Yung Jhien Siew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand from stakeholders for higher transparency on environmental, social and governance (ESG disclosures. Yet not much is known about the state of sustainability reporting in Malaysia especially in the property and construction industry. This paper aims to fill this gap accordingly. Content analysis of corporate websites, sustainability and annual reports was adopted as the main methodology in this study. Findings show that corporate governance indicators are most reported by Malaysian construction companies compared to other environmental or social indicators. It was also found that details on actual health and safety performance of these companies and the initiatives implemented were largely absent from their reporting. Given the increasing number of rating tools in the capital markets which serve to rank and file companies based on their sustainability disclosures and performance such as the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI and FTSE4Good Index, it is questionable as to how reliable this can be done for the Malaysian property and construction market. The paper will be useful to construction management practitioners and ESG analysts with a focus on Asian markets.

  16. Constructing post-carbon institutions: Assessing EU carbon reduction efforts through an institutional risk governance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three different governance approaches the European Union (EU) and Member States (MS) are relying on to reach a low carbon economy by 2050. Current governance literature explains the operational methods of the EU's new governance approach to reduce carbon emissions. However, the literature neglects to account for the perceived risks that inhibit the roll-out of new low carbon technology. This article, through a novel approach, uses a grounded theoretical framework to reframe traditional risk literature and provides a connection to governance literature in order to assess the ability of EU governance mechanisms to reduce carbon emissions. The empirical research is based on responses from European energy stakeholders who participated in a Delphi method discussion and in semi-structured interviews; these identified three essential requirements for carbon emissions to be reduced to near zero by 2050: (1) an integrated European energy network, (2) carbon pricing and (3) demand reduction. These features correspond to institutionalized responses by the EU and MS: the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER); European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and energy efficiency directives and policies integrated into existing MS institutions. The theoretical and empirical findings suggest that governance by facilitation (energy efficiency) fails to induce significant investment and new policy approaches and cannot be relied on to achieve requisite reductions in demand. Governance by negotiation (ACER) and governance by hierarchy (EU ETS) do reduce risks and may encourage the necessary technological uptake. The term ‘risk governance’ is used to explain the important role governance plays in reducing risks and advancing new technology and thereby lowering carbon emissions in the energy sector. - Highlights: ► This article assesses the role of EU institutions in reducing carbon emissions by 2050. ► Empirical research is based on Delphi

  17. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  18. Delivering beneficial impacts in Assistive Technology: Improving government's approach to innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Society typically relies on the industrial sector to supply product and service innovations through the free market system. In some areas of free market failure deemed important to society - such as Assistive Technology - governments intervene by applying alternative innovation systems. This paper contends that governments consistently and inappropriately support an exploratory grant approach led by academia which generates knowledge in conceptual and prototype states, and instead should shift to a procurement contract approach led by industry which designs, tests and deploys commercial products and services.

  19. A qualitative approach to economic-environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjengedal, T.; Hansen, O.; Johansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the principles, and suggests a methodology for expanding the dispatch of electrical power production systems for involving a pure minimum cost dispatch, to also include environmental objectives. The approach is qualitative in that no attempt is made as to assign a specific monetary value to environmental impacts, but rather maintaining the physical value of the impact through the decision process. However, the initial relative weights assigned to environmental impacts in the methodology are based on the many recent attempts to monetize environmental damages. The main contribution of the approach is to analyze how dispatch changes as a function of the total environmental weight, and as a function of the relative weighing of individual environmental insults, e.g., SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 . The methodology is illustrated with a sample production system involving environmental coast estimates from major US studies

  20. democratic approaches to environmental education: dream or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultural notions and values. However, the .... tures, but able to resist dominant hegemonic influ- ences and, thus ... Given the discussion above, what are the possibilities and constraints ... variety of local environmental problems and then identified an issue .... Teaching in this way devalues concepts such as democracy by ...

  1. Approaching messy problems: strategies for environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid; R. R. Ziemer; T. E. Lisle

    1996-01-01

    Environmental problems are never neatly defined. Instead, each is a tangle of interacting processes whose manifestation and interpretation are warped by the vagaries of time, weather, expectation, and economics. Each problem involves livelihoods, values, and numerous specialized disciplines. Nevertheless, federal agencies in the Pacific Northwest have been given the...

  2. Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N., comp. Bengston

    2012-01-01

    These papers, presented in a special session at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in June 2011, explore the transdisciplinary field of futures research and its application to long-range environmental analysis, planning, and policy. Futures research began in the post-World War II era and has emerged as a mature research field. Although the...

  3. Three Approaches to Environmental Resources Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Design.

    This booklet, the first of a projected series related to the development of methodologies and techniques for environments planning and design, examines three approaches that are currently being used to identify, analyze, and evaluate the natural and man-made resources that comprise the physical environment. One approach by G. Angus Hills uses a…

  4. Critical analysis of frameworks and approaches to assess the environmental risks of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Linkov, Igor; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    and approaches which have been developed or proposed by large organizations or regulatory bodies for NM. These frameworks and approaches were evaluated and assessed based on a select number of criteria which have been previously proposed as important parameters for inclusion in successful risk assessment......7.1.7 Critical analysis of frameworks and approaches to assess the environmental risks of nanomaterials Khara D. Grieger1, Igor Linkov2, Steffen Foss Hansen1, Anders Baun1 1Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark 2Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Brookline, USA...... Email: kdg@env.dtu.dk Scientists, organizations, governments, and policy-makers are currently involved in reviewing, adapting, and formulating risk assessment frameworks and strategies to understand and assess the potential environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (NM). It is becoming...

  5. Institutional Interplay in Natural Resources Governance: Toward a Sub-Sectoral Approach for Medicinal Plants Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Shahidullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the significance of medicinal plants for rural livelihoods and primary healthcare, this paper attempted to analyze institutional interplays in medicinal plants management in Bangladesh. It assessed the governing process of natural resources by identifying cross-scale linkages of the institutions involved with managing medicinal plants. The study intended to delineate the interactional patterns and dynamics between existing formal and informal organizations toward exploring prospects of new medicinal plants governance institutions. Employing case study and participatory approaches to empirical field investigation, two intervention cases of the Livelihood and Agro-Forestry (LEAF and Sustainable Environmental Management Program (SEMP were assessed in two different social-ecological settings of the country. Involving 45 respondents in each site, Focus Group Discussions were carried out, and a total of 26 Key Informants were interviewed. The findings have revealed that undefined roles and responsibilities, inadequate coordination, and weak linkages among the cross-scale institutions resulted in ineffective management and relatively poor performance. Institutions with direct or indirect involvement in the process of managing medicinal plants interacted haphazardly, without much focus on the subsector and its local producers. Addressing the weaknesses, this study calls for formulating a national sub-sectoral approach focusing on strengthening and sustaining local producers and value addition to producer levels. Finally, this research offers a framework for developing a multi-stakeholder forum to govern medicinal plant resources coherently and effectively in Bangladesh.

  6. Steering urban environmental quality in a multi-level governance context. How can devolution be the solution to pollution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, van Rien; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo

    2016-01-01

    Devolution is advocated as a solution to scale mismatches in urban environmental governance. However, urban environmental quality is a multi-scalar issue: its various aspects – noise, soil, odour, air, water et cetera – are influenced by processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Decisions

  7. Governance of agro-pesticide through private environmental and social standards in the global cut flower chain from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The international cut flower industry is strongly criticized because of its environmental impacts and unsafe working conditions. Increasing certification of cut flowers is used to improve the growers’ environmental and social performance. But what is the impact of this private governance instrument

  8. Who greens the waves? Changing authority in the environmental governance of shipping and offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is under serious pressure from human activities. The transboundary and large-scale nature of these threats require cooperation between states, and between states, industries and NGOs. Marine governance therefore becomes a breeding ground for innovation: multi-level and multi-actor governance and changing spheres of authority. This book applies the concept 'spheres of authority' to investigate the nature of these innovations in governing shipping and offshore oil and gas production. In the environmental governance of shipping, authority is shifting from states that own ships to states that own ports. The environmental governance of offshore oil and gas production shows a shared authority for developing and implementing policies between state and industry, but not a diminishing authority of the state.

  9. Theoretical orientations in environmental planning: An inquiry into alternative approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    1989-07-01

    In the process of devising courses of action to resolve problems arising at the society-environment interface, a variety of planning approaches are followed, whose adoption is influenced by—among other things—the characteristics of environmental problems, the nature of the decision-making context, and the intellectual traditions of the disciplines contributing to the study of these problems. This article provides a systematic analysis of six alternative environmental planning approaches—comprehensive/rational, incremental, adaptive, contingency, advocacy, and participatory/consensual. The relative influence of the abovementioned factors is examined, the occurrence of these approaches in real-world situations is noted, and their environmental soundness and political realism is evaluated. Because of the disparity between plan formulation and implementation and between theoretical form and empirical reality, a synthetic view of environmental planning approaches is taken and approaches in action are identified, which characterize the totality of the planning process from problem definition to plan implementation, as well as approaches in the becoming, which may be on the horizon of environmental planning of tomorrow. The suggested future research directions include case studies to verify and detail the presence of the approaches discussed, developing measures of success of a given approach in a given decision setting, and an intertemporal analysis of environmental planning approaches.

  10. Inequality in new global governance arrangements: the North South Divide in city networks for global environmental governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouteligier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Networks are often portrayed as more equal governance arrangements. Their horizontal character easily leads to the assumption that they go beyond traditional divides. Power relations within networks are neglected because the collaborative activities receive the bulk of attention. However, from a

  11. Environmental compliance audits of electric generating facilities - a practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staker, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    As environmental regulations expand in complexity and number, and as regulatory agencies place more emphasis on enforcing regulations, it is increasingly important that electric utilities perform periodic environmental compliance audits to determine if their facilities are in compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Explicit commitment by the utility's top management and careful planning and execution of an audit are key elements in the effectiveness of an audit. This paper is directed to electric utility environmental managers and company management. The paper presents a practical approach for planning and performing a multi-media environmental compliance of an electric generating facility

  12. A Collaborative Governance Approach to Improving Tertiary Education in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Kaye; Larry, Lisa; Baird, Jeanette; Kavanamur, David

    2018-01-01

    Tertiary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is in a critical state, as the sector struggles to address increased demand for student places with severely curtailed capacity. Recent thinking about improving public services in PNG has emphasized "whole of sector" or collaborative governance. Such an approach in tertiary education has the…

  13. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  14. Relationships among Taiwanese Children's Computer Game Use, Academic Achievement and Parental Governing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Duen-Yian; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among children's computer game use, academic achievement and parental governing approach to propose probable answers for the doubts of Taiwanese parents. 355 children (ages 11-14) were randomly sampled from 20 elementary schools in a typically urbanised county in Taiwan. Questionnaire survey (five questions)…

  15. Approaches to Post-disaster Environmental Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farrokhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environment and its ecosystems are affected by various natural and man-made disasters. The environmental management in disasters tries to protect ecosystems, sustain development, reduce disaster risk, and adapt to or decrease the impact of climate change. This study aimed to investigate the impact of disasters on the environment and methods of reducing these effects. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, UNEP, SID, and Magiran databases using keywords of “environment”, “disasters”, “recovery”, and “lessons learned” from 1999 to 2015. Results: Decrease in surface and groundwater resources, pollution of water resources, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, air pollution and extinction of animal species are among post-disaster environmental damages. As a result of such changes in the environment and ecosystem, water shortage and drought, loss of vegetation, and food insecurity will ensue. Due to these destructive incidents, the people’s ability to provide necessary resources for living decreases and their very lives are threatened. Consequently, they are forced to immigrate to save their lives. Conclusion: Environmental recovery is one of the effective strategies for achieving sustainable development. In this regard, public and private organizations as well as international ones and people should work together. Responsible organizations, the stakeholders at different levels, and the public must be trained in this area and introduced to the latest international standards. Rules and policies should be reviewed and revised in accordance with today’s needs and international standards.

  16. Ecological Economics: Themes, Approaches, and Differences with Environmental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh

    2000-01-01

    This provides a short overview of the main themes of ecological economics (EE). It isargued that EE provides a platform that fosters multidisciplinary environmental research bybringing together the core contributing disciplines economics and ecology. In addition, EE isregarded as a pluralistic approach to environmental research that can be set opposite to, and hasindeed developed as a response to, traditional environmental and resource economics. Acomparison of the two fields is presented to ...

  17. The protection of environmental interests through corporate governance: A South African company law perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony O Nwafor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quest to maximize profits by corporate administrators usually leaves behind an unhealthy environment. This trend impacts negatively on long term interests of the company and retards societal sustainable development. While there are in South Africa pieces of legislation which are geared at protecting the environment, the Companies Act which is the principal legislation that regulates the operations of the company is silent on this matter. The paper argues that the common law responsibility of the directors to protect the interests of the company as presently codified by the Companies Act should be developed by the courts in South Africa, in the exercise of their powers under the Constitution, to include the interests of the environment. This would guarantee the enforcement of the environmental interests within the confines of the Companies Act as an issue of corporate governance.

  18. The Scottish Government's Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services Strategic Research Progamme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Lorna; Bestwick, Charles

    2013-04-01

    The Strategic Research Programme focuses on the delivery of outputs and outcomes within the major policy agenda areas of climate change, land use and food security, and to impact on the 'Wealthier', 'Healthier' and 'Greener' strategic objectives of the Scottish Government. The research is delivered through two programmes: 'Environmental Change' and 'Food, Land and People'; the core strength of which is the collaboration between the Scottish Government's Main Research Providers-The James Hutton Institute, the Moredun Research Institute, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health University of Aberdeen, Scotland's Rural College, Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland and The Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh. The research actively seeks to inform and be informed by stakeholders from policy, farming, land use, water and energy supply, food production and manufacturing, non-governmental organisations, voluntary organisations, community groups and general public. This presentation will provide an overview of the programme's interdisciplinary research, through examples from across the programme's themes. Examples will exemplify impact within the Strategic Programme's priorities of supporting policy and practice, contributing to economic growth and innovation, enhancing collaborative and multidisciplinary research, growing scientific resilience and delivering scientific excellence. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Research/About/EBAR/StrategicResearch/future-research-strategy/Themes/ http://www.knowledgescotland.org/news.php?article_id=295

  19. Balancing stability and flexibility in adaptive governance: An analysis of tools available in U.S. environmental law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundis Craig, Robin; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Birge, Hannah E.; DeCaro, Daniel A.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Gosnell, Hannah; Schlager, Edella

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive governance must work “on the ground,” that is, it must operate through structures and procedures that the people it governs perceive to be legitimate and fair, as well as incorporating processes and substantive goals that are effective in allowing social-ecological systems (SESs) to adapt to climate change and other impacts. To address the continuing and accelerating alterations that climate change is bringing to SESs, adaptive governance generally will require more flexibility than prior governance institutions have often allowed. However, to function as good governance, adaptive governance must pay real attention to the problem of how to balance this increased need for flexibility with continuing governance stability so that it can foster adaptation to change without being perceived or experienced as perpetually destabilizing, disruptive, and unfair. Flexibility and stability serve different purposes in governance, and a variety of tools exist to strike different balances between them while still preserving the governance institution’s legitimacy among the people governed. After reviewing those purposes and the implications of climate change for environmental governance, we examine psychological insights into the structuring of adaptive governance and the variety of legal tools available to incorporate those insights into adaptive governance regimes. Because the substantive goals of governance systems will differ among specific systems, we do not purport to comment on what the normative or substantive goals of law should be. Instead, we conclude that attention to process and procedure (including participation), as well as increased use of substantive standards (instead of rules), may allow an increased level of substantive flexibility to operate with legitimacy and fairness, providing the requisite levels of psychological, social, and economic stability needed for communities to adapt successfully to the Anthropocene.

  20. Balancing stability and flexibility in adaptive governance: an analysis of tools available in U.S. environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Kundis. Craig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance must work "on the ground," that is, it must operate through structures and procedures that the people it governs perceive to be legitimate and fair, as well as incorporating processes and substantive goals that are effective in allowing social-ecological systems (SESs to adapt to climate change and other impacts. To address the continuing and accelerating alterations that climate change is bringing to SESs, adaptive governance generally will require more flexibility than prior governance institutions have often allowed. However, to function as good governance, adaptive governance must pay real attention to the problem of how to balance this increased need for flexibility with continuing governance stability so that it can foster adaptation to change without being perceived or experienced as perpetually destabilizing, disruptive, and unfair. Flexibility and stability serve different purposes in governance, and a variety of tools exist to strike different balances between them while still preserving the governance institution's legitimacy among the people governed. After reviewing those purposes and the implications of climate change for environmental governance, we examine psychological insights into the structuring of adaptive governance and the variety of legal tools available to incorporate those insights into adaptive governance regimes. Because the substantive goals of governance systems will differ among specific systems, we do not purport to comment on what the normative or substantive goals of law should be. Instead, we conclude that attention to process and procedure (including participation, as well as increased use of substantive standards (instead of rules, may allow an increased level of substantive flexibility to operate with legitimacy and fairness, providing the requisite levels of psychological, social, and economic stability needed for communities to adapt successfully to the Anthropocene.

  1. Governance of agro-pesticide through private environmental and social standards in the global cut flower chain from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Belay T; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The international cut flower industry is strongly criticized because of its environmental impacts and unsafe working conditions. Increasing certification of cut flowers is used to improve the growers' environmental and social performance. But what is the impact of this private governance instrument on regulating the use of pesticides? This paper assesses the potential of private certification on governing the environmental and social problems from pesticide use along the global cut flower supply chain. We use detailed farm-level data to analyse the environmental and social impacts of flower certification in Ethiopia by comparing different national and international certification schemes. Our analysis does not show significant differences between these different private standards for most environmental and health and safety variables. The Ethiopian cut flower industry remains far from improving its sustainability performance through private certification. However, certification schemes may enable farmers to have access to international markets and keep up their reputation.

  2. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  3. The construction of environmental governance in the RDS Igapó-Açu (Amazonas, Brazil: organization, complexity and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabriela Rezende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present text is to analyze environmental governance in the Sustainable Development Reserve Igapó-Açu, located in the municipalities of Manicoré, Borba and Beruri, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The study area was chosen because the RDS is the only Amazonas state protected area crossed by a federal interstate highway. This highway provides a specific territorial arrangement of governance elements in the studied area. Different methodological tools were used in this research, such as close-ended questionnaires and open-ended interviews. Data were systematized using Excel software and they were graphically represented in the form of organizational charts drawn with Websphere Analysis Software. Results indicate that environmental governance of the RDS Igapó-Açu involves multiple factors, while the central node of the local political articulation is held by a Management Council that is in charge of materializing the governability of the RDSt, as well as its ramifications.

  4. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  5. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Using good and Cooperative Governance to improve Environmental Governance of South African World Heritage sites: A Case Study of the Vredefort Dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kotzé

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa became a signatory to and ratified the World Heritage Convention, 1972 (WHC in 1997. It thereby voluntarily agreed to identify and conserve world heritage areas of universal value for the benefit of mankind. This article presents a case study of the Vredefort Dome, one of South Africa's World Heritage Sites (WHS and specifically its governance strategies to ensure proper and sustainable governance. Firstly, the issue of fragmentation of the environmental governance regime applicable to WHS is discussed, and in doing so, refers to the various legislative and common law responsibilities and institutional structures related to environmental governance of WHS. Secondly, it briefly discusses the concept of good governance and the concept of cooperative governance as a sub-component of good governance. Finally it comprehensively proposes various strategies to ameliorate the current fragmented and unsustainable environmental governance effort relating to WHS.

  6. Wombs for rent: an examination of prohibitory and regulatory approaches to governing preconception arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melody

    2003-02-01

    On October 9, 2002, Bill C-13 had its first reading in the Canadian House of Commons. Bill C-13 was in the same form as Bill C-56 of the First Session of the Thirty-seventh Parliament, which had its first reading on May 9, 2002. Bill C-13, an Act respecting assisted human reproduction, prohibits the practice of commercial surrogacy or preconception agreements in Canada, under threat of criminal sanction. In the first half of the article, the author discusses the deficiencies of the Bill's prohibitory approach to governing surrogacy agreements. These problems include the difficulty of implementing a criminal regime, the weak constitutional basis on which the federal government claims jurisdiction to enact a criminal prohibition of commercial surrogacy and the legislation's inability to prevent exploitation and coercion of vulnerable parties in surrogacy arrangements. In the second half of the article, the author examines an alternative regulatory scheme proposed by the Ontario Law Reform Commission and compares it to the prohibitory approach. The author concludes that the regulatory approach is much more effective than the prohibitory approach in governing the practice of commercial and non-commercial surrogacy arrangements. Regulation minimises the potentially exploitative aspects of surrogacy and provides legal protection to both parties in the agreement. The regulatory scheme proposed by the Ontario Law Reform Commission is also more effective in protecting the best interests of the child born as a result of a preconception agreement.

  7. Government and the petroleum industry in Ontario: a new business approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichette, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    The principles and concepts behind the development of the new business plan of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, as it relates to the petroleum/salt industries in the province are described. The business planning approach adopted by the Progressive Government of the Province, is expected to provide the framework within which to examine alternate service delivery mechanisms in an environment of reducing budgets and staff. It is expected to implement a new business approach with client industries which focuses on innovative concepts of alternative service delivery and government/industry partnership. The foundation of this new approach is Bill 52, proclaimed in June 1997, which created new legislation, called the 'Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Act' which facilitated implementation of the new business approach. According to the business plan, the provincial focus will be confined to the development of new policies and standards, provision of technical approvals, assurance of compliance and maintenance of a technical and administrative database. It is expected that the new government/industry partnership will result in greater self-reliance, co-operative accountability and responsibility by industry, and a stronger and more vibrant industry sector. 1 ref

  8. Network approach for local and community governance of energy: The case of Oxfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Yael; Hamilton, Jo; White, Vicki; Hogan, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    One of the many barriers to the incorporation of local and community actors in emerging energy governance structures and policy delivery mechanisms is the lack of thorough understanding of how they work in practice, and how best to support and develop effective local energy governance. Taking a meso-level perspective and a network approach to governance, this paper sheds some new light on this issue, by focusing on the relation, channels of communication and interactions between low carbon community groups (LCCGs) and other actors. Based on data gathered from LCCGs in Oxfordshire, UK, via network survey and interviews the research maps the relations in terms of the exchanges of information and financial support, and presents a relation-based structure of local energy governance. Analysis reveals the intensity of energy related information exchanges that is taking place at the county level and highlights the centrality of intermediary organization in facilitating information flow. The analysis also identifies actors that are not very dominant in their amount of exchanges, but fill ‘weak-tie’ functions between otherwise disconnected LCCGs or other actors in the network. As an analytical tool the analysis could be useful for various state and non-state actors that want to better understand and support – financially and otherwise – actors that enable energy related local action. - Highlights: • We used social network analysis to examine local and community governance of energy. • We examined information and financial support flow within the network. • Analysis highlights central and peripheral actors in the local governance structure. • The findings highlight the central role intermediary organizations have in local governance structures

  9. An international comparison of four polycentric approaches to climate and energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-06-15

    Drawing from work on governance, this article explores four programs and policies that respond in some way to the challenges induced by climate change and modern energy use. Relying primarily on original data collected from research interviews and field research in seven countries along with four case studies, the article notes that polycentric approaches - those that mix scales (such as local/national or national/global), mechanisms (such as subsidies, tax credits, and mandates), and actors (such as government regulators, business stakeholders, and members of civil society) - can foster equity, inclusivity, information, accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability that result in the resolution of climate and energy related problems. After explaining its case selection and research methods, defining climate and energy governance, and conceptualizing polycentrism, the study explores cases related to electricity supply in Denmark, ethanol production in Brazil, small-scale renewable energy in Bangladesh, and off-grid energy use in China. It concludes by highlighting how polycentrism may enhance effective climate and energy governance, but that further research is needed to fully substantiate that claim. - Highlights: > Polycentric governance systems mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. > Polycentric systems can foster equity, inclusivity, and information. > They can also promote accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability. > Polycentrism thus has much promise in climate and energy related problems.

  10. A regional, market oriented governance for disaster management: A new planning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Erwin A; Hakim, Simon; Meehan, Brian

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a regional competitive governance and management of response and recovery from disasters. It presents problems experienced in major disasters, analyzes the failures, and suggests how a competitive system that relies on private and volunteer regional leaders, personnel, and capital can improve preparation, response and recovery efforts over the existing government system. A Public Choice approach is adopted to explain why government often fails, and how regional governance may be socially more efficient than the existing federal- state-local funded and managed disaster system. The paper suggests that the federal role might change from both funding and supplying aid in disasters to merely funding disaster recovery efforts. When a disaster occurs, available businesses and government resources in the region can be utilized under a competitive system. These resources could replace existing federal and state inventories and emergency personnel. An independent regionally controlled and managed council, which also develops its own financial resources, and local volunteer leaders are key for success. The paper suggests a new planning method that utilizes the statistical Factor Analysis methodology to derive an efficient organizational and functional model to confront disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An international comparison of four polycentric approaches to climate and energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from work on governance, this article explores four programs and policies that respond in some way to the challenges induced by climate change and modern energy use. Relying primarily on original data collected from research interviews and field research in seven countries along with four case studies, the article notes that polycentric approaches - those that mix scales (such as local/national or national/global), mechanisms (such as subsidies, tax credits, and mandates), and actors (such as government regulators, business stakeholders, and members of civil society) - can foster equity, inclusivity, information, accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability that result in the resolution of climate and energy related problems. After explaining its case selection and research methods, defining climate and energy governance, and conceptualizing polycentrism, the study explores cases related to electricity supply in Denmark, ethanol production in Brazil, small-scale renewable energy in Bangladesh, and off-grid energy use in China. It concludes by highlighting how polycentrism may enhance effective climate and energy governance, but that further research is needed to fully substantiate that claim. - Highlights: → Polycentric governance systems mix scales, mechanisms, and actors. → Polycentric systems can foster equity, inclusivity, and information. → They can also promote accountability, organizational multiplicity, and adaptability. → Polycentrism thus has much promise in climate and energy related problems.

  12. Governing low-carbon energy transitions in sustainable ways: Potential synergies and conflicts between climate and environmental policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildingsson, Roger; Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a central sustainability concern, but is often treated separately from other policy areas in environmental governance. In this article we study how low-carbon energy transitions might be governed in line with broader sustainability goals. We identify conflicts and synergies between low-carbon strategies and the attainment of longer-term environmental objectives by examining the Swedish environmental quality objectives as a governance arrangement. Our analysis indicates that low-carbon strategies might be compatible with preserving other aspects of ecological sustainability. However, this requires relevant flanking policies and measures for non-climate objectives, e.g. systems that control the expansion of biomass and ensure the use of sustainable methods. For such a governance system to be credible and capable, it needs to be flexible in terms of adapting to specific and changing contexts, and reflexive enough to factor in new knowledge on requirements for sustainable development and potentially changing values of future generations. - Highlights: • We identify synergies and conflicts between climate and environmental objectives. • Low-carbon energy transitions can be compatible with other sustainability goals. • This demands relevant flanking policies, e.g. on sustainable biomass harvesting. • This requires policy measures to take different local contexts into account. • Governance systems need to respond to new knowledge and changing values.

  13. IPAD: A unique approach to government/industry cooperation for technology development and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert E.; Salley, George C.

    1985-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) information. To stimulate advancement, a unique joint government/industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) was carried out from 1971 to 1984. The goal was to raise aerospace industry productivity through advancement of computer based technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. IPAD research was guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies. The project complemented traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD had unprecedented industry support and involvement and served as a unique approach to government industry cooperation in the development and transfer of advanced technology. The IPAD project background, approach, accomplishments, industry involvement, technology transfer mechanisms and lessons learned are summarized.

  14. A Hierarchical Multitier Approach for Privacy Policies in e-Government Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopios Drogkaris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of e-Government users to retain control over their personal information, while making use of advanced governmental electronic services through interconnected and interoperable deployments, can be assisted by the incorporation of privacy policy and Preferences documents. This paper addresses the formulation of light-weight and accurate privacy policies, while preserving compliance with underlying legal and regulatory framework. Through the exploitation of existing governmental hierarchies, a multitier approach is proposed able to support diverge data needs and processing requests imposed by service providers. The incorporation of this approach into e-Government environments will reduce the administrative workload, imposed by the inclusion of privacy policy documents, and promote the implementation and provision of user-centric and data privacy aware electronic services.

  15. Practice-Based Interdisciplinary Approach and Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Datta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary researchers and educators, as community members, creators of knowledge, and environmental activists and practitioners, have a responsibility to build a bridge between community practice, academic scholarship, and professional contributions aimed at establishing environmental sustainability. In this paper, I focus on an undervalued area of environmental politics, practices, and often unarticulated assumptions which underlie human–environmental relations. This article challenges interdisciplinary studies that are not connected with practice by reconfiguring the meaning of a community-based, interdisciplinary approach. Drawing from works by Foucault, Latour, and Haraway, this paper first shows how to reconfigure the meaning of an interdisciplinary approach. Second, using Bourdieu and Brightman’s ethnographic studies as a framework, the paper situates practice as central to our efforts to deconstruct and replace current interdisciplinary initiatives with a practice-based approach. Through a practice-based interdisciplinary approach (PIA, environmental educators and researchers gain an awareness of and learn to make an investment in sustainable communities. As teams of environmental researchers practising in the local community, they are meaningfully involved with the community, with each other, and with the environment.

  16. Reducing environmental damages caused by transportation: towards an heterodox approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletto, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    According to orthodox economics, monetary incentives are the best way to reduce environmental damages caused by transportation. This approach is consistent with the consideration of environmental damages as a market failure and with the use of pigouvian taxes to re-establish market equilibrium. Using heterodox economics both the theoretical and the policy approach will change radically. Indeed, market is just one of the structural components of the existing transport system; others being: institutions, technologies, values. Then, a shift in policy approaches is needed: from the orthodox efficient allocation of existing resources, to the heterodox promotion of new development patterns, needed to alter the given structural situation. Consistently with this paradigmatic shift, environmental damages caused by transportation can be reduced only by making the transition to a new transport system viable. Moreover, an heterodox approach to the reduction of environmental damages caused by transportation gives rise to a sound revision of policy tools; among these must be considered: selective industrial policies to foster the ecological reconversion of transport supply (instead of a non-discriminatory support to ecological innovations); participatory decision procedures to evaluate and select transport policies (instead of neutral technical tools - such as Cba or Eia); information campaigns based on ethical considerations (instead of economic incentives to transport demand); attribution of the status of commons to environmental resources, in order to protect them from the free riding of transport activities (instead of the attribution to them of private property rights). This essay is composed of four parts. In the first one, some data on environmental damages caused by transportation in Italy are shown. In the second one, orthodox and heterodox paradigms of public interventions in the economy are compared, with a specific attention to environmental applications. In the

  17. Institutional Fit and River Basin Governance: a New Approach Using Multiple Composite Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion that effective environmental governance depends in part on achieving a reasonable fit between institutional arrangements and the features of ecosystems and their interconnections with users has been central to much thinking about social-ecological systems for more than a decade. Based on expert consultations this study proposes a set of six dimensions of fit for water governance regimes and then empirically explores variation in measures of these in 28 case studies of national parts of river basins in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa drawing on a database compiled by the Twin2Go project. The six measures capture different but potentially important dimensions of fit: allocation, integration, conservation, basinization, participation, and adaptation. Based on combinations of responses to a standard questionnaire filled in by groups of experts in each basin we derived quantitative measures for each indicator. Substantial variation in these measures of fit was apparent among basins in developing and developed countries. Geographical location is not a barrier to high institutional fit; but within basins different measures of fit often diverge. This suggests it is difficult, but not impossible, to simultaneously achieve a high fit against multiple challenging conditions. Comparing multidimensional fit profiles give a sense of how well water governance regimes are equipped for dealing with a range of natural resource and use-related conditions and suggests areas for priority intervention. The findings of this study thus confirm and help explain previous work that has concluded that context is important for understanding the variable consequences of institutional reform on water governance practices as well as on social and environmental outcomes.

  18. College Student Environmental Activism: How Experiences and Identities Influence Environmental Activism Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura A. H.

    2016-01-01

    College student environmental activism is one way students civically engage in addressing social issues. This study explores the environmental activism of twelve college students and how their experiences outside of college and in college influenced their activism. In addition, how students' identities influenced their approach to activism was…

  19. How Participatory Should Environmental Governance Be? Testing the Applicability of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model in Public Environmental Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Nikolas; Jager, Nicolas W.; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Public participation is potentially useful to improve public environmental decision-making and management processes. In corporate management, the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision-making model has served as a tool to help managers choose appropriate degrees of subordinate participation for effective decision-making given varying decision-making contexts. But does the model recommend participatory mechanisms that would actually benefit environmental management? This study empirically tests the improved Vroom-Jago version of the model in the public environmental decision-making context. To this end, the key variables of the Vroom-Jago model are operationalized and adapted to a public environmental governance context. The model is tested using data from a meta-analysis of 241 published cases of public environmental decision-making, yielding three main sets of findings: (1) The Vroom-Jago model proves limited in its applicability to public environmental governance due to limited variance in its recommendations. We show that adjustments to key model equations make it more likely to produce meaningful recommendations. (2) We find that in most of the studied cases, public environmental managers (implicitly) employ levels of participation close to those that would have been recommended by the model. (3) An ANOVA revealed that such cases, which conform to model recommendations, generally perform better on stakeholder acceptance and environmental standards of outputs than those that diverge from the model. Public environmental management thus benefits from carefully selected and context-sensitive modes of participation.

  20. Towards a joint approach for access to environmental research infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Tjulin, Anders; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Gagliardi, Simone; Philippin, Sabine; Sellegri, Karine; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Geoscience is a multi-disciplinary field and in many cases its research benefits from considering different kinds of observational results. Geoscience observations are in some cases of direct interest also to the public. For these reasons effective knowledge transfer and access also across disciplines are especially important for research infrastructures (RIs) in the environmental domain. More generally, the ultimate success of a RI is measured by its scientific outcome and this is best achieved based on efficient access for a broad scientific community. In this presentation the authors report activities to develop governance tools so that the access to environmental RIs and to the data that they provide is common, fair and based on scientific rationale, regarding at the same time economically and technically reasonable use of limited resources. Implementing such governance tools will indeed foster and widen the access to RIs across environmental science domains while addressing societal challenges. The strategies also need to be flexible and sustainable over the expected lifetimes of the RIs. The reported activities involve researchers from different projects and environmental subdomains that come together in the project ENVRI_plus. ENVRI_plus is a Cluster project of RIs that brings together the current ESFRI roadmap RIs in the environmental domain and other relevant existing and developing RIs and projects. ENVRI_plus also offers opportunities for free-of-charge transnational access to four multi-disciplinary research platforms. These calls for access target research groups and companies wishing to conduct research or to test instruments for cross-disciplinary topics within the environmental domains atmosphere, biosphere, marine, and solid earth. They are initiated specifically to gain experience with access across different disciplines (further information is given at www.envriplus.eu). ENVRI_plus receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research

  1. Inter-Governmental E-Government Processes:Comparison of Different Solution Approaches- Based on Examples from Switzerland / Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to describe different solution approaches for e-Government processes across different institutions at different levels of public administrations: a phased approach for specific e-Government solutions and a platform approach for cross-organisational public services. We discuss selection criteria for the different approaches considering several examples and indicate a relationship between the expected return-on-investment and the complexity of the solution.

  2. Corporate governance and competitiveness in the context of Serbian approaching to EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this work is corporate governance and competitiveness of Serbia in the context of approaching the European Union. Serbia is a country in the process of admission to this integration, for which it must fulfill a number of conditions. The most important conditions, besides political, are economic, and their very essence may be defined as an increase in competitiveness of its economy. Our goal is to point out the connection between these two issues and the phenomenon of corporate governance. To this end, among the indicators for measuring the competitiveness of the economies in the world, used by the World Economic Forum, we have chosen those who are directly connected to the internal and external mechanisms of corporate governance. In comparative analysis we have used the latest results in this area that are related to Serbia and its neighboring countries. Comparing those who are members of the European Union, but also those who belong to the candidate group, we concluded that Serbia lags behind both groups according to most of the analysed indicators. In this way, we have shown that corporate governance is essential segment of competitiveness of the national economy, and that Serbia lags behind all comparable countries in meeting the economic criteria for admission to the European Union. It was concluded that in the process of approaching the European Union, Serbia must improve the competitiveness of its economy, and one way is to raise the quality of corporate governance in it, because these are firmly related phenomena that have an intense mutual influence.

  3. Economic approach of the environment and environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book takes the non-economist by the hand in a step-by-step economic approach of environmental issues and how to handle them. Two chapters provide an introduction to the concepts of the economy, chapter six in decision theory. In the first chapter, the economist discovers a broader vision by testing the economic approach to insights from other disciplines. Chapter 4 explains how economic reasoning can contribute tot environmental protection in practice. The consideration of the costs and benefits of environmental protection indicates objectives that must be pursued for the community. The conflict between private and public interest forces policy makers to get and maintain the numerous polluters focused on environmental protection. Suitable instruments are discussed in chapter five, including criteria for choice and an in-depth study of the economic instruments levies and tradable emission permits. The EU Emission trading Scheme is used as reference. [mk] [nl

  4. Sustainability and the Viable Systems Approach: Opportunities and Issues for the Governance of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for representing the territory as a dynamic system of intersubjective relationships that is able to guarantee not only the efficiency of the processes within organizations, but also effective results in the general context and a sustainable impact on the broader environment. This contribution is developed on the basis of the viable systems approach (vSa, which is intended as a theoretical framework for the analysis of social phenomena as well as for orienting government processes. Using this theoretical framework, the proposed approach leads to the representation of the territory as a viable system that is capable of surviving in its own context by creating value for the other entities of the context (public groups of governments, communities, investors, natural environment, future generations, non-human species, thus defining the essential conditions for a sustainable equilibrium. The consideration that social phenomena have to be analyzed by taking into account the different relations and interactions that orient the behavior of individuals and, as a consequence, their main collective manifestations, i.e., organizations, underlines the importance of shifting from a traditional reductionist approach to a systemic approach. In what follows, taking a cue from the definition of sustainability that implies a wider sharing, we provide some initial critical positions, and finally shape the useful elements that can be preparatory to the introduction of a working hypothesis that is capable of delineating a possible itinerary for the development of the territory.

  5. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  6. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  7. How should grid operators govern smart grid innovation projects? An embedded case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, Mark de; Lei, Telli van der; Lukszo, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Grid operators increasingly have to collaborate with other actors in order to realize smart grid innovations. For routine maintenance, grid operators typically acquire technologies in one-off transactions, but the innovative nature of smart grid projects may require more collaborate relationships. This paper studies how a transactional versus relational approach to governing smart grid innovation projects affects incentives for other actors to collaborate. We analyse 34 cases of smart grid innovation projects based on extensive archival data as well as interviews. We find that projects relying on relational governance are more likely to provide incentives for collaboration. Especially non-financial incentives such as reputational benefits and shared intellectual property rights are more likely to be found in projects relying on relational governance. Policy makers that wish to stimulate smart grid innovation projects should consider stimulating long-term relationships between grid operators and third parties, because such relationships are more likely to produce incentives for collaboration. - Highlights: • Smart grids require collaboration between grid operators and other actors. • We contrast transactional and relational governance of smart grid projects. • Long-term relations produce more incentives for smart grid collaboration. • Non-financial incentives are more important in long-term relations. • Policy makers should stimulate long-term relations to stimulate smart grids.

  8. e-Government Maturity Model Based on Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Napitupulu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maturity model based on e-Government portal has been developed by a number of researchers both individually and institutionally, but still scattered in various journals and conference articles and can be said to have a different focus with each other, both in terms of stages and features. The aim of this research is conducting a study to integrate a number of maturity models existing today in order to build generic maturity model based on e-Government portal. The method used in this study is Systematic Review with meta-ethnography qualitative approach. Meta-ethnography, which is part of Systematic Review method, is a technique to perform data integration to obtain theories and concepts with a new level of understanding that is deeper and thorough. The result obtained is a maturity model based on e-Government portal that consists of 7 (seven stages, namely web presence, interaction, transaction, vertical integration, horizontal integration, full integration, and open participation. These seven stages are synthesized from the 111 key concepts related to 25 studies of maturity model based e-Government portal. The maturity model resulted is more comprehensive and generic because it is an integration of models (best practices that exists today.

  9. Improving electricity efficiency in Turkey by addressing illegal electricity consumption: A governance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdoven, Hidayet; Fiedler, Beth Ann; Garayev, Vener

    2012-01-01

    Recent reform activities to liberate and privatize the Turkish utility energy sector through deregulation have transformed the scope of the historically government-owned corporations. However, during the free market process approach, power theft has become an issue that requires national attention. This paper examines the current use of two governance tools—privatization and regulation, and suggests two others to promote a framework of efficient electricity distribution (grants and public information). The capacity of the tools to provide a solution to power losses is discussed while considering the barrier of political acceptability in regions of the country where pockets of resistance exist. - Highlights: ► Energy sector reforms in Turkey have transformed scope of the government-owned corporations. ► Power theft has become an essential issue in this liberalization process. ► In addition to currently used two governance tools, two others are suggested to be used. ► The tools are promising to address the power theft issue as long as they are politically acceptable.

  10. Learning from one another: evaluating the impact of horizontal knowledge exchange for environmental management and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Tschirhart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing advocacy for inclusive community-based approaches to environmental management, and growing evidence that involving communities improves the sustainability of social-ecological systems. Most community-based approaches rely on partnerships and knowledge exchange between communities, civil society organizations, and professionals such as practitioners and/or scientists. However, few models have actively integrated more horizontal knowledge exchange from community to community. We reflect on the transferability of community owned solutions between indigenous communities by exploring challenges and achievements of community peer-to-peer knowledge exchange as a way of empowering communities to face up to local environmental and social challenges. Using participatory visual methods, indigenous communities of the North Rupununi (Guyana identified and documented their community owned solutions through films and photostories. Indigenous researchers from this community then shared their solutions with six other communities that faced similar challenges within Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Colombia, French Guiana, and Brazil. They were supported by in-country civil society organizations and academics. We analyzed the impact of the knowledge exchange through interviews, field reports, and observations. Our results show that indigenous community members were significantly more receptive to solutions emerging from, and communicated by, other indigenous peoples, and that this approach was a significant motivating force for galvanizing communities to make changes in their community. We identified a range of enabling factors, such as building capacity for a shared conceptual and technical understanding, that strengthens the exchange between communities and contributes to a lasting impact. With national and international policy-makers mobilizing significant financial resources for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, we argue

  11. Networked governance and the management of ecosystem services: The case of urban environmental stewardship in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J.T. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship groups have become an essential component of the governance structure that regulates ecosystem services in cities. New York City is one example where these groups have grown rapidly in number, size, and visibility since the 1970s. In this article, we combine quantitative survey data with qualitative interview data to examine the...

  12. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how differences in governance might affect environmental quality. We conceptualize possible linkages in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly by using the change in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance may then influence water quality directly through riparian restoration resulting from monitoring results and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate evidence to substantiate these linkages. Our results showed that changes in monitoring regimes and land development patterns differed in response to differences in growth management policy and environmental governance systems. Our results also showed similarities in environmental quality responses to varying governance systems. For example, we found that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (e.g., increases in DO and reductions in bacteria counts) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in water temperature over time, despite an expansion of these urban areas of more than 20 % over 24 years. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefited indirectly from land use policy. A combination of long-term legacy effects of land development, and a

  13. A procurement-based pathway for promoting public health: innovative purchasing approaches for state and local government agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kathleen; Miller, Dorothy; Sell, Katherine; Rubin, David

    2013-11-01

    Through their purchasing powers, government agencies can play a critical role in leveraging markets to create healthier foods. In the United States, state and local governments are implementing creative approaches to procuring healthier foods, moving beyond the traditional regulatory relationship between government and vendors. They are forging new partnerships between government, non-profits, and researchers to increase healthier purchasing. On the basis of case examples, this article proposes a pathway in which state and local government agencies can use the procurement cycle to improve healthy eating.

  14. Environmental investment and firm performance: A network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostian, Moriah; Färe, Rolf; Grosskopf, Shawna; Lundgren, Tommy

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of investment in environmental production practices for both environmental performance and energy efficiency over time. We employ a network DEA approach that links successive production technologies through intertemporal investment decisions with a period by period estimation. This allows us to estimate energy efficiency and environmental performance separately, as well as productivity change and its associated decompositions into efficiency change and technology change. Incorporating a network model also allows us to account for both short-term environmental management practices and long-term environmental investments in each of our productivity measures. We apply this framework to a panel of detailed plant-level production data for Swedish manufacturing firms covering the years 2002–2008. - Highlights: • We use a network DEA model to account for intertemporal environmental investment decisionsin measures of firm productivity. • We apply our network technology model to a panel of firms in Sweden's pulp and paperindustry for the years 2002 - 2008. • We model environmental investments and expenditures separately from other productionoriented inputs. • We find evidence of positive relationships between energy efficiency, environmental performance, and firm productivity.

  15. Environmental hazards for pipelines in coastal regions/shore approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Often oil/gas and other hydrocarbons discovered and produced offshore are transported to onshore facilities via submarine pipelines. The route of such pipelines traverses through coastal/shore approach regions. For a rational/economic design, safe installation and subsequent operation it is of utmost importance to review, evaluate and finalize various environmental hazard such as winds, waves, currents, seabed topography, seabed and sub-bottom soils, seabed erosion and soil accretion. This paper addresses the above described environmental hazards, their assessment and techniques to prepare design parameters which must be used for stability analysis, installation methods, long term operation and maintenance for the shore approaches. Additionally, various proven pipeline installation and stabilization techniques for the shore approach region are detailed. As case histories, three approaches installed in the Dutch North Sea are described

  16. Information security governance: a risk assessment approach to health information systems protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A H

    2013-01-01

    It is no small task to manage the protection of healthcare data and healthcare information systems. In an environment that is demanding adaptation to change for all information collection, storage and retrieval systems, including those for of e-health and information systems, it is imperative that good information security governance is in place. This includes understanding and meeting legislative and regulatory requirements. This chapter provides three models to educate and guide organisations in this complex area, and to simplify the process of information security governance and ensure appropriate and effective measures are put in place. The approach is risk based, adapted and contextualized for healthcare. In addition, specific considerations of the impact of cloud services, secondary use of data, big data and mobile health are discussed.

  17. A Mixed Methods Approach to Code Stakeholder Beliefs in Urban Water Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Henry, A.; Pivo, G.

    2017-12-01

    What is a reliable way to code policies to represent belief systems? The Advocacy Coalition Framework posits that public policy may be viewed as manifestations of belief systems. Belief systems include both ontological beliefs about cause-and-effect relationships and policy effectiveness, as well as normative beliefs about appropriate policy instruments and the relative value of different outcomes. The idea that belief systems are embodied in public policy is important for urban water governance because it trains our focus on belief conflict; this can help us understand why many water-scarce cities do not adopt innovative technology despite available scientific information. To date, there has been very little research on systematic, rigorous methods to measure the belief system content of public policies. We address this by testing the relationship between beliefs and policy participation to develop an innovative coding framework. With a focus on urban water governance in Tucson, Arizona, we analyze grey literature on local water management. Mentioned policies are coded into a typology of common approaches identified in urban water governance literature, which include regulation, education, price and non-price incentives, green infrastructure and other types of technology. We then survey local water stakeholders about their perceptions of these policies. Urban water governance requires coordination of organizations from multiple sectors, and we cannot assume that belief development and policy participation occur in a vacuum. Thus, we use a generalized exponential random graph model to test the relationship between perceptions and policy participation in the Tucson water governance network. We measure policy perceptions for organizations by averaging across their respective, affiliated respondents and generating a belief distance matrix of coordinating network participants. Similarly, we generate a distance matrix of these actors based on the frequency of their

  18. Community-based approaches to strategic environmental assessment: Lessons from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, A. John; Sims, Laura; Spaling, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA) using a case study of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad's (ICE) watershed management agricultural program (WMAP) in Costa Rica. The approach focused on four highly interactive workshops that used visioning, brainstorming and critical reflection exercises. Each workshop represented a critical step in the SEA process. Through this approach, communities in two rural watersheds assessed the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed second phase for WMAP. Lessons from this community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment include a recognition of participants learning what a participatory SEA is conceptually and methodologically; the role of interactive techniques for identifying positive and negative impacts of the proposed program and generating creative mitigation strategies; the effect of workshops in reducing power differentials among program participants (proponent, communities, government agencies); and, the logistical importance of notice, timing and location for meaningful participation. The community-based approach to SEA offers considerable potential for assessing regional (watershed) development programs focused on sustainable resource-based livelihoods

  19. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  20. Assessing the performance of Taiwan’s environmental protection system with a non-radial network DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chin-wei; Chiu, Yung-ho; Fang, Wei-ta; Shen, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies involving environmental performance purely focus on analyzing environmental or waste treatment efficiencies. This study combines various aspects of environmental protection and establishes a non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the performance of an environmental protection system. The empirical methodology assumes that the system consists of three stages: administrative, executive processes, and protection effectiveness. The executive process includes waste treatment and pollution auditing divisions. In addition to assessing efficiencies, the empirical evaluation further explores the internal and external influences on performances and contributes implications and suggestions for environmental policy makers. The proposed model is utilized to gauge the performance of an environmental protection system for 20 municipalities in Taiwan. The results indicate the following: (1) for improving environmental quality, the government needs to put forth greater efforts in environmental audits; (2) improving productivity per unit so as to increase achievements in the executive process is more important for raising performance on environmental work, in addition to increasing workers and equipment for environmental protection; (3) a high degree of industrialization negatively influences administrative efficiency and educated residents have a greater comprehension for administrative operations, which can help in efficient budget utilization. - Highlights: • A non-radial network DEA approach to evaluate the Performance of Environmental Protection System. • The performance of waste treatment performs better than the efficiency of auditing. • Governmental expenditure is more efficiently utilized in the administrative process. • The effectiveness of achieved protection is a critical indicator for revealing environmental quality in a region

  1. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  2. A Practical Approach to Governance and Optimization of Structured Data Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Gesner, Emily; Morgan, Steven; Mar, Perry; Maviglia, Saverio; Colburn, Doreen; Tierney, Diana; Rocha, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Definition and configuration of clinical content in an enterprise-wide electronic health record (EHR) implementation is highly complex. Sharing of data definitions across applications within an EHR implementation project may be constrained by practical limitations, including time, tools, and expertise. However, maintaining rigor in an approach to data governance is important for sustainability and consistency. With this understanding, we have defined a practical approach for governance of structured data elements to optimize data definitions given limited resources. This approach includes a 10 step process: 1) identification of clinical topics, 2) creation of draft reference models for clinical topics, 3) scoring of downstream data needs for clinical topics, 4) prioritization of clinical topics, 5) validation of reference models for clinical topics, and 6) calculation of gap analyses of EHR compared against reference model, 7) communication of validated reference models across project members, 8) requested revisions to EHR based on gap analysis, 9) evaluation of usage of reference models across project, and 10) Monitoring for new evidence requiring revisions to reference model.

  3. Corporate governance, ownership, company structure and environmental disclosure: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murya Habbash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Environmental Disclosure (ED practices in Saudi Arabia and the potential relationship with Corporate Governance (CG , ownership and company structure, following the application of the Saudi 2006 CG code in 2007. The study deepens the understanding of ED and its main determinants in one of the largest economies in the Middle East. A self-constructed ED checklist, based on ISO 26000, is used. We employ regression and content analyses to examine a sample of 267 annual reports covering the period 2007-2011. The analysis finds that the average ED has improved following the application of the Saudi 2006 CG code to 30%, more than double the 14.61% found by Al-Janadi et al. (2013 during 2006-2007. The analysis also finds that audit committee effectiveness, role duality, state and institutional ownerships, firm profitability, and industry sensitivity positively affect ED. However, board independence, family ownership, and firm size are found not to be significant determinants, while a negative significant correlation was found with firm leverage. The results imply that CG regulators and stakeholders should acknowledge the importance of active audit committees comprising relevant experts and independent directors, in addition to the role of state and institutional ownership in enhancing ED. The study covers a five-year period, contrary to the majority of ED studies which focus on only one year. The study helps to fill the gap in ED literature in developing countries. Finally, the study provides a recent evaluation for the Saudi CG code recently applied in 2007.

  4. Government Policy and Environmental Innovation in the Automobile Sector in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, Max

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played, and still plays, in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles and the effect of government policy. The focus in this paper is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) These alternatives present an interesting case of technical choices in government policy. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a comprehensive view drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. Based on this analysis, current and suggested future government policy is discussed, as the development of alternative vehicles is still an ongoing process. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy and drafted long-term strategic plans including R and D, demonstration and market support. This strategy has enabled the Japanese Government to influence the direction of technical development within the domestic automobile industry with relatively limited government funding. In the development process analysed here, market support have been equally important for the development process as the R and D efforts. The history of BPEVs in Japan illustrates the conventional wisdom that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Our conclusion is that governments should, if possible, focus on technologies that fulfil several policy aims and which can be used in several different applications. This increases the chance of a technology surviving the long journey from idea to competitive product. This study also shows that established dominating companies do not necessarily resist radical changes in their core designs.

  5. Government Policy and Environmental Innovation in the Automobile Sector in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, Max

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played, and still plays, in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles and the effect of government policy. The focus in this paper is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) These alternatives present an interesting case of technical choices in government policy. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a comprehensive view drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. Based on this analysis, current and suggested future government policy is discussed, as the development of alternative vehicles is still an ongoing process. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy and drafted long-term strategic plans including R and D, demonstration and market support. This strategy has enabled the Japanese Government to influence the direction of technical development within the domestic automobile industry with relatively limited government funding. In the development process analysed here, market support have been equally important for the development process as the R and D efforts. The history of BPEVs in Japan illustrates the conventional wisdom that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Our conclusion is that governments should, if possible, focus on technologies that fulfil several policy aims and which can be used in several different applications. This increases the chance of a technology surviving the long journey from idea to competitive product. This study also shows that established dominating companies do not necessarily resist radical changes in their core designs.

  6. Innovative Approaches in Distance Education in the Field of Environmental Management and Environmental Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontev Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the innovative structures and components of distance learning and education, discusses the results of application of approaches to teaching in the electronic environment based on the proposed andragogic and pedagogical models of teaching in cyberspace, for adult learners, bachelor graduates of “Management” for the training program “Introduction to environmental management systems”. This program particularly addresses the role of environmental managers in a company activity, the implementation of ecologically clean technologies. The author proposed an innovative nonlinear andragogic model of learning. The model was mediated by the constructive approach and problem-oriented learning.

  7. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  8. Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gaurav; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

  9. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  10. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  11. Rethinking vulnerability analysis and governance with emphasis on a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Nicolas; Delvenne, Pierre; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability for nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a three-fold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability from unleashing the full range of its potential, as it constrains appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach in water governance in Lao PDR. Cases of hydropower and irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusi, S.

    2013-06-01

    provided a platform or framework to incorporate actors into the analysis and to produce a richer analysis and understanding of actors involved in the policy arena as well as their features and interactions. The rhetoric of the IWRM approach is quite well adopted by the Lao PDR but the actual implementation is still halfway. Significant changes to water management policies have been made and new water policies and legislation among environmental safeguard policies have been developed or are under development in the country. Articles related to hydropower have highlighted the need to integrate social and environmental concerns into national water resource management plans and policies. Lao PDR has initiated decentralisation and participation processes in water resources management: irrigation management transfer to local level (Water User Groups), and establishment of a pilot River Basin Committee in Nam Ngum River Basin to serve as the key organisational unit for water resource management at local and regional levels. These processes are examined in the articles and analysed in the synthesis part. One aim of IWRM is to improve water governance by enhancing inclusive decision-making to secure more equal water development decisions for all stakeholders, including communities at the grassroots level. However, water resources management is still pretty much centralist by nature and does not properly and truly enhance participation of local level government in the management processes in Lao PDR. Laotian operational environment and political culture ('top-down' governance) represent a unique analysis context for IWRM implementation as it represents one of the last centralised communist regimes and monolithic political/decision-making structures. Therefore, it can provide a more simplified structure, where there are no channels providing local/outside knowledge impacting decision-making compared with complex western governance models. The implementation of IWRM is

  13. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  14. Workshop: Corporate Environmental Behavior and the Effectiveness of Government Interventions (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2 day workshop co-sponsored by EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics and National Center for Environmental Research on results from Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants and other projects related to the understanding of corporate behavior.

  15. Private Environmental Governance in the Ethiopian Pesticide Supply Chain: Importation, Distribution and Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides are important chemicals that are used to mitigate crop damage or loss and improve productivity. However, pesticides may cause negative environmental and human health effects depending on their specific distribution and use. Securing environmental safety and sustainability of

  16. The use of ‘macro’ legal analysis in the understanding and development of global environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the manner in which ‘macro’ legal analysis can potentially assist in overcoming some of the issues that are faced in the understanding and development of global environmental governance (GEG). It argues that the analysis of law through separate and distinct disciplines such as environmental law, trade law, corporate law, and human rights law, results in what this article refers to as ‘micro’ legal analysis. As such, it contends that this can have the effect of creating o...

  17. The Environmental, Social, Governance, and Financial Performance Effects on Companies that Adopt the United Nations Global Compact

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Ortas; Igor Álvarez; Ainhoa Garayar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate companies’ environmental, social, governance (ESG), and financial implications of their commitment to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). The focus is placed on companies operating in the three countries with the highest number of UNGC participants: Spain, France, and Japan. The results clearly reveal that adoption of the UNGC often requires an organizational change that fosters stakeholder engagement, ultimately resulting in improvements in companies’ ESG...

  18. How to Apply Feedback to Improve Subjective Wellbeing of Government Servants Engaged in Environmental Protection in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmeng; Zhang, Na; Li, Miaomiao

    2018-01-01

    Background In order to improve subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection who work in high power distance in China, it is important to understand the impact mechanism of feedback. This study aims to analyze how feedback environment influences subjective wellbeing through basic psychological needs satisfaction and analyzing the moderating role of power distance. Method The study was designed as a cross-sectional study of 492 government servants engaged in environment protection in Shandong, China. Government servants who agreed to participate answered self-report questionnaires concerning demographic conditions, supervisor feedback environment, basic psychological need satisfaction, and power distance as well as subjective wellbeing. Results Employees in higher levels of supervisor feedback environment were more likely to experience subjective wellbeing. Full mediating effects were found for basic psychological needs satisfaction. Specifically, supervisor feedback environment firstly led to increased basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn resulted in increased subjective wellbeing. Additional analysis showed that the mediating effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction was stronger for employees who work in high power distance than in low power distance. Conclusion The results from the study indicate that supervisor feedback environment plays a vital role in improving subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection through basic psychological needs satisfaction, especially in high power distance. PMID:29662901

  19. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics

    2015-04-15

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  20. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen; Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  1. [Collective health, territorial and environmental conflicts: bases for a critical socio-environmental approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; da Rocha, Diogo Ferreira; Finamore, Renan

    2014-10-01

    The phenomenon of globalization and the increase in neo-extractivism in the global periphery intensify the search for new territories and natural resources for the economy, resulting in significant impacts on ecosystems and on the lives of vulnerable populations. It is considered that the environmental crisis imposes new challenges and requires an updating of the theoretical and methodological foundations of collective health and the social determinants of health. The scope of this paper is to present theoretical contributions to the construction of a critical socio-environmental approach from a review of the literature structured around previous work on the mapping of environmental conflicts, and conducting empirical studies in conflicting areas. The contributions of sociology, political ecology, postcolonial studies and geography is summarized for the discussion of the socio-environmental determinants of health, as well as experiences that integrate emancipatory knowledge, political subjects, resistances and alternatives for society.

  2. Environmental programmes with refugees: abandon the blanket approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Grimsich

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to environmental problems in refugee emergencies have traditionally focused on two main areas: promotion of tree planting and dissemination of fuel-efficient stoves. This is done with the intention of increasing wood supply and simultaneously reducing the level of demand. Such activities are relatively easy for non-specialists to implement. They also produce two visible (and hence quantifiable assets in a short space of time: trees and stoves.A case study from western Tanzania illustrates the diminished utility of such approaches where natural resources are locally abundant.

  3. A probabilistic approach to Radiological Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2001-01-01

    Since a radiological environmental impact assessment typically relies on limited data and poorly based extrapolation methods, point estimations, as implied by a deterministic approach, do not suffice. To be of practical use for risk management, it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty margins of the estimates as well. In this paper we discuss how to work out a probabilistic approach for dealing with uncertainties in assessments of the radiological risks to non-human biota of a radioactive contamination. Possible strategies for deriving the relevant probability distribution functions from available empirical data and theoretical knowledge are outlined

  4. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    An important challenge of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users and uses. While economically and/or politically powerful users have relatively well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case...... methodologies. The SPI approach is a pragmatic and transparent tool for incorporating ecosystems and environmental flows into the evaluation of water allocation scenarios, negotiations of trade-offs and decision-making in IWRM....

  5. Tunable Polarity Carbon Fibers, a Holistic Approach to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa García-Valverde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of environmental resources is an issue of social concern worldwide. Chemistry is essential for the design of decontamination strategies and analytical approaches to detect and monitor the contamination. Sorptive materials are usually required in both approaches and green synthesis should be used to minimize their own environmental impact. Carbon fibers (CFs obtained by the pyrolysis of natural cellulose-rich materials fulfill these requirements. In this article, thirty CFs obtained under different conditions are chemically characterized and their sorption ability towards selected pollutants, covering a wide range of polarity, is evaluated. This study provides more profound knowledge related to the polarity of these materials, their interactions with chemical substances and allows the prediction of more appropriate materials (pyrolysis temperature and time in order to remove the given pollutant. Furthermore, the use of CFs as sorptive materials for the extraction of contaminants from water samples to assist with their instrumental detection is outlined. In this sense, the use of CFs and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the detection of selected pollutants in the low ng/mL range. Thus, this article provides an integrated approach to the potential of CFs for environmental protection.

  6. Tunable Polarity Carbon Fibers, a Holistic Approach to Environmental Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valverde, M Teresa; Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad

    2018-04-27

    The pollution of environmental resources is an issue of social concern worldwide. Chemistry is essential for the design of decontamination strategies and analytical approaches to detect and monitor the contamination. Sorptive materials are usually required in both approaches and green synthesis should be used to minimize their own environmental impact. Carbon fibers (CFs) obtained by the pyrolysis of natural cellulose-rich materials fulfill these requirements. In this article, thirty CFs obtained under different conditions are chemically characterized and their sorption ability towards selected pollutants, covering a wide range of polarity, is evaluated. This study provides more profound knowledge related to the polarity of these materials, their interactions with chemical substances and allows the prediction of more appropriate materials (pyrolysis temperature and time) in order to remove the given pollutant. Furthermore, the use of CFs as sorptive materials for the extraction of contaminants from water samples to assist with their instrumental detection is outlined. In this sense, the use of CFs and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the detection of selected pollutants in the low ng/mL range. Thus, this article provides an integrated approach to the potential of CFs for environmental protection.

  7. Environmental governance in the People’s Republic of China: the political economy of growth, collective action and policy developments – introductory perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Balme, Richard; Renwu, Tang

    2014-01-01

    The special issue is introduced here by considering the state of the environment and environmental governance in the PRC. While significant, substantial developments in legislation and policymaking remain insufficient to tackle the degradation of the environment and the increasing saliency of environmental issues in Chinese politics. Tremendous challenges remain in the areas of natural resources governance, environmental health, and transition paths in agriculture and urban development. They ...

  8. Privatisation and water governance in Africa: implications of a rights-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Olowu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Early in the post-independence era, the control of water resources in many African states was a task of central planning. Regrettably, water management soon became a miry adventure in most African states largely because of warped planning and implementation. This article examines the phenomenon of private sector involvement in water resources management and seeks to understand the effect of such involvement on the right to water in Africa in the context of the Millennium Development Goals. The article explores the continuing relationship between African governments and non-state actors in the management of water resources in the privatisation age. The article further analyses the role of various national water governance initiatives vis-à-vis the efficient management of water resources and the sharp contradictions in their frameworks from a rights-based perspective. It evaluates the normative frameworks of access to water as a human right in Africa and contends that the human being must be placed at the centre of water discourses in assessing all role actors and their responsibilities. Extrapolating from experiences from various states within and outside Africa, this article advocates a rights-based approach to water issues and its value for the ultimate purpose of human- centred development.

  9. A novel approach to enhance food safety: industry-academia-government partnership for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael T; Ostrowsky, Julie; Farrar, Jeff A; Gravani, Robert B; Tauxe, Robert V; Buchanan, Robert L; Hedberg, Craig W

    2009-07-01

    An independent collaborative approach was developed for stimulating research on high-priority food safety issues. The Fresh Express Produce Safety Research Initiative was launched in 2007 with $2 million in unrestricted funds from industry and independent direction and oversight from a scientific advisory panel consisting of nationally recognized food safety experts from academia and government agencies. The program had two main objectives: (i) to fund rigorous, innovative, and multidisciplinary research addressing the safety of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and (ii) to share research findings as widely and quickly as possible to support the development of advanced safeguards within the fresh-cut produce industry. Sixty-five proposals were submitted in response to a publicly announced request for proposals and were competitively evaluated. Nine research projects were funded to examine underlying factors involved in Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and potential strategies for preventing the spread of foodborne pathogens. Results of the studies, published in the Journal of Food Protection, help to identify promising directions for future research into potential sources and entry points of contamination and specific factors associated with harvesting, processing, transporting, and storing produce that allow contaminants to persist and proliferate. The program provides a model for leveraging the strengths of industry, academia, and government to address high-priority issues quickly and directly through applied research. This model can be productively extended to other pathogens and other leafy and nonleafy produce.

  10. Multi-indicator assessment of water environment in government environmental auditing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Gui-zhen; LU Yong-long; MA Hua; WANG Xiao-long

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on a multi-indicator assessment methodology for governmental environmental auditing of water protection programs. The environmental status of Wuli Lake in China was assessed using the global indicators (driver-status-response) developed by the CSD, and four additional indicators proposed by the author- water quality, pollution load, aquatic ecosystem status and lake sediment deposition. Various hydrological, chemical, biological and environmental parameters were used to estimate the values of the indicators for assessment of environmental status of the lake based on time series data sets for twenty years. The indicators proposed can be customized to meeting the needs for particular assessment of water protection programs. This method can be used to evaluate the performance of national environmental protection programs and provide technical support for environmental auditors.

  11. Policies for friendly cities: the need for a new approach by governments and the donor community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, V.

    2018-03-01

    Since the 1990s, the major issues in the world’s cities of Developing and Emerging Economy Countries have in some few cases improved in terms of the percentage of urban population living without appropriate housing and access to essential services- but in terms of numbers such population has severely increased. The theory by which economic development would automatically produce a trickle down effect that would take care of the needs of the poor has proved ineffective, and while the middle-lower classes have seen their lot improved, the lowest income groups are more destitute then ever- and more and more vulnerable to natural disasters. The approach of Governments and the donor community needs to be radically revisited, with a new urban policy agenda that should put emphasis on support to the lowest income groups, and relying on the informal sector as the main actor in implementing such support. The impacts of Climate Change and the increased frequency and severity of natural catastrophes also call for such a revised approach. The two-step approach to interventions in disasters situations – i.e. providing temporary shelters and only subsequently reconstructing homes- is ineffective and wasteful.

  12. Governance arrangements for IT project portfolio management qualitative insights and a quantitative modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing importance of IT-based innovations, contemporary firms face an excessive number of proposals for IT projects. As typically only a fraction of these projects can be implemented with the given capacity, IT project portfolio management as a relatively new discipline has received growing attention in research and practice in recent years.?Thorsten Frey demonstrates how companies are struggling to find the right balance between local autonomy and central overview about all projects in the organization. In this context, impacts of different contextual factors on the design of governance arrangements for IT project portfolio management are demonstrated. Moreover, consequences of the use of different organizational designs are analyzed. The author presents insights from a qualitative empirical study as well as a simulative approach.

  13. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  14. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  15. A governance network perspective on environmental conflicts in China: findings from the Dalian paraxylene conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y. (Yi); Y. Li (Yanwei); Xi, B. (Bao); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: Employing the Governance Network framework, this article presents an in-depth case study of the conflict that evolved from 2003 onwards over the construction and operation of a paraxylene plant in Dalian, China. The study explores the usefulness of this framework as an

  16. Setting the scene: Human activities, environmental impacts and governance arrangements in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin, T.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Maher, P.T.; Hughes, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope and intensity of human activity in the Antarctic region has changed considerably over the past 100 years, resulting in significant modifications to the Antarctic environment and its ecosystems, and to the institutional arrangements governing human activities. Since the nineteenth century,

  17. Approaching Environmental Sustainability: Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Changeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot

    2017-04-03

    This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing. The intervention that focused on enhancing self-efficacy for making sustainability-related purchases had the strongest impact on intention to purchase. These findings have implications for interventions intended to change behavior related to environmental sustainability.

  18. Modern environmental and economic approach of mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Drebenstedt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the need of transition to the rational subsoil use (the alternative mining approach is proved, which unlike general one supposes the increasing of extraction rate of valuable components in the deposit and multiple use of raw materials, the maximizing recycling, the decreasing of land occupation, the increasing of the development period of deposit at some income decrease up to the moderate level, which is enough to provide the attraction for investors. The multicriteriality is considered as the crucial principle of rational subsoil use at taking management decisions, i.e. the considering of ecological, economic and social targets, aimed at receiving moderate profit at proper social and environmental standards. The graphic representation of models of the general mining approach and the alternative one allows to emphasize the specified advantages of transition to rational subsoil resources development and reflect them in design equation. In the paper, three performance strategies providing the implementation of the alternative approach are offered: full-field development, application ecologically and economically effective systems and the development processes, consideration of reclamation and minimization of long term environmental effects of mining

  19. A risk governance approach for high-level waste in Belgium: A process appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, Erik; Eggermont, Gilbert; Bombaerts, Gunter

    2010-09-01

    The Belgian nuclear waste management organisation (NIRAS-ONDRAF) has recently started up a public debate on the strategic waste management options for the intermediate- and high-level radioactive waste (cat. B and C waste). This public debate takes place in the context of a (mandatory) strategic environmental impact assessment (SEA) procedure. The paper proposes a critical investigation of four interrelated aspects of this procedure from the point of view of 'good governance': assessment of the remaining uncertainties, guardianship of the democratic process, the organisation of expertise and the interpretation of transgenerational ethics and distributive justice in the new crisis context of globalization and failure of electricity liberalisation. We argue that - in spite of the overall soundness of the geological disposal option - many uncertainties remain: a new technical concept needs to be demonstrated and international financial management needs to be organised. On the process side we argue that although NIRAS-ONDRAF can take up a role as initiator of a public participation process, it can hardly act as a guardian of this process. The debate must be lifted above the local level, opened up to new actors with an active role of the safety authorities and guarded by a non-involved organisation. A condition for success is the creation of critical awareness and the capacity to manage controversy in future with critical expertise. Referring to the RISCOM model for transparent risk communication, we suggest some improvements to the process that is currently taking place

  20. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building

  1. Optimised Environmental Test Approaches in the GOCE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, V.; Giordano, P.; Casagrande, C.

    2004-08-01

    The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) is dedicated to measuring the Earth's gravity field and modelling the geoid with extremely high accuracy and spatial resolution. It is the first Earth Explorer Core mission to be developed as part of ESA's Living Planet Programme and is scheduled for launch in 2006. The program is managed by a consortium of European companies: Alenia Spazio, the prime contractor, Astrium GmbH, the platform responsible, Alcatel Space Industries and Laben, suppliers of the main payloads, respectively the Electrostatic Gravity Gradiometer (EGG) and the Satellite to Satellite Tracking Instrument (SSTI), actually a precise GPS receiver. The GOCE Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) approach is established and implemented in order to demonstrate to the customer that the satellite design meets the applicable requirements and to qualify and accept from lower level up to system level. The driving keywords of "low cost" and "short schedule" program, call for minimizing the development effort by utilizing off-the-shelf equipment combined with a model philosophy lowering the number of models to be used. The paper will deal on the peculiarities of the optimized environmental test approach in the GOCE project. In particular it introduces the logic of the AIV approach and describe the foreseen tests at system level within the SM environmental test campaign, outlining the Quasi Static test performed in the frame of the SM sine vibration tests, and the PFM environmental test campaign pinpointing the deletion of the Sine Vibration test on PFM model. Furthermore the paper highlights how the Model and Test Effectiveness Database (MATD) can be utilized for the prediction of the new space projects like GOCE Satellite.

  2. Environmental Reform in the Information Age. The Contours of Informational Governance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    As the information revolution continues to accelerate, the environment remains high on public and political agendas around the world. These two topics are rarely connected, but information - its collection, processing, accessibility and verification - is crucial in dealing with environmental

  3. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of government commitment for environmental policy and capital movements.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiliani, L.; Renström, T. I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less cap...

  5. Managing environmental radioactivity monitoring data: a geographic information system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywood, I.; Cornelius, S.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the current British approach to environmental radiation monitoring is presented here, followed by a discussion of the major issues which would have to be considered in formulating a geographical information system (GIS) for the management of radiation monitoring data. Finally, examples illustrating the use of spatial data handling and automated cartographic techniques are provided from work undertaken by the authors. These examples are discussed in the context of developing a National Radiological Spatial Information System (NRSIS) demonstrator utilising GIS technology. (Author)

  6. Environmental dose reconstruction: Approaches to an inexact science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    The endpoints of environmental dose reconstruction are quantitative yet the science is inexact. Four problems related to this issue are described. These problems are: (1) Defining the scope of the assessment and setting logical priorities for detailed investigations, (2) Recognizing the influence of investigator judgment of the results, (3) Selecting an endpoint other than dose for the assessment of multiple contaminants, and (4) Resolving the conflict between credibility and expertise in selecting individuals responsible for dose reconstruction. Approaches are recommended for dealing with each of these problems

  7. Case Study: Clinical Governance as an Approach to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in 22 Hospitals in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Dwirani; Suhowatsky, Stephanie; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Tholandi, Maya; Hyre, Anne; Sethi, Reena

    Clinical governance is a concept used to improve management, accountability and the provision of quality healthcare. An approach to strengthen clinical governance as a means to improve the quality of maternal and newborn care in Indonesia was developed by the Expanding Maternal and Neonatal Survival (EMAS) Program. This case study presents findings and lessons learned from EMAS program experience in 22 hospitals where peer-to-peer mentoring supported staff in strengthening clinical governance from 2012-2015. Efforts resulted in improved hospital preparedness and significantly increased the odds of facility-level coverage for three evidence-based maternal and newborn healthcare interventions.

  8. Environmental factors and the risk of urinary schistosomiasis in Ile Oluji/Oke Igbo local government area of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaremilekun G. Ajakaye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems are being increasingly used to show the distributions of disease where data for specific environmental risk factors are available. For successful transmission of schistosomiasis, suitable climatic conditions and biological events must coincide; hence its distribution and prevalence are greatly influenced by environmental factors affecting the population of snail intermediate hosts and human hosts. Prevalence and demographic data was obtained by parasitological examination of urine samples and questionnaire administration. The mean values of environmental factors corresponding to the local government area were obtained from remotely sensed images and data from climate research unit. The effects of the environmental factors were determined by using regression analysis to analyse the correlation of environmental factors to prevalence of schistosomiasis. There was a negative correlation between infection and elevation. There was a positive correlation between vegetation, rainfall, slope, temperature and prevalence of infection. There was also a weak negative correlation between proximity to water body and prevalence. The result shows the study area to be at low to high risk of infection.

  9. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Some coupled land?climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received...

  10. Environmental education - an approach based on the concept of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fourie

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education is described as an enterprise aiming at a philosophy of life and therefore as a matter of life. This suggests the concept of life as a natural foundation for an approach to environmental education. Therefore a reflection on the phenomenon of life is offered in which the 'philosophy of life' or vitalist philosophy is reviewed. It is argued that life is a multi-levelled phenomenon and that a monolithic view of life is inadequate. A functional definition of life is proposed in which the microbiological description of life, its link with the abiotic aspect of reality, its other relationships and its spiritual potential are respected. This is used as the ground for an exemplary discussion of life at the levels suggested by the philosophical reflection, viz. life and the individual (which concentrates mainly on the biological aspect, life and the community (concentrating on the social aspect, life and the ecosystem (concentrating primarily on the relationship between abiotic and biotic, and life and the cosmos (which reaches the limit of the authors' task. The need for an ethic is related to these levels and the idea of responsibility is developed with recourse to ancient texts in which comparable ethical implications for the environment are contained. Finally, some practical suggestions are made for implementing the results of the argument in environmental education.

  11. A two-stage DEA approach for environmental efficiency measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Malin; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The slacks-based measure (SBM) model based on the constant returns to scale has achieved some good results in addressing the undesirable outputs, such as waste water and water gas, in measuring environmental efficiency. However, the traditional SBM model cannot deal with the scenario in which desirable outputs are constant. Based on the axiomatic theory of productivity, this paper carries out a systematic research on the SBM model considering undesirable outputs, and further expands the SBM model from the perspective of network analysis. The new model can not only perform efficiency evaluation considering undesirable outputs, but also calculate desirable and undesirable outputs separately. The latter advantage successfully solves the "dependence" problem of outputs, that is, we can not increase the desirable outputs without producing any undesirable outputs. The following illustration shows that the efficiency values obtained by two-stage approach are smaller than those obtained by the traditional SBM model. Our approach provides a more profound analysis on how to improve environmental efficiency of the decision making units.

  12. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  13. The environmental rules of economic development: Governing air pollution from smelters in Chuquicamata and La Oroya

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Why and how do societies transform the environmental rules of economic development, or fail to do so? This article compares the experiences of Chile and Peru in the regulation of smelting activities between 1990 and 2010. Air pollution from smelters in  Chuquicamata  and  La Oroya, each emblematic of the two countries’ mining industries, did not give rise to nationally destabilising protest. Nevertheless, despite the absence of pressing discontent with pollution, the environmental rules for m...

  14. Greenlining. Economic and Environmental Effects of Government Facilitated Lending to Sustainable Economic Activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-03-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on taxes, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. It is concluded that the policy instrument could be used much more effective

  15. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. These crises that have started to alarm governments, supervisory authorities, companies, investors and even the general public because of the fragility of the corporate governance’s system, highlight the need to rethink its structures. The process of adapting the corporate governance provisions in order to ensure transparency, responsibility and fair treatment of shareholders has resulted in the development of Corporate Governance Principles by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. In order to asses these principles, it has started to identify the common elements of codes, one the most effective practice models of governance. Once the benefits of corporate governance practices have been understood and assimilated by the developed country, the developing countries (also Romania have begun to adopt "the best practices" in corporate governance, especially because this need is acutely felt in the changes required by the transition to a market economy. Our article describes the origins of the corporate governance, the concept and evolution of the corporate governance code at an international level, European level and also at a Romanian level.

  16. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  17. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A VISUALIZATION TEST OF MENTAL MODELS WITH THE COGNITIVE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garoui NASSREDDINE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to determine the mental models of actors in the fi rm with respect to the cognitive approach of corporate governance. The paper takes a corporate governance perspective, discusses mental models and uses the cognitive map to view the diagrams showing the ways of thinking and the conceptualization of the cognitive approach. In addition, it employs a cognitive mapping technique. Returning to the systematic exploration of grids for each actor, it concludes that there is a balance of concepts expressing their cognitive orientation.

  18. Organizing urban ecosystem services through environmental stewardship governance in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    How do stewardship groups contribute to the management of urban ecosystem services? In this paper, we integrate the research on environmental stewardship with the social-ecological systems literature to explain how stewardship groups serve as bridge organizations between public agencies and civic organizations, working across scales and sectors to build the flexible...

  19. Governing Global Environmental Flows: Ecological Modernization in Technonatural Time/Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Environmentalism and social sciences appear to be in a period of disorientation and perhaps transition. In this innovative collection, leading international thinkers explore the notion that one explanation for the current malaise of the ¿politics of ecology¿ is that we increasingly find ourselves

  20. Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, Belay

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the

  1. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  2. Interpretation of koncepta is «government service» in the organizational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lypovska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article certain and specified existent methodological grounds of government service as the theoretical of organization, heuristic possibilities are analysed organizational approaches to the probed problem and its decision, attribute description of public service is resulted as a social organization. The author concludes that in circumstances where the organization coexist in the interaction, which includes fluctuations, dissipation, competition, competitions, etc., to ensure the stability of public service related to the preservation of the general structure for reproduction. The structure serves as a complex, extensive system of social interactions and relationships of the process of ordering the elements and relations. Іt is the basis for stabilizing relationships and interactions with civil society, that it is necessary to improve the efficiency of public administration. The organizational structure of the civil service as a form of division and cooperation of management, sustainable pattern of its goals, objectives and functions, serving material support and means to implement them. This structure is a factor of stability.

  3. Telemedicine and EHR Integrated Approach for An Effective E-Governance Healthcare Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpana Kakkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, people have been more inclined towards the use of technology to reduce human effort. Telemedicine is one such concept which has gained popularity among the people, providing them easy access to health care. Telemedicine refers to the concept of providing health care from a distance through an integrated approach using information and communication technology (ICT. India, being a geographically wide country has its difficulties when it comes to providing health care facilities to people belonging to the different regions. This is one of the few reasons why India is the best stage to introduce a concept like telemedicine. The use of this technology to counter the various challenges has been highly regarded and termed as something which can revolutionize the medical field. Integrating telemedicine with electronic health record (EHR, which is a digital document of a person’s medical history is said to be a perfect combination which can help improve clinical efficiency. The country has seen initiatives taken up by various organizations, with the main motive of connecting the rural to the urban. Through this paper, we have discussed the potential we have with this technology, and also propose an EHR integrated telemedicine model to make the best use of it in an emergency healthcare situation to help save lives. We have also touched a few factors which can help the government better the current health scenario.

  4. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  5. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  6. Integrating physical and financial approaches to manage environmental financial risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Gregory; Meyer, Eliot; Foster, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Physical and/or engineered solutions have long been used to manage risks associated with adverse environmental events. Examples include reservoirs as a tool for mitigating drought-related supply risk, levees for managing flood risk and dredging of inland waterways to ensure navigability during low flow periods. These measures can reduce many types of risk (e.g., loss of life), but are often employed as a means of protecting against financial losses. When the focus is on managing environmental financial risk, physical solutions can be effective, but also costly. In many cases, non-physical tools can provide a less expensive means of managing financial risk, with these often taking the form of financial instruments such as hedging contracts, contingency funds or insurance. Some of these instruments, such as flood insurance, are widely available, but historically many environmental financial risks have been managed primarily (or solely) via physical solutions without much consideration of alternatives, thereby opening opportunities for innovation in developing financial solutions. Recent research has demonstrated that financial instruments can play a significant role in managing drought-related financial risk in sectors as diverse as water utilities, energy generation and inland navigation. Nonetheless, this work has largely considered the use of these instruments within systems in which physical solutions are already in place (but failing to achieve desired performance). The next step in the evolution of managing environmental financial risk involves developing methods for designing risk management strategies that do not assume an established physical system. Here the goal is to identify the relative role that physical solutions and financial instruments should play as they are integrated into a comprehensive risk management strategy. This is not a straightforward challenge as one approach reduces the risk of financial losses and the other redistributes those losses

  7. Anaerobic digestion for bioenergy production: Global status, environmental and techno-economic implications, and government policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Khanal, Sami; Manandhar, Ashish; Shah, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production. This review explores the current status of the AD technology worldwide and some of the environmental, economic and policy-related drivers that have shaped the implementation of this technology. The findings show that the regulations and incentives have been the primary factor influencing the steady growth of this technology, in both developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of environmental disclosure by multi-national oil companies: a corporate governance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, concern about the issue of environmental sustainability\\ud has increased considerably. Closely linked to this concern is the growing disquiet\\ud over the increasing pervasiveness of multi-national companies, especially oil\\ud companies, in shaping global politics and economics. Consequently, increased\\ud awareness about the environment has led to calls for better management of global\\ud resources and for ways in which to make the corporations that benefit the most\\ud ...

  9. An Adaptive Approach for Implementing e-Government in I. R. Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hossein; Zarei, Behrouz

    2004-01-01

    Acknowledging the necessity of utilizing the new electronics, information, and communication technologies, the movement toward implementation of e-government in Iran has recently received the attention of the authorities and policy makers. The premise of the work is set around the fact that the e-enabled government is a momentous opportunity for…

  10. National Guard State Partnership Program: A Whole-of Government Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    be better able to take ownership of and solve crisis situations within their borders, provide necessities to their people through sound governance...lower level concentrated focus on a partner country (State vs . U.S. Government); executing mission spanning military, political, economic and...and hydroelectric development, foreign investment 22 reform and development, franchise opportunities, bio-fuels development, and public and

  11. Participatory environmental governance in China: public hearings on urban water tariff setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Jin; Mol, Arthur P J

    2008-09-01

    In the late 1990s China started to expand its market economic reform to the public sector, such as water services. This reform led to major changes in urban water management, including water tariff management. The reforms in water tariff management relate not only to tariffs, but also to the decision-making on tariffs. Water tariff decision-making seems to move away from China's conventional mode of highly centralized and bureaucratic policy- and decision-making. The legalization, institutionalization and performance of public hearings in water tariff management forms a crucial innovation in this respect. This article analyzes the emergence, development and current functioning of public hearings in water tariff setting, and assesses to what extent public hearings are part of a turning point in China's tradition of centralized bureaucratic decision-making, towards more transparent, decentralized and participative governance.

  12. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies. A Methodological Approach with an Application to the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beers, C. [Department of Economics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Moor, A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    Up to now a clear theoretical and methodological framework for economic-environmental analysis of environmentally damaging subsidies is lacking. Environmentally damaging subsidies are all kinds of direct and indirect subsidies aimed at achieving a certain (often non-environmental) goal that produce negative external effects to the natural environment. This article develops a transparent method to determine the environmental impact of indirect government subsidies and derive policy lessons. This method has been applied to several major subsidies in the Netherlands, namely in agriculture, energy, and transport. The results reveal large environmental effects, which need to be taken seriously by policy makers. The method enables policy makers to evaluate the environmental impacts of indirect government subsidies.

  13. Action Research – A New Approach for Environmental RD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danubianu Mirela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency research, development and innovation (RD&I constitute an answer to the ever growing importance that EU states give to knowledge-based development (a central idea in the Europe 2020 Strategy, directed toward finding comprehensive solutions to concerns connected to the Europe’s resource depletion, energy future, climate changes, etc. The "Action Research" paradigm appeared in the late 1940s but its systematic application is the attribute of recent years. It keeps researchers in the real world, requires teamwork, collaboration with communities and other stakeholders. Action Research is especially suitable in projects for reducing anthropic footprint / environmental aggression and in waste management. In essence, Action Research (for the first time systematically applied in Romania is the research approach that lets the problem studied to conduct the analysis and generate appropriate solutions; it constitutes a flexible, versatile technique to generate new knowledge through iterative interaction with the domain studied - namely the environment - researchers and communities.

  14. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  15. The INEL approach: Environmental Restoration Program management and implementation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of the INEL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program management approach are to facilitate meeting mission needs through the successful implementation of a sound, and effective project management philosophy. This paper outlines the steps taken to develop the ER program, and explains further the implementing tools and processes used to achieve what can be viewed as fundamental to a successful program. The various examples provided will demonstrate how the strategies for implementing these operating philosophies are actually present and at work throughout the program, in spite of budget drills and organizational changes within DOE and the implementing contractor. A few of the challenges and successes of the INEL Environmental Restoration Program have included: a) completion of all enforceable milestones to date, b) acceleration of enforceable milestones, c) managing funds to reduce uncosted obligations at year end by utilizing greater than 99% of FY-95 budget, d) an exemplary safety record, e) developing a strategy for partial Delisting of the INEL by the year 2000, f) actively dealing with Natural Resource Damages Assessment issues, g) the achievement of significant project cost reductions, h) and implementation of a partnering charter and application of front end quality principles

  16. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetone to Isopropanol: An Environmentally Benign Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeq Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic hydrogenation of acetone is an important area of catalytic process to produce fine chemicals. Hydrogenation of acetone has important applications for heat pumps, fuel cells or in fulfilling the sizeable demand for the production of 2-propanol. Catalytic vapour phase hydrogenation of acetone has gained attention over the decades with variety of homogeneous catalysts notably Iridium, Rh, Ru complexes and heterogeneous catalysts comprising of Raney Nickel, Raney Sponge, Ni/Al2O3, Ni/SiO2, or Co-Al2O3, Pd, Rh, Ru, Re, or Fe/Al2O3 supported on SiO2 or MgO and even CoMgAl, NiMg Al layered double hydroxide, Cu metal, CuO, Cu2O. Nano catalysts are developed for actone reduction Ni maleate, cobalt oxide prepared in organic solvents. Author present a review on acetone hydrogenation under different conditions with various homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts studied so far in literature and new strategies to develop economic and environmentally benign approach. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 16th June 2010, Revised: 18th October 2010; Accepted: 25th October 2010[How to Cite:Ateeq Rahman. (2010. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetone to Isopropanol: An Environmentally Benign Approach. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 113-126. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.798.113-126][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.798.113-126 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/798

  17. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  18. Science-policy platforms in global environmental governance: the case of the UNCCD SPI

    OpenAIRE

    de Dona', Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is one of the so-called ‘Rio Conventions’, three multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) ensued from the ‘Earth Summit’ of 1992. Unlike its two ‘sisters’ (the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity), the UNCCD presents a peculiar twofold ‘environment and development’ soul. Such a nature is reflected not only in the mere policy aspects dealt with within and by the Conv...

  19. Partnership working in public health: the implications for governance of a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David; Perkins, Neil

    2012-04-01

    Most of the research on partnerships has centred on health and social care, and while many of the findings remain relevant, public health partnerships concerned with 'wicked issues' give rise to a different and more complex set of issues which merit exploration. The study aimed to identify those factors promoting effective partnership working for health improvement; to assess the extent to which partnership governance and incentive arrangements were commensurate with the complexities of the problem; and to explore how far local partnerships contributed to better outcomes for individuals and populations. A three-year study of public health partnerships (2007-10) in nine localities across England involving semi-structured interviews at strategic and operational levels. Successful partnerships shared a number of characteristics: they were clear about goals and purpose; they were aware of partners' roles and responsibilities; and they had a clear strategic overview of performance through robust monitoring and evaluation. In many cases, partnerships were facades with a 'silo mentality' prevailing - there was an unwillingness to share information or resources, or to accord partnership working sufficient priority or support. Despite enthusiasm for partnerships and an insistence that they were essential, it was impossible to establish evidence of their impact on health outcomes. While the focus on partnerships tends to be on structures, relational factors, including high levels of trust and goodwill, were important ingredients of a well-functioning partnership. Less formal and more organic, operational partnerships were more effective than more formal, strategic level ones which were driven by targets. Finally, partnerships were, in part, shaped by the national policy context, with constant policy and organizational churn making it difficult to sustain long-term relationships. Future partnerships might be undertaken differently, adopting a complex adaptive systems

  20. Engaging with Comparative Risk Appraisals: Public Views on Policy Priorities for Environmental Risk Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Sophie A; Schubert, Iljana; Soane, Emma; Black, Edgar; Muckle, Rachel; Petts, Judith; Prpich, George; Pollard, Simon J

    2017-09-01

    Communicating the rationale for allocating resources to manage policy priorities and their risks is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that environmental risks have diverse attributes and locales in their effects that may drive disproportionate responses among citizens. When 2,065 survey participants deployed summary information and their own understanding to assess 12 policy-level environmental risks singularly, their assessment differed from a prior expert assessment. However, participants provided rankings similar to those of experts when these same 12 risks were considered as a group, allowing comparison between the different risks. Following this, when individuals were shown the prior expert assessment of this portfolio, they expressed a moderate level of confidence with the combined expert analysis. These are important findings for the comprehension of policy risks that may be subject to augmentation by climate change, their representation alongside other threats within national risk assessments, and interpretations of agency for public risk management by citizens and others. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Operational approach to the environmental problems in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, F

    1980-01-01

    Environmental programs associated with socioeconomic development are examined. In most developing countries, environmental problems affecting human health are connected with poverty, over-population, and biological pollutants. An analysis of the environmental problems associated with socioeconomic development in Surabaya City, Indonesia, is presented. An analytical methodology and a mathematical model for an integrated environmental program are described. (1 diagram, 5 references, 5 tables)

  2. Diffusion of innovation: a social network and organizational learning approach to governance of a districtwide leadership team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hwa Liou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available District and school leaders play particularly important roles in leading districtwide improvement, as they are increasingly held accountable for bringing about change and improvement for educational innovation and excellence.  While conventional districtwide governance places much of its focus on technical and administrative matters such as policy development, supervision, and monitoring progress. This technical focus often overlooks the fundamental aspect that drives the progress of improvement—the social infrastructure shaped by interpersonal relationship. Responding to recent scholarships that calls for a networked approach to governance, this study examined the change effort of a districtwide leadership team over three points in time drawing on social network theory and analysis focused on district governance.  Specifically, we focused on the type of interpersonal relationship in which leaders engaged with each other in sharing and exchanging innovative ideas as these efforts may support better governance. Additionally, we explored organizational learning as a way to examine climate in support of districtwide innovative efforts during change process. Our findings from leaders indicated increased innovative behaviors and perceived climate on organizational learning over time. The findings suggested that leaders increased connections around risk taking, regardless of their work level over time. This increased connectedness around innovation was coupled with an increase in leaders’ perception of the district’s learning climate, suggesting a cohesive approach to governance and improvement.

  3. Governance and management dynamics of landscape restoration at multiple scales: Learning from successful environmental managers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Lucas; Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per; Gordon, Johanna

    2017-07-15

    Due to a long history of intensive land and water use, habitat networks for biodiversity conservation are generally degraded in Sweden. Landscape restoration (LR) is an important strategy for achieving representative and functional green infrastructures. However, outcomes of LR efforts are poorly studied, particularly the dynamics of LR governance and management. We apply systems thinking methods to a series of LR case studies to analyse the causal structures underlying LR governance and management in Sweden. We show that these structures appear to comprise of an interlinked system of at least three sets of drivers and four core processes. This system exhibits many characteristics of a transformative change towards an integrated, adaptive approach to governance and management. Key challenges for Swedish LR projects relate to institutional and regulatory flexibility, the timely availability of sufficient funds, and the management of learning and knowledge production processes. In response, successful project leaders develop several key strategies to manage complexity and risk, and enhance perceptions of the attractiveness of LR projects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing approaches to financing and financial management in the South African local government sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sing

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Sections 152 and 153 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996 have given local government a developmental mandate. Local government has a constitutional obligation to participate in national and provincial development programmes. Local government should become a powerful development catalyst in collaboration with other spheres of government, the non-governmental sector and the local citizenry. It has to address social, economic and infrastructural backlogs and inequalities in a stable and sustainable manner to ensure developmental outcomes are reached. Different financing and financial management policies, strategies, structures, processes and procedures have to be instituted with a view to transformation and innovation. Constant and consistent monitoring, analysis and evaluation of these policies, strategies structures, processes and procedures should ensure these constitutional imperatives.

  5. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea; Monica-Violeta Achim; Ludovica Breban

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. ...

  6. The role of the general practitioner in the Australian approach to HIV care: interviews with 'key informants' from government, non-government and professional organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christy E; de Wit, John B F; Kippax, Susan C; Reynolds, Robert H; Canavan, Peter G; Kidd, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    HIV care is provided in a range of settings in Australia, but advances in HIV treatment and demographic and geographic changes in the affected population and general practitioner (GP) workforce are testing the sustainability of the special role for GPs. This paper explores how a group of 'key informants' described the role of the GP in the Australian approach to HIV care, and conceptualised the challenges currently inspiring debate around future models of care. A thematic analysis was conducted of semistructured interviews carried out in 2010 with 24 professionals holding senior roles in government, non-government and professional organisations that influence Australian HIV care policy. The strengths of the role of the GP were described as their community setting, collaborative partnership with other medical and health professions, and focus on patient needs. A number of associated challenges were also identified including the different needs of GPs with high and low HIV caseloads, the changing expectations of professional roles in general practice, and barriers to service accessibility for people living with HIV. While there are many advantages to delivering HIV services in primary care, GPs need flexible models of training and accreditation, support in strengthening relationships with other health and medical professionals, and assistance in achieving service accessibility. Consideration of how to support the GP workforce so that care can be made available in the broadest range of geographical and service settings is also critical if systems of HIV care delivery are to be realistic and cost-effective and meet consumer needs.

  7. How sustainable is government-sponsored desertification rehabilitation in China? Behavior of households to changes in environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Lihua; Hauger, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES), will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households' preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability.

  8. Transforming (perceived rigidity in environmental law through adaptive governance: a case of Endangered Species Act implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Gosnell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Endangered Species Act (ESA is often portrayed as a major source of instability and crisis in river basins of the U.S. West, where the needs of listed fish species frequently clash with agriculture dependent on federal irrigation projects subject to ESA Section 7 prohibitions on federal agency actions likely to jeopardize listed species or adversely modify critical habitat. Scholarship on Section 7 characterizes the process as unwaveringly rigid, the legal "hammer" forcing federal agencies to consider endangered species' needs when proposing operations and management plans for federally funded irrigation. In this paper, we identify barriers to an integrated approach to Section 7 implementation and characterize a set of strategies for overcoming its rigidity that may have broader applicability. We draw on lessons derived from the Klamath Basin along the Oregon-California border, where cross-scale processes and venues involving interagency collaboration among leaders in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation supported efforts to replace an ecologically and socially fragmented Upper Basin/Lower Basin approach to ESA implementation fraught with conflict. The result was the nation's first joint biological opinion (BiOp, which effectively institutionalized an adaptive, flexible, integrated approach to water sharing among competing interests. Keys to success included existing collaborative capacity related to shifting stakeholder networks, trust, and relationships and a shift in local agency culture facilitated by empathic leadership leading to a greater sense of shared responsibility for Section 7 compliance. A collaborative hydrologic modeling process enhanced participatory capacity, facilitated transformative social and technical learning, and cultivated greater understanding of the social-ecological system among key stakeholders. The 2013 joint BiOp exemplifies both

  9. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  10. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  11. The GETE approach to facilitating the commercialization and use of DOE-developed environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Global Environmental Technology Enterprise (GETE) was conceived to develop and implement strategies to facilitate the commercialization of innovative, cost-effective Department of Energy (DOE)-developed environmental technologies. These strategies are needed to aid DOE's clean-up mission; to break down barriers to commercialization; and to build partnerships between the federal government and private industry in order to facilitate the development and use of innovative environmental technologies

  12. The GETE approach to facilitating the commercialization and use of DOE-developed environmental technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, T.N. [Global Environment & Technology Foundation, Annandale, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Global Environmental Technology Enterprise (GETE) was conceived to develop and implement strategies to facilitate the commercialization of innovative, cost-effective Department of Energy (DOE)-developed environmental technologies. These strategies are needed to aid DOE`s clean-up mission; to break down barriers to commercialization; and to build partnerships between the federal government and private industry in order to facilitate the development and use of innovative environmental technologies.

  13. Theoretical Studies on the Physical and Environmental Factors Which Govern the Thermal Fading of Thermoluminescence Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheedy, M.S.; El-Sherif, M.A.; Hefni, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermoluminescence solid-state detector is widely used to determine the dose in personnel and environmental monitoring for radiation protection purposes, for instance in the field of nuclear power production, medicine and research. However, thermal fading is a limiting factor for a long-term application, especially where temperature is changing significantly during the accumulation period. This paper studied the influence of temperature and duration of storage after irradiation on the thermal fading of the TL signal. Also, this paper discussed the dependence of the thermal fading on the trap parameters of TL glow peak. The most important parameters, which were considered here include the order of kinetics b, the depth of the trap level E (eV) and the frequency factor S (s-1). The dependence of the thermal fading on thermal stability parameters, namely trap depths and frequency factors for the glow peaks is discussed. The variation of the thermal fading as a function of the order of kinetics is demonstrated. In addition, this paper discussed the dependence of the thermal fading on the absorbed dose in case of first-, second- and general-order kinetics. The above-mentioned studies were arranged considering the models of first-, second- and general-order of kinetics

  14. A biologic approach to environmental assessment and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Thomas J; Kriebel, David

    2010-01-01

    "Environmental chemical hazards are highly contentious topic in modern life. Nearly every nation on earth has its own environmental crises, and also shares perspectives on the possibility of global catastrophes...

  15. Personalization in E-Government: An Approach that Combines Semantics and Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stojanovic, Ljiljana; Stojanovic, Nenad; Thomas, Susan

    In Europe, large parts of the population use the Internet in their daily life: at work, during their leisure time, or for accessing information, purchasing goods or communication. They now expect public administrations to provide the same level of service that they are accustomed to when using online banking, flight booking or electronic shops. Increasingly, they also expect the types of personalization and user adaptation offered by such commercial services.1 The current norm for e-government portals, which is to confront different citizens with a one-size-fits-all Web interface, is not the optimum way to deliver public sector services because every person is an individual with different knowledge, abilities, skills and preferences. The conventional brick-and-mortar office has a more human face because the clerk can respond to different people in different manners. That is why people tend to use the conventional office rather than the e-government services. To transfer some of the humanity to e-government portals, it is necessary to build adaptive portals for public services. Such user-adaptive portals will increase the usability, and, thus, the acceptance of e-government, enabling administrations to achieve the, as yet, elusive efficiency gains and user satisfaction, which are the primary goals of e-government projects.

  16. Novel approaches and tools to reduce environmental impacts in agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    The world population is estimated to increase until about 9 billion of people in 2050. The contemporary limitation and increased degradation of land areas for agricultural uses have been posing serious problems to the management of food production. In the last century, an excessive use of agrochemicals (fertilisers and pesticides) in intensive agrosystems to improve crop yields and match human nutritional needs have caused great impact on the soil ecosystems (properties and biodiversity) and people's health. Consequently, more ecofriendly solutions (e.g. integrated crop and pest management - ICPM - and organic farming) have started to be pursued by scientists, public opinion and governments. In nature, several strategies and mechanisms have been evolved to provide nutrients to plants and defend them from pest and pathogen attacks. They consist in modifications of the environment surrounding plants (e.g. acidification), or the production of compounds for plant protection (e.g. biopesticides). As a consequence, farmers have often adopted practices to modify soil properties according to the crop needs for nutrients to facilitate their mobilisation and uptake by plants. Other more sophisticated natural strategies involve interactions between plant, soil and microorganisms, so that plants attract beneficial organisms that assist them: i) to mobilise and collect nutrients upon symbiotic or non-symbiotic relationships; ii) to suppress pests and pathogens by predation or the secretion of biocidal compounds; iii) to stimulate plant growth (regulators). In recent studies, we have created nanomaterial-based tools to: i) support plant growth; ii) detecting soil metabolic activities and quality; iii) degrading pollutants in environments; iv) detecting and monitoring pollutants in environments. Such nanostructured tools have been generated employing a nanotechnology capable of producing nanofibres under an electric field, called electrospinning. By electrospinning, it is

  17. New approaches in European governance? Perspectives of stakeholders in the Danube macro-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sielker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro-regional cooperation in the EU are networks that use the horizontal and vertical dimension of the multilevel governance system to influence both strategic decision-making as well as implementation activities. Drawing on an analysis of expert interviews in the Danube Region the paper scrutinizes stakeholders’ shared views towards expectations, challenges and added values, and thereby seeks to explain why a trend towards macro-regions arises and for what reasons stakeholders are getting involved. The analysis of the drivers for stakeholders’ commitment in the EU Danube Region Strategy shows that new governance arrangements need to be adjustable to different contexts, allow for negotiation and new network creation whilst simultaneously offering the political ability to act. The evidence presented suggests that multilevel governance in the EU is becoming increasingly complex, embracing more and different types of cooperation, with soft characteristics as crucial elements.

  18. Toward Environmentally Robust Organic Electronics: Approaches and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kwang; Lee, Moo Yeol; Park, Cheol Hee; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak

    2017-11-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics has led to a paradigm shift in consumer electronics, and the emergent development of stretchable and wearable electronics is opening a new spectrum of ubiquitous applications for electronics. Organic electronic materials, such as π-conjugated small molecules and polymers, are highly suitable for use in low-cost wearable electronic devices, and their charge-carrier mobilities have now exceeded that of amorphous silicon. However, their commercialization is minimal, mainly because of weaknesses in terms of operational stability, long-term stability under ambient conditions, and chemical stability related to fabrication processes. Recently, however, many attempts have been made to overcome such instabilities of organic electronic materials. Here, an overview is provided of the strategies developed for environmentally robust organic electronics to overcome the detrimental effects of various critical factors such as oxygen, water, chemicals, heat, and light. Additionally, molecular design approaches to π-conjugated small molecules and polymers that are highly stable under ambient and harsh conditions are explored; such materials will circumvent the need for encapsulation and provide a greater degree of freedom using simple solution-based device-fabrication techniques. Applications that are made possible through these strategies are highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An Innovative Partnership Approach for Environmental Management and Pollution Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, Mujde; Aydlett, Guy M.

    1997-01-01

    A partnership between a university and a government regulatory agency sought to assist industries with pollution prevention and waste management. Economic incentives were developed to promote waste minimization. (SK)

  20. A Rights-Based Approach to Internet Policy and Governance for the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and Governance for the Advancement of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights ... to housing, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to health. ... -assess perceptions and experiences with current and past ESCR advocacy; ... of Sahara, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, South Asia ...

  1. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Michailovich Kachalov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  2. Combining structure, governance and context : A configurational approach to network effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, J.; Mannak, R.S.; Cambré, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the way in which network structure (network integration), network context (resource munificence and stability), and network governance mode relate to net -work effectiveness. The model by Provan and Milward (Provan, Keith G., and H. Brinton Milward. 1995. A preliminary theory of

  3. Sport Governance and Policy Development: An Ethical Approach to Managing Sport in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    "Sport Governance and Policy Development" is written with the sport management student in mind. Designed to address the curriculum standards set by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the North American Society for Sport Management, this book provides information to meet core and related competency areas required for the…

  4. Financial modelling and corporate governance: A feminist perspective using an optimization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Adhariani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at projecting the financial condition of the company using the feminist ethics of care integrated in corporate governance principles. The research question to be answered is: How the financial condition of the company in the future is affected if the feminist ethics of care is applied in its corporate governance practices? The research question is answered using the quantitative optimisation method to develop the financial planning model for the period 2012-2016. BHP Billiton which is one of the world’s largest resources company is selected to be the sample of this case study. The projection of the financial condition for the five-year period 2012-2016 showed that BHP Billiton, Ltd. can achieve an overall positive economic value retained in the projected period even though negative results exist for 2015 and 2016. Sensitivity analysis was performed by providing two examples of alternatives or scenarios to show the impact on the projected financial condition. It can be concluded that the Company’s financial condition will be stable in the future. The use of the ethics of care simultaneously as a lens to support corporate governance practices and as guidance in financial projection has not been conducted in previous studies. This study therefore, offers an original contribution to the literature of corporate governance, business ethics and financial planning.

  5. The Future of Public Forests: An Institutional Blending Approach to Forest Governance in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ian D.; Adams, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Early in 2011, the Government initiated a consultation on the potential sale of the Public Forest Estate in England. This proposal leads to vociferous negative public reaction and the consultation was withdrawn and an Independent Panel established. This paper reviews the arguments as to the options and appropriate institutional arrangements for…

  6. Promoting the Maori Language to Non-Maori: Evaluating the New Zealand Government's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand's two main government Maori language planning agencies, the Maori Language Commission and the Ministry of Maori Development, have engaged for some time in language planning targeting the attitudes and behaviours of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the Maori language. This activity is undertaken on the basis that the attitudes and…

  7. Prelude to practice: Introducing a practice based approach to forest and nature governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.; Behagel, J.H.; Bommel, van S.; Koning, de J.; Turnhout, E.

    2013-01-01

    ‘Forest and nature governance’ is a field that has recently emerged from forestry sciences. It analyses the governance of a diverse set of issues, including deforestation, biodiversity loss and illegal logging, producing insights useful for science and policy. Its main theoretical base consists of

  8. A Rights-Based Approach to Internet Policy and Governance for the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The debate on Internet freedom has intensified over the last few years as governments and civil society organizations explore policies to safeguard online civil liberties and online security. Civil society organizations and academics have noted the growth of online censorship and surveillance. Many have argued for a more ...

  9. Environmental management frameworks for offshore mining: the New Zealand approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-07-27

    The New Zealand region contains untapped natural mineral, oil, and gas resources while also supporting globally unique and diverse faunal communities that need to be managed sustainably. In this paper key information from the international literature is reviewed that can underpin an Environmental Mining Management System which includes elements of Environmental Risk Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Planning. This paper focuses on four developing areas of seafloor mining activities presently being undertaken or planned in the New Zealand region: hydrocarbons (oil and gas), minerals, ironsands and phosphorite nodules. A number of issues with the implementation of environmental management systems are identified including the difficulty of assessing new marine activities or technologies and the need for standardised reporting metrics. Finally, the development of ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning is discussed which will be required to enhance environmental mining management frameworks in New Zealand.

  10. Environmental Approach In Interior Design Education In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Adıgüzel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available These days there has been a severe encroachment on nature, a large amount of waste being generated, and natural resources being used irresponsibly during the design, application and usage phases of buildings. Environmental sensitivity is necessary during the construction of new buildings and re-usage of current buildings to resolve environmental problems. In order to increase environmental sensitivity, a great responsibility falls onto interior design along with other disciplines during the creation of living spaces. The accumulation of knowledge from career training and the level of awareness will determine the practical development of environmentally sensitive interior design. Therefore the purpose of this article is to make a determination of the current state of environmental design in interior design education in Turkey. The degree to which environmental design is reflected in the curricula of interior design departments was studied. The relationship between the awareness level of the students and the educational programs will be presented through three samples. Surveys were conducted at three universities that have varying degrees of environmental design within the interior design curricula. As a result, the importance of having an environmentally conscious design understanding within the curricula of interior design and recommendations for improving the environmental design awareness of students will be presented in this article.

  11. A biologic approach to environmental assessment and epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Thomas J; Kriebel, David

    2010-01-01

    .... The two key fields of study on this issue, environmental epidemiology and exposure assessment, are still given separate names because of their separate historical roots and scientific traditions...

  12. Consumer and producer environmental responsibility. Comparing two approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Joao; Domingos, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Two different indicators of 'environmental responsibility' were independently proposed by Rodrigues et al. [Rodrigues, J., Domingos, T., Giljum, S., Schneider, F., 2006. Designing an indicator of environmental responsibility. Ecological Economics, 59 (3): 256-266.] and Lenzen et al. [Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann, T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61: 27-42.]. These indicators are both supposed to reflect the indirect effects of consumer and producer behavior in the generation of environmental pressure. In this paper we compare their mathematical properties and interpretation. We conclude that they have different implications for environmental policy. (author)

  13. One Size Does Not Fit All - A Contingency Approach to Data Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Kristin; Otto, Boris; Österle, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Enterprizes need Data Quality Management (DQM) to respond to strategic and operational challenges demanding high-quality corporate data. Hitherto, companies have mostly assigned accountabilities for DQM to Information Technology (IT) departments. They have thereby neglected the organizational issues critical to successful DQM. With data governance, however, companies may implement corporate-wide accountabilities for DQM that encompass professionals from business and IT departments. This resea...

  14. Stakeholders approach on corporate governance and performance of Vietnamese manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Thanh Binh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is one of the most vital issues in this compound environment at present, which is indicated by the fact that the success or failure of firms strongly depends on performance of the control that board of directors and executive board, take on corporations’ activities. This issue has attracted a variety of researches worldwide, and become a popular buzz lately, however there is still limited researches on this topic in Vietnam. In this paper, we focus on manufacturing sector, one of the most important industries in Vietnam economy, which account for 41.2% of total GDP in 2012. By using stakeholder theory and Kitamura’s paper as a corner stone, a model using OLS regression and log functional form for production function, showing the relationship between some external factors and internal factors including corporate governance is built. From the result of the research, it has been found out that internal factors (corporate governance significantly affect the firm’s performance, whereas external factors (market share do not really show any influence. In term of production function, this manufacturing sector still benefits from an increase of capital but not that of labor.

  15. Banking Sector Performance and Corporate Governance in Nigeria: A Discriminant Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Chigozie OKPARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to investigate the impact of corporate governance on the banking sector performance. Precisely, it examined firstly, how each variant in the corporate governance structure discriminates against the performance of the banking sector and secondly whether the executive directors and non executive directors are associated negatively and significantly with non performing loans. To accomplish these objectives, the researchers employed discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient and the spearman rank correlation as an alternate method. The results of the analysis revealed that foreign ownership contributed about 187.77 percent of the total discriminant score for the function thereby propelling foreign ownership as the most discriminant ownership variable in banks performance and also implying that a bank s chance of belonging to the group of highly performing banks increases as its foreign ownership increases. The poor performance of the board ownership is not as severe as that of the institutional ownership and government ownership which made the poor and poorer contributions respectively. The results also show that both executive directors and non-executive directors are not significantly associated with non-performing loans. On the basis of these findings, the researchers recommend that the Central Bank of Nigeria in liaison with the Nigerian Deposit and Insurance Corporation should extend intensive surveillance on the role of the directors in the banking sector.

  16. Explaining environmental management system development: A stakeholder approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Haverkamp, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Managerial changes are necessary for companies in the Dutch food industry and agribusiness to lessen the environmental impact of their activities. To identify the opportunities or limits of environmental management systems (EMSs), it is important to first understand what influence stakeholders have

  17. Environmental Education: A Holistic Approach Using "Wall Chart" with "Manual"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, M. A.; Okoro, Uwaezu; Ntesat, Brownson; Nwachukwu, Ijeoma M.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities such as inequitable and unsustainable production and consumption of earth resources cause "environmental problems." There is need to develop research and innovative techniques towards public understanding of these environmental problems and sustainable development. This paper contains the first edition of…

  18. Life Cycle Based Environmental Approach in the Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Thrane, Mikkel

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for industries to extend the focus from environmental impacts in their own production, towards considerations of impacts and improvement potentials in the whole product chain.......This paper discusses the need for industries to extend the focus from environmental impacts in their own production, towards considerations of impacts and improvement potentials in the whole product chain....

  19. Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lear, Shannon

    1999-01-01

    Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places,…

  20. Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noran, Ovidiu

    Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

  1. Finances and governance of urban local bodies: an approach of urban development perspective from a developing country (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman PAUL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanisation and the pressure on urban areas for service delivery, the role of urban local governments is undoubtedly becoming important and, here, their financial capacity can hold the key. At the same time, there are several issues in urban governance that need to be addressed yet. Delegation of decision making powers to urban local bodies (ULBs, which are traditionally considered as a part of the system of State government and acting on behalf of it, is one of them. The constitutional mechanisms like inter-governmental fiscal transfers were an attempt to reduce the gap of ULBs, but they were not effective in implementation at ground. It has become imperative now to understand the financial position of ULBs in order to move forward with the new means of fund flow. This paper presents a cross sectional analysis of the finance of 27 ULBs in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India in terms of their financial base and its adequacy vis-à-vis norms, and their revenue and expenditure performance. Using certain ratios, the relative performance of municipalities on dependency measures was also assessed. The implications of finances of ULBs, in terms of raising resources, improving inter-governmental transfers and charting new mechanisms are also discussed. Lastly, an approach has been made to develop an index, i.e. Urban Governance Index (UGI to a better understanding of the per-capita expenditure scenario of ULBs.

  2. Integrated environmental zoning - An innovative Dutch approach to measuring and managing environmental spillovers in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; de Roo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch development of Integrated Environmental Zoning is an advanced effort to account cumulatively for several environmental spillovers from manufacturing, and to manage their impacts on surrounding residential areas. This national policy initiative involves mapping the spatial patterns of

  3. Environmental Identity: A New Approach to Understanding Students' Participation in Environmental Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksha, Amanda P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of how participants express their environmental identities during an environmental learning program. Past research on the outcomes of environmental learning programs has focused primarily on changes in knowledge and attitudes. However, even if knowledge or attitudes can be accurately measured,…

  4. A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Chaffin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term "adaptive governance" is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based on this synthesis, we define adaptive governance as a range of interactions between actors, networks, organizations, and institutions emerging in pursuit of a desired state for social-ecological systems. In addition, we identify and discuss ambiguities in adaptive governance scholarship such as the roles of adaptive management, crisis, and a desired state for governance of social-ecological systems. Finally, we outline a research agenda to examine whether an adaptive governance approach can become institutionalized under current legal frameworks and political contexts. We suggest a further investigation of the relationship between adaptive governance and the principles of good governance; the roles of power and politics in the emergence of adaptive governance; and potential interventions such as legal reform that may catalyze or enhance governance adaptations or transformation toward adaptive governance.

  5. Toward an Integrated Approach to Environmental and Prosocial Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Neaman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education programs neglect the aspect of prosocial behavior as a correlate of pro-environmental behavior. This article examines the possible benefits of increasing the emphasis on prosocial behavior as a way to reinforce environmental education. In our study, prosocial behavior was positively related to pro-environmental behavior (r = 0.34, p < 0.001, and even a combined scale consisting of prosocial and pro-environmental behavior items showed an acceptable reliability (separation reliability = 0.82, at the level of the separated scales, which implies that prosocial and pro-environmental behaviors are a similar class of behavior. We can assume that the two underlying propensities (prosocial behavior and pro-environmentalism are probably only two facets of an overarching common propensity that supports both kinds of behavior. Therefore, promoting one facet will, through its relationship with the other facet, also foster the respective other facet. Even more so, it might be most effective to relate to both propensities equally.

  6. Multilevel governance challenges in transitioning towards a national approach for REDD+: evidence from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Ravikumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although REDD+ was conceived as a national approach to reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation, many of the early advances have been at the subnational level. It is critical to link these subnational efforts to emerging national REDD+ frameworks, including with respect to finance and benefit distribution, setting reference levels, measurement, reporting and verification (MRV, land policy and safeguards. We use evidence from interviews with proponents from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in six countries to characterize the multilevel governance challenges for REDD+. We analyse the differences in perceived challenges between subnational jurisdictional programs and project-based initiatives, and then analyse proponents’ perceptions of the relationship between government policies at multiple levels and these REDD+ initiatives. We find important multilevel governance challenges related to vertical coordination and information sharing and horizontal and inter-sectoral tensions, as well as concerns over accountability, equity and justice. Though the shift to a nested, jurisdictional or national REDD+ is sometimes approached as a technical design issue, this must be accompanied by an understanding of the interests and power relations among actors at different levels. We outline challenges and suggest priority areas for future research and policy, as countries move towards a national REDD+ system.

  7. Pollutants in environmental historical national accounts. A thermodynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, M [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to introduce some ideas concerning environmentally integrated historical national accounts and to submit a method for handling pollutants in that framework. The paper starts with a background, discusses some difficulties concerning the handling of residuals in environmental accounting, and introduces a method which might be suitable for historical environmental accounting involving pollutants. As a final step the method is evaluated and the results are interpreted in relation to ordinary production data given by historical GDP series for Sweden. 29 refs, 3 figs

  8. Application of Environmental Management in Danish Companies: The Statistical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    in business presents a challenge to management, however, since it implies a fundamental change in some of the ways of operating a company. This paper will describe how information on the actual extent of environmental management in Danish companies and the way it is applied has been collected based...... contributed to an increasing awareness of the effect of business activities on the physical environment. To assist companies reduce, evaluate, monitor and control their environmental impact the concept of corporate environmental and resource management has been developed. Implementation of this concept...

  9. Evaluation of negative environmental impacts of electricity generation: Neoclassical and institutional approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Neoclassical and institutional economics have developed different theories and methodologies for evaluating environmental and social impacts of electricity generation. The neoclassical approach valuates external costs, and the institutional approach uses social cost valuation and MCDM methods. This paper focuses on three dimensions: theoretical and methodological backgrounds; critical review of specific studies: methodologies, results, and limitations; and discussing their results and implications for environmental policy and further research. The two approaches lead to a common conclusion that fossil fuels and nuclear power show the highest environmental impact. Despite the common conclusion, the conclusion has limited implications for environmental policy because of the weakness of their methodologies

  10. The Environmental, Social, Governance, and Financial Performance Effects on Companies that Adopt the United Nations Global Compact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate companies’ environmental, social, governance (ESG, and financial implications of their commitment to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC. The focus is placed on companies operating in the three countries with the highest number of UNGC participants: Spain, France, and Japan. The results clearly reveal that adoption of the UNGC often requires an organizational change that fosters stakeholder engagement, ultimately resulting in improvements in companies’ ESG performance. Additionally, the results reveal that ESG performance has a significant impact on financial performance for companies that adopted the principles of the UNGC. These findings provide both non-financial and financial incentives to companies to commit to this voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR initiative, which will have important implications on companies’ strategic management policies that aim to foster sustainable businesses and community development. Finally, the linkages between the UNGC-committed companies’ ESG and financial performance may be influenced by geographical spread, mainly due to the appearance of differences in the institutional, societal, and cultural settings.

  11. Approaching Environmental Cleanup Costs Liability Through Insurance Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael A

    1994-01-01

    .... Applying insurance industry principles to environmental cleanup costs liability will provide a firm foundation to reduce the risk of loss to the taxpayer, reduce cleanup costs, and stimulate private...

  12. A multi-site approach towards integrating environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    and delivering products/services of a high quality standard. Cur- rent South ... ment of an effective Environmental Management Strategy/System. (EMS), i.e. ISO .... clearly indicated other uses of water such as houses/restaurants/ gardens.

  13. Multimedia Environmental Assessment of Existing Materials Management Approaches for Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sustainable and Healthy Communities Program has a mission to develop data and tools that enable community leaders to integrate environmental, societal, and economic factors into their decision-making processes and thus foster community sustainability. This report examines on...

  14. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information

  15. A novel ontology approach to support design for reliability considering environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Li, Yu; Ye, Tianyuan; Ren, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Environmental effects are not considered sufficiently in product design. Reliability problems caused by environmental effects are very prominent. This paper proposes a method to apply ontology approach in product design. During product reliability design and analysis, environmental effects knowledge reusing is achieved. First, the relationship of environmental effects and product reliability is analyzed. Then environmental effects ontology to describe environmental effects domain knowledge is designed. Related concepts of environmental effects are formally defined by using the ontology approach. This model can be applied to arrange environmental effects knowledge in different environments. Finally, rubber seals used in the subhumid acid rain environment are taken as an example to illustrate ontological model application on reliability design and analysis.

  16. Financial development and investment market integration: An approach of underlying financial variables & indicators for corporate governance growth empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial development is correlated with several underlying regulatory variables (such as indicators of investor protection, market transparency variables for corporate governance growth and rules for capital market development, which are under the control of national legislators and EU directives. This paper provides estimates of the relationship between financial market development and corporate growth and assesses the impact of financial market integration on this relationship with reference to European Union (EU countries. The regression results obtained using this panel support the hypothesis that financial development promotes growth particularly in industries that are more financially dependent on external finance. For policy purposes, analyzing changes in these regulatory variables may be a more interesting exercise than analyzing integration of the financial systems themselves. Since assuming that EU countries will raise its regulatory and legal standards to the U.S. standards appears unrealistic, in this case we examine a scenario where EU countries raise their standards to the highest current EU standard.

  17. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinham, Russell

    2009-12-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site selection

  18. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinham, Russell (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom))

    2009-12-15

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site

  19. The formulation of financial, governance and social index of Malaysian Islamic banks: An integrative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Marsidi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes and discusses the development of an index of Islamic Financial and Social Reporting (IFSR for Islamic banks. The index of IFSR is carefully developed based on the relevant and applicable standards, guidelines and literature from an Islamic perspective such as the Malaysian Accounting Standards Board (MASB, Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI, Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB, Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM and Islamic social reporting literature. The index is developed in three parts, namely, financial, social, and auditing and governance. The items within the finance section are developed to ensure that the Islamic banks disclose relevant financial information. The items for the social part aim to ensure that the Islamic banks provide the relevant information regarding social and environment. The items within the auditing and governance part are developed to ensure that the Islamic banks provide relevant information regarding the monitoring and supervising activities that the Islamic banks have undertaken. The IFSR index may be lacking in terms of its usage generalisability as it is specifically developed for IFIs. The developed index of IFSR aims to promote a more appropriate level of disclosure among the Islamic banks. The need for the index is motivated by the growing importance of Islamic banks, not only from the economic perspective but also from the social perspective

  20. Institutional misfit and environmental change: A systems approach to address ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Crona, Beatrice I

    2017-01-15

    Emerging environmental threats often lack sufficient governance to address the full extent of the problem. An example is ocean acidification which is a growing concern in fishing and aquaculture economies worldwide, but has remained a footnote in environmental policy at all governance levels. However, existing legal jurisdictions do account for some aspects of the system relating to ocean acidification and these may be leveraged to support adapting to and mitigating ocean acidification. We refine and apply a methodological framework that helps objectively evaluate governance, from a social-ecological systems perspective. We assess how well a set of extant US institutions fits with the social-ecological interactions pertinent to ocean acidification. The assessment points to measured legal gaps, for which we evaluate the government authorities most appropriate to help fill these gaps. The analysis is conducted on United State federal statutes and regulations. Results show quantitative improvement of institutional fit over time (2006 to 2013), but a substantial number of measured legal gaps persist especially around acknowledging local sources of acidification and adaptation strategies to deal with or avoid impacts. We demonstrate the utility of this framework to evaluate the governance surrounding any emerging environmental threat as a first step to guiding the development of jurisdictionally realistic solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental evaluation of agri-environment schemes using participatory approaches: Experiences of testing the Agri-Environmental Footprint Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Mortimer, Simon R.; Park, Julian P.

    2012-01-01

    The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi-criteria......The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi......-criteria analysis (MCA) and involves stakeholder participation to provide a locally customised evaluation based on weighted environmental indicators. The methodology was subjected to a feasibility assessment in a series of case studies across the EU. The AFI approach was able to measure significant differences....... The applicability of the AFI in routine monitoring of AES impacts and in providing feedback to improve policy design is discussed....

  2. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  3. Clinical governance implementation in a selected teaching emergency department: a systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical governance (CG) is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED). Methods/design We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders’ views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. Discussion Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation, the results of this study

  4. Quality data validation: Comprehensive approach to environmental data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, L.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental data validation consists of an assessment of three major areas: analytical method validation; field procedures and documentation review; evaluation of the level of achievement of data quality objectives based in part on PARCC parameters analysis and expected applications of data. A program utilizing matrix association of required levels of validation effort and analytical levels versus applications of this environmental data was developed in conjunction with DOE-ID guidance documents to implement actions under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order in effect at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This was an effort to bring consistent quality to the INEL-wide Environmental Restoration Program and database in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This program, documenting all phases of the review process, is described here

  5. Environmental management practices, environmental technology portfolio, and environmental commitment: A content analytic approach for U.K. manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, P; Ramanathan, R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how various aspects of environmental management practices EMPs (operational, strategic, and tactical) undertaken by firms influence their environmental technology portfolios ETPs (pollution control and pollution prevention). It also explores the role of environmental commitment of firms on the influence of EMPs on ETPs. This study uses data from content analysis of annual reports, and corporate social responsibility reports available from corporate websites of 76 UK ma...

  6. Making the ecosystem approach operational-Can regime shifts in ecological- and governance systems facilitate the transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österblom, H.; Gårdmark, A.; Bergström, L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively reducing cumulative impacts on marine ecosystems requires co-evolution between science, policy and practice. Here, long-term social–ecological changes in the Baltic Sea are described, illustrating how the process of making the ecosystem approach operational in a large marine ecosystem...... stimulating innovations and re-organizing governance structures at drainage basin level to the Baltic Sea catchment as a whole. Experimentation and innovation at local to the regional levels is critical for a transition to ecosystem-based management. Establishing science-based learning platforms at sub...

  7. Environmental sciences and computations: a modular data based systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.; Bailey, C.E.

    1975-07-01

    A major computer code for environmental calculations is under development at the Savannah River Laboratory. The primary aim is to develop a flexible, efficient capability to calculate, for all significant pathways, the dose to man resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Savannah River Plant and from other existing and potential radioactive sources in the southeastern United States. The environmental sciences programs at SRP are described, with emphasis on the development of the calculational system. It is being developed as a modular data-based system within the framework of the larger JOSHUA Computer System, which provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. (U.S.)

  8. Health and environmental risk governance in the french context. The role of scientific expertise and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courvalin, C.; Boisson, P.; Dab, W.; Cohen de Lara, M.; Godard, O.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Hervouet, V.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: increasing public concern as regards health and environmental risks makes it necessary, for public policies and regulation of risk assessment and management to comply with multiple and often non consistent expectations from the public in a rapidly changing environment. Evolution of risk assessment and management is currently observed as a consequence of this context. Whereas the former technical approaches were playing down the existence of residual risk as well as scientific uncertainties, current reflections rather aim at empowering the stakeholders of hazardous activities in the decision-making process in order to build up social trust and public confidence. This paper will present the conclusions of a work group entrusted by the French authorities with the task of proposing recommendations in order to update the risk assessment and management current approaches in the field of energy producing and consuming. The conclusions of this work are based on the analysis of three major issues as regards environmental health risks: climate change, atmospheric pollution, and radiation protection. It is also based on the 1997 report of the US Congress Commission on risk assessment and management. The report points out the difficulty for the French 'command and control' regulatory tradition to comply with public demand for transparency and more democratic involvement in the decision-making process. The conclusion presents various recommendations as regards the role of scientific expertise, the use of economic analysis and the decision-making process in risk assessment and management. The conclusion particularly emphasises key aspects of the decision-making process such as: the necessity of contextualizing risk assessment, the taking into account of scientific uncertainties and the need for stakeholders' involvement. (authors)

  9. Current legal regime for environmental impact assessment in areas beyond national jurisdiction and its future approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Deqiang; Fang, Qinhua; Guan, Song

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, the United Nations launched an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Since then, the topic of governing marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been widely discussed by politicians, policy makers and scholars. As one of management tools to protect marine biodiversity in ABNJ, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized and accepted by the international community, however, the biggest challenge is how to effectively implement the EIA regime in ABNJ. This paper explores the impacts of anthropogenic activities in ABNJ on marine ecosystems, reviews the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ and discusses possible measures to strengthen the implementation of EIA in ABNJ. - Highlights: • We identify human activities in ABNJ and their impacts on marine ecosystems. • We analyze the characters and gaps of the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ. • We analyze the pros and cons of alternative approaches of EIA in ABNJ.

  10. Current legal regime for environmental impact assessment in areas beyond national jurisdiction and its future approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Deqiang [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Coastal Ecology and Environmental Studies, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Fang, Qinhua, E-mail: qhfang@xmu.edu.cn [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Coastal Ecology and Environmental Studies, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China); Guan, Song [Coastal and Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, 361102 (China)

    2016-01-15

    In 2004, the United Nations launched an Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Since then, the topic of governing marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) has been widely discussed by politicians, policy makers and scholars. As one of management tools to protect marine biodiversity in ABNJ, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely recognized and accepted by the international community, however, the biggest challenge is how to effectively implement the EIA regime in ABNJ. This paper explores the impacts of anthropogenic activities in ABNJ on marine ecosystems, reviews the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ and discusses possible measures to strengthen the implementation of EIA in ABNJ. - Highlights: • We identify human activities in ABNJ and their impacts on marine ecosystems. • We analyze the characters and gaps of the existing legal regime for EIA in ABNJ. • We analyze the pros and cons of alternative approaches of EIA in ABNJ.

  11. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthetic environmental indicators: A conceptual approach from the multivariate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar J, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a general description of multivariate statistical analysis and shows two methodologies: analysis of principal components and analysis of distance, DP2. Both methods use techniques of multivariate analysis to define the true dimension of data, which is useful to estimate indicators of environmental quality.

  13. IS ENVIRONMENTAL ALIGNMENT AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a conceptual model termed "IS environmental alignment" that focuses on the support provided by IS strategy to minimize the gap between perceived environmental uncertainty and realized/objective environmental conditions. The model uses the Chan et al [9] alignment measurement method to measure IS strategic alignment as it provides a quantitative measure. In due course the proposed model would be tested in industry and would examine the affect of IS environmental alignment on business performance. The implication of the model lies in the effective use of deployed IS systems by organizations.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Konsepmodel word voorgelê wat handel oor "IS-omgewingsaanpassing". IS-strategie-ondersteuning by die minimisering van die gaping tussen waargenome omgewingsonsekerheid en gerealiseerde/objektiewe omgewingstoestande. Die model maak gebruik van die Chan et al [9] aanpassingsmeetmetode om IS-strategie-aanpassing op 'n kwantitatiewe basis te bepaal. Met die verloop van tyd sal die konsepmodel in die praktyk getoets word om te toon hoe IS-strategie-aanpassing sakevertoning affekteer. Die effektiewe ontplooiing van IS-stelsels by ondernemings word voorgehou.

  14. HOLISTIC APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents results from the application of a new municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning aid to EPA's new facility in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This planning aid, or decision support tool, is computer software that analyzes the cost and environmental impact ...

  15. The Project-Based Learning Approach in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of project-based learning on students' attitudes toward the environment. In the study that was performed with 39 students who take the "Environmental Education" course, attitude changes toward the environment were investigated in students who developed projects on environmental…

  16. A dynamic approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agras, Jean; Chapman, Duane

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis states that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning point. In EKC analyses, the relationship between environmental degradation and income is usually expressed as a quadratic function with the turning point occurring at a maximum pollution level. Other explanatory variables have been included in these models, but income regularly has had the most significant effect on indicators of environmental quality. One variable consistently omitted in these relationships is the price of energy. This paper analyzes previous models to illustrate the importance of prices in these models and then includes prices in an econometric EKC framework testing energy/income and CO 2 /income relationships. These long-run price/income models find that income is no longer the most relevant indicator of environmental quality or energy demand. Indeed, we find no significant evidence for the existence of an EKC within the range of current incomes for energy in the presence of price and trade variables

  17. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  18. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Doris, E-mail: doris.voelker@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency Germany, Section IV 2.2, Wörlitzer Platz 1, 06844 Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Schlich, Karsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Ecotoxicology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany); Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute [Federal Environment Agency Germany, Section IV 2.2, Wörlitzer Platz 1, 06844 Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola [Federal Environment Agency Germany, Section IV 2.4, Schichauweg 58, 12307 Berlin (Germany); Hund-Rinke, Kerstin [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Ecotoxicology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  19. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  20. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities

  1. Clinical governance implementation in a selected teaching emergency department: a systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyrani Ali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical governance (CG is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED. Methods/design We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders’ views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. Discussion Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation

  2. Innovative urban forestry governance in Melbourne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Hertzog, Kelly; Shears, Ian

    2018-01-01

    and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature......A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving....... In this paper, we aim to contribute to this re-assesment of urban environmental governance by examining the City of Melbourne's approach to urban re-naturing governance from a place-based perspective. Here we focus on the city's internationally-acclaimed urban forest strategy (UFS), investigating how...

  3. Adaptations to the Whole of Government Approach by the United States Department of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Creswell, J. W. 1994. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approach. California: Sage Publications, Inc. Denzin , N. K., and Y. S. Lincoln . 1994...the association of words, actions, and records of the people in the study (Denzen and Lincoln 1994). There are strengths and weaknesses to both

  4. Public management and policy networks: foundations of a network approach to governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this article we address the elaboratlon of the central concepts of a theory of networks and of network management. We suggest that the network approach builds on several theoretical traditions After this we clarify the theoretical concepts and axioms of the policy

  5. From a holistic approach of public policy to co-governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa-Gabriela POPESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the current paper, the holistic approach means the extrapolation of the concept of citizen towards the level of co-participant in public policy process.The paper is focused on the transformation of public policies in the holistic perspective, as well as on the creation of conditions favourable to such approach.It means to emphasise issues linked, on the one hand, to how prepared the political representatives and public authorities are to accept both the direct involvement of citizens in decision-making and sharing of accountability in public policy process, and, on the other hand, the direct citizens’ involvement. In other words, the paper attempts to identify possible responses to key matters for the holistic approach: On the one hand, are the members of community aware of the importance of commitment? Are they truly motivated to take part in such a structure? On the other hand, how are prepared the political representatives and public authorities to accept co-operation with different categories of stakeholders?The researches in Romania reveal that unfortunately the actual context is not favourable to the holistic approach. The current conditions are just at minimal level, the policies will be further made behind closed doors and the citizens’ consultation will be mainly formal.

  6. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  7. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  8. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  9. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  10. Using Participatory Approach to Improve Availability of Spatial Data for Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliment, T.; Cetl, V.; Tomič, H.; Lisiak, J.; Kliment, M.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the availability of authoritative geospatial features of various data themes is becoming wider on global, regional and national levels. The reason is existence of legislative frameworks for public sector information and related spatial data infrastructure implementations, emergence of support for initiatives as open data, big data ensuring that online geospatial information are made available to digital single market, entrepreneurs and public bodies on both national and local level. However, the availability of authoritative reference spatial data linking the geographic representation of the properties and their owners are still missing in an appropriate quantity and quality level, even though this data represent fundamental input for local governments regarding the register of buildings used for property tax calculations, identification of illegal buildings, etc. We propose a methodology to improve this situation by applying the principles of participatory GIS and VGI used to collect observations, update authoritative datasets and verify the newly developed datasets of areas of buildings used to calculate property tax rates issued to their owners. The case study was performed within the district of the City of Požega in eastern Croatia in the summer 2015 and resulted in a total number of 16072 updated and newly identified objects made available online for quality verification by citizens using open source geospatial technologies.

  11. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  12. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  13. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Doris; Schlich, Karsten; Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute; Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2015-07-01

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  14. MANAGING THE ACOUSTIC CLIMATE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS – A NEW APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar PASZKOWSKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to shaping acoustic comfort as a process of managing the acoustic environment in urbanised areas. The research in this area focuses on the psychoacoustic aspect of shaping acoustic comfort in an urban environment. This approach permits, depending on the purpose of land, not only to reduce the noise to the allowable limits but also to evaluate the acoustic quality of sounds originating in different sources. In this context, a review was performed of the research carried out on identifying soundscapes as a way of shaping acoustic comfort in the urban environment. In this paper it is suggested that the entropy method be used for the assessment of auditory sound perception. The research carried out by the author shows that linking the relationship between the quality of perceived sounds with the elements/factors which shape the acoustic environment can be used to valorise soundscapes.

  15. Quality management in environmental programs: Los Alamos National Laboratory's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, L.; Day, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Since its inception in 1943, Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) primary mission has been nuclear weapons research and development, which involved the use of hazardous and radioactive materials, some of which were disposed of onsite. LANL has established an extensive Environmental Restoration Project (Project) to investigate and remediate those hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper describes LANL's identification and resolution of critical issues associated with the integration and management of quality in the Project

  16. MODERN APPROACHES TO ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Murovana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Actual issues of accounting and taxation at enterprises of green business under the terms of realization of state environmental policy of Ukraine are investigated. Ways of improving methodology of accounting in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, legal regulation of calculation taxes and charges and control over its payment to the budget are defined and proved for the purpose of simplifying business activities and increasing investment prospects of green businesses enterprises in Ukraine.

  17. Environmental impact study. 'Cyclical approach case study VEGA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzman, E.; Braennstroem-Norberg, B.M.; Rosen-Lidholm, S.

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study has been to identify, describe and assess the environmental factors in the fuel chain which may be of significance for the possibilities of establishing biofuel-fired plants for the production of electricity and heat. The description is based on the documentation for the planned combined heat and power plant in Eskilstuna which will utilize pressurized gasification of biofuel in a combined cycle (VEGA). The study shows that the emissions from the plant are limited and do not give rise to any identifiable environmental effects. The emissions of nitrogen oxides from transportation and from fuel production are equivalent to those from combustion. The environmental consequences of a biofuel-fired plant of this size will be primarily local. The regional effects will be limited and of little significance providing that fuel extraction is not carried out in sensitive areas, transportation by road over long distances is minimized, and the removal of important nutrients through the extraction of biofuels is compensated for, for example by returning ash to the soil. 26 refs, 29 figs, 38 tabs

  18. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project: Technical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Gilbert, R.O.; Haerer, H.A.; Morgan, L.G.; Rhoads, R.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Historical measurements and current assessment techniques are being combined to estimate potential radiation doses to people from radioactive releases to the air, the Columbia River, soils, and ground water at the Hanford Site since 1944. Environmental contamination from these releases has been monitored, at varying levels of detail, for 45 yr. Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Reconstruction Project will estimate the magnitude of potential doses, their areal extends, and their associated uncertainties. The Phase I study area comprises 10 counties in eastern Washington and northern Oregon, within a 100-mi radius of the site, including a stretch of the Columbia River that was most significantly affected. These counties contain a range of projected and measured contaminant levels, environmental exposure pathways, and population groups. Phase I dose estimates are being developed for the periods 1944 through 1947 for air pathways and 1964 through 1966 for river pathways. Important radionuclide/pathway combinations include fission products, such as 131 I, in milk for early atmospheric releases and activation products, such as 32 P and 65 Zn, in fish for releases to the river. Potential doses range over several orders of magnitude within the study area. We will expand the time periods and study are in three successive phases, as warranted by results of Phase I

  19. Is a Voluntary Approach an Effective Environmental Policy Instrument? A Case for Environmental Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arimura, Toshi; Hibiki, Akira; Katayama, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Using Japanese facility-level data from an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development survey, we estimate the effects of implementation of ISO14001 and publication of environmental reports on the facilities’ environmental performance. While most previous studies focused on an index of emissions toxicity, this study examines three areas of impacts, none of which have been explored in the literature: natural resource use, solid waste generation, and wastewater effluent. The study is...

  20. Balancing stability and flexibility in adaptive governance: an analysis of tools available in U.S. environmental law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptive governance must work “on the ground,” that is, it must operate through structures and procedures that the people it governs perceive to be legitimate and fair, as well as incorporating processes and substantive goals that are effective in allowing social-ecological syste...

  1. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  2. [Process orientation as a tool of strategic approaches to corporate governance and integrated management systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    The concept of general process orientation as an instrument of organisation development is the core principle of quality management philosophy, i.e. the learning organisation. Accordingly, prestigious quality awards and certification systems focus on process configuration and continual improvement. In German health care organisations, particularly in hospitals, this general process orientation has not been widely implemented yet - despite enormous change dynamics and the requirements of both quality and economic efficiency of health care processes. But based on a consistent process architecture that considers key processes as well as management and support processes, the strategy of excellent health service provision including quality, safety and transparency can be realised in daily operative work. The core elements of quality (e.g., evidence-based medicine), patient safety and risk management, environmental management, health and safety at work can be embedded in daily health care processes as an integrated management system (the "all in one system" principle). Sustainable advantages and benefits for patients, staff, and the organisation will result: stable, high-quality, efficient, and indicator-based health care processes. Hospitals with their broad variety of complex health care procedures should now exploit the full potential of total process orientation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Application of probabilistic risk based optimization approaches in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general approach to site-specific risk assessments and optimization procedures. In order to account for uncertainties in the assessment of the current situation and future developments, optimization parameters are treated as probabilistic distributions. The assessments are performed within the framework of a cost-benefit analysis. Radiation hazards and conventional risks are treated within an integrated approach. Special consideration is given to consequences of low probability events such as, earthquakes or major floods. Risks and financial costs are combined to an overall figure of detriment allowing one to distinguish between benefits of available reclamation options. The probabilistic analysis uses a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The paper demonstrates the applicability of this approach in aiding the reclamation planning using an example from the German reclamation program for uranium mining and milling sites

  4. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  5. A system approach to the environmental analysis of industrial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-Jose Lombera, Jose-Tomas [LABEIN-Tecnalia, C/Geldo, Parque Tecnologico de Bizkaia, Edificio 700, 48160 Derio (Vizcaya) (Spain); Department of Science of Materials, ESTSI Bilbao-University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Garrucho Aprea, Isaac [SEDICAL S.A., Txorierri Etorbidea 46 - Pab, 12 F 48150 Sondica (Vizcaya) (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The construction sector plays a major role in the development of society. It wields enormous influence over economic activity, employment and growth rates. However, it also has a substantial impact on the natural environment, the effects of which are evident across the world. Over recent decades, pioneering initiatives have proposed environmentally friendly buildings and sustainable construction has centred on residential and office buildings. Nevertheless, further consideration still needs to be given to sustainability in many areas of industrial construction. Accordingly, an Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (MIVES) is presented in this article that applies a set of six study scopes to define the sustainability criteria of industrial buildings. The system uses a requirements tree to quantify sustainability at various hierarchical levels, in order to assess the behaviour of industrial buildings and compliance with the criteria. Assignment of value functions to the sustainability criteria is then described in the context of a case study of a printing works, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this model at unifying both qualitative and quantitative indicators, in order to arrive at a specific ''environmental sustainability index'' for the industrial building. (author)

  6. Permaculture: an alternative approach for environmental education in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Rangel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The term sustainability is important for the comprehension of how Environmental Education and practices of Permaculture can be used as tools of education. Permaculture is characterized as a system for planning and creation, in a harmonic manner, of productive, sustainable and ecologic environments. The goal of this paper is to evaluate permaculture’s practices efficiency as a tool of environmental education and mechanism of integration between the human being and the environment. The project was developed in a school of municipal education system located in the rural part of Ituiutaba, State of Minas Gerais, involving 40 people directly. Students and staff participated taking to school plants that are part of their everyday life, in other words, that have cultural value for their community. The integration between students, staff and the remaining residents was noticed mainly when everyone got involved in developing the vegetable garden, showing the aggregating potential through joint actions that such activities allow. The unity and estimation of one’s own living place bring the feeling of belonging and the improvement of ambiance, important aspects for the improvement of people’s, that live far from urban centers, life quality.

  7. Theoretical approach to the institutionalization of forms of governance resource provision of innovative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Asmolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy research due to the actualization of the role of knowledge and information. Management, its impact and the institutionalization of management resource provision designed to overcome the problems inherent in the present stage of development. An important research direction is to carry out theoretical analysis of economic resources in the context of their occurrence, development and improvement. This assertion has identified the need to consider the theoretical approach to the institutionalization of forms of resource management software innovation and analysis and typology of approaches by different parameters on the basis of analysis of a large number of sources. The features of the concept of institutionalization as defined phenomenon in a time perspective. In an analysis conducted by scientists used studies from different periods in the development of economic science. The analysis of numerous professional and scientific research led to the conclusion that knowledge and information should be dis-regarded as a new type of economic production factors. Separately, analyzed the impact of globalization processes that have affected the scientific and innovative sphere. Allocated to a separate study by side issues of innovative development of the Russian economy, which prevents the unresolved improve the competitiveness of the national economic and inhibits the formation of regional and national innovation system, restraining the transition to an innovative model of development. Citing as evidence of the deepening of economic globalization, the role of new information technologies and the formation of a single information space. Noting the fact that if the earlier science developed to deepen knowledge on the basis of the social division of Sciences, in the coming century should happen deepening of knowledge on the basis of their socialization.

  8. Approaches to studying environmental effects on resistance of Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Lorio

    1996-01-01

    There are a number of ways to approach the problem of assessing the effects of environmental conditions, such as water regime, on tree physiological responses and resistance to bark beetle attack.It helps to keep in mind that environmental factors operate throught physiological processes (Fig. 1, and Kramer 1986), and that there are concepts, such as plant growth-...

  9. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  10. Analytical strategic environmental assessment (ANSEA) developing a new approach to SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalkmann, Holger; Herrera, Rodrigo Jiliberto; Bongardt, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The objective of analytical strategic environmental assessment (ANSEA) is to provide a decision-centred approach to the SEA process. The ANSEA project evolved from the realisation that, in many cases, SEA, as currently practised, is not able to ensure an appropriate integration of environmental values. The focus of SEA is on predicting impacts, but the tool takes no account of the decision-making processes it is trying to influence. At strategic decision-making levels, in turn, it is often difficult to predict impacts with the necessary exactitude. The decision-making sciences could teach some valuable lessons here. Instead of focusing on the quantitative prediction of environmental consequences, the ANSEA approach concentrates on the integration of environmental objectives into decision-making processes. Thus, the ANSEA approach provides a framework for analysing and assessing the decision-making processes of policies, plans and programmes (PPP). To enhance environmental integration into the decision-making process, decision windows (DW) can be identified. The approach is designed to be objective and transparent to ensure that environmental considerations are taken into account, or--from an ex-post perspective--to allow an evaluation of how far environmental considerations have been integrated into the decision-making process under assessment. The paper describes the concepts and the framework of the ANSEA approach and discusses its relation to SEA and the EC Directive

  11. Tree agency and urban forest governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    governance also involving businesses and civic society. However, governance theory usually does not consider the role of non-human agency, which can be considered problematic due to, for example, the important role of urban trees in place making. The purpose of this paper is to provide further insight...... into the importance of considering tree agency in governance. Design/methodology/approach – Taking an environmental governance and actor network theory perspective, the paper presents a critical view of current urban forest governance, extending the perspective to include not only a wide range of human actors......, but also trees as important non-human actors. Findings – Urban forest governance has become more complex and involves a greater range of actors and actor networks. However, the agency of trees in urban forest governance is seldom well developed. Trees, in close association with local residents, create...

  12. Federal Government response to the September 12, 2000 environmental assessment report of the EUB-CEAA Joint Review Panel on the Cheviot Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The Federal Court noted four deficiencies in the joint EUB-CEAA environmental review dated September 12, 2000 for the Cheviot Coal Project. The Joint Review Panel reconvened to hear additional evidence about these deficiencies. This memorandum to cabinet comprises the Government of Canada's response to the additional evidence. Some of the Panel's recommendations are accepted. Comments are included regarding migratory birds, protection of traditional aboriginal sites, economic benefits, grizzly bears, and fish habitat.

  13. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  14. Strategic Issues Relating to Data Quality for E-Government: Learning from an Approach Adopted in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydens, Isabelle

    Data quality is a strategic matter in the context of e-government as the integration of services requires authentic, coherent, and reliable data. However, establishing databases that are devoid of duplication, redundancy, or ambiguity isn't simple either in theory or in practice. In the context of e-government, this problem has been neglected for too long, particularly because administrative databases have often been wrongly regarded as “simple.” We demonstrate in this chapter that this is not the case at all, in particular because of the questions of interpretation that they raise. This chapter is based on case studies stemming from the Belgian federal administration (social security, business directories, federal authentic sources, etc.). Contrary to the assertions of common theories postulating a permanent bijective relationship between data and the corresponding reality, we argue that an empirical information system evolves over time along with the interpretation of the values that it allows one to determine. To address data quality, we propose a temporal framework that provides new operational strategies to improve administrative data quality (mainly, new ways to define quality indicators for continuous monitoring and re-engineering strategies). We finally demonstrate how our approach is generally applicable in the context of empirical information systems.

  15. Can High-Tech Ventures Benefit from Government Guanxi and Business Guanxi? The Moderating Effects of Environmental Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejin Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of guanxi has become an interesting topic for analyzing how to do business more effectively and successfully in China’s economic transition period. Drawing on the guanxi strategy theory, this study examines when government guanxi (guanxi with the government and its officials and business guanxi (guanxi with the business sectors matter to new venture performance under two typical turbulent environments (institutional turbulence and market turbulence. According to empirical results using original data from 146 new ventures in clusters driven by China’s local governments, both government guanxi and business guanxi were positively related to new venture performance, and market turbulence was an important contextual factor influencing performance benefits of guanxi. However, the results reveal no moderating effects of institutional turbulence on direct relationships. Furthermore, the study provides a better conceptual and empirical understanding of why market turbulence is a double-edged sword for performance implications of guanxi in the rapidly changing business environment.

  16. The Adoption of Environmental Practices in Small Hotels. Voluntary or Mandatory? An Empirical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorenç Bagur-Femenias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines small hotels that have some type of environmental certification. A survey of 210 small (less than 50 employees Catalonian hotels was conducted to investigate whether there are significant differences in the results of the implementation practices between hotels that adopt these certifications due to environmental pressure (from the government, customers, suppliers and other stakeholders and hotels that voluntarily commit to green policies. Significant differences were identified in the results on the hotels when structural equation modelling (SEM was undertaken. This investigation suggests that hotels that voluntarily commit to green policies obtain better results than other hotels. The conclusion is that governments must not only regulate, but also promote awareness actions in small and medium-sized (SME tourism companies to improve the environment. SME tourism companies must understand that both the environment and they themselves will benefit.

  17. Environmental and ethical issues and waste management approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pronouncing the words ''radioactive waste'' can easily arouse mistrust, or even irrational fear, by wittingly or unwittingly referring to Hiroshima or Chernobyl, by exploiting the lax attitude to this type of waste in certain countries and by speculating on the complex issues involved, which are beyond the general public's grasp. It would be unacceptable to paint such a black picture of nuclear waste, just as it would be to keep glossing over the problems that it poses. Waste managers have a duty to convince scientists and politicians and public opinion in general, with arguments based on serious scientific research, that safe technical solutions do exist. But will this be enough? The general public of course knows very little about science. But people are prepared to put their trust in science provided that they are not subjected to a free for all between scientists from opposing camps attacking each other with unintelligible arguments. However, other types of reactions, more difficult to control, can be expected from some quarters of the general public. For instance, a reaction of instinctive and passionate mistrust has already emerged in different forms over the centuries, with its roots buried in ancestral culture and as such varying from region to region and country to country. Nuclear waste may also provide yet another opportunity to demonstrate opposition to something ostensibly being imposed by Central Government. The only solution here is for decisions to be worked out at grass roots level through a gradual process of wide consultation, with the necessary backing of elected local authorities. For these reasons, the process of setting up an underground laboratory possibly followed by radioactive waste storage has to be a gradual one, with thorough consultation at all levels at each stage under the constant supervision of ad hoc committees of scientific experts, each new step forward only being decided by the political authorities after completing the proper

  18. The need for an organized approach for Government Medical Insurance Programs in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F

    2005-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia has a disorganized approach to enrolling their retired faculty in Medicare Supplement Insurance Programs. An organized approach to establishing Medicare Supplemental Insurance for retired University faculty should include the following administrative changes to correct this potential health-care crisis for retired state faculty members. First, the ombudsman for human resources for the state universities must receive educational programs that prepare the retired faculty members over the age of 65 to select the corporate insurance policy from Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield Insurance Company. Included in this educational program should be a review of the Advantage 65 Member Handbook. Second, they must point out to the faculty member that they are receiving a CORPORATE insurance policy rather than an individual insurance policy from Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield Insurance Company. They must provide the telephone numbers of the Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield offices in Roanoke, Virginia. Concomitantly, they must send the name and address of the faculty member to the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Human Resource Management. They should inform the faculty member that the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Human Resource Management will be sending them newsletters that outline any changes in the corporate insurance policy that they coordinate with the Anthem Blue Cross/Blue Shield Insurance Company. The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Human Resource Management must take on some new responsibilities in their efforts to coordinate health-care coverage of the retired faculty over the age of 65. First, they must have a computer registry of all corporate health-care policies of the individual faculty members to ensure that newsletters are being sent to them. Ideally, this agency should have a computerized system that allows it to send out its newsletter update by email to those retired faculty members who have computers. They should

  19. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.; Pathak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  20. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A.; Kay, D.

    1996-03-01

    President Clinton's Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations