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Sample records for environmental enrichment reduces

  1. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment.

  2. Environmental enrichment and exercise are better than social enrichment to reduce memory deficits in amyloid beta neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Lima, Mariza G; Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Daré, Letícia R; Carpes, Felipe P; Izquierdo, Ivan; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2018-03-06

    Recently, nongenetic animal models to study the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have appeared, such as the intrahippocampal infusion of peptides present in Alzheimer amyloid plaques [i.e., amyloid-β (Aβ)]. Nonpharmacological approaches to AD treatment also have been advanced recently, which involve combinations of behavioral interventions whose specific effects are often difficult to determine. Here we isolate the neuroprotective effects of three of these interventions-environmental enrichment (EE), anaerobic physical exercise (AnPE), and social enrichment (SE)-on Aβ-induced oxidative stress and on impairments in learning and memory induced by Aβ. Wistar rats were submitted to 8 wk of EE, AnPE, or SE, followed by Aβ infusion in the dorsal hippocampus. Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition (OR) and social recognition (SR) were evaluated. Biochemical assays determined hippocampal oxidative status: reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) test, and total antioxidant capacity by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), as well as acetylcholinesterase activity. Aβ infusion resulted in memory deficits and hippocampal oxidative damage. EE and AnPE prevented all memory deficits (STM and LTM of OR and SR) and lipid peroxidation (i.e., TBARS). SE prevented only the SR memory deficits and the decrease of total antioxidant capacity decrease (i.e., FRAP). Traditionally, findings obtained with EE protocols do not allow discrimination of the roles of the three individual factors involved. Here we demonstrate that EE and physical exercise have better neuroprotective effects than SE in memory deficits related to Aβ neurotoxicity in the AD model tested.

  3. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT STRENGTHENS CORTICOCORTICAL INTERACTIONS AND REDUCES AMYLOID-β OLIGOMERS IN AGED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMainardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE, a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes.

  6. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental enrichment reduces innate anxiety with no effect on depression-like behaviour in mice lacking the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Li, Shanshan; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-08-14

    Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of environmental enrichment on affective-like behaviours and sensorimotor gating function of 5-HTT knock-out (KO) mice. Using the elevated-plus maze and the light-dark box, we found that environmental enrichment ameliorated the abnormal innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice on both tests. In contrast, environmental enrichment did not rescue the depression-like behaviour displayed by 5-HTT KO mice in the forced-swim test. Finally, measuring pre-pulse inhibition, we found no effect of genotype or treatment on sensorimotor gating. In conclusion, our data suggest that environmental enrichment specifically reduces innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice with no amelioration of the depression-like behaviour. This has implications for the current use of clinical interventions for patients with symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...... chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw (“point-source enrichment”), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges (“complex enriched environments”). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably...

  9. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  10. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S

    2018-02-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The reduced enrichment program for JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No. 4(JRR-4) with the rated power of 3.5 MW, swimming pool type research reactor, 93 % enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used, light water moderated and cooled. The first criticality reached on 28th January, 1965. The reactor has operated for about 26 years. However, it was planed to the reduced enrichment of the fuels to low enrichment according to the International Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This paper describes the program for conversion of the enrichment of fuel from 93 % to less than 20 %. (author)

  13. No evidence that environmental enrichment during rearing protects against cocaine behavioral effects but as an intervention reduces an already established cocaine conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaj, E; Shukur, A; Manuszak, M; Newman, K; Ranaldi, R

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether the timing of EE exposure - during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determining factor. In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP. In Experiment 2, locomotor activity in response to repeated injections of saline or cocaine was measured in rats raised with EE or non-EE. In Experiment 3 we measured the effects of EE or non-EE during rearing on food-based conditioned approach learning. In Experiment 4, rats were exposed to cocaine CPP conditioning then underwent 60days of EE or non-EE treatment after which they were tested for cocaine CPP. Our results show that rearing in EE did not reduce cocaine CPP or cocaine-induced locomotor activity (Experiments 1 and 2) but significantly facilitated conditioned approach learning (Experiment 3). On the other hand, EE treatment introduced after cocaine conditioning significantly reduced the expression of cocaine CPP (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that EE does not protect against cocaine's rewarding and stimulant effects but can reduce already established cocaine effects, suggesting that EE might be an effective treatment for cocaine addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comments on applications of reduced enrichment fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Full text: I will briefly describe the experience gained using different fuels in the SAPHIR reactor in Switzerland. The SAPHIR has been operating since 1957 and was the first swimming pool reactor built outside of the United States, which was originally known as the Geneva Conference Reactor. The first core was loaded with 20 percent enriched high density UO 2 fuel with a density of about 2.5 grams per cc, fabricated in 1955 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After a few years of operation at a power level of one MW, more than one batch of the elements released small amounts of fission products mainly Xe and Kr. When these releases were discovered, high enriched fuel was becoming available so that the fuel fabricators began to produce the lower density high enriched fuels. During this transition from fabrication of low to high enriched fuels no one could foresee that the stone age of nuclear fuel fabrication would come back again. Therefore, we did not investigate the reasons for the fission product release from the high density low enriched UO 2 fuel. The second fuel type used in the SAPHIR was the 90 percent enriched low density U 3 O 8 fuel fabricated by NUKEM. This high enriched fuel has performed satisfactorily over the years. Since 1968, the core has been using improved 23 plate fuel elements with a loading of 280 grams of uranium. The reactor power has been recently increased to five MW. An additional increase in the power level to 10 MW is planned at the end of next year so that heavier loaded elements will be needed. In order to follow the recommendations of the INFCE working group 8C and in cooperation with the reduced enrichment program, we intend to initially reduce the fuel enrichment to 45 percent. Last year we ordered five fuel elements with a loading of 320 grams 235 U/element and 45 percent enrichment for full power tests. Unfortunately, the delivery of the necessary enriched fuel uranium has been delayed and it is not available at this time. If

  16. Reducing enrichment of fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Matsuura, Shojiro.

    1980-01-01

    In research reactors, highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used as fuel for their purposes of operation. However, the United States strongly required in 1977 that these HEU should be replaced by low enrichment uranium (LEU) of 20% or less, or even in unavoidable cases, it should be replaced by medium enrichment uranium (MEU). INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation) which started its activity just at that time decided to discuss this problem in the research reactor group of No. 8 sectional committee. Japan has been able to forward the work, taking a leading part in the international opinion because she has taken the countermeasures quickly. INFCE investigated the problem along the lines of policy that the possibility of reducing the degree of enrichment should be limited to the degree in which the core structures and equipments of research reactors will be modified as little as possible, and the change of fuel element geometry will be done within the permissible thermohydrodynamic capacity, and concluded that it might be possible in near future to reduce the degree of enrichment to about 45% MEU, while the reduction to 20% LEU might require considerable research, development and verification. On the other hand, the joint researches by Kyoto University and ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) and by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and ANL are being continued. IAEA has edited the guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-233) for reducing the degree of enrichment for developing countries. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Riber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene, or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places, cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems. However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production system. In addition, information on practical use and the economics of the production system is often lacking although it is important for application in practice.

  19. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types...... of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements...... in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene), or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms...

  20. Toward a predictive theory for environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jason V

    2009-11-01

    There have been many applications of and successes with environmental enrichment for captive animals. The theoretical spine upon which much enrichment work hangs largely describes why enrichment should work. Yet, there remains no clear understanding of how enrichment should be applied to achieve the most beneficial results. This lack of understanding may stem in part from the assumptions that underlie the application of enrichment by practitioners. These assumptions are derived from an understanding that giving animals choice and control in their environment stimulates their motivation to perform behaviors that may indicate a heightened state of well-being. Learning theory provides a means to question the manner in which these constructs are routinely applied, and converting learning theory's findings to optimality predictions suggests a particularly vexing paradox-that motivation to perform appears to be maintained best when acquiring a payoff for expressing the behavior is uncertain. This effect occurs even when the actual value of the payoff is the same for all schedules of certainty of payoff acquisition. The paradox can be resolved by invoking rewards of an alternative type, such as cognitive rewards, or through an understanding of how the average payoff changes with changes in the probability of reward. This model, with measures of the average change of the payoff, suggests testable scenarios by which practitioners can measure the quality of environmental uncertainty in enrichment programs.

  1. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior

  2. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  4. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented.

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwanazi, Mbusiseni Vusumuzi; Ncobela, Cyprial Ndumiso; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Chimonyo, Michael

    2017-06-26

    The aim of this paper is to critically analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning the use of environmental enrichment and its effect on behaviour, physiology and performance of pigs housed in intensive production systems. The objective is also to provide clarity as to what constitute successful enrichment and recommend on when and how enrichment should be used. Environmental enrichment is usually understood as an attempt to improve animal welfare and to lesser extent, performance. Common enrichment objects used are straw bedding, suspended rope and wood shavings, toys, rubber tubing, coloured plastic keys, table tennis balls, chains and strings. These substrates need to be chewable, deformable, destructible and ingestible. For enrichment to be successful four goals are the prerequisite. Firstly, enrichment should increase the number and range of normal behaviours (2) prevent the phenomenon of anomalous behaviours or reduce their frequency (3) increase positive use of the environment such as space and (4) increase the ability of the animals to deal with behavioural and physiological challenges. The performance, behaviour and physiology of pigs in enriched environments is similar or in some cases slightly better when compared with barren environments. In studies where there was no improvement, it should be born in mind that enriching the environment may not always be practical and yield positive results due to factors such as type of enrichment substrates, duration of provision and type of enrichment used. The review also identifies possible areas which still need further research, especially in understanding the role of enrichment, novelty, breed differences and other enrichment alternatives.

  7. Expansion of U. S. uranium enrichment capacity. Final environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic, and technological costs and benefits of postulated expansion of U. S. enrichment capacity through the year 2000 and reasonably available alternatives to such expansion are described. Both the gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion methods for the enrichment of uranium are considered in this impact assessment. (JGB)

  8. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF 6 gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques

  9. Environmental enrichment imparts disease-modifying and transgenerational effects on genetically-determined epilepsy and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezsi, Gabi; Ozturk, Ezgi; Salzberg, Michael R; Morris, Margaret; O'Brien, Terence J; Jones, Nigel C

    2016-09-01

    The absence epilepsies are presumed to be caused by genetic factors, but the influence of environmental exposures on epilepsy development and severity, and whether this influence is transmitted to subsequent generations, is not well known. We assessed the effects of environmental enrichment on epilepsy and anxiety outcomes in multiple generations of GAERS - a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy that manifests comorbid elevated anxiety-like behaviour. GAERS were exposed to environmental enrichment or standard housing beginning either prior to, or after epilepsy onset, and underwent EEG recordings and anxiety testing. Then, we exposed male GAERS to early enrichment or standard housing and generated F1 progeny, which also underwent EEG recordings. Hippocampal CRH mRNA expression and DNA methylation were assessed using RT-PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively. Early environmental enrichment delayed the onset of epilepsy in GAERS, and resulted in fewer seizures in adulthood, compared with standard housed GAERS. Enrichment also reduced the frequency of seizures when initiated in adulthood. Anxiety levels were reduced by enrichment, and these anti-epileptogenic and anxiolytic effects were heritable into the next generation. We also found reduced expression of CRH mRNA in GAERS exposed to enrichment, but this was not due to changes in DNA methylation. Environmental enrichment produces disease-modifying effects on genetically determined absence epilepsy and anxiety, and these beneficial effects are transferable to the subsequent generation. Reduced CRH expression was associated with these phenotypic improvements. Environmental stimulation holds promise as a naturalistic therapy for genetically determined epilepsy which may benefit subsequent generations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris oe National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  11. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Small exotic companion mammal wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Wellness management and environmental enrichment are important components of preventative veterinary medical care. Small exotic mammals represent a diverse group of pets with widely varying types of care, diet, and husbandry considerations; thus, environmental enrichment must go beyond the cage or tank design in order to provide proper mental fitness in meeting any pet's psychological needs. Addressing the pet's environmental, dietary, exercise, and social needs is vital to keeping these animals healthier and more disease resistant. The key to accomplishing this is largely impacted by the annual or biannual veterinary wellness visit and a commitment from the pet's owner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The international effort to develop new research reactor fuel materials and designs based on the use of low-enriched uranium, instead of highly-enriched uranium, has made much progress during the eight years since its inception. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialist in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the ninth of a series which began in 1978. All previous meetings of this series are listed on the facing page. The focus of this meeting was on the LEU fuel demonstration which was in progress at the Oak Ridge Research (ORR) reactor, not far from where the meeting was held. The visit to the ORR, where a silicide LEU fuel with 4.8 g A/cm 3 was by then in routine use, illustrated how far work has progressed

  14. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The international effort to develop new research reactor fuel materials and designs based on the use of low-enriched uranium, instead of highly-enriched uranium, has made much progress during the eight years since its inception. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialist in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the ninth of a series which began in 1978. All previous meetings of this series are listed on the facing page. The focus of this meeting was on the LEU fuel demonstration which was in progress at the Oak Ridge Research (ORR) reactor, not far from where the meeting was held. The visit to the ORR, where a silicide LEU fuel with 4.8 g A/cm/sup 3/ was by then in routine use, illustrated how far work has progressed.

  15. Reduced enrichment program for the FRM-II, status 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrmoser, A.; Petry, W.; Boening, K; Wieschalla, N.

    2005-01-01

    The new research reactor FRM-II of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) has been designed to provide a maximal thermal neutron flux at mere 20 MW power. The single element design uses silicide fuel of densities 3.0 and 1.5 g/cm 3 of highly enriched uranium (HEU, 93 % U-235). With the nuclear license, that was granted in May 2003, a condition was imposed to reduce the enrichment of FRM-II to medium enriched uranium (MEU) with not more than 50 % U-235 until the end of the year 2010. The TUM has established an international working group to meet this target. This paper presents the backgrounds and the results and plannings for the first of three 2 1/2 year periods to reach the conversion in time. (author)

  16. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experience with environmental sampling at gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenstam, G. af; Bush, W.; Janov, J.; Kuhn, E.; Ryjinski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental sampling has been used routinely by the IAEA since 1996 after the IAEA Board of Governors approved it in March 1995 as a new technique to strengthen safeguards and improve efficiency. In enrichment plants it is used to confirm that there has been no production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), or production of uranium at above the declared enrichment. The use of environmental sampling is based on the assumption that every process, no matter how leak tight, will release small amounts of process material to the environment. Even though these releases of nuclear material are extremely small in gas centrifuge enrichment plants, and well below levels of concern from a health physics and safety standpoint, they are detectable and their analysis provides an indication of the enrichment of the material that has been processed in the plant. The environmental samples at enrichment plants are collected by swiping selected areas of the plant with squares of cotton cloth (10x10 cm) from sampling kits prepared in ultra clean condition. The squares of cotton cloth sealed in plastic bags are sent for analysis to the Network Analytical Laboratories. The analysis includes the measurement of the uranium isotopic composition in uranium-containing particles by Thermal lonization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS) or Secondary ION Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Since the implementation of environmental sampling, swipes have been collected from 240 sampling points at three gas centrifuge plants of URENCO, which have a total throughput of more than 8,000 tonnes of uranium per year. The particle analysis results generally reflected the known operational history of the plants and confirmed that they had only been operated to produce uranium with enrichment less than 5% 235 U. The information about the content of the minor isotopes 234 U and 236 U also indicates that depleted and recycled uranium were sometimes used as feed materials in some plants. An example is given of the TIMS particle

  18. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, S.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Santymire, R.M.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  19. RERTR program progress in qualifying reduced-enrichment fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, James L.

    1983-01-01

    In order to provide the technical means for reducing the enrichment of uranium used to fuel research and test reactors, the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program has been engaged in the development and testing of higher-uranium-density fuels than had been used previously. This fuel development effort included work to increase the density of fuels which were being used at the time the Program began and work on a fuel with the potential for much higher density. The ultimate goal of the fuel development and testing phase of the Program is to 'qualify' the fuel for use. A fuel is considered qualified when a sufficient data base for the fuel exists that it can be approved by regulating bodies for use in reactors. To convert a core to the use of reduced-enrichment fuel it is necessary to show that the core will behave properly during normal and off-normal operating conditions and to show that the fuel will behave properly to a reasonable margin beyond the conditions expected during normal operation. It is this latter area that this paper will address. The main characteristics to be considered in evaluating the performance of a fuel are its swelling, its blister-threshold temperature, and its metallurgical appearance. Data for the qualification of the reduced-enrichment fuels being developed by the RERTR Program are obtained from examination of miniature fuel plates (miniplates) which successfully pass the irradiation screening tests and from examinations of full-sized fuel elements. This paper will summarize the miniplate data reported in other papers presented during this meeting and will give the status of full-sized element irradiations. Finally, the current status of qualification of the various fuel types will be discussed and some projections of the future will be given

  20. Divide and conquer: enriching environmental sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bergeron

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In environmental sequencing projects, a mix of DNA from a whole microbial community is fragmented and sequenced, with one of the possible goals being to reconstruct partial or complete genomes of members of the community. In communities with high diversity of species, a significant proportion of the sequences do not overlap any other fragment in the sample. This problem will arise not only in situations with a relatively even distribution of many species, but also when the community in a particular environment is routinely dominated by the same few species. In the former case, no genomes may be assembled at all, while in the latter case a few dominant species in an environment will always be sequenced at high coverage to the detriment of coverage of the greater number of sparse species.Here we show that, with the same global sequencing effort, separating the species into two or more sub-communities prior to sequencing can yield a much higher proportion of sequences that can be assembled. We first use the Lander-Waterman model to show that, if the expected percentage of singleton sequences is higher than 25%, then, under the uniform distribution hypothesis, splitting the community is always a wise choice. We then construct simulated microbial communities to show that the results hold for highly non-uniform distributions. We also show that, for the distributions considered in the experiments, it is possible to estimate quite accurately the relative diversity of the two sub-communities.Given the fact that several methods exist to split microbial communities based on physical properties such as size, density, surface biochemistry, or optical properties, we strongly suggest that groups involved in environmental sequencing, and expecting high diversity, consider splitting their communities in order to maximize the information content of their sequencing effort.

  1. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Deficits after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xixia; Qiu, Jianhua; Alcon, Sasha; Hashim, Jumana; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah

    2017-08-15

    Although environmental enrichment has been shown to improve functional and histologic outcomes in pre-clinical moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), there are a paucity of pre-clinical data regarding enrichment strategies in the setting of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI). Given the vast numbers of athletes and those in the military who sustain rmTBI, the mounting evidence of the long-term and progressive sequelae of rmTBI, and the lack of targeted therapies to mitigate these sequelae, successful enrichment interventions in rmTBI could have large public health significance. Here, we evaluated enrichment strategies in an established pre-clinical rmTBI model. Seventy-one male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to two different housing conditions, environmental enrichment (EE) or normal condition (NC), then subjected to rmTBI injury (seven injuries in 9 days) or sham injury (anesthesia only). Functional outcomes in all four groups (NC-TBI, EE-TBI, NC-sham, and EE-sham) were assessed by motor, exploratory/anxiety, and mnemonic behavioral tests. At the synaptic level, N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit expression of phosphorylated glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and calpain were evaluated by western blot. Compared to injured NC-TBI mice, EE-TBI mice had improved memory and decreased anxiety and exploratory activity post-injury. Treatment with enrichment also corresponded to normal NMDAR subunit expression, decreased GluR1 phosphorylation, decreased phosphorylated CaMKII, and normal calpain expression post-rmTBI. These data suggest that enrichment strategies may improve functional outcomes and mitigate synaptic changes post-rmTBI. Given that enrichment strategies are feasible in the clinical setting, particularly for athletes and soldiers for whom the risk of repetitive injury is greatest, these data suggest that clinical trials may be warranted.

  2. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results and new developments which ocurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40 % average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission 99 Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of U.S. university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U 3 Si-Al with 19.75 % enrichment and U 3 Si 2 -Al with 45 % enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR program. (Author)

  3. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    November 9--10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event--the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and it established the basis for all later meetings. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort. This report provides presentations and discussions of this original meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    November 9--10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event--the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and it established the basis for all later meetings. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort. This report provides presentations and discussions of this original meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  5. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, Anja B.; Jong, de Ingrid; Weerd, van de Heleen A.; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (PUEC), conducted August 4 through August 15, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team specialists are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at PUEC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the PUEC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the PUEC Survey. 55 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs

  7. Status of reduced enrichment program for research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaieda, Keisuke; Baba, Osamu; Nagaoka, Yoshiharu; Kanda, Keiji; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    1999-01-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-3M, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have been completed. The KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) has been partially completed and is still in progress under the Joint Study Program with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JRR-3M commenced using LEU silicide fuel elements instead of LEU aluminide fuel elements in September, 1999. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU fuel in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until March 2004, then the full core conversion with LEU silicide will be done. The first shipment of spent fuels since 1974 was done in August, 1999. (author)

  8. Disposition of surplus highly enriched uranium: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts at four potential sites that may result from alternatives for the disposition of United States-origin weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU) that has been or may be declared surplus to national defense or defense-related program needs. In addition to the no action alternative, it assesses four alternatives that would eliminate the weapons-usability of HEU by blending it with depleted uranium, natural uranium, or low-enriched uranium (LEU) to create low-enriched uranium, either as commercial reactor fuel feedstock or as low-level radioactive waste. The potential blending sites are DOE's Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; DOE's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina; the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Naval Nuclear Fuel Division Facility in Lynchburg, Virginia; and the Nuclear Fuel Services Fuel Fabrication Plant in Erwin, Tennessee. Evaluations of impacts on site infrastructure, water resources, air quality and noise, socioeconomic resources, waste management, public and occupational health, and environmental justice for the potential blending sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed. The preferred alternative is to blend down surplus HEU to LEU for maximum commercial use as reactor fuel feed which would likely be done at a combination of DOE and commercial sites

  9. Environmental Enrichment Therapy for Autism: Outcomes with Increased Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Aronoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors. The children of compliant caregivers were more likely to experience a significant improvement in their symptoms. The treatment was effective across a wide age range and there was equal progress reported for males and females, for USA and international subjects, for those who paid and those who did not pay for the therapy, and for individuals at all levels of initial symptom severity. Environmental enrichment, delivered via an online system, therefore appears to be an effective, low-cost means of treating the symptoms of ASD.

  10. Two-stage electrolysis to enrich tritium in environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Nagayoshi; Muranaka, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-stage electrolyzing procedure to enrich tritium in environmental waters. Tritium is first enriched rapidly through a commercially-available electrolyser with a large 50A current, and then through a newly-designed electrolyser that avoids the memory effect, with a 6A current. Tritium recovery factor obtained by such a two-stage electrolysis was greater than that obtained when using the commercially-available device solely. Water samples collected in 2006 in lakes and along the Pacific coast of Aomori prefecture, Japan, were electrolyzed using the two-stage method. Tritium concentrations in these samples ranged from 0.2 to 0.9 Bq/L and were half or less, that in samples collected at the same sites in 1992. (author)

  11. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 76 FR 9054 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the AREVA Enrichment Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Statement for the AREVA Enrichment Services LLC Proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County... published the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the AREVA Enrichment Services LLC (AES) Proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF). On December 30, 2008, AES submitted a license application...

  13. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE.

  14. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki; Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo

    1997-01-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE

  15. Environmental enrichment ameliorates depressive-like symptoms in young rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S Helene; Zeuch, Benjamin; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of major depression is known to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In the current study, we therefore set out to investigate depressive-like behavior and its modification by environmental enrichment using rats bred for 'learned helplessness'. 45 males of congenitally helpless (cLH, n=22) and non-helpless (cNLH, n=23) rats of two different generations were used to systematically investigate differential effects of environmental enrichment on learned helpless behavior, anhedonic-like behavior (sweetened condensed milk consumption) and spontaneous behavior in the home cage. While enrichment was found to reduce learned helpless behavior in 14 weeks old, but not 28 weeks old cLH rats, it did not affect the consumption of sweetened condensed milk. Regarding the home cage behavior, no consistent changes between rats of different strains, housing conditions, and ages were observed. We could thus demonstrate that a genetic predisposition for learned helplessness may interact with environmental conditions in mediating some, but not all depressive-like symptoms in congenitally learned helpless rats. However, future efforts are needed to isolate the differential benefits of environmental factors in mediating the different depression-related symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  17. Influence of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of mice infected by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Maria Moreira da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Enriched environments normally increase behavioral repertoires and diminish the expression of abnormal behaviors and stress-related physiological problems in animals. Although it has been shown that experimental animals infected with microorganisms can modify their behaviors and physiology, few studies have evaluated how environmental enrichment affects these parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of confined mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: The behaviors of 20 T. cruzi-infected mice and 20 non-infected mice were recorded during three treatments: baseline, enrichment, and post-enrichment. Behavioral data were collected using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every 30s, totaling 360h. Plasma TNF, CCL2, and IL-10 levels and parasitemia were also evaluated in infected enriched/non-enriched mice. Behavioral data were evaluated by Friedman’s test and physiological data by one-way ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors and diminished inactivity. The use of environmental enrichment did not diminish circulating levels of TNF and IL-10 but diminished circulating levels of CCL2 and parasitemia. CONCLUSIONS: Positive behavioral and physiological effects of environmental enrichment were observed in mice living in enriched cages. Thus, environmental enrichment improved the welfare of these animals.

  18. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of the Valanginian environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous, ˜137-132 Ma) recorded an episode of pronounced palaeoenvironmental change, which is marked by a globally recorded positive δ13C excursion of 1.5 to 2‰ amplitude, also known as the "Weissert event or episode". Its onset near the early/late Valanginian boundary (B. campylotoxus-S. verrucosum ammonite Zones) coincides with a phase of warmer climate conditions associated with enhanced humidity, major changes in the evolution of marine plankton, and the drowning of tropical and subtropical marine shallow-water carbonate ecosystems. The globally recorded excursion indicates important transformations in the carbon cycle, which have tentatively been associated with Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) volcanic activity. Incertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental change. Since very recently, mercury (Hg) chemostratigraphy offers the possibly to evaluate the role of LIP activity during major palaeoenvironmental perturbations. In this study we investigate the distribution of Hg contents in four Valanginian reference sections located in pelagic and hemipelagic environments in the Central Tethyan Realm (Lombardian Basin, Breggia section), the northern Tethyan margin (Vocontian Basin, Orpierre and Angles sections), and the narrow seaway connecting the Tethyan and Boreal Oceans (Polish Basin, Wawal core). All records show an enrichment in Hg concentrations at or near the onset of the Weissert Episode, with maximal values of 70.5 ppb at Angles, 59.5 ppb at Orpierre, 69.9 ppb at Wawal, and 17.0 ppb at Breggia. The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC and Hg/phyllosilicate ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals only played a limited role.We propose that volcanic outgassing was the primary source of the Hg enrichment and conclude that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental

  19. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately.

  20. Proceedings of the 1988 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The international effort to develop and implement new research reactor fuels utilizing low-enriched uranium, instead of highly- enriched uranium, continues to make solid progress. This effort is the cornerstone of a widely shared policy aimed at reducing, and possibly eliminating, international traffic in highly-enriched uranium and the nuclear weapon proliferation concerns associated with this traffic. To foster direct communication and exchange of ideas among the specialists in this area, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the eleventh of a series which began 1978. Individual papers presented at the meeting have been cataloged separately

  1. Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA): Dimensionally Reduced Multivariate Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Neil R; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D; Jones, Matthew R; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2015-11-01

    Gene set analysis of differential expression, which identifies collectively differentially expressed gene sets, has become an important tool for biology. The power of this approach lies in its reduction of the dimensionality of the statistical problem and its incorporation of biological interpretation by construction. Many approaches to gene set analysis have been proposed, but benchmarking their performance in the setting of real biological data is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. In a previously published work we proposed a geometrical approach to differential expression which performed highly in benchmarking tests and compared well to the most popular methods of differential gene expression. As reported, this approach has a natural extension to gene set analysis which we call Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA). PAEA employs dimensionality reduction and a multivariate approach for gene set enrichment analysis. However, the performance of this method has not been assessed nor its implementation as a web-based tool. Here we describe new benchmarking protocols for gene set analysis methods and find that PAEA performs highly. The PAEA method is implemented as a user-friendly web-based tool, which contains 70 gene set libraries and is freely available to the community.

  2. Environmental enrichment normalizes hippocampal timing coding in a malformed hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Hernan

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental insults leading to malformations of cortical development (MCD are a common cause of psychiatric disorders, learning impairments and epilepsy. In the methylazoxymethanol (MAM model of MCDs, animals have impairments in spatial cognition that, remarkably, are improved by post-weaning environmental enrichment (EE. To establish how EE impacts network-level mechanisms of spatial cognition, hippocampal in vivo single unit recordings were performed in freely moving animals in an open arena. We took a generalized linear modeling approach to extract fine spike timing (FST characteristics and related these to place cell fidelity used as a surrogate of spatial cognition. We find that MAM disrupts FST and place-modulated rate coding in hippocampal CA1 and that EE improves many FST parameters towards normal. Moreover, FST parameters predict spatial coherence of neurons, suggesting that mechanisms determining altered FST are responsible for impaired cognition in MCDs. This suggests that FST parameters could represent a therapeutic target to improve cognition even in the context of a brain that develops with a structural abnormality.

  3. Assessment of the use of two commercially available environmental enrichments by laboratory mice by preference testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, P.L. van; Blom, H.J.; Meijer, M.K.; Baumans, V.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of biomedical research, the demand for standardization of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is growing. For laboratory mice, a wide variety of environmental enrichment items are commercially available. Most of these comply with the demands for standardization, hygiene and

  4. Environmental enrichment mitigates the impact of ancestral stress on motor skill and corticospinal tract plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Erickson, Zachary T; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-10-06

    An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats. The study examined F3 offspring generated by three lineages; one with prenatal stress only in the F1 generation, one with compounding effects of multigenerational prenatal stress, and a non-stress control lineage. F3 offspring from each lineage were injected with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the motor cortex for anterograde tracing of the CST. Examination of the CST revealed reduced axonal density in the ancestrally stressed lineages. These anatomical changes were associated with significant impairments in skilled walking, as indicated by reduced foot placement accuracy and disturbed inter-limb coordination. Therapeutic intervention by environmental enrichment reduced the neuromorphological consequences of ancestral stress and restored skilled walking ability. The data suggest a causal relationship between stress-induced abnormal CST function and loss of fine motor performance. Thus, ancestral stress may be a determinant of motor system development and motor skill. Environmental enrichment may represent an effective intervention for the adverse programming by ancestral stress and trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation in the brain through environmental enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Gaurav; Jaehne, Emily J.; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on environmental enrichment (EE) have shown cytokines, cellular immune components [e.g., T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells], and glial cells in causal relationship to EE in bringing out changes to neurobiology and behavior. The purpose of this review is to evaluate these neuroimmune mechanisms associated with neurobiological and behavioral changes in response to different EE methods. We systematically reviewed common research databases. After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 328 articles remained for this review. Physical exercise (PE), a form of EE, elicits anti-inflammatory and neuromodulatory effects through interaction with several immune pathways including interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from muscle fibers, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors on monocytes and macrophages, reduced secretion of adipokines, modulation of hippocampal T cells, priming of microglia, and upregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in central nervous system. In contrast, immunomodulatory roles of other enrichment methods are not studied extensively. Nonetheless, studies showing reduction in the expression of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to enrichment with novel objects and accessories suggest anti-inflammatory effects of novel environment. Likewise, social enrichment, though considered a necessity for healthy behavior, results in immunosuppression in socially defeated animals. This has been attributed to reduction in T lymphocytes, NK cells and IL-10 in subordinate animals. EE through sensory stimuli has been investigated to a lesser extent and the effect on immune factors has not been evaluated yet. Discovery of this multidimensional relationship between immune system, brain functioning, and EE has paved a way toward formulating environ-immuno therapies for treating psychiatric illnesses with minimal use of pharmacotherapy. While the immunomodulatory role of PE has been evaluated extensively, more research

  6. Effect of reduced enrichment on the fuel cycle for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new fuels developed by the RERTR Program and by other international programs for application in research reactors with reduced uranium enrichment (<20% EU) are discussed. It is shown that these fuels, combined with proper fuel-element design and fuel-management strategies, can provide at least the same core residence time as high-enrichment fuels in current use, and can frequently significantly extend it. The effect of enrichment reduction on other components of the research reactor fuel cycle, such as uranium and enrichment requirements, fuel fabrication, fuel shipment, and reprocessing are also briefly discussed with their economic implications. From a systematic comparison of HEU and LEU cores for the same reference research reactor, it is concluded that the new fuels have a potential for reducing the research reactor fuel cycle costs while reducing, at the same time, the uranium enrichment of the fuel

  7. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barichello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood. EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.

  8. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered.

  9. Early Environmental Enrichment Enhances Abnormal Brain Connectivity in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Brito, Verónica; Pla, Laura; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Batallé, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Crispi, Fatima; Udina, Esther; Figueras, Francesc; Ginés, Silvia; Gratacós, Eduard

    2017-10-12

    The structural correspondence of neurodevelopmental impairments related to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that persists later in life remains elusive. Moreover, early postnatal stimulation strategies have been proposed to mitigate these effects. Long-term brain connectivity abnormalities in an IUGR rabbit model and the effects of early postnatal environmental enrichment (EE) were explored. IUGR was surgically induced in one horn, whereas the contralateral one produced the controls. Postnatally, a subgroup of IUGR animals was housed in an enriched environment. Functional assessment was performed at the neonatal and long-term periods. At the long-term period, structural brain connectivity was evaluated by means of diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and by histological assessment focused on the hippocampus. IUGR animals displayed poorer functional results and presented altered whole-brain networks and decreased median fractional anisotropy in the hippocampus. Reduced density of dendritic spines and perineuronal nets from hippocampal neurons were also observed. Of note, IUGR animals exposed to enriched environment presented an improvement in terms of both function and structure. IUGR is associated with altered brain connectivity at the global and cellular level. A strategy based on early EE has the potential to restore the neurodevelopmental consequences of IUGR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Environmental Enrichment Ameliorates Behavioral Impairments Modeling Schizophrenia in Mice Lacking Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Emma L; McOmish, Caitlin E; Buret, Laetitia S; Van den Buuse, Maarten; Hannan, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia arises from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Abnormalities in glutamatergic signaling have been proposed to underlie the emergence of symptoms, in light of various lines of evidence, including the psychotomimetic effects of NMDA receptor antagonists. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has also been implicated in the disorder, and has been shown to physically interact with NMDA receptors. To clarify the role of mGlu5-dependent behavioral expression by environmental factors, we assessed mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice after exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) or reared under standard conditions. The mGlu5 KO mice showed reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI), long-term memory deficits, and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity, which were all attenuated by EE. Examining the cellular impact of genetic and environmental manipulation, we show that EE significantly increased pyramidal cell dendritic branching and BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus of wild-type mice; however, mGlu5 KO mice were resistant to these alterations, suggesting that mGlu5 is critical to these responses. A selective effect of EE on the behavioral response to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in mGlu5 KO mice was seen. MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion was further potentiated in enriched mGlu5 KO mice and treatment with MK-801 reinstated PPI disruption in EE mGlu5 KO mice only, a response that is absent under standard housing conditions. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for mGlu5 in environmental modulation of schizophrenia-related behavioral impairments. Furthermore, this role of the mGlu5 receptor is mediated by interaction with NMDA receptor function, which may inform development of novel therapeutics.

  11. Behavioral and physiologic responses to environmental enrichment in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Dawn; Brown, Janine L; Rodden, Melissa D; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2007-09-01

    The ex situ population of maned wolves is not self-sustaining due to poor reproduction, caused primarily by parental incompetence. Studies have shown that environmental enrichment can promote natural parental behaviors in zoo animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral and physiological responses of maned wolves. During an 8-week experimental period, daily behavior observations and fecal sample collection were conducted on four adult wolves (2.2) individually housed in environments without enrichment. After 2 weeks, the wolves were chronologically provided with 2-week intervals of hiding dead mice around the exhibit, no enrichment, and introduction of boomer balls. Responses of the wolves to enrichment were assessed based on activity levels and exploratory rates, as well as the level of corticoid metabolites in fecal samples collected daily throughout the study period. Providing wolves with environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors (Pmaned wolves. There is evidence suggesting that providing animals with ability to forage for food is a more effective enrichment strategy than introducing objects. There is need for a longer term study to determine the impact of environmental enrichment in this species. Zoo Biol 26:331-343, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Expansion of U.S. uranium enrichment capacity. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    Reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic, and technological costs and benefits of postulated expansion of U. S. enrichment capacity through the year 2000 and reasonably available alternatives to such expansion are described. Both the gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion methods for the enrichment of uranium are considered in this impact assessment

  13. STRAIN-SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT IN THE MOUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEWEERD, HA; BAUMANS, [No Value; KOOLHAAS, JM; VANZUTPHEN, LFM

    The influence of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of the mouse has been studied in two inbred strains (C57BL and BALB/c). Male mice of each of the two strains were subjected to behavioural tests after being housed for two months either under standard housing conditions or in an enriched

  14. Status of the RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorsetti, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission started in 1978 the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors in the field of reactor engineering; engineering, development and manufacturing of fuel elements and research reactors operators. This program was initiated with the conviction that it would contribute to the international efforts to reduce risks of nuclear weapons proliferation owing to an uncontrolled use of highly enriched uranium. It was intended to convert RA-3 reactor to make possible its operation with low enriched fuel (LEU), instead of high enriched fuel (HEU) and to develop manufacturing techniques for said LEU. Afterwards, this program was adapted to assist other countries in reactors conversion, development of the corresponding fuel elements and supply of fuel elements to other countries. (Author)

  15. Time efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T.

    2003-01-01

    Now the electrolysis enrichment is necessary for tritium measurement of the environmental water in Japan. Generally, the electrolysis needs distilling the sample water before and after the electrolysis. To save the time to measure, it was investigated that a possibility of the omission of the distillation after the electrolysis and of the substitution the filtration for the distillation before the electrolysis. The electrolysis was carried out with a device using solid polymer electrolyte layer, which was recently developed in Japan. Initially, impurities eluted from the device were measured by enrichment of ultra pure water. Although some impurities eluted from the layer, the concentrations were so low that the enriched water brought ineffectual quenching for the liquid scintillation counting. Secondly, two filtration methods, i.e.; micro filtration with the pore size of 0.1 μm and reverse osmosis, were applied to eliminate the impurities in the environmental waters before the electrolysis. Although the impurity concentrations in the samples by the filtrations were higher than those by the distillation, the filtered water brought only slight quenching. However, the frequent electrolysis of the water treated with the micro filtration caused degradation of the electrolysis cell. Consequently, the distillation after the electrolysis may omit, and the reverse osmosis treatment may alternate the distillation before the electrolysis. Improving the treatment will not only save the time and labor but also reduce the error with the treatment. The measurement technique proposed here will take 25 hours to measure one sample using the electrolysis device produced commercially. A hypothetic electrolysis device of which final sample volume were 20 cm 3 could allow the measuring time of 10 hours. (author)

  16. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  17. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  18. Sex, Age, and Individual Differences in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Response to Environmental Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holli C. Eskelinen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of environmental enrichment, as a means to successfully decrease undesired behaviors (e.g., stereotypic and improve animal welfare, has been documented in a variety of zoological species. However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists concerning age, sex, and individual differences in response to various types of enrichment tools and activities in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. This study involved a comparative assessment of enrichment participation of three resident, bottlenose dolphin populations, over the course of 17 months, with respect to sex and age class (calf, sub-adult, adult. Enrichment sessions were randomly assigned, conducted, and categorically assessed based on participation during seven, broad based enrichment classes (Object, Ingestible, Human, or a combination of the three. Overall, the proportion of participation in enrichment sessions was high (≥ 0.74, with individual differences in participation noted among the three populations. Sessions involving Humans and/or Ingestible items resulted in a significantly higher mean proportion of participation. Sub-adult and adult males were significantly more likely to participate in enrichment sessions, as well as engage in Human Interaction/Object sessions. Calves participated significantly more than adults or sub-adults across all enrichment classes with no noted differences between males and females. These data can serve as a tool to better understand the intricacies of bottlenose dolphin responses to enrichment in an effort to develop strategic enrichment plans with the goal of improving animal well-being and welfare.

  19. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  20. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  1. Effects of environmental enrichment on self-administration of the short-acting opioid remifentanil in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Chow, Jonathan J; Beckmann, Joshua S; Bardo, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    Opioid abuse is a major problem around the world. Identifying environmental factors that contribute to opioid abuse and addiction is necessary for decreasing this epidemic. In rodents, environmental enrichment protects against the development of low dose stimulant self-administration, but studies examining the effect of enrichment and isolation (compared to standard housing) on the development of intravenous opioid self-administration have not been conducted. The present study investigated the role of environmental enrichment on self-administration of the short-acting μ-opioid remifentanil. Rats were raised in an enriched condition (Enr), standard condition (Std), or isolated condition (Iso) beginning at 21 days of age and were trained to lever press for 1 or 3 μg/kg/infusion remifentanil in young adulthood. Acquisition of self-administration and responding during increasing fixed ratio requirements were assessed, and a dose-response curve was generated. In all phases, Enr rats lever pressed significantly less than Std and Iso rats, with Enr rats pressing between 9 and 40% the amount of Iso rats. Enr rats did not acquire remifentanil self-administration when trained with 1 μg/kg/infusion, did not increase responding over increasing FR when trained at either dose, and their dose-response curves were flattened compared to Std and Iso rats. When expressed as economic demand curves, Enr rats displayed a decrease in both essential value (higher α) and reinforcer intensity (Q 0 ) compared to Std and Iso rats at the 1 μg/kg/infusion training dose. Environmental enrichment reduced remifentanil intake, suggesting that social and environmental novelty may protect against opioid abuse.

  2. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Standardisation of environmental enrichment for laboratory mice and rats: Utilisation, practicality and variation in experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumans, V.; Loo, P.L.P. van; Pham, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rats and mice are the most commonly used species as laboratory animal models of diseases in biomedical research. Environmental factors such as cage size, number of cage mates and cage structure such as environmental enrichment can affect the physiology and behavioural development of laboratory

  4. Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    At the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex all effluent streams are sampled regularly and analyzed to assess compliance with applicable environmental standards. Radioactivity is measured in air, water, fish, produce, soil, and sediments; and radiation doses to the public are calculated. The calculated public radiation doses from process effluents are within US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Environmental Protection Agency standards. An extensive amount of engineering effort is underway to modify existing airborne radioactivity emissions sources to further reduce emissions in compliance with DOE policy. Non-radioactive effluents either presently comply with federal standards or will comply upon completion of planned projects. CY-1984 was the fourth full year under the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for liquid effluents, and the second year the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assumed responsibility for administering the NPDES program. Compliance with the permit's discharge limits, with the exception of violations due to the startup of two new wastewater treatment facilities, did not present any significant problems. Overall compliance was 94.7%

  5. Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    At the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex all effluent streams are sampled regularly and analyzed to assess compliance with applicable environmental standards. Radioactivity is measured in air, water, fish, produce, soil, sediments and vegetation; and radiation doses to the public are calculated. The calculated public radiation doses from process effluents are within US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Environmental protection Agency (USEPA) standards. An extensive amount of engineering effort is underway to modify existing airborne radioactivity emissions sources to further reduce emissions in compliance with DOE policy. Non-radioactive effluents either presently comply with federal standards or will comply upon completion of planned projects. CY-1985 was the fifth full year under the current National Pullutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for liquid effluents, and the third year since the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) assumed responsibility for administering the NPDES program. Compliance with the permit's discharge limits, with the exception of violations due to the Coal Pile Treatment Facility and the Biodenitrification Plant for which projects to improve performance are currently underway, did not present any significant problems. Overall compliance was 95.5%. There was increased activity in the areas of groundwater monitoring, hazardous waste and PCB waste management to comply with Federal regulations

  6. The Use of the Puzzle Box as a Means of Assessing the Efficacy of Environmental Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Angela M.; Burton, Thomas J.; Leamey, Catherine A.; Sawatari, Atomu

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment can dramatically influence the development and function of neural circuits. Further, enrichment has been shown to successfully delay the onset of symptoms in models of Huntington’s disease 1-4, suggesting environmental factors can evoke a neuroprotective effect against the progressive, cellular level damage observed in neurodegenerative disorders. The ways in which an animal can be environmentally enriched, however, can vary considerably. Further, there is no straightforward manner in which the effects of environmental enrichment can be assessed: most methods require either fairly complicated behavioral paradigms and/or postmortem anatomical/physiological analyses. This protocol describes the use of a simple and inexpensive behavioral assay, the Puzzle Box 5-7 as a robust means of determining the efficacy of increased social, sensory and motor stimulation on mice compared to cohorts raised in standard laboratory conditions. This simple problem solving task takes advantage of a rodent’s innate desire to avoid open enclosures by seeking shelter. Cognitive ability is assessed by adding increasingly complex impediments to the shelter’s entrance. The time a given subject takes to successfully remove the obstructions and enter the shelter serves as the primary metric for task performance. This method could provide a reliable means of rapidly assessing the efficacy of different enrichment protocols on cognitive function, thus paving the way for systematically determining the role specific environmental factors play in delaying the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25590345

  7. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Viola; Gau, Christine; Scheideler, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse...... material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions....

  8. Evaluation of objects and food for environmental enrichment of NZW rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L D; Custer, L B; Soranaka, E T; Burge, J R; Ruble, G R

    2001-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals states that both structural and social environments should be considered when addressing the husbandry needs of laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental enrichment strategies that could potentially enhance the well-being of rabbits. Male and female 6-week old New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups: food-enriched (Bunny Stix, Bunny Blocks, or celery), non-food enriched (Jingle Ball, Kong toy, or Nylabone), and not enriched. Animals were given a particular enrichment for 1 h daily for 15 days. Home cages were fitted with specially designed plexiglass doors, which allowed the animals' interactions with the objects to be videotaped. The amount of time the animal interacted with each object and the total activity during the 1-h taped session were recorded for each rabbit. Rabbits were weighed weekly. Rabbits spent significantly more time interacting with the Bunny Stix than any other food item or non-food object. In addition, total activity time was significantly greater for all rabbits enriched with food versus any of the non-food items. Weight gains after 15 days did not differ significantly, but there was a trend towards increased weight gains in food-enriched rabbits. In this study, food was a stronger, more sustained enrichment device than were non-food objects.

  9. Short-term environmental enrichment is sufficient to counter stress-induced anxiety and associated structural and molecular plasticity in basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Archana; Hegde, Akshaya; Mitra, Rupshi

    2016-07-01

    Moderate levels of anxiety enable individual animals to cope with stressors through avoidance, and could be an adaptive trait. However, repeated stress exacerbates anxiety to pathologically high levels. Dendritic remodeling in the basolateral amygdala is proposed to mediate potentiation of anxiety after stress. Similarly, modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is thought to be important for the behavioral effects of stress. In the present study, we investigate if relatively short periods of environmental enrichment in adulthood can confer resilience against stress-induced anxiety and concomitant changes in neuronal arborisation and brain derived neurotrophic factor within basolateral amygdala. Two weeks of environmental enrichment countermanded the propensity of increased anxiety following chronic immobilization stress. Environmental enrichment concurrently reduced dendritic branching and spine density of projection neurons of the basolateral amygdala. Moreover, stress increased abundance of BDNF mRNA in the basolateral amygdala in agreement with the dendritic hypertrophy post-stress and role of BDNF in promoting dendritic arborisation. In contrast, environmental enrichment prevented stress-induced rise in the BDNF mRNA abundance. Gain in body weights and adrenal weights remained unaffected by exposure to environmental enrichment. These observations suggest that a short period of environmental enrichment can provide resilience against maladaptive effects of stress on hormonal, neuronal and molecular mediators of anxiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental enrichment facilitates cocaine abstinence in an animal conflict model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Scott; Ranaldi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we sought to discover if housing in an enriched environment (EE) is an efficacious intervention for encouraging abstinence from cocaine seeking in an animal "conflict" model of abstinence. Sixteen Long-Evans rats were trained in 3-h daily sessions to self-administer a cocaine solution (1 mg/kg/infusion) until each demonstrated a stable pattern of drug-seeking. Afterward, half were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, obstacles, and a running wheel, while the other half were given clean, standard laboratory housing. All rats then completed daily 30-min sessions during which the 2/3 of flooring closest to the self-administration levers was electrified, causing discomfort should they approach the levers; current strength (mA) was increased after every day of drug seeking until the rat ceased activity on the active lever for 3 consecutive sessions (abstinence). Rats housed in EE abstained after fewer days and at lower current strengths than rats in standard housing. These results support the idea that EE administered after the development of a cocaine-taking habit may be an effective strategy to facilitate abstinence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing video presentations as environmental enrichment for laboratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Coulon

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris stereotypic behaviours (SBs and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare.

  12. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  13. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  14. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A. [and others

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  15. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XIV international meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suripto, Asmedi; Hastowo, Hudi; Hersubeno, J B [eds.

    1995-07-01

    Apart from the progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program the national programs of Indonesia, Japan and China were presented. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed with a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR program, has concentrated its efforts on technology transfer and implementation activities consistent with the guidance received from the Department of Energy at the end of 1990. A number of presentations were devoted to development of new fuel uranium silicide fuel elements, fuel irradiation testing and reactor core conversions from highly enriched (HEU) to slightly enriched uranium (LEU). Calculations and measurements of converted reactor core parameters were shown related to safety test and analysis. Fuel cycle issue were discussed as well. One should note that a significant number of papers were devoted to Indonesian GA SIWABESSY reactor core conversion and related topics.

  16. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XIV international meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, Asmedi; Hastowo, Hudi; Hersubeno, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Apart from the progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program the national programs of Indonesia, Japan and China were presented. The major events, findings, and activities of 1991 are reviewed with a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1990 in collaboration with its many international partners. The RERTR program, has concentrated its efforts on technology transfer and implementation activities consistent with the guidance received from the Department of Energy at the end of 1990. A number of presentations were devoted to development of new fuel uranium silicide fuel elements, fuel irradiation testing and reactor core conversions from highly enriched (HEU) to slightly enriched uranium (LEU). Calculations and measurements of converted reactor core parameters were shown related to safety test and analysis. Fuel cycle issue were discussed as well. One should note that a significant number of papers were devoted to Indonesian GA SIWABESSY reactor core conversion and related topics

  17. A premature demise for RERTR [Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors programme]?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydell, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A common commitment from France, Belgium, Germany and the US to eliminate highly enriched uranium from their research reactors is needed to help guard against this material falling into the wrong hands. In the US, an essential part of this commitment would be rekindling the weakened Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors programme (RERTR). This is an American initiative to develop low-enrichment uranium fuel for research reactors that have previously required weapons-usable material. Underway since 1978 at Argonne National Laboratory, RERTR has achieved some impressive results: the development of higher density, low enriched fuels that are suitable for use at over 90% of the world's research reactors; a net reduction of US exports of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from the annual 700kg levels in the late 1970s to a 1990 level of just over 100kg; the encouragement of international scientific co-operation aimed at developing new fuels and facilitating the conversion of existing reactors to these fuels. However, in recent years, the US commitment to RERTR has been declining -budgets have fallen and advanced fuel development work has terminated. (author)

  18. Role of Hypothalamic VGF in Energy Balance and Metabolic Adaption to Environmental Enrichment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglesong, Grant D.; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xianglan; Slater, Andrew M.; Siu, Jason; Yildiz, Vedat; Salton, Stephen R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE), a housing condition providing complex physical, social, and cognitive stimulation, leads to improved metabolic health and resistance to diet-induced obesity and cancer. One underlying mechanism is the activation of the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis with hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as the key mediator. VGF, a peptide precursor particularly abundant in the hypothalamus, was up-regulated by EE. Overexpressing BDNF or acute injection of BDNF protein to the hypothalamus up-regulated VGF, whereas suppressing BDNF signaling down-regulated VGF expression. Moreover, hypothalamic VGF expression was regulated by leptin, melanocortin receptor agonist, and food deprivation mostly paralleled to BDNF expression. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of Cre recombinase to floxed VGF mice specifically decreased VGF expression in the hypothalamus. In contrast to the lean and hypermetabolic phenotype of homozygous germline VGF knockout mice, specific knockdown of hypothalamic VGF in male adult mice led to increased adiposity, decreased core body temperature, reduced energy expenditure, and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as disturbance of molecular features of brown and white adipose tissues without effects on food intake. However, VGF knockdown failed to block the EE-induced BDNF up-regulation or decrease of adiposity indicating a minor role of VGF in the hypothalamic-sympathoneural-adipocyte axis. Taken together, our results suggest hypothalamic VGF responds to environmental demands and plays an important role in energy balance and glycemic control likely acting in the melanocortin pathway downstream of BDNF. PMID:26730934

  19. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

  20. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately

  1. Environmental enrichment as a therapeutic avenue for anxiety in aged Wistar rats: Effect on cat odor exposition and GABAergic interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Castilla-Ortega, E; Zancada-Menendez, C; Santín, L J; Begega, A

    2016-08-25

    The use of more ethological animal models to study the neurobiology of anxiety has increased in recent years. We assessed the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol (24h/day over a period of two months) on anxiety-related behaviors when aged Wistar rats (21months old) were confronted with cat odor stimuli. Owing to the relationship between GABAergic interneurons and the anxiety-related neuronal network, we examined changes in the expression of Parvalbumin (PV) and 67kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67) immunoreactive cells in different brain regions involved in stress response. Behavioral results revealed that enriched rats traveled further and made more grooming behaviors during the habituation session. In the cat odor session, they traveled longer distances and they showed more active interaction with the odor stimuli and less time in freezing behavior. Zone analysis revealed that the enriched group spent more time in the intermediate zone according to the proximity of the predator odor. Regarding the neurobiological data, the EE increased the expression of PV-positive cells in some medial prefrontal regions (cingulate (Cg) and prelimbic (PL) cortices), whereas the GAD-67 expression in the basolateral amygdala was reduced in the enriched group. Our results suggest that EE is able to reduce anxiety-like behaviors in aged animals even when ethologically relevant stimuli are used. Moreover, GABAergic interneurons could be involved in mediating this resilient behavior. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on the Fertility and Fecundity of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Jensen, V Behrana; Whitney, Jesse C; Gomez, Thomas H; Flores, Rene; Goodwin, Bradford S

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a popular vertebrate model in biomedical research, but information describing the effects of environmental enrichment on fertility and fecundity of zebrafish is sparse. In the current study, 18 breeding pairs were placed in divided 1.5-L breeding tanks containing 1 of 3 enrichment conditions: plastic grass (n = 6), plastic leaves (n = 6), or no enrichment (n = 6, control). The pairs were allowed to spawn for 3 h the next day, after which eggs were counted and breeding pairs were returned to holding tanks for use in subsequent sessions. Spawning sessions were repeated at 7-d intervals until the completion of 9 trials, with pairs rotating to a different condition at each interval. Total egg count (mean ± SEM) after 3 h was greater for zebrafish spawning in the grass environment (48.0 ± 7.7 eggs) than in the leaf or control environments (29.4 ± 5.3 and 20.4 ± 3.7 eggs, respectively). An interaction emerged between enrichment type and the age of the spawning pair on the number of fry at 6 d postfertilization (dpf). Initially, more fry were obtained from 110- and 160-dpf pairs with the grass enrichment, but from 173- and 180-dpf pairs there were more obtained with leaf enrichment than grass. A separate experiment showed that enrichment type did not have an effect on fry survivability. Overall, our data indicates that, under certain conditions, zebrafish fertility and fecundity are greater in a breeding tank containing environmental enrichment than in a bare tank.

  3. The U.S. reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1993-01-01

    Research and test reactors are widely deployed to study the irradiation behavior of materials of interest in nuclear engineering, to produce radioisotopes for medicine, industry, and agriculture, and as a basic research and teaching tool. In order to maximize neutron flux per unit power and/or to minimize capital costs and fuel cycle costs, most of these reactors were de- signed to utilize uranium with very high enrichment (in the 70% to 95% range). Research reactor fuels with such high uranium enrichment cause a potential risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Over 140 research and test reactors of significant power (between 10 kW and 250 MW) are in operation with very highly enriched uranium in more than 35 countries, with total power in excess of 1,700 MW. The overall annual fuel requirement of these reactors corresponds to approximately 1,200 kg of 235 U. This highly strategic material is normally exported from the United States, converted to metal form, shipped to a fuel fabricator, and then shipped to the reactor site in finished fuel element form. At the reactor site the fuel is first stored, then irradiated, stored again, and eventually shipped back to the United States for reprocessing. The whole cycle takes approximately four years to complete, bringing the total required fuel inventory to approximately 5,000 kg of 235 U. The resulting international trade in highly-enriched uranium may involve several countries in the process of refueling a single reactor and creates a considerable concern that the highly-enriched uranium may be diverted for non-peaceful purposes while in fabrication, transport, or storage, particularly when it is in the unirradiated form. The proliferation resistance of nuclear fuels used in research and test reactors can be considerably improved by reducing their uranium enrichment to a value less than 20%, but significantly greater than natural to avoid excessive plutonium production

  4. Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Keown, Christopher L; Wen, Xianglan; Li, Junhao; Vousden, Dulcie A; Anacker, Christoph; Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Ryan, Richard; Diorio, Josie; O'Toole, Nicholas; Lerch, Jason P; Mukamel, Eran A; Meaney, Michael J

    2018-01-19

    Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.

  5. Environmental Enrichment and Social Isolation Mediate Neuroplasticity of Medium Spiny Neurons through the GSK3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Federico; Nenov, Miroslav N; Crofton, Elizabeth J; Singh, Aditya K; Folorunso, Oluwarotimi; Zhang, Yafang; Chesson, Brent C; Wildburger, Norelle C; James, Thomas F; Alshammari, Musaad A; Alshammari, Tahani K; Elfrink, Hannah; Grassi, Claudio; Kasper, James M; Smith, Ashley E; Hommel, Jonathan D; Lichti, Cheryl F; Rudra, Jai S; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Green, Thomas A; Laezza, Fernanda

    2018-04-10

    Resilience and vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to molecular changes underlying excitability that are still poorly understood. Here, we identify glycogen-synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and voltage-gated Na + channel Nav1.6 as regulators of neuroplasticity induced by environmentally enriched (EC) or isolated (IC) conditions-models for resilience and vulnerability. Transcriptomic studies in the nucleus accumbens from EC and IC rats predicted low levels of GSK3β and SCN8A mRNA as a protective phenotype associated with reduced excitability in medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In vivo genetic manipulations demonstrate that GSK3β and Nav1.6 are molecular determinants of MSN excitability and that silencing of GSK3β prevents maladaptive plasticity of IC MSNs. In vitro studies reveal direct interaction of GSK3β with Nav1.6 and phosphorylation at Nav1.6 T1936 by GSK3β. A GSK3β-Nav1.6 T1936 competing peptide reduces MSNs excitability in IC, but not EC rats. These results identify GSK3β regulation of Nav1.6 as a biosignature of MSNs maladaptive plasticity. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Weight development and serum biochemistry of rats offered hazelnuts as environmental enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Durand, Anne Mette; Rasmussen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Novel food items, such as hazelnuts, are attractive as environmental enrichment, since they form a substrate for both foraging and gnawing behaviour. Hazelnuts are particularly rich in polyunsaturated fat. A hazelnut, weighing 2 g, contains 820 mg crude fat, contributing with 15% of the total int...

  7. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Central fuel banking to reduce the number of proliferation sensitive enrichment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cserhati, A.

    2008-01-01

    Central fuel banking is a complex international political, economic and technical concept that aims to reduce uncontrolled spreading of uranium enrichment technology in the world in order to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons. This paper first gives an outline of the notions: 'non-proliferation', the 'front-end' of the fuel cycle, the scope of fuel baking, nuclear fuel and the 60 years of enrichment technology. Enrichment technology is highly concentrated in the nuclear weapon states and other developed countries, but this is not exclusive any more. The technology is spreading. The global demand for enrichment services - parallel to massive nuclear investments in the civil sector and the ageing of older facilities - is constantly growing. Proliferation sensitivity calls for an effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime. The solution may be multilateralizing the nuclear fuel cycle. After a historical overview, the proposals on multilateral nuclear approaches are presented. The assessment of the proposals is complex in the dimensions of: the non-proliferation aim, the assurance of supply aspect and other variables such as legal issues and non-nuclear inducements. A general evaluation and the recommendations of the Expert Panel of the IAEA are introduced outlining a plan on a middle- and long-term basis. The conclusion of the paper stresses the importance and challenge in finding the 'new balance' between obligations and interests of the members of the global community stating that the answers will have a significant impact on the nuclear indus- try, world wide economics and security policy. (orig.)

  9. Influence of environmental enrichment techniques in improvement of welfare of Callithrix penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812 (Primates: Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prado Borges

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applied environmental enrichment techniques to a captive Callithrix penicillata group aiming to improve the welfare of these animals. Enrichment was carried out with six animals, three males and three females, of Sabiá Municipal Park zoo (Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Data were collected in three phases, before enrichment, during enrichment and after enrichment, each phase with 40h of quantitative observations. We used two sensorial and four feeding enrichment devices. The animals’ responses to the enrichment were positive. We observed an increase in some of the behavioral categories, such as “exploring”, “foraging”, “social” and “territorial”. On the other hand, other behaviors decreased, e.g. “stereotypic” (a behavior that indicates stress. During and after the application of enrichment, new behaviors appeared particularly reproductive behaviors, which we had not seen previously. The behavioral changes observed indicate that the enrichment promoted an increase in welfare.

  10. Proper housing conditions in experimental stroke studies – special emphasis on environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu eMering

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment provides laboratory animals with novelty and extra space, allowing different forms of multisensory stimulation ranging from social grouping to enhanced motor activity. At the extreme end of the spectrum, one can have a super-enriched environment. Environmental enrichment is believed to result in improved cognitive and sensorimotor functions both in naïve rodents and in animals with brain lesions such as those occurring after a stroke. Robust behavioral effects in animals which have suffered a stroke are probably related not only to neuronal plasticity in the perilesional cortex but also in remote brain areas. There is emerging evidence to suggest that testing restorative therapies in an enriched environment can maximize treatment effects, e.g., the perilesional milieu seems to be more receptive to concomitant pharmacotherapy and/or cell therapy. This review provides an updated overview on the effect of an enriched environment in stroke animals from the practical points to be considered when planning experiments to the mechanisms explaining why combined therapies can contribute to behavioral improvement in a synergistic manner.

  11. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola André

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse husbandry without creating a divide between past and future experimental results. Previous small-scale studies have been inconsistent throughout the literature, and it is not yet completely understood whether and how enrichment might endanger comparability of results of scientific experiments. Here, we measured the effect on means and variability of 164 physiological parameters in 3 conditions: with nesting material with or without a shelter, comparing these 2 conditions to a "barren" regime without any enrichments. We studied a total of 360 mice from each of 2 mouse strains (C57BL/6NTac and DBA/2NCrl and both sexes for each of the 3 conditions. Our study indicates that enrichment affects the mean values of some of the 164 parameters with no consistent effects on variability. However, the influence of enrichment appears negligible compared to the effects of other influencing factors. Therefore, nesting material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions.

  12. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Christine; Scheideler, Angelika; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan A.; Amarie, Oana V.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.; Janik, Dirk; Moreth, Kristin; Neff, Frauke; Östereicher, Manuela; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Brielmeier, Markus; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse husbandry without creating a divide between past and future experimental results. Previous small-scale studies have been inconsistent throughout the literature, and it is not yet completely understood whether and how enrichment might endanger comparability of results of scientific experiments. Here, we measured the effect on means and variability of 164 physiological parameters in 3 conditions: with nesting material with or without a shelter, comparing these 2 conditions to a “barren” regime without any enrichments. We studied a total of 360 mice from each of 2 mouse strains (C57BL/6NTac and DBA/2NCrl) and both sexes for each of the 3 conditions. Our study indicates that enrichment affects the mean values of some of the 164 parameters with no consistent effects on variability. However, the influence of enrichment appears negligible compared to the effects of other influencing factors. Therefore, nesting material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions. PMID:29659570

  13. Environmental enrichment for neotropical primates in captivity Enriquecimento ambiental para primatas neotropicais em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner Boere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Captivity is an extreme non-natural environment for primates. The success of a breeding colony depends of management and veterinarian procedures which must rely on the knowledge of primates' behavioral needs. Environmental enrichment consists of a series of procedures that improve the quality of life of captive animals by meeting their ethological needs. Enrichment can reduce stress, while increasing animal well being in captivity. Suitable ethical conditions, incidences of behavioral disorders, minimal clinical interventions, low mortality, higher reproduction rates and cost/benefit relationship, reflect directly on the quality of captive breeding colonies. Anthropoids like Neotropical primates possess complex neural structures and relate, in a sophisticated manner, to the environment. This review reports important experiences on enrichment procedures for Neotropical primates and the physiological events which could explain improvement of animal well-being.Cativeiro é um ambiente de extremos não naturais para primatas. O sucesso de uma criação de primatas depende do manejo e de procedimentos veterinários que devem considerar as necessidades etológicas dos animais cativos. Enriquecimento ambiental é um conjunto de técnicas que modificam o ambiente, resultando em uma melhora na qualidade de vida dos animais, ao satisfazer as suas necessidades comportamentais. O enriquecimento pode diminuir o estresse e melhorar o bem-estar. Primatas neotropicais se caracterizam por complexas estruturas neurais e se relacionam de maneira sofisticada com o ambiente. O enriquecimento ambiental pode aumentar a qualidade de uma criação ao adequar o manejo a padrões éticos aceitáveis, estimular o repertório normal do comportamento, diminuir a casuística clínica, diminuir a mortalidade, incrementar a taxa reprodutiva e maximizar a relação custo/benefício em uma criação. Esta revisão relata experiências relevantes nos procedimentos de

  14. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Ogata, Y. [Nagoya Univ., School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tsuji, N. [Japan Air-conditioning Service Co. and Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kakiuchi, M. [Gakushuin Univ., Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Satake, H. [Toyama Univ., Faculty of Science, Toyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1} in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1}. Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 {mu}m filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  15. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H.; Ogata, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Kakiuchi, M.; Satake, H.

    2002-01-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq·L -1 in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq·L -1 . Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 μm filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  16. Environmental Enrichment during Gestation Improves Behavior Consequences and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus of Prenatal-Stressed Offspring Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingbo; Wang, Miao; Ding, Siqing; Li, Changqi; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal stress can result in various behavior deficits in offspring. Here we tested the effects of environmental enrichment during gestation used as a preventive strategy on the behavior deficits of prenatal-stressed offspring rats as well as the underlying structure basis. We compared the effect size of environmental enrichment during gestation on prenatal-stressed offspring to that of environmental enrichment after weaning. Our results showed that environmental enrichment during gestation partially prevented anxiety and the damage in learning and memory in prenatal-stressed offspring as evaluated by elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. At the same time, environmental enrichment during gestation inhibited the decrease in spine density of CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons and preserved the expression of synaptophysin and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus of prenatal-stressed offspring. There was no significant difference in offspring behavior between 7-day environmental enrichment during gestation and 14-day offspring environmental enrichment after weaning. These data suggest that environmental enrichment during gestation effectively prevented the behavior deficits and the abnormal synapse structures in prenatal-stressed offspring, and that it can be used as an efficient preventive strategy against prenatal stresses

  17. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] Program: Progress and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1986, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1987 are reviewed. Irradiation of the second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels, was completed and postirradiation examinations were performed on many of its miniplates. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 was completed at the end of March with excellent results and with 29 elements estimated to have reached at least 40% average burnup. Good progress was made in the area of LEU usage for the production of fission 99 Mo, and in the coordination of safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors. Planned activities include testing and demonstrating advanced fuels intended to allow use of reduced enrichment uranium in very-high-performance reactors. Two candidate fuels are U 3 Si-Al with 19.75% enrichment and U 3 Si 2 -Al with 45% enrichment. Demonstration of these fuels will include irradiation of full-size elements and, possibly, a full-core demonstration. Achievement of the final program goals is still projected for 1990. This progress could not have been possible without the close international cooperation which has existed from the beginning, and which is essential to the ultimate success of the RERTR Program

  18. Characteristics of a newly designed electrolyser to enrich tritium in environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Nagayoshi; Muranaka, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed electrolytic device to enrich tritium in environmental water is proposed. This device is composed of a solid polymer electrolytic film (SPE film) and porous, dimensionally stable electrodes (DSE). In our design a platinum mesh was inserted between the SPE film and the anode DSE so that the device can be easily disassembled and the used SPE film can be replaced with a new one after each use. A thin gold plate with a number of minute holes in it is used as current collector in both electrodes allowing the electrolytic gas to be released progressively. An electrolytic current of 6A was passed through the device to obtain a volume reducing factor of five by keeping a temperature of water both at 2degC or lower. After that, our device achieved a tritium recovery factor of 0.836±0.021 (n=4). Such a value is greater than the value obtained using a commercially available apparatus operated under the same experimental conditions. It is thought that this greater efficiency depends on the difference between electrolytic temperature produced in our device and the temperature in the commercially available one. (author)

  19. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Singly- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E.; Clifford, James O.; Tomko, David L.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nonhuman primates display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors. Captivity changes these behaviors, and disrupts normal social hierarchies. In captivity, animals may exhibit stereotypical behaviors which are thought to indicate decreased psychological well-being (PWB). If an animal's behaviors can be made to approach those seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal it is assumed that PWB is adequate. Environmental enrichment (EE) devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act's requirement that the PWB of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various EE devices improve the PWB of captive squirrel monkeys. The present study used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several EE devices in reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed singly or in groups. Results showed that the EE devices used did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  20. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae in Young Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn

    Full Text Available Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH and two pens of the enriched housed (EH pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014 and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014. More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048 and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001 than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease

  1. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Laser Absorption Spectrometry: Automated Environmental Sampling and Laser-Based Analysis for HEU Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear power, and consequently the uranium enrichment industry, requires the development of new safeguards technology to mitigate proliferation risks. Current enrichment monitoring instruments exist that provide only yes/no detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) production. More accurate accountancy measurements are typically restricted to gamma-ray and weight measurements taken in cylinder storage yards. Analysis of environmental and cylinder content samples have much higher effectiveness, but this approach requires onsite sampling, shipping, and time-consuming laboratory analysis and reporting. Given that large modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) can quickly produce a significant quantity (SQ ) of HEU, these limitations in verification suggest the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended safeguards instrument concept, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely analysis of enrichment levels within low enriched uranium facilities. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy to characterize the uranium isotopic ratio through subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths. Environmental sampling (ES) media from an integrated aerosol collector is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes material from a 10 to 20-(micro)m diameter spot of the surface of the sampling media. The plume of ejected material begins as high-temperature plasma that yields ions and atoms, as well as molecules and molecular ions. We concentrate on the plume of atomic vapor that remains after the plasma has expanded and then cooled by the surrounding cover gas. Tunable diode lasers are directed through this plume and each isotope is detected by monitoring absorbance

  2. Peripubertal exposure to environmental enrichment prevents schizophrenia-like behaviors in the SHR strain animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Camila Mauricio; Peres, Fernanda Fiel; Diana, Mariana Cepollaro; Justi, Veronica; Suiama, Mayra Akimi; Santana, Marcela Gonçalves; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling mental disorder, in which genetics and environmental factors interact culminating in the disease. The treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits with antipsychotics is currently inefficient and is an important field of research. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been suggested to improve some cognitive deficits in animal models of various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a possible beneficial effect of early and long-term exposure to EE on an animal model of schizophrenia, the SHR strain. Young male Wistar rats (control strain) and SHRs (21 post-natal days) were housed for 6weeks in two different conditions: in large cages (10 animals per cage) containing objects of different textures, forms, colors and materials that were changed 3 times/week (EE condition) or in standard cages (5 animals per cage - Control condition). Behavioral evaluations - social interaction (SI), locomotion, prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) and spontaneous alternation (SA) - were performed 6weeks after the end of EE. SHRs presented deficits in PPI (a sensorimotor impairment), SI (mimicking the negative symptoms) and SA (a working memory deficit), and also hyperlocomotion (modeling the positive symptoms). EE was able to reduce locomotion and increase PPI in both strains, and to prevent the working memory deficit in SHRs. EE also increased the number of neurons in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. In conclusion, EE can be a potential nonpharmacological strategy to prevent some behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reorganization in processing of spectral and temporal input in the rat posterior auditory field induced by environmental enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Chang, Kevin Q.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment induces powerful changes in the adult cerebral cortex. Studies in primary sensory cortex have observed that environmental enrichment modulates neuronal response strength, selectivity, speed of response, and synchronization to rapid sensory input. Other reports suggest that nonprimary sensory fields are more plastic than primary sensory cortex. The consequences of environmental enrichment on information processing in nonprimary sensory cortex have yet to be studied. Here we examine physiological effects of enrichment in the posterior auditory field (PAF), a field distinguished from primary auditory cortex (A1) by wider receptive fields, slower response times, and a greater preference for slowly modulated sounds. Environmental enrichment induced a significant increase in spectral and temporal selectivity in PAF. PAF neurons exhibited narrower receptive fields and responded significantly faster and for a briefer period to sounds after enrichment. Enrichment increased time-locking to rapidly successive sensory input in PAF neurons. Compared with previous enrichment studies in A1, we observe a greater magnitude of reorganization in PAF after environmental enrichment. Along with other reports observing greater reorganization in nonprimary sensory cortex, our results in PAF suggest that nonprimary fields might have a greater capacity for reorganization compared with primary fields. PMID:22131375

  4. Status of the reduced enrichment for research reactors program in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, E.; Kohut, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the area of Research and Test Reactors' fuel elements, the different stages of development carried out by the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) until now, and the future plans are presented in this paper. Own and foreign programs, for reducing the risk of proliferation due the use of high enriched uranium fuel elements in these types of reactors, is mentioned. A brief description of different work performed is presented: At first the experience with the use of highly enriched uranium, and then the activities related with the development done in order to achieve a good knowledge in low-enriched (LEU) fuels, particularly in the area of U308-Al fuels. This experience has permitted us, supported by the excellent results obtained, to be in a position to satisfy our own requirements and also to supply to other countries, not only fuels but also technology transferences and facilities of the development appropriate for this purpose. The main modifications brought in the design and fabrication of these types of fuel elements is also described. Finally, and with the main objective to complete the development and to qualify the LEU fuels based on silicides and to improve the actual MO-99 blanket fabrication technology two new C.N.E.A. projects, are outlined.(author)

  5. Effects of environmental enrichment and paradoxical sleep deprivation on open-field behavior of amphetamine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela Fukue; Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Trombin, Thaís Fernanda; Lopez, Giorgia Batlle; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2007-11-23

    Environmental enrichment or paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) has been shown to modify some responses elicited by drugs of abuse. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and PSD, conducted separately or in association, on open-field behavior elicited by amphetamine (AMP) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to live in either an enriched environmental condition (EC) or a standard environmental condition (SC) for 12 months since weaning. Some of the EC and SC mice were sleep deprived for 48 h, while others were maintained in their home-cages. Immediately after PSD or home-cage stay, the animals received an ip injection of saline, 2.5 mg/kg AMP or 5.0 mg/kg AMP. Fifteen minutes later, their open-field behavior was quantified. Whereas PSD enhanced total and peripheral locomotor activity of acutely AMP-treated mice, environmental enrichment presented only a trend toward enhancement. When PSD and environmental enrichment were combined, an increase in the total and peripheral locomotion frequencies of AMP-treated animals, similar to that observed after PSD, was revealed. In addition, PSD, environmental enrichment or their combination did not modify the effects of AMP on the other open-field behavioral parameters that were analyzed. The present findings demonstrate that some (but not all) of the behavioral effects caused by AMP acute administration can be similarly and specifically enhanced by both environmental enrichment and PSD in C57BL/6 mice.

  6. Diversity of reductive dehalogenase genes from environmental samples and enrichment cultures identified with degenerate primer PCR screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Audrey Hug

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reductive dehalogenases are the critical enzymes for anaerobic organohalide respiration, a microbial metabolic process that has been harnessed for bioremediation efforts to resolve chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater and is implicated in the global halogen cycle. Reductive dehalogenase sequence diversity is informative for the dechlorination potential of the site or enrichment culture. A suite of degenerate PCR primers targeting a comprehensive curated set of reductive dehalogenase genes was designed and applied to twelve DNA samples extracted from contaminated and pristine sites, as well as six enrichment cultures capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to non-toxic end-products. The amplified gene products from four environmental sites and two enrichment cultures were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and the reductive dehalogenase complement of each sample determined. The results indicate that the diversity of the reductive dehalogenase gene family is much deeper than is currently accounted for: one-third of the translated proteins have less than 70% pairwise amino acid identity to database sequences. Approximately 60% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenase genes were broadly distributed, being identified in four or more samples, and often in previously sequenced genomes as well. In contrast, 17% of the sequenced reductive dehalogenases were unique, present in only a single sample and bearing less than 90% pairwise amino acid identity to any previously identified proteins. Many of the broadly distributed reductive dehalogenases are uncharacterized in terms of their substrate specificity, making these intriguing targets for further biochemical experimentation. Finally, comparison of samples from a contaminated site and an enrichment culture derived from the same site eight years prior allowed examination of the effect of the enrichment process.

  7. Progress of the RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] Program in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1989-01-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1988, the major events, findings, and activities of 1989 are reviewed. The scope of the RERTR Program activities was curtailed, in 1989, by an unexpected legislative restriction which limited the ability of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency to adequately fund the program. Nevertheless, the thrust of the major planned program activities was maintained, and meaningful results were obtained in several areas of great significance for future work. 15 refs., 12 figs

  8. Enrichment: CRISLA [chemical reaction by isotope selective activation] aims to reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Every year, more than $3 billion is spent on enriching uranium. CRISLA (Chemical Reaction by Isotope Selective Activation) uses a laser-catalyzed chemical reaction which, its proponents claim, could substantially reduce these costs. In CRISLA, an infrared CO laser illuminates the intracavity reaction cell (IC) at a frequency tuned to excite primarily UF 6 . When UF 6 and co-reactant RX are passed through the IC, the tuned laser photons preferentially enhance the reaction of UF 6 with RX ten-thousand-fold over the thermal reaction rate. Thus the laser serves as an activator and the chemical energy for separation is largely chemical. (author)

  9. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  10. RNA-Dependent Intergenerational Inheritance of Enhanced Synaptic Plasticity after Environmental Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Benito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Physical exercise in combination with cognitive training is known to enhance synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and lower the risk for various complex diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we show that exposure of adult male mice to an environmental enrichment paradigm leads to enhancement of synaptic plasticity and cognition also in the next generation. We show that this effect is mediated through sperm RNA and especially miRs 212/132. In conclusion, our study reports intergenerational inheritance of an acquired cognitive benefit and points to specific miRs as candidates mechanistically involved in this type of transmission. : Environmental enrichment (EE, a combination of physical and mental exercise, has been shown to increase cognitive abilities in mice and in humans. Benito et al. find that offspring of male mice subjected to EE also show this increase. This effect is dependent on sperm RNA and involves microRNA212/132. Keywords: epigenetics, brain, microRNA, memory, intergenerational, transgenerational, exercise, environmental enrichment, cognition

  11. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (ppigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection of PRRSV and A

  12. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In situ electrochemical enrichment and isolation of a magnetite-reducing bacterium from a high pH serpentinizing spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Annette R; Yoshimura, Miho; LaRowe, Doug E; Bird, Lina J; Amend, Jan P; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nealson, Kenneth H; Okamoto, Akihiro

    2017-06-01

    Serpentinization is a geologic process that produces highly reduced, hydrogen-rich fluids that support microbial communities under high pH conditions. We investigated the activity of microbes capable of extracellular electron transfer in a terrestrial serpentinizing system known as 'The Cedars'. Measuring current generation with an on-site two-electrode system, we observed daily oscillations in current with the current maxima and minima occurring during daylight hours. Distinct members of the microbial community were enriched. Current generation in lab-scale electrochemical reactors did not oscillate, but was correlated with carbohydrate amendment in Cedars-specific minimal media. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were consistently enriched from lab electrochemical systems on δ-MnO 2 and amorphous Fe(OH) 3 at pH 11. However, isolation of an electrogenic strain proved difficult as transfer cultures failed to grow after multiple rounds of media transfer. Lowering the bulk pH in the media allowed us to isolate a Firmicutes strain (Paenibacillus sp.). This strain was capable of electrode and mineral reduction (including magnetite) at pH 9. This report provides evidence of the in situ activity of microbes using extracellular substrates as sinks for electrons at The Cedars, but also highlights the potential importance of community dynamics for supporting microbial life through either carbon fixation, and/or moderating pH stress. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication and application of reduced enrichment fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers presented in the following areas: (1) Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program Status; (2) Fuel Development; (3) Fuel Demonstrations; (4) General Topics; and (5) Specific Reactor Applications

  15. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental

  16. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  17. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  18. Environmental enrichment may protect against neural and behavioural damage caused by withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use. The environmental enrichment (EE) has a protective effect on the neural and cognitive impairments induced by psychoactive drugs, including ethyl alcohol. The present study aims to determine the influence of withdrawal from intermittent long-term alcohol exposure on alcohol preference, emotional reactivity and neural aspects of early isolated or grouped reared rats kept under standard or complex environments and the influence of social isolation on these measures, as well. Our results point out new insights on this matter showing that the EE can attenuate the adverse effects of withdrawal and social isolation on rat's behavior. This effect is probably due to its protective action on the mPFC integrity, including the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), and the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortex (IL), what could account for the absence of changes in the emotional reactivity in EE alcohol withdrawal rats. We argue that morphological changes at these cortical levels can afford the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysregulations verified following withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual Environmental Enrichment through Video Games Improves Hippocampal-Associated Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenson, Gregory D; Stark, Craig E L

    2015-12-09

    The positive effects of environmental enrichment and their neural bases have been studied extensively in the rodent (van Praag et al., 2000). For example, simply modifying an animal's living environment to promote sensory stimulation can lead to (but is not limited to) enhancements in hippocampal cognition and neuroplasticity and can alleviate hippocampal cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We are interested in whether these manipulations that successfully enhance cognition (or mitigate cognitive decline) have similar influences on humans. Although there are many "enriching" aspects to daily life, we are constantly adapting to new experiences and situations within our own environment on a daily basis. Here, we hypothesize that the exploration of the vast and visually stimulating virtual environments within video games is a human correlate of environmental enrichment. We show that video gamers who specifically favor complex 3D video games performed better on a demanding recognition memory task that assesses participants' ability to discriminate highly similar lure items from repeated items. In addition, after 2 weeks of training on the 3D video game Super Mario 3D World, naive video gamers showed improved mnemonic discrimination ability and improvements on a virtual water maze task. Two control conditions (passive and training in a 2D game, Angry Birds), showed no such improvements. Furthermore, individual performance in both hippocampal-associated behaviors correlated with performance in Super Mario but not Angry Birds, suggesting that how individuals explored the virtual environment may influence hippocampal behavior. The hippocampus has long been associated with episodic memory and is commonly thought to rely on neuroplasticity to adapt to the ever-changing environment. In animals, it is well understood that exposing animals to a more stimulating environment, known as environmental enrichment, can stimulate neuroplasticity and

  20. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, D; Candler, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  1. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Howarth, Robert W.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide increases in the numbers of human and wildlife diseases present ecologists with the challenge of understanding how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth’s ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Alongside the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens, sometimes leading to epidemic conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we discuss recent experimental advances in this area to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the inter-related nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or

  2. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  3. Enrichment and immobilization of sulfide removal microbiota applied for environmental biological remediation of aquaculture area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang-Guo; Zheng, Yu; Tian, Weijun; Bai, Jie; Feng, Gong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Mengchun

    2016-01-01

    To remove sulfide in the deteriorating aquaculture sediment and water, sulfide-oxidizing microbiota was enriched from Jiaozhou Bay, China, by using sulfide-rich medium. Composition and structure of microbial communities in the enrichments were investigated by 16S rDNA molecular biotechniques. Results showed that microbial community structure continuously shifted and the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria, i.e., Desulfobacterium, Desulfococcus and Desulfobacca apparently declined. Several halophile genera, Vibrio, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, Prochlorococcus, Pediococcus and Thiobacillus predominated finally in the microbiota. The enriched microbiota was capable of removing a maximum of 1000 mg/L sulfide within 12 h with 10% inoculum at pH 7.0, 20–30 °C. After immobilized, the microbiota presented excellent resistance to impact and could completely remove 600 mg/L sulfide in 12 h. Moreover, the immobilized microbiota recovered well even recycled for five times. In conclusion, the immobilized sulfide-removing microbiota showed a quite promising application for biological restoring of sulfide-rich aquaculture environment. - Highlights: • A sulfide-oxidizing microbiota successfully enriched from aquaculture sediment. • Microbiota dominated by Vibrio, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus spp. • Sulfide-oxidizing microbiota removed sulfide at an average rate of 100 mg/(L·h). • Immobilized microbiota removed over 85% of sulfide even recycled for five times.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic calculations for KUHFR with reduced enrichment uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Shibata, Toshikazu.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides the preliminary results of the thermal-hydraulic calculations to study the safety aspects in fueling the KUHFR with reduced enrichment uranium. The calculations were based on what was outlined in the Safety Analysis Report for the KUHFR and the guidebook for research reactor core conversion, IAEA-TECDOC-233, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. No significant differences in the thermal-hydraulic operating conditions have been found between HEU and MEU fuels. However, in LEU cases, the combination of three factors - larger power peaking with LEU fuel, smaller thermal conductivity of U 3 O 8 -Al fuel with high uranium densities, and thicker fuel meat - resulted in higher maximum fuel and surface temperatures with the LEU oxide fuel. (author)

  5. The RERTR [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor] program: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1986-11-01

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. After a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program, in collaboration with its many international partners, had achieved by the end of 1985, the activities, results, and new developments which occurred in 1986 are reviewed. The second miniplate series, concentrating on U 3 Si 2 -Al and U 3 Si-Al fuels, was expanded and its irradiation continued. Postirradiation examinations of several of these miniplates and of six previously irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al full-size elements were completed with excellent results. The whole-core ORR demonstration with U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel at 4.8 g U/cm 3 is well under way and due for completion before the end of 1987. DOE removed an important barrier to conversions by announcing that the new LEU fuels will be accepted for reprocessing. New DOE prices for enrichment and reprocessing services were calculated to have minimal effect on HEU reactors, and to reduce by about 8 to 10% the total fuel cycle costs of LEU reactors. New program activities include preliminary feasibility studies of LEU use in DOE reactors, evaluation of the feasibility to use LEU targets for the production of fission-product 99 Mo, and responsibility for coordinating safety evaluations related to LEU conversions of US university reactors, as required by NRC. Achievement of the final program goals is projected for 1990. This progress could not have been achieved without close international cooperation, whose continuation and intensification are essential to the achievement of the ultimate goals of the RERTR Program

  6. Brain neurotransmitters and hippocampal proteome in pigs under stress and environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress and wellbeing are psychological conditions that are mediated by the central nervous system. In the brain, stress is mediated mainly by the hypothalamus, which will activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, leading to the secretion of cortisol, the paradigmatic stress hormone. Other brain areas as the amygdala, the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in emotions such as happiness, anxiety and fear. Communication between brain areas is achieved by chemical neurotransmitters (NTs, which are secreted by presynaptic neurons to reach postsynaptic neurons, where they will cause a variation in membrane polarization and other cell signaling actions, leading to physiological responses. Amongst these NTs, catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine and serotonin play an important role. On the other hand, the adverse effects of stress may be counteracted by housing the individuals under environmental enrichment conditions. This long-term situation should have an effect, not only on NTs, but also on the brain proteome. Under the hypothesis that different stress situations will lead to changes in NT composition that will be specific for crucial brain areas, we have tested the effects of transport stress, handling stress at the slaughterhouse, and the stress-susceptible genotype (Ryr1 on the amine NT concentration in amygdala, hippocampus, PFC and hypothalamus of pigs. The effects of living under environmentally enriched or control conditions on the NT concentration in several brain regions and on the hippocampus proteome has been also analyzed. In conclusion, genetic factors as well as management conditions related to housing, transport and slaughterhouse alter in different degree the catecholaminergic and the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, and give clues about how different individual types are able to react to external challenges. Likewise, environmental enrichment leads to changes in the proteome

  7. Disposition of highly enriched uranium obtained from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This EA assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE's proposal to transport 600 kg of Kazakhstand-origin HEU from Y-12 to a blending site (B ampersand W Lynchburg or NFS Erwin), transport low-enriched UF6 blending stock from a gaseous diffusion plant to GE Wilmington and U oxide blending stock to the blending site, blending the HEU and uranium oxide blending stock to produce LEU in the form of uranyl nitrate, and transport the uranyl nitrate from the blending site to USEC Portsmouth

  8. RNA-Dependent Intergenerational Inheritance of Enhanced Synaptic Plasticity after Environmental Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Eva; Kerimoglu, Cemil; Ramachandran, Binu; Pena-Centeno, Tonatiuh; Jain, Gaurav; Stilling, Roman Manuel; Islam, Md Rezaul; Capece, Vincenzo; Zhou, Qihui; Edbauer, Dieter; Dean, Camin; Fischer, André

    2018-04-10

    Physical exercise in combination with cognitive training is known to enhance synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and lower the risk for various complex diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that exposure of adult male mice to an environmental enrichment paradigm leads to enhancement of synaptic plasticity and cognition also in the next generation. We show that this effect is mediated through sperm RNA and especially miRs 212/132. In conclusion, our study reports intergenerational inheritance of an acquired cognitive benefit and points to specific miRs as candidates mechanistically involved in this type of transmission. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual Environmental Enrichment through Video Games Improves Hippocampal-Associated Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The positive effects of environmental enrichment and their neural bases have been studied extensively in the rodent (van Praag et al., 2000). For example, simply modifying an animal's living environment to promote sensory stimulation can lead to (but is not limited to) enhancements in hippocampal cognition and neuroplasticity and can alleviate hippocampal cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We are interested in whether these manipulations that successfully enhance cognition (or mitigate cognitive decline) have similar influences on humans. Although there are many “enriching” aspects to daily life, we are constantly adapting to new experiences and situations within our own environment on a daily basis. Here, we hypothesize that the exploration of the vast and visually stimulating virtual environments within video games is a human correlate of environmental enrichment. We show that video gamers who specifically favor complex 3D video games performed better on a demanding recognition memory task that assesses participants' ability to discriminate highly similar lure items from repeated items. In addition, after 2 weeks of training on the 3D video game Super Mario 3D World, naive video gamers showed improved mnemonic discrimination ability and improvements on a virtual water maze task. Two control conditions (passive and training in a 2D game, Angry Birds), showed no such improvements. Furthermore, individual performance in both hippocampal-associated behaviors correlated with performance in Super Mario but not Angry Birds, suggesting that how individuals explored the virtual environment may influence hippocampal behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus has long been associated with episodic memory and is commonly thought to rely on neuroplasticity to adapt to the ever-changing environment. In animals, it is well understood that exposing animals to a more stimulating environment, known as environmental enrichment, can

  10. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Enrichment Expedites Acquisition and Improves Flexibility on a Temporal Sequencing Task in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Rountree-Harrison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE via increased opportunities for voluntary exercise, sensory stimulation and social interaction, can enhance the function of and behaviours regulated by cognitive circuits. Little is known, however, as to how this intervention affects performance on complex tasks that engage multiple, definable learning and memory systems. Accordingly, we utilised the Olfactory Temporal Order Discrimination (OTOD task which requires animals to recall and report sequence information about a series of recently encountered olfactory stimuli. This approach allowed us to compare animals raised in either enriched or standard laboratory housing conditions on a number of measures, including the acquisition of a complex discrimination task, temporal sequence recall accuracy (i.e., the ability to accurately recall a sequences of events and acuity (i.e., the ability to resolve past events that occurred in close temporal proximity, as well as cognitive flexibility tested in the style of a rule reversal and an Intra-Dimensional Shift (IDS. We found that enrichment accelerated the acquisition of the temporal order discrimination task, although neither accuracy nor acuity was affected at asymptotic performance levels. Further, while a subtle enhancement of overall performance was detected for both rule reversal and IDS versions of the task, accelerated performance recovery could only be attributed to the shift-like contingency change. These findings suggest that EE can affect specific elements of complex, multi-faceted cognitive processes.

  12. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Jackson, David; Gammie, Alistair; Badrick, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support. Many good environmental practices do not have a cost but will require a change in the culture and mind-set of the organisation. Continuing education and training are important keys to successful implementation of good practices. There is a need to undertake a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of every change that is introduced in going green. The adoption of good practices can eventually lead to ISO certification if this is desired. This paper provides suggestions that will allow a laboratory to start going green. It will allow the industry to enhance its corporate citizenship whilst improving its competitive advantage for long-term.

  13. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  14. Environmental enrichment, age and PPARα interact to regulate proliferation in neurogenic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita ePerez-Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα-/- mice exposed to nutritional (treats and environmental (games enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+ in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, 18 months. Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα-/- mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα-/--induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα-/- mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments.

  15. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, M.; Seo, M.; Asano, T.; Kiyono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  16. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  17. Study of the reduced enrichment fuel conversion at the University of Missouri-Rolla reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, M.; Bolon, A.; Covington, L.

    1987-01-01

    The method used to analyze the low-enriched uranium core which has been proposed for the University of Missouri-Rolla Reactor is described. Results of calculations for the high-enriched uranium core have been compared with the measured data whenever possible in order to verify this method. For most of the cases that were analyzed the proposed method is adequate and the results obtained for the low-enriched uranium core can be used in revising the licensing documents. (Author)

  18. Assessing the effects of iron enrichment across holobiont compartments reveals reduced microbial nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea coral Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Ziegler, Maren; Ashok, Ananya; Barreto, Marcelle M.; Chaidez, Veronica; Grupstra, Carsten G. B.; Ng, Yi Mei; Perna, Gabriela; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical waters is sustained by an efficient uptake and recycling of nutrients. In reef-building corals, the engineers of these ecosystems, this nutrient recycling is facilitated by a constant exchange of nutrients between the animal host and endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), bacteria, and other microbes. Due to the complex interactions in this so-called coral holobiont, it has proven difficult to understand the environmental limitations of productivity in corals. Among others, the micronutrient iron has been proposed to limit primary productivity due to its essential role in photosynthesis and bacterial processes. Here, we tested the effect of iron enrichment on the physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea during a 12-day experiment. Contrary to previous reports, we did not see an increase in zooxanthellae population density or gross photosynthesis. Conversely, respiration rates were significantly increased, and microbial nitrogen fixation was significantly decreased. Taken together, our data suggest that iron is not a limiting factor of primary productivity in Red Sea corals. Rather, increased metabolic demands in response to iron enrichment, as evidenced by increased respiration rates, may reduce carbon (i.e., energy) availability in the coral holobiont, resulting in reduced microbial nitrogen fixation. This decrease in nitrogen supply in turn may exacerbate the limitation of other nutrients, creating a negative feedback loop. Thereby, our results highlight that the effects of iron enrichment appear to be strongly dependent on local environmental conditions and ultimately may depend on the availability of other nutrients.

  19. Assessing the effects of iron enrichment across holobiont compartments reveals reduced microbial nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea coral Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils

    2017-07-31

    The productivity of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical waters is sustained by an efficient uptake and recycling of nutrients. In reef-building corals, the engineers of these ecosystems, this nutrient recycling is facilitated by a constant exchange of nutrients between the animal host and endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), bacteria, and other microbes. Due to the complex interactions in this so-called coral holobiont, it has proven difficult to understand the environmental limitations of productivity in corals. Among others, the micronutrient iron has been proposed to limit primary productivity due to its essential role in photosynthesis and bacterial processes. Here, we tested the effect of iron enrichment on the physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea during a 12-day experiment. Contrary to previous reports, we did not see an increase in zooxanthellae population density or gross photosynthesis. Conversely, respiration rates were significantly increased, and microbial nitrogen fixation was significantly decreased. Taken together, our data suggest that iron is not a limiting factor of primary productivity in Red Sea corals. Rather, increased metabolic demands in response to iron enrichment, as evidenced by increased respiration rates, may reduce carbon (i.e., energy) availability in the coral holobiont, resulting in reduced microbial nitrogen fixation. This decrease in nitrogen supply in turn may exacerbate the limitation of other nutrients, creating a negative feedback loop. Thereby, our results highlight that the effects of iron enrichment appear to be strongly dependent on local environmental conditions and ultimately may depend on the availability of other nutrients.

  20. Phylogenetic and functional diversity within toluene-degrading, sulphate-reducing consortia enriched from a contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppardt, Anke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Vogt, Carsten; Lüders, Tillmann; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2014-08-01

    Three toluene-degrading microbial consortia were enriched under sulphate-reducing conditions from different zones of a benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) plume of two connected contaminated aquifers. Two cultures were obtained from a weakly contaminated zone of the lower aquifer, while one culture originated from the highly contaminated upper aquifer. We hypothesised that the different habitat characteristics are reflected by distinct degrader populations. Degradation of toluene with concomitant production of sulphide was demonstrated in laboratory microcosms and the enrichment cultures were phylogenetically characterised. The benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) marker gene, encoding the enzyme initiating anaerobic toluene degradation, was targeted to characterise the catabolic diversity within the enrichment cultures. It was shown that the hydrogeochemical parameters in the different zones of the plume determined the microbial composition of the enrichment cultures. Both enrichment cultures from the weakly contaminated zone were of a very similar composition, dominated by Deltaproteobacteria with the Desulfobulbaceae (a Desulfopila-related phylotype) as key players. Two different bssA sequence types were found, which were both affiliated to genes from sulphate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. In contrast, the enrichment culture from the highly contaminated zone was dominated by Clostridia with a Desulfosporosinus-related phylotype as presumed key player. A distinct bssA sequence type with high similarity to other recently detected sequences from clostridial toluene degraders was dominant in this culture. This work contributes to our understanding of the niche partitioning between degrader populations in distinct compartments of BTEX-contaminated aquifers.

  1. Environmental enrichment induces behavioral recovery and enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation in an antidepressant-resistant animal model for PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrikus Hendriksen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD can be considered the result of a failure to recover after a traumatic experience. Here we studied possible protective and therapeutic aspects of environmental enrichment (with and without a running wheel in Sprague Dawley rats exposed to an inescapable foot shock procedure (IFS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IFS induced long-lasting contextual and non-contextual anxiety, modeling some aspects of PTSD. Even 10 weeks after IFS the rats showed reduced locomotion in an open field. The antidepressants imipramine and escitalopram did not improve anxiogenic behavior following IFS. Also the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate did not alleviate the IFS induced immobility. While environmental enrichment (EE starting two weeks before IFS did not protect the animals from the behavioral effects of the shocks, exposure to EE either immediately after the shock or one week later induced complete recovery three weeks after IFS. In the next set of experiments a running wheel was added to the EE to enable voluntary exercise (EE/VE. This also led to reduced anxiety. Importantly, this behavioral recovery was not due to a loss of memory for the traumatic experience. The behavioral recovery correlated with an increase in cell proliferation in hippocampus, a decrease in the tissue levels of noradrenalin and increased turnover of 5-HT in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This animal study shows the importance of (physical exercise in the treatment of psychiatric diseases, including post-traumatic stress disorder and points out the possible role of EE in studying the mechanism of recovery from anxiety disorders.

  2. ENVIRONMENTALLY REDUCING OF COOLANTS IN METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veijo KAUPPINEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.

  3. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA.

  4. Reduced enrichment fuel and its reactivity effects in the University Training Reactor Moata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.J.

    1983-08-01

    Concern for nuclear proliferation is likely to preclude future supply of highly enriched uranium fuel for research reactors such as the University Training Reactor Moata. This study calculates the fuel densities necessary to maintain the reactivity per plate of the present high enrichment (90 per cent 235 U) fuel for a range of lower enrichments assuming that no geometry changes are allowed. The maximum uranium density for commercially available aluminium-type research reactor fuels is generally considered to be about 1.7 g cm -3 . With this density limitation, the minimum enrichment to maintain present reactivity per plate is about 35 per cent 235 U. For low enrichment (max. 20 per cent 235 U) fuel, the required U density is about 2.9 g cm -3 , which is beyond the expected range for UAl/sub x/-Al but within that projected for the longer term development and full qualification for U 3 O 8 -Al. Medium enrichment (nominally 45 per cent 235 U) Al/sub x/-Al would be entirely satisfactory as an immediate replacement fuel, requiring no modifications to the reactor and operating procedures, and minimal reappraisal of safety issues. Included in this study are calculations of the fuel coefficients at various enrichments, the effect of replacing standard fuel plates or complete elements with 45 per cent enriched fuel, and the reactivity to be gained by replacing 12-plate with 13-plate elements

  5. Opening address at the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Sato

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of variuos programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. More detailed status of the RERTR program in Japan, as the host country is covered in this presentation

  6. Early natural stimulation through environmental enrichment accelerates neuronal development in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is the primary afferent into the hippocampal formation, with important functions in learning and memory. Granule cells, the principle neuronal type in the dentate gyrus, are mostly formed postnatally, in a process that continues into adulthood. External stimuli, including environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise and learning, have been shown to significantly accelerate the generation and maturation of dentate granule cells in adult rodents. Whether, and to what extent, such environmental stimuli regulate the development and maturation of dentate granule cells during early postnatal development is largely unknown. Furthermore, whether natural stimuli affect the synaptic properties of granule cells had been investigated neither in newborn neurons of the adult nor during early development. To examine the effect of natural sensory stimulation on the dentate gyrus, we reared newborn mice in an enriched environment (EE. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that dentate granule cells from EE-reared mice exhibited earlier morphological maturation, manifested as faster peaking of doublecortin expression and elevated expression of mature neuronal markers (including NeuN, calbindin and MAP2 at the end of the second postnatal week. Also at the end of the second postnatal week, we found increased density of dendritic spines across the entire dentate gyrus, together with elevated levels of postsynaptic scaffold (post-synaptic density 95 and receptor proteins (GluR2 and GABA(ARγ2 of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, dentate granule cells of P14 EE-reared mice had lower input resistances and increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. Together, our results demonstrate that EE-rearing promotes morphological and electrophysiological maturation of dentate granule cells, underscoring the importance of natural environmental stimulation on development of the dentate gyrus.

  7. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  8. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S Mallory

    Full Text Available Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage.

  9. Longitudinal effects of environmental enrichment on behaviour and physiology of pigs reared on an intensive-stock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vitale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to provide a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of physical enrichments on the behaviour and physiology of intensive stock-farming pigs. Twenty-eight crossbred pigs of both sexes, were exposed to four types of enrichments (hemp ropes, steel chains, plastic balls, rubber hoses over a period of eleven weeks. This investigation was based on specific abnormal behaviours and physiological indicators, including hematologic parameters. For behavioural score, focal sampling was used with recording of abnormal behaviours (body-, tail- and ear-biting, belly nosing, running, and interaction with objects (for Enriched pigs. The presence of skin injuries was also recorded. In general, the frequency of abnormal behaviours was significantly reduced in the Enriched group. A timerelated profile appeared in the use of the enrichments. Males showed higher occurrence of skin injuries than females. Physiological measurements, such as levels of complement system, white blood cells and neutrophils, were lower in pigs from the Enriched group. Enriched pigs, as a whole, presented much lower levels of serum DHEA-S concentration over two weeks. The findings of this study show the successful provision of appropriate enrichments to encourage behaviours which may result in satisfactory animal oral interaction with the enriching objects, preventing them biting pen-mates. In this respect, the objects proposed were strongly effective in producing changes in behaviour which could mitigate inadequate conditions, such as the relationship between animal body weight and the available space allowance.

  10. Environmental Enrichment Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Spatial Memory Deficits and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hajheidari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior.Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE or enriched environment (EE during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze, and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats.Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group.Conclusion: Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.

  11. Environmental biotechnology: Reducing risks from environmental chemicals through biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omenn, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers on various aspects of hazardous waste management through biotechnology. The articles stress the three basic strategies of waste management; minimize the amount of waste generated; reduce the toxicity of the wastes; and find more satisfactory ways of disposing of wastes. Part I of this collection describes the use of microbial ecology, molecular biology, and other scientific disciplines to combat these problems. Part II describes the application of present technology to current problems. Part III describes the effect of policy and regulations on biotechnology. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  12. Long-lasting and transgenerational effects of an environmental enrichment on memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Junko A; Feig, Larry A

    2011-04-25

    It has long been believed that genetically determined, but not environmentally acquired, phenotypes can be inherited. However, a large number of recent studies have reported that phenotypes acquired from an animal's environment can be transmitted to the next generation. Moreover, epidemiology studies have hinted that a similar phenomenon occurs in humans. This type of inheritance does not involve gene mutations that change DNA sequence. Instead, it is thought that epigenetic changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, occur. In this review, we will focus on one exciting new example of this phenomenon, transfer across generations of enhanced synaptic plasticity and memory formation induced by exposure to an "enriched" environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental monitoring program of the uranium enrichment facility Almirante Alvaro Alberto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, G.; Jacomino, V.M.F.; Venturini, L.; Moreira, S.R.D.; Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Duarte, C.L.; Pocequilo, B.R.S.; Mazzilli, B.P.

    1988-11-01

    In this report, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the Uranium Enrichment Facility Almirante Alvaro Alberto is outlined and the results obtained during the preoperational period are presented. Information concerning the population distribution, the use of water and land, the local agricultural production and the local meteorology are also available. In order to evaluate the levels of the background radiation, sample of water, air and biological and terrestrial indicators were analysed. Measurements were performed of natural gamma emitters concentrations levels and of uranium in air, surface water, precipitation, groundwater, river sediment, soil, grass, vegetation and various foodstuffs. For direct measurement of background radiation levels a solid state dosimeter network was used. Results are also presented for the analysis of non radioactive pollutants in the water samples and for the particles and gaseous fluorides concentration in the atmosphere. (author) [pt

  14. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XVIII international meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Almost 50 papers presented were showing the status of the national programs related to conversion of research reactor cores from highly enriched (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel elements. Design of new fuel elements (uranium silicides) and safety related calculations were dealt with taking into account fuel cycle issues, meaning spent fuel storage and transportation. A number of presentations were devoted to Mo-99 production using LEU targets.

  15. Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors. Proceedings of the XVIII international meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Almost 50 papers presented were showing the status of the national programs related to conversion of research reactor cores from highly enriched (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel elements. Design of new fuel elements (uranium silicides) and safety related calculations were dealt with taking into account fuel cycle issues, meaning spent fuel storage and transportation. A number of presentations were devoted to Mo-99 production using LEU targets

  16. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proceedings of the 1978 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    November 9-10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event - the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The RERTR Program had been started only three months earlier, and the meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and while it established the basis for all later meetings, it was unique in several respects. It was a time of feeling each other out, and of sharing new ideas, concerns, and hopes. In the absence of an established precedent, a number of participants came with written papers while others made only verbal presentations. Informality added spice and special importance to the discussions at the end of each presentation and, especially, to the panel discussion at the end of the meeting. An important achievement was a consensus on near-, medium-, and long-term density goals for the various fuels. This consensus resulted in a list written on the blackboard at the end of the panel discussion, and reproduced on page 216, which outlined the goals of each fabricator. Luckily, both presentations and discussions were recorded on audio tape. These recordings were transcribed and used to complete the informal presentations and to append the discussions at the end of each presentation. Considerable effort was expended in clearing the transcribed papers and key discussions with the participants. A few issues could not be resolved quickly, and in the frantic rush of those early years, these proceedings were set aside. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort, we have recently dusted off the manuscript and finished our editing job.

  18. Proceedings of the 1978 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1993-08-01

    November 9-10, 1978, marked the first of what has become an annual event - the International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The RERTR Program had been started only three months earlier, and the meeting brought together for the first time many people who became major program participants in later years. This first meeting emphasized fuel development, and while it established the basis for all later meetings, it was unique in several respects. It was a time of feeling each other out, and of sharing new ideas, concerns, and hopes. In the absence of an established precedent, a number of participants came with written papers while others made only verbal presentations. Informality added spice and special importance to the discussions at the end of each presentation and, especially, to the panel discussion at the end of the meeting. An important achievement was a consensus on near-, medium-, and long-term density goals for the various fuels. This consensus resulted in a list written on the blackboard at the end of the panel discussion, and reproduced on page 216, which outlined the goals of each fabricator. Luckily, both presentations and discussions were recorded on audio tape. These recordings were transcribed and used to complete the informal presentations and to append the discussions at the end of each presentation. Considerable effort was expended in clearing the transcribed papers and key discussions with the participants. A few issues could not be resolved quickly, and in the frantic rush of those early years, these proceedings were set aside. Believing that the proceedings of this first meeting are important as a historical record of the beginning of the international RERTR effort, we have recently dusted off the manuscript and finished our editing job

  19. Environmental Enrichment, Performance, and Brain Injury in Male and Female Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Brenda M

    2004-01-01

    .... The extent to which physical vs. social aspects of enriched environments separately contribute to superior performance, or the extent to which males and females differ in their response to enrichment has not been examined previously...

  20. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavior, stress reactivity and synaptophysin/BDNF expression in hippocampus following early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandi, Εvgenia; Kalamari, Aikaterini; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration). At approximately three months of age, adult rats underwent behavioral testing to evaluate anxiety (Elevated Plus Maze), locomotion (Open Field Test), spatial learning and memory (Morris Water Maze) as well as non-spatial recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test). After completion of behavioral testing, blood samples were taken for evaluation of stress-induced plasma corticosterone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while immunofluorescence was applied to evaluate hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin expression in dorsal hippocampus. We found that environmental enrichment protected against the effects of maternal separation as indicated by the lower anxiety levels and the reversal of spatial memory deficits compared to animals housed in standard conditions. These changes were associated with increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Regarding the neuroendocrine response to stress, while exposure to an acute stressor potentiated corticosterone increases in maternally-separated rats, environmental enrichment of these rats prevented this effect. The current study aimed at investigating the compensatory role of enriched environment against the negative outcomes of adverse experiences early in life concurrently on emotional and cognitive

  1. Potential of Environmental Enrichment to Prevent Transgenerational Effects of Paternal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Katharina; Bohacek, Johannes; Grossmann, Jonas; Brunner, Andrea M; Manuella, Francesca; Nanni, Paolo; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse experiences in early life are risk factors for the development of behavioral and physiological symptoms that can lead to psychiatric and cognitive disorders later in life. Some of these symptoms can be transmitted to the offspring, in some cases by non-genomic mechanisms involving germ cells. Using a mouse model of unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress, we show that postnatal trauma alters coping behaviors in adverse conditions in exposed males when adult and in their adult male progeny. The behavioral changes are accompanied by increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and decreased DNA methylation of the GR promoter in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is also decreased in sperm cells of exposed males when adult. Transgenerational transmission of behavioral symptoms is prevented by paternal environmental enrichment, an effect associated with the reversal of alterations in GR gene expression and DNA methylation in the hippocampus of the male offspring. These findings highlight the influence of both negative and positive environmental factors on behavior across generations and the plasticity of the epigenome across life.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  3. Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, F; Sánchez, J; Torres, M N; Chamizo, V D

    2017-11-01

    The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

  5. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat P Fares

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage, which offers: (1 minimally stressful social interactions; (2 increased voluntary exercise; (3 multiple entertaining activities; (4 cognitive stimulation (maze exploration, and (5 novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week. The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

  6. Specificity in the licensing process of reduced enrichment in the Bulgarian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, Marietta; Gorinov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The presented paper considers some specific questions of the licensing process regarding the reconstruction of the Bulgarian IRT-2000 research reactor, which includes conversion to the low enriched fuel. This specificity has risen as a result of two facts. The design of the reactor reconstruction was made on the basis of the existing fresh 36% highly enriched fuel. But after finishing of the design process, this fresh highly enriched fuel was shipped back to Russia in the framework of the RERTR program. These facts have involved some changes in both - in the licensing and the design processes. Re-analysis of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations is required to be made on the base of the technical specifications of the new LEU fuel. To facilitate the licensing process the NRA has adopted regulatory acceptance criteria for approval of the reactor core design with LEU fuel. (author)

  7. Proceedings of the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of various programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. The papers presented during the Meeting were divided into 9 sessions and one round able discussion which concluded the Meeting. The Sessions were: Program, Fuel Development, Fuel Fabrication, Irradiation testing, Safety Analysis, Special Reactor Conversion, Reactor Design, Critical Experiments, and Reprocessing and Spent Fuel Storage. Thus, topics of this Meeting were of a very wide range that was expected to result in information exchange valuable for all the participants in the RERTR program

  8. Proceedings of the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of various programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. The papers presented during the Meeting were divided into 9 sessions and one round able discussion which concluded the Meeting. The Sessions were: Program, Fuel Development, Fuel Fabrication, Irradiation testing, Safety Analysis, Special Reactor Conversion, Reactor Design, Critical Experiments, and Reprocessing and Spent Fuel Storage. Thus, topics of this Meeting were of a very wide range that was expected to result in information exchange valuable for all the participants in the RERTR program.

  9. Individual differences in the forced swimming test and the effect of environmental enrichment: searching for an interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira-Cordero, A; Mora-Gallegos, A; Cuenca-Berger, P; Fornaguera-Trías, J

    2014-04-18

    Animals with low and high immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) differ in a number of neurobehavioral factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that the exposure to enriched environments mediates a number of changes in the brain. Therefore, we studied if animals' individuality can somehow modulate the response to environmental stimuli. Male rats were classified according to their immobility time scores in the FST test session as animals with low, medium or high immobility. Then, rats from groups with low and high immobility were randomly distributed in two groups to be reared in different housing conditions (i.e., enriched and standard conditions) during 8weeks. Animals were subjected to the open field test (OFT) before and 6weeks after the start of housing protocol. Rats with high immobility in the FST also showed high ambulation and high rearing time in the first OFT. Such findings were not observed in the second OFT. Conversely, an effect of environmental enrichment was found in the second OFT where enriched animals showed lower ambulation and higher grooming time than the standard control group. Rats were sacrificed after the housing protocol and neurochemical content and/or gene expression were studied in three different brain regions: the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens. Rats with low immobility showed significantly higher accumbal 5-HT levels than animals with high immobility, whereas no neurochemical differences were observed between enriched and standard animals. Regarding expression data, however, an effect of enrichment on accumbal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptor 1 (CRFR1) levels was observed, and such effect depended on immobility levels. Thus, our results not only allowed us to identify a number of differences between animals with low and high immobility or animals housed in standard and enriched conditions, but also suggested that animals' individuality modulated in some way the response to

  10. Brief environmental enrichment elicits metaplasticity of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term environmental enrichment (EE elicits enduring effects on the adult brain, including altered synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity may underlie memory formation and includes robust (>24h and weak (<2h forms of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Most studies of the effect of EE on synaptic efficacy have examined the consequences of very prolonged EE-exposure. It is unclear whether brief exposure to EE can alter synaptic plasticity. Clarifying this issue could help develop strategies to address cognitive deficits arising from neglect in children or adults.We assessed whether short-term EE elicits alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and if social context may play a role. Adult mice were exposed to EE for 14 consecutive days. We found that robust late-LTP (>24h and short-term depression (<2h at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses in freely behaving mice were unaltered, whereas early-LTP (E-LTP, <2h was significantly enhanced by EE. Effects were transient: E-LTP returned to control levels 1 week after cessation of EE. Six weeks later animals were re-exposed to EE for 14d. Under these conditions, E-LTP was facilitated into L-LTP (>24h, suggesting that metaplasticity was induced during the first EE experience and that EE-mediated modifications are cumulative. Effects were absent in mice that underwent solitary enrichment or were group-housed without EE. These data suggest that EE in naïve animals strengthens E-LTP, and also promotes L-LTP in animals that underwent EE in the past. This indicates that brief exposure to EE, particularly under social conditions can elicit lasting positive effects on synaptic strength that may have beneficial consequences for cognition that depends on synaptic plasticity.

  11. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Fabel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN and environmental enrichment (ENR both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can “prime” the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  12. The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify isotopic enrichment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, Jose Henrique

    2000-01-01

    The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle has been proposed, by international organizations, as an additional measure to the safeguards agreements in force. The elements specific for each kind of nuclear activity, or nuclear signatures, inserted in the ecosystem by several transfer paths, can be intercepted with better or worse ability by different live organisms. Depending on the kind of signature of interest, the anthropogenic material identification and quantification require the choice of adequate biologic indicators and, mainly, the use of sophisticated techniques associated with elaborate sample treatments. This work demonstrates the technical viability of using pine needles as bioindicators of nuclear signatures associated with uranium enrichment activities. Additionally, it proposes the use of a technique widely diffused nowadays in the scientific community, the High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), to identify the signature corresponding to that kind of activities in the ecosystem. It can be also found a description of a methodology recently being applied in analytical chemistry,based on uncertainties estimates metrological concepts, used to calculate the uncertainties associated with the obtained measurement results. Nitric acid solutions with a concentration of 0.3 mol.kg -1 , used to wash pine needles sampled near facilities that manipulate enriched uranium and containing only 0.1 μg.kg -1 of uranium, exhibit a 235 U: 238 U isotopic abundance ratio of 0.0092±0.0002, while solutions originated from samples collected at places located more than 200 km far from activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle exhibit a value of 0.0074±0.0002 for this abundance ratio. Similar results were obtained for samples collected in different places permit to confirm the presence of anthropogenic uranium and demonstrate the viability of using this technique and the

  13. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available The management of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001, and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli. The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  14. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Miller, Lance J; Shepherdson, David J; Morfeld, Kari A; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; pyear of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  15. Porous concrete block as an environmental enrichment device increases activity of laying hens in cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, A; Gorjanc, G; Stuhec, I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the influence of simple and cheap environmental enrichment such as porous concrete on the behavior of laying hens in conventional cages. Forty brown laying hens were housed in individual wire mesh cages: 20 in experimental cages with porous concrete block provided for pecking and 20 in a control group without concrete block provided. Porous concrete block (5 cm length x 5 cm width x 5 cm height) was mounted on the side wall at the height of the hen's head. Behavior was studied from 42 to 48 wk of age. A group of 8 hens was filmed for 24 h, and the camera was moved each day so that all 40 hens were recorded over 5 d each wk. Videotaping was performed in wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the experiment. States (long-term behavior) were observed with 5-min interval recording (feeding, preening, resting, and remaining inactive), whereas events (short-term activities) were observed with instantaneous recording (drinking, pecking concrete, pecking neighbors, pecking cage, and attempting to escape). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution for states, and Poisson distribution for events. Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods were used to estimate model parameters. Because posterior distributions of quantities of interest were skewed, medians and standard errors are reported. Hens in experimental cages were more active in long-term behavior than controls (64.9 +/- 1.9 and 59.3 +/- 1.9% of the light period, respectively). Correspondingly, hens in the control group showed more long-term inactivity. In addition to pecking the porous concrete block, hens in experimental cages also showed other short-term activities with greater frequency (4.10 +/- 0.31 and 3.51 +/- 0.25 events per h, respectively). Our hypothesis that hens in enriched cages would have a greater level of activity was confirmed. Provision of a piece of porous concrete block as a pecking substrate enriched the environment of the birds at negligible

  16. Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.

    2005-01-01

    While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are

  17. Investigation towards link-enriched video: user information needs for environmental opinion-forming and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Palumbo

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractLink-enriched video can support users in processes of environmental opinion-forming and decision-making. For this, audiovisual content must be represented and annotated to enable automatic link generation and computer manipulation. Given the time and budget constraints of

  18. User Information Needs for Environmental Opinion-forming and Decision-making in Link-enriched Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Palumbo; L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLink-enriched video can support users in informative processes of environmental opinion-forming and decision-making. To enable this, we need to specify the information that should be captured in an annotation schema for describing the video. We conducted expert interviews to elicit

  19. Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunling; Zhang, Mengqi; Shang, Lei; Cynthia, Ngobe Akume; Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhenyu; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist predominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs were subjected to short-term environmental enrichment. Animals were allowed to play with various cognitive and physical stimulating objects over a period of 2 weeks, twice per day, for 60 minutes each. Immunofluorescence staining results indicated that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was significantly increased after short-term environmental enrichment exposure. In addition, these doublecortin-positive cells co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (a marker of cell proliferation), c-Fos (a marker of cell viability) and NeuN (a marker of mature neurons). Experimental findings showed that short-term environmental enrichment can induce proliferation, activation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs. PMID:25206818

  20. The seperate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, J.E.L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burfoot, A.; Chamberlain, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and welfare of the growing/finishing pig. Groups of pigs were exposed to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial design with two levels of handling

  1. Proceedings of the 1994 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This meeting brought together participants in the international effort to minimize and eventually eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civilian nuclear programs. Papers cover the following topics: National programs; fuel cycle; nuclear fuels; analyses; advanced reactors; and reactor conversions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Proceedings of the 1994 international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This meeting brought together participants in the international effort to minimize and eventually eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civilian nuclear programs. Papers cover the following topics: National programs; fuel cycle; nuclear fuels; analyses; advanced reactors; and reactor conversions. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  3. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Bruce Wallace; Amy D. Rosemond

    2007-01-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material...

  4. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  5. Unconventional transcriptional response to environmental enrichment in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredford Kerr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT is an X-linked postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 and one of the leading causes of mental retardation in females. RTT is characterized by psychomotor retardation, purposeless hand movements, autistic-like behavior and abnormal gait. We studied the effects of environmental enrichment (EE on the phenotypic manifestations of a RTT mouse model that lacks MeCP2 (Mecp2(-/y. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that EE delayed and attenuated some neurological alterations presented by Mecp2(-/y mice and prevented the development of motor discoordination and anxiety-related abnormalities. To define the molecular correlate of this beneficial effect of EE, we analyzed the expression of several synaptic marker genes whose expression is increased by EE in several mouse models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that EE induced downregulation of several synaptic markers, suggesting that the partial prevention of RTT-associated phenotypes is achieved through a non-conventional transcriptional program.

  6. Reducing environmental damages caused by transportation: towards an heterodox approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marletto, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    According to orthodox economics, monetary incentives are the best way to reduce environmental damages caused by transportation. This approach is consistent with the consideration of environmental damages as a market failure and with the use of pigouvian taxes to re-establish market equilibrium. Using heterodox economics both the theoretical and the policy approach will change radically. Indeed, market is just one of the structural components of the existing transport system; others being: institutions, technologies, values. Then, a shift in policy approaches is needed: from the orthodox efficient allocation of existing resources, to the heterodox promotion of new development patterns, needed to alter the given structural situation. Consistently with this paradigmatic shift, environmental damages caused by transportation can be reduced only by making the transition to a new transport system viable. Moreover, an heterodox approach to the reduction of environmental damages caused by transportation gives rise to a sound revision of policy tools; among these must be considered: selective industrial policies to foster the ecological reconversion of transport supply (instead of a non-discriminatory support to ecological innovations); participatory decision procedures to evaluate and select transport policies (instead of neutral technical tools - such as Cba or Eia); information campaigns based on ethical considerations (instead of economic incentives to transport demand); attribution of the status of commons to environmental resources, in order to protect them from the free riding of transport activities (instead of the attribution to them of private property rights). This essay is composed of four parts. In the first one, some data on environmental damages caused by transportation in Italy are shown. In the second one, orthodox and heterodox paradigms of public interventions in the economy are compared, with a specific attention to environmental applications. In the

  7. Effects of environmental enrichment on the activity of the amygdala in micrencephalic rats exposed to a novel open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Wakoto; Ehara, Ayuka; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ueda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mediates recovery from sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits and emotional abnormalities. In the present study, we examined the effects of EE on locomotor activity and neuronal activity in the amygdala in control and methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced micrencephalic rats after challenge in a novel open field. Control rats housed in EE (CR) showed reduced locomotor activity compared to rats housed in a conventional cage (CC), whereas hyperactivity was seen in MAM rats housed in a conventional cage (MC) and in MAM rats housed in EE (MR). Novel open field exposure in both CC and MC resulted in a marked increase in Fos expression in the anterior and posterior parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, basomedial nucleus, and medial nucleus, whereas these increases in expression were not observed in CR. The effect of EE on Fos expression in the amygdala was different in MR exposed to a novel open field compared to CR. Furthermore, we observed a quite different pattern of Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala between control and MAM rats. The present results suggest that neuronal activity in the amygdala that responds to anxiety is altered in MAM rats, especially when the rats are reared in EE. These alterations may cause behavioral differences between control and MAM rats. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. Office of Environmental Management Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund financial statements, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-21

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act) requires the Department of Energy to retain ownership and responsibility for the costs of environmental cleanup resulting from the Government`s operation of the three gaseous diffusion facilities located at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. The Act transferred the uranium enrichment enterprise to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as of July 1, 1993, and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) to: Pay for the costs of decontamination and decommissioning at the diffusion facilities; pay the annual costs for remedial action at the diffusion facilities to the extent that the amount in the Fund is sufficient; and reimburse uranium/thorium licensees for the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial actions which are incident to sales to the Government.

  9. Transportation of foreign-owned enriched uranium from the Republic of Georgia. Environmental assessment for Project Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (NN) has prepared a classified environmental assessment to evaluate the potential environmental impact for the transportation of 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-235 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom. The nuclear fuel consists of primarily fresh fuel, but also consists of a small quantity (less than 1 kilogram) of partially-spent fuel. Transportation of the enriched uranium fuel would occur via US Air Force military aircraft under the control of the Defense Department European Command (EUCOM). Actions taken in a sovereign nation (such as the Republic of Georgia and the United Kingdom) are not subject to analysis in the environmental assessment. However, because the action would involve the global commons of the Black Sea and the North Sea, the potential impact to the global commons has been analyzed. Because of the similarities in the two actions, the Project Sapphire Environmental Assessment was used as a basis for assessing the potential impacts of Project Partnership. However, because Project Partnership involves a small quantity of partially-spent fuel, additional analysis was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts and to consider reasonable alternatives as required by NEPA. The Project Partnership Environmental Assessment found the potential environmental impacts to be well below those from Project Sapphire

  10. Methods for reducing lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched energy bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    P>Fish oil (FO) enrichment of foods is relevant owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human health. However, the susceptibility of FO to oxidation necessitates careful control to avoid this oxidation. In this study, energy bars were successfully supplemented...... similar protection towards oxidation as packaging the energy bars in modified atmosphere. These protection methods were although not as efficient as addition of FO as micro-encapsulated powder. Addition of the metal chelator ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) (100-2000 ppm) to emulsified FO...

  11. Effects of environmental enrichment on growth, aggressive behaviour and brain monoamines of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata reared under different social conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzina, Alkisti; Dalla, Christina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Karakatsouli, Nafsika

    2014-03-01

    The presence of blue or red-brown substrate on the tank bottom has been previously reported as an efficient means of environmental enrichment for gilthead seabream. The present study aimed to investigate whether this enrichment is still beneficial when gilthead seabream is reared under different social conditions (i.e. a lower 4.9 kg m(-3) and a higher 9.7 kg m(-3) density). Water exchange was adjusted according to fish biomass to exclude density effects on water quality. In the enriched tanks single-colour glass gravel was used as substrate (blue and red-brown substrate, or BS and RBS respectively), while control tanks had no gravel. Growth, aggressive behaviour and size distribution results indicated that the lower density created a less favourable social environment. In both densities studied, BS enhanced growth, suppressed aggression and reduced brain serotonergic activity. In the condition of intense social interactions (i.e. the lower density) BS also reduced brain dopaminergic activity. These results along with the negative correlations observed between brain monoamines and fish body mass, indicated that substrate and density effects are socially-induced. However, there may be several biotic and/or abiotic factors interfering with substrate effects that should be investigated before the practical use of a substrate in land-based intensive aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sixty-fold electrolytic batch enrichment for the assay of environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelmann, A.A.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Jalil, A.

    1977-01-01

    In Part 1 the general principles for the evaluation of low-level counting systems are outlined. Part 2 reviews current practices and experiences in tritium enrichment and counting systems. Part 3 describes a new approach to achieve high enrichment factors in a simple batch process. Sixty-fold tritium enrichment is achieved with an eighty-fold volume reduction. Specially designed large surface electrolysis cells are operated initially in series at 13A constant current, then for the final rundown at a constant voltage at 3.5V the cells are connected in parallel. (auth.)

  13. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  14. Environmental Enrichment, Performance, and Brain Injury in Male and Female Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Brenda M

    2004-01-01

    ...) and physical enrichment (PE) on the cognitive performance of neurologically intact and brain-injured rats and to determine if there are gender differences in these effects. Measures of basic (i.e...

  15. Microbial Diversity in Sulfate-Reducing Marine Sediment Enrichment Cultures Associated with Anaerobic Biotransformation of Coastal Stockpiled Phosphogypsum (Sfax, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Zouch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic biotechnology using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB is a promising alternative for reducing long-term stockpiling of phosphogypsum (PG, an acidic (pH ~3 by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries containing high amounts of sulfate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the diversity and ability of anaerobic marine microorganisms to convert sulfate from PG into sulfide, in order to look for marine SRB of biotechnological interest. A series of sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures were performed using different electron donors (i.e., acetate, formate, or lactate and sulfate sources (i.e., sodium sulfate or PG as electron acceptors. Significant sulfide production was observed from enrichment cultures inoculated with marine sediments, collected near the effluent discharge point of a Tunisian fertilizer industry (Sfax, Tunisia. Sulfate sources impacted sulfide production rates from marine sediments as well as the diversity of SRB species belonging to Deltaproteobacteria. When PG was used as sulfate source, Desulfovibrio species dominated microbial communities of marine sediments, while Desulfobacter species were mainly detected using sodium sulfate. Sulfide production was also affected depending on the electron donor used, with the highest production obtained using formate. In contrast, low sulfide production (acetate-containing cultures was associated with an increase in the population of Firmicutes. These results suggested that marine Desulfovibrio species, to be further isolated, are potential candidates for bioremediation of PG by immobilizing metals and metalloids thanks to sulfide production by these SRB.

  16. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  17. Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, J; Nemecek, T

    2018-06-01

    Food's environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities. However, mitigation is complicated by trade-offs, multiple ways for producers to achieve low impacts, and interactions throughout the supply chain. Producers have limits on how far they can reduce impacts. Most strikingly, impacts of the lowest-impact animal products typically exceed those of vegetable substitutes, providing new evidence for the importance of dietary change. Cumulatively, our findings support an approach where producers monitor their own impacts, flexibly meet environmental targets by choosing from multiple practices, and communicate their impacts to consumers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-C.S.I.C., Glorieta de la Astronomia, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petropoulou, V.; Vílchez, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10 8 -10 10 M ☉ , located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the properties of the ICM

  20. Shielding Studies for Reducing the associated Radiological Risks Due To Irradiated Low Enriched Uranium Foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present work estimates the radiation dose rates corresponding to irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (20 wt % 235 U) foil as part of shielding studies for radiological risks reduction after irradiation inside TRIGA 14 MW Research Reactor in an investigation on 99 Mo production possibility. Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory's cell shielding calculations have been performed; radiation source was obtained by using ORIGEN-S code with specific cross-sections libraries. Different post-irradiation cooling times have been considered, gamma dose rates being estimated by using MAVRIC module from Scale 6 programs package, for following exposure situations (relative to Pie cell): i) front side, ii) lateral side and iii) back side. Three different calculations were performed: a) without any protection shield between operator and cell, except for the cell stainless steel wall; b) with a Lead protection shield between operator and cell and c) with a depleted Uranium shield, located inside the cell in between the radiation source and cell window. Radiation dose rates to cell external wall surface and for other eight fixed distances from cell wall were estimated. To obtain a consistent set of solutions, the study was done for various Uranium foil weights and different Lead and depleted Uranium shields thicknesses. Calculations were focused to assure that the dose rate to an operator positioned at 60 cm working distance from the cell will not exceed 0.02 mSv/h, maximum allowed dose rate for professionally exposed personnel according to Romanian regulations.

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  2. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J; Kalenoja, H; Maekelae, S [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  3. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J.; Kalenoja, H.; Maekelae, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  4. Environmental enrichment decreases asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-11-13

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  5. The effectiveness of enriching relations between spouses to reduce marital conflict between employees in different offices in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aminianfar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective & aim:  Today, divorce and marital turmoil is increasing. Understanding the factors leading to chaos and the disintegration of family relationships is important. This study aimed to explore the effect of enriching relations between spouses, the couple's emotional security and marital conflicts.   Methods: In the present interventional-analytical study, ten different offices were randomly selected.  Of people who scored high on marital conflict and emotional security, and also those who gained low scores under 40 were divided randomly into two groups. Seven relations enriching group training sessions were held for the spouses.  At the end of the training sessions, both groups were evaluated by emotional security questionnaires by Brunner et al. (2008, marital conflict Sanaei and Barati (1996.   Results: Covariance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of the results of the marital conflict, mean and standard deviation of pre couples' marital conflict experimental and control groups were (20/15 and 20/145 (64/16 70/143 respectively.  The test score in two groups were (60/12 and 80/64 (17.4 and 70/143 respectively. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance components of marital conflict on test scores of experimental and control groups and the control effect of pre-test showed that Pylayy effect, Wilks Lambda test, Hotelling effect on the root of F=4.47 and degrees of freedom 7 levels significantly in p=0.0001 Effect of married couples was significant in reducing aggression.   Conclusion: Enrichment relations education for spouses may significantly reduce parameters of marital conflicts.

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment during abstinence in morphine dependent parents on anxiety, depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooriamehr, Alireza; Sabahi, Parviz; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-08-24

    Chronic morphine exposure during puberty increased morphine-induced rewarding effects and sensitization in the next generation. Given the well-known beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on the severity of physical and psychological dependence on morphine, we examined effects of enriched environment during morphine abstinence in morphine dependent parental rats before mating on the anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring. Paternal and/or maternal rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, 12h intervals) of morphine for 14days followed by rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during 30days of morphine abstinence before mating. The pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for anxiety (the elevated plus maze- EPM) and depression (sucrose preference test-SPT), and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that EE experience in morphine-dependent both parents result in an increase in the percentage of time spent into open arms/time spent on both arms using EPM in male offspring, higher levels of sucrose preference in female offspring and lower levels of voluntary morphine consumption in male and female offspring. Thus, EE experience in morphine-dependent both parents reduced anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring during puberty which may prevent the vulnerability of the next generation to drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term exposure to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment, physical exercise and diet reverses the spatial memory deficits and restores hippocampal neurogenesis in ventral subicular lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgal, Vijayakumar; Prem, Neethi; Hegde, Preethi; Laxmi, T R; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-04-01

    Subiculum is an important structure of the hippocampal formation and plays an imperative role in spatial learning and memory functions. We have demonstrated earlier the cognitive impairment following bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) in rats. We found that short term exposure to enriched environment (EE) did not help to reverse the spatial memory deficits in water maze task suggesting the need for an appropriate enriched paradigm towards the recovery of spatial memory. In the present study, the efficacy of long term exposure of VSL rats to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment (EE), physical exercise and 18 C.W. diet (Combination Therapy - CT) in reversing the spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze task has been studied. Ibotenate lesioning of ventral subiculum produced significant impairment of performance in the Morris water maze and reduced the hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Post lesion exposure to C.T. restored the hippocampal neurogenesis and improved the spatial memory functions in VSL rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the combination paradigm is critical towards the development of an enhanced behavioral and cognitive experience especially in conditions of CNS insults and the associated cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. N2O-reducing activity of soil amended with organic and inorganic enrichments under flooded conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Księżopolska

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes, apparent after investigation, in the physical and chemical properties in soil, as a result of organic and inorganic enrichments under flooded conditions, influence the growth of denitrifiers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of manure (8 kg m−2 (M, clay (50 kg m−2 (CL and lime (1.12 kg m−2 (Ca on the N2O-reducing activity (N2O-RA of sandy loam soil (clay content - 24 % in 0-20 cm, during NO3 reduction under flooding. The soil samples were taken from field plots after 3 years of enrichment with grass cultivation. The enrichments had a distinct effect on the N2O-RA and N2O-released, due to the change in pH, the porosity, and the sorptive properties of the soil. The pH had the greatest impact on the N2O-RA of the soil and ranged from 4.9 to 7.6. For actual denitrification to N2O-realized (aD-N2O, the maximum N2O-releasing (mcN2O-releasing followed the order: 1.36 for the M-treatment, 6.39 for the M+CL+Ca-treatment, 7.79 for the c-soil and 8.69 N2O-N mg kg−1 for the M+CL-treatment. For actual denitrification (aD, the mcN2O-releasing was followed the order: 10.37 for the M-treatment, 10.49 for the control soil, 14.60 for the M+CL+Ca-treatment and 20.00 N2O-N mg kg−1 for the M+CL-treatment. The N2O-RA of the soil samples increased as pH increased. The average N2O/N2+N2O ratio and the N2O-RA of the soil samples increased in the following order: M+CL, control soil, M+CL+Ca, M-enrichments. The addition of enrichments did not pose a threat to the environment due to increased N2O emissions, but as regards conserving NO3− in the soil, the addition of clay distinctly increased the complete denitrification process.

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This two-volume Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Volume 1 contains the assessment of the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, by Louisiana Energy Services, LP. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are construction, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D)- of the site. Issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment. The FEIS supports issuance of a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility.

  10. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  11. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  12. Does Environmental Enrichment Exposure Prior to Injury Influence Biomarkers Associated with Chronic Stage TBI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    release; distribution unlimited. 88 ABW/PA Cleared 03/25/2013; 88ABW-2013-1398. enrichment (Grundy et al., 2000; Kohara et al., 2001). BDNF is an...learning and Memory. 69(3):274-289 Kohara , K., Kitamura, A., Morishima, M., Tsumoto, T. (2001). Activity- dependent transfer of brain-derived

  13. Applying behavior-analytic methodology to the science and practice of environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Dorey, Nicole R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Leighty, Katherine A

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518). Multi-institutional studies are the typically-prescribed solution, but these are expensive and difficult to carry out. Kuhar ( Zoo Biology, 25, 339-352) provided a reminder that inferential statistics are only necessary when one wishes to draw general conclusions at the population level. Because welfare is assessed at the level of the individual animal, we argue that evaluations of enrichment efficacy are often instances in which inferential statistics may be neither necessary nor appropriate. In recent years, there have been calls for the application of behavior-analytic techniques to zoo animal behavior management, including environmental enrichment (e.g., Bloomsmith, Marr, & Maple, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 205-222; Tarou & Bashaw, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 189-204). Single-subject (also called single-case, or small-n) designs provide a means of designing evaluations of enrichment efficacy based on an individual's behavior. We discuss how these designs might apply to research and practice goals at zoos and aquariums, contrast them with standard practices in the field, and give examples of how each could be successfully applied in a zoo or aquarium setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Implementation trial of high performance trace analysis/environmental sampling (HPTA/ES) in uranium centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nackaerts, H.; Kloeckner, W.; Landresse, G.; MacLean, F.; Betti, M.; Forcina, V.; Hiernaut, T.; Tamborini, G.; Koch, L.; Schenkel, R.

    1999-01-01

    Field trials have demonstrated that the analysis of particles upon swipes obtained from inside nuclear installations provides clear signatures of past operations in that installation. This can offer a valuable tool for gaining assurance regarding the compliance with declared activities and the absence of undeclared activities (e.g. enrichment, reprocessing, and reactor operation) at such sites. This method, known as 'Environmental Sampling' (ES) or 'High Performance Trace Analysis' (HPTA) in EURATOM terminology, is at present being evaluated by the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate (ESD) in order to assess its possible use in nuclear installations within the European Union. It is expected that incorporation of HPTA/ES of sample collection and analysis into routine inspection activities will allow EURATOM to improve the effectiveness of safeguards in these installations and hopefully save inspection resources as well. The EURATOM Safeguards Directorate has therefore performed implementation trials involving the collection of particles by the so-called swipe sampling method in uranium centrifuge enrichment plants and hot cells in the European Union. These samples were subsequently analysed by the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) in Karlsruhe. Sampling points were chosen on the basis of the activities performed in the vicinity and by considering the possible ways through which particles are released, diffused and transported. The aim was to test the efficiency of the method as regards: the collection of enough representative material; the identification of a large enough number of uranium particles; the accurate measurement of the enrichment of the uranium particles found on the swipe; the representativity of the results in respect of past activities in the plant; the capability of detecting whether highly enriched uranium has been produced, used or occasionally transported in a location where low enriched uranium is routinely produced in

  15. Nitrogen enrichment suppresses other environmental drivers and homogenizes salt marsh leaf microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleo, Pedro; Alberti, Juan; Jumpponen, Ari; Veach, Allison; Ialonardi, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar; Silliman, Brian

    2018-06-01

    Microbial community assembly is affected by a combination of forces that act simultaneously, but the mechanisms underpinning their relative influences remain elusive. This gap strongly limits our ability to predict human impacts on microbial communities and the processes they regulate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that increased salinity stress, food web alteration and nutrient loading interact to drive outcomes in salt marsh fungal leaf communities. Both salinity stress and food web alterations drove communities to deterministically diverge, resulting in distinct fungal communities. Increased nutrient loads, nevertheless, partially suppressed the influence of other factors as determinants of fungal assembly. Using a null model approach, we found that increased nutrient loads enhanced the relative importance of stochastic over deterministic divergent processes; without increased nutrient loads, samples from different treatments showed a relatively (deterministic) divergent community assembly whereas increased nutrient loads drove the system to more stochastic assemblies, suppressing the effect of other treatments. These results demonstrate that common anthropogenic modifications can interact to control fungal community assembly. Furthermore, our results suggest that when the environmental conditions are spatially heterogeneous (as in our case, caused by specific combinations of experimental treatments), increased stochasticity caused by greater nutrient inputs can reduce the importance of deterministic filters that otherwise caused divergence, thus driving to microbial community homogenization. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Voluntary Running and Environmental Enrichment Restores Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis in a Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Noristani, H. N.; Olabarria, M.; Flatcher, J.; Somerville, T. D. D.; Yeh, C. Y.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 707-717 ISSN 1567-2050 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/09/1696; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/08/1381; GA ČR GA305/08/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Alzheimer 's disease * environmental enrichment * hippocampus neurogenesis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.953, year: 2011

  17. Anxiolytic effects of environmental enrichment attenuate sex-related anxiogenic effects of scopolamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Otto, Maria T

    2013-01-10

    In groups of four same-sexed animals, PVG/c hooded rats were housed for 4.5 months in standard or enriched cages containing several objects that could be explored and manipulated. On separate occasions, each rat then experienced two consecutive daily trials in an open field, a light-dark box or a Y maze with arm inserts that enabled an acquisition trial comprising one black and one white arm to be changed for a retention trial consisting of two black arms. Before their trials in the open field and light-dark box, and following each acquisition trial in the Y maze, the rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg scopolamine or isotonic saline. In the open field, enrichment led to higher levels of ambulation, walking, rearing and occupancy of the center of the apparatus and shorter emergence latencies from the dark into the light compartment of the light-dark box accompanied by more entries of this compartment. Enrichment also increased entries of and time spent in the changed (or novel) Y-maze arm only for male rats treated with scopolamine. The drug decreased rearing and increased grooming in the open field as well as increasing emergence latencies and decreasing entries of and the time spent on the light compartment of the light-dark box. The main results were interpreted as enrichment having attenuated anxiogenic effects of the behavioral testing and the action of scopolamine for male (but not female) rats in their choices of the novel arm in the Y maze. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maillard reaction products enriched food extract reduce the expression of myofibroblast phenotype markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhs, Stefanie; Nass, Norbert; Somoza, Veronika; Friess, Ulrich; Schinzel, Reinhard; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Simm, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated with a wide range of degenerative diseases. The present investigation aimed at analysing the influence of AGE containing nutritional extracts on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) as the major cell type responsible for cardiac fibrosis. Mice CFs were treated with bread crust extract (BCE) which contained significant amounts of a variety of AGE modifications. BCE treatment with up to 30 mg/mL did not impair cell viability. Furthermore, BCE induced a moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of redox sensitive pathways like the p42/44(MAPK), p38(MAPK) and NF-kappaB but did not alter Akt kinase phosphorylation. Expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin and tropomyosin-1, which represent markers for myofibroblast differentiation, was reduced after bread crust treatment. These data suggest a putative antifibrotic effect of melanoidin-rich food.

  19. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE's Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels

  20. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-01-01

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10 6 SM 3 ) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment

  1. Impact of Different Forms of Environmental Enrichment on Foraging and Activity Levels in Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie Charmoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of species-specific behaviors for animals in zoological institutions is of top priority, as this can help ensure high levels of animal welfare. Strict feeding schedules within institutions can often impact natural foraging behaviors of animals, as they are no longer required to seek out or manipulate food items. In the wild, western lowland gorillas would spend a majority of their time foraging. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of different forms of environmental enrichment on activity and foraging levels in gorillas at the Brookfield Zoo. Results suggest that automatic belt feeders that can feed at randomized times, will have the largest impact on behavior of all enrichment tested. However, there were individual differences observed between animals and the level of impact on their behavior. Using enrichment to increase the amount of time that zoo-housed gorillas spend searching for, acquiring, and consuming food can increase their overall activity levels and shift their behavior towards a more naturalistic direction.

  2. Urbanization Reduces Transfer of Diverse Environmental Microbiota Indoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanding urbanization is a major factor behind rapidly declining biodiversity. It has been proposed that in urbanized societies, the rarity of contact with diverse environmental microbiota negatively impacts immune function and ultimately increases the risk for allergies and other immune-mediated disorders. Surprisingly, the basic assumption that urbanization reduces exposure to environmental microbiota and its transfer indoors has rarely been examined. We investigated if the land use type around Finnish homes affects the diversity, richness, and abundance of bacterial communities indoors. Debris deposited on standardized doormats was collected in 30 rural and 26 urban households in and near the city of Lahti, Finland, in August 2015. Debris was weighed, bacterial community composition determined by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and the percentage of four different land use types (i.e., built area, forest, transitional, and open area within 200 m and 2000 m radiuses from each household was characterized. The quantity of doormat debris was inversely correlated with coverage of built area. The diversity of total bacterial, Proteobacterial, Actinobacterial, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes communities decreased as the percentage of built area increased. Their richness followed the same pattern except for Firmicutes for which no association was observed. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and particularly Gammaproteobacteria increased, whereas that of Actinobacteria decreased with increasing built area. Neither Phylum Firmicutes nor Bacteroidetes varied with coverage of built area. Additionally, the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacterial families and genera increased as the percentage of built area increased. Interestingly, having domestic animals (including pets only altered the association between the richness of Gammaproteobacteria and diversity of

  3. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  4. Separation and enrichment of gold(III) from environmental samples prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senturk, Hasan Basri; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan Numan; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif; Tufekci, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    A simple and accurate method was developed for separation and enrichment of trace levels of gold in environmental samples. The method is based on the adsorption of Au(III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complex on Amberlite XAD-2000 resin prior to the analysis of gold by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after elution with 1 mol L -1 HNO 3 in acetone. Some parameters including nitric acid concentration, eluent type, matrix ions, sample volume, sample flow rate and adsorption capacity were investigated on the recovery of gold(III). The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit of gold were greater than 95% and 16.6 μg L -1 , respectively. The preconcentration factor was 200. The relative standard deviation of the method was -1 . The validation of the presented procedure was checked by the analysis of CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil certified reference material. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of gold in some environmental samples

  5. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  6. Insights into Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II) Oxidation Mechanisms through Analysis of Cell-Mineral Associations, Cell Encrustation, and Mineralogy in the Chemolithoautotrophic Enrichment Culture KS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, M; Tominski, C; Halama, M; Byrne, J M; Obst, M; Kleindienst, S; Behrens, S; Kappler, A

    2017-07-01

    Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans ) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In the mixed culture, we found no significant encrustation of any of the cells both during autotrophic oxidation of 8 to 10 mM Fe(II) coupled to nitrate reduction and during cultivation under mixotrophic conditions with 8 to 10 mM Fe(II), 5 mM acetate, and 4 mM nitrate, where higher numbers of heterotrophic nitrate reducers were present. Two pure cultures of heterotrophic nitrate reducers ( Nocardioides and Rhodanobacter ) isolated from culture KS were analyzed under mixotrophic growth conditions. We found green rust formation, no cell encrustation, and only a few mineral particles on some cell surfaces with 5 mM Fe(II) and some encrustation with 10 mM Fe(II). Our findings suggest that enzymatic, autotrophic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction forms poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and proceeds without cellular encrustation while indirect Fe(II) oxidation via heterotrophic nitrate-reduction-derived nitrite can lead to green rust as an intermediate mineral and significant cell encrustation. The extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible under environmental conditions in most habitats. IMPORTANCE Most described nitrate-reducing

  7. Insights into Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II) Oxidation Mechanisms through Analysis of Cell-Mineral Associations, Cell Encrustation, and Mineralogy in the Chemolithoautotrophic Enrichment Culture KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, M.; Tominski, C.; Halama, M.; Byrne, J. M.; Obst, M.; Behrens, S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In the mixed culture, we found no significant encrustation of any of the cells both during autotrophic oxidation of 8 to 10 mM Fe(II) coupled to nitrate reduction and during cultivation under mixotrophic conditions with 8 to 10 mM Fe(II), 5 mM acetate, and 4 mM nitrate, where higher numbers of heterotrophic nitrate reducers were present. Two pure cultures of heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Nocardioides and Rhodanobacter) isolated from culture KS were analyzed under mixotrophic growth conditions. We found green rust formation, no cell encrustation, and only a few mineral particles on some cell surfaces with 5 mM Fe(II) and some encrustation with 10 mM Fe(II). Our findings suggest that enzymatic, autotrophic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction forms poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and proceeds without cellular encrustation while indirect Fe(II) oxidation via heterotrophic nitrate-reduction-derived nitrite can lead to green rust as an intermediate mineral and significant cell encrustation. The extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible under environmental conditions in most habitats. IMPORTANCE Most described nitrate-reducing

  8. Tritium enrichment of environmental waters by electrolysis: Development of cathodes exhibiting high isotopic separation and precise measurement of tritium enrichment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    Equations are developed for the estimation of tritium enrichment in batch, continuous feed and periodic addition electrolysis cells. Optimum enrichment and minimum variability is obtained using developed cathode surfaces which catalyse the separation of tritium, as exhibited by the results of experiments using mild steel cathodes with NaOH electrolyte. The equations and various simple refinements of technique are applied to the determination of tritium enrichment factors by the spike cell method: for batch cells the standard errors are less than 1%. (author)

  9. Effect of environmental enrichment exposure on neuronal morphology of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and stressed rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Pamidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental enrichment (EE exposure is known to influence the structural changes in the neuronal network of hippocampus. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EE exposure on the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic and stressed rat hippocampus. Methods: Male albino rats of Wistar strain (4-5 weeks old were grouped into normal control (NC, vehicle control (VC, diabetes (DI, diabetes + stress (DI + S, diabetes + EE (DI + E, and diabetes + stress + EE (DI + S + E groups (n = 8 in each group. Rats were exposed to stress and EE after inducing diabetes with STZ (40 mg/kg. Rats were sacrificed on Day 30 and brain sections were processed for cresyl violet staining to quantify the number of surviving neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus (DH regions of hippocampus. Results: A significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the number of survived neurons was noticed in DI (CA1, 34.06 ± 3.2; CA3, 36.1 ± 3.62; DH, 9.83 ± 2.02 as well as DI + S (CA1, 14.03 ± 3.12; CA3, 20.27 ± 4.09; DH, 6.4 ± 1.21 group rats compared to NC rats (CA1, 53.64 ± 2.96; CA3, 62.1 ± 3.34; DH, 21.11 ± 1.03. A significant (p < 0.001 increase in the number of survived neurons was observed in DI + E (CA1, 42.3 ± 3.66; CA3, 46.73 ± 4.74; DH, 17.03 ± 2.19 and DI + S + E (CA1, 29.69 ± 4.47; CA3, 36.73 ± 3.89; DH, 12.23 ± 2.36 group rats compared to DI and DI + S groups, respectively. Conclusions: EE exposure significantly reduced the amount of neuronal damage caused by complications of diabetes and stress to the neurons of hippocampus.

  10. Vascular Function Is Improved After an Environmental Enrichment Program: The Train the Brain-Mind the Vessel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Stea, Francesco; Sicari, Rosa; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Taddei, Stefano; Ungar, Andrea; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Del Turco, Serena; Sbrana, Silverio; Gargani, Luna; D'Angelo, Gennaro; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    Environmental enrichment may slow cognitive decay possibly acting through an improvement in vascular function. Aim of the study was to assess the effects of a 7-month cognitive, social, and physical training program on cognitive and vascular function in patients with mild cognitive impairment. In a single-center, randomized, parallel-group study, 113 patients (age, 65-89 years) were randomized to multidomain training (n=55) or usual care (n=58). All participants underwent neuropsychological tests and vascular evaluation, including brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid distensibility, and assessment of circulating hematopoietic CD34+ and endothelial progenitor cells. At study entry, an age-matched control group (n=45) was also studied. Compared with controls, patients had at study entry a reduced flow-mediated dilation (2.97±2.14% versus 3.73±2.06%; P =0.03) and hyperemic stimulus (shear rate area under the curve, 19.1±15.7 versus 25.7±15.1×10 -3 ; P =0.009); only the latter remained significant after adjustment for confounders ( P =0.03). Training improved Alzheimer disease assessment scale cognitive (training, 14.0±4.8 to 13.1±5.5; nontraining, 12.1±3.9 to 13.2±4.8; P for interaction visit×training=0.02), flow-mediated dilation (2.82±2.19% to 3.40±1.81%, 3.05±2.08% to 2.24±1.59%; P =0.006; P =0.023 after adjustment for diameter and shear rate area under the curve), and circulating hematopoietic CD34 + cells and prevented the decline in carotid distensibility (18.4±5.3 to 20.0±6.6, 23.9±11.0 to 19.5±7.1 Pa -1 ; P =0.005). The only clinical predictor of improvement of cognitive function after training was established hypertension. There was no correlation between changes in measures of cognitive and vascular function. In conclusion, a multidomain training program slows cognitive decline, especially in hypertensive individuals. This effect is accompanied by improved systemic endothelial function

  11. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Fructose-enriched diet induces inflammation and reduces antioxidative defense in visceral adipose tissue of young female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Sanja; Nestorov, Jelena; Matić, Gordana; Elaković, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser 307 . Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.

  13. Access to litter during rearing and environmental enrichment during production reduce fearfulness in adult laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsaeter, Margrethe; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke

    2017-01-01

    Exaggerated fear-reactions are associated with injurious flying, smothering, feather pecking and other events that compromise animal welfare in laying hens. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chicks with access to litter during the first five weeks of life would be less fearful...... as adult hens compared to birds reared without access to litter. The hypothesis was tested in a national on-farm study in commercial aviary flocks in Norway. Five rearing farmers divided the pullets into two groups within their rearing houses. While the chicks were enclosed inside the aviary rows during...... reared with paper) were visited. During the visit, the fearfulness of the adult birds was tested in a stationary person test and a novel object test. The data was analysed by ANOVA or logistic regression as appropriate. The access to litter during rearing did not influence the number of birds...

  14. Mid-life environmental enrichment increases synaptic density in CA1 in a mouse model of Aβ-associated pathology and positively influences synaptic and cognitive health in healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kimberley E; King, Anna E; Fernandez-Martos, Carmen M; Dittmann, Justin; Summers, Mathew J; Vickers, James C

    2017-06-01

    Early-life cognitive enrichment may reduce the risk of experiencing cognitive deterioration and dementia in later-life. However, an intervention to prevent or delay dementia is likely to be taken up in mid to later-life. Hence, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment in wildtype mice and in a mouse model of Aβ neuropathology (APP SWE /PS1 dE9 ) from 6 months of age. After 6 months of housing in standard laboratory cages, APP SWE /PS1 dE9 (n = 27) and healthy wildtype (n = 21) mice were randomly assigned to either enriched or standard housing. At 12 months of age, wildtype mice showed altered synaptic protein levels and relatively superior cognitive performance afforded by environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment was not associated with alterations to Aβ plaque pathology in the neocortex or hippocampus of APP SWE /PS1 dE9 mice. However, a significant increase in synaptophysin immunolabeled puncta in the hippocampal subregion, CA1, in APP SWE /PS1 dE9 mice was detected, with no significant synaptic density changes observed in CA3, or the Fr2 region of the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF was detected in APP SWE /PS1 dE9 mice exposed to EE, however, no changes were detected in neocortex or between Wt animals. These results demonstrate that mid to later-life cognitive enrichment has the potential to promote synaptic and cognitive health in ageing, and to enhance compensatory capacity for synaptic connectivity in pathological ageing associated with Aβ deposition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of environmental enrichment on physical and psychological dependence signs and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependency and withdrawal on the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days following rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for withdrawal signs after naloxone injection, anxiety (the elevated plus maze) and depression-related behavior (sucrose preference test), and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm, in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats. The results showed that EE decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, but not anxiety or sucrose preference during dependence on morphine. The EE-withdrawn rats showed an increase in the elevated plus maze open arm time and entries and higher levels of sucrose preference than SE rats. Voluntary consumption of morphine was lower in the EE-withdrawn rats than in the SE groups in the second period of drug intake. Thus, exposure to EE reduced the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary consumption of morphine, alongside reductions in anxiety and depression-related behavior in morphine-withdrawn rats.

  16. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms.

  17. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Doublecortin and BDNF Expression along the Dorso-Ventral Axis of the Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Fabio; Brégère, Catherine; Laws, Grace C; Armstrong, Elena A; Wylie, Nicholas J; Moxham, Theo T; Guzman, Raphael; Boswell, Timothy; Smulders, Tom V

    2017-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in the dentate gyrus is known to respond to environmental enrichment, chronic stress, and many other factors. The function of AHN may vary across the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, as different subdivisions are responsible for different functions. The dorsal pole regulates cognitive-related behaviors, while the ventral pole mediates mood-related responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, we investigate different methods of quantifying the effect of environmental enrichment on AHN in the dorsal and ventral parts of the dentate gyrus (dDG and vDG). To this purpose, 11-week-old female CD-1 mice were assigned for 8 days to one of two conditions: the Environmental Enrichment (E) group received (i) running wheels, (ii) larger cages, (iii) plastic tunnels, and (iv) bedding with male urine, while the Control (C) group received standard housing. Dorsal CA ( Cornu Ammonis ) and DG regions were larger in the E than the C animals. Distance run linearly predicted the volume of the dorsal hippocampus, as well as of the intermediate and ventral CA regions. In the dDG, the amount of Doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in E than in C mice. Surprisingly, this pattern was the opposite in the vDG (C > E). Real-time PCR measurement of Dcx mRNA and DCX protein analysis using ELISA showed the same pattern. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity and mRNA displayed no difference between E and C, suggesting that upregulation of DCX was not caused by changes in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were higher in vDG than in dDG, as measured by both methods. Bdnf expression in vDG correlated positively with the distance run by individual E mice. The similarity in the patterns of immunoreactivity, mRNA and protein for differential DCX expression and for BDNF distribution suggests that the latter two methods might be effective tools for more rapid quantification of AHN.

  18. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Doublecortin and BDNF Expression along the Dorso-Ventral Axis of the Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gualtieri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN in the dentate gyrus is known to respond to environmental enrichment, chronic stress, and many other factors. The function of AHN may vary across the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, as different subdivisions are responsible for different functions. The dorsal pole regulates cognitive-related behaviors, while the ventral pole mediates mood-related responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. In this study, we investigate different methods of quantifying the effect of environmental enrichment on AHN in the dorsal and ventral parts of the dentate gyrus (dDG and vDG. To this purpose, 11-week-old female CD-1 mice were assigned for 8 days to one of two conditions: the Environmental Enrichment (E group received (i running wheels, (ii larger cages, (iii plastic tunnels, and (iv bedding with male urine, while the Control (C group received standard housing. Dorsal CA (Cornu Ammonis and DG regions were larger in the E than the C animals. Distance run linearly predicted the volume of the dorsal hippocampus, as well as of the intermediate and ventral CA regions. In the dDG, the amount of Doublecortin (DCX immunoreactivity was significantly higher in E than in C mice. Surprisingly, this pattern was the opposite in the vDG (C > E. Real-time PCR measurement of Dcx mRNA and DCX protein analysis using ELISA showed the same pattern. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA displayed no difference between E and C, suggesting that upregulation of DCX was not caused by changes in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were higher in vDG than in dDG, as measured by both methods. Bdnf expression in vDG correlated positively with the distance run by individual E mice. The similarity in the patterns of immunoreactivity, mRNA and protein for differential DCX expression and for BDNF distribution suggests that the latter two methods might be effective tools for more rapid quantification of AHN.

  19. Characterization of nitrate-reducing and amino acid-using bacteria prominent in nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  20. Milk protein enriched beverage reduces post-exercise energy intakes in women with higher levels of cognitive dietary restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virgilio, Nicolina; Donno, De Roberta; Bandini, Enrica; Napolitano, Aurora; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the satiating efficacy of milk proteins compared to carbohydrates in twenty women during post-exercise period. Methods: A milk protein-enriched beverage (MPB), and an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched beverage (CB) containing respectively 9.3. g and 0.3.

  1. Effects of environmental enrichment on decision-making behavior in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Staay, F.J.; van Zutphen, Johanna A.; de Ridder, Mirjam M.; Nordquist, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    The animal’s emotional state, potentially modulated by environmental conditions, may affect cognitive processes such as interpretation, judgement and decision making behaviour. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a common method to examine decision making behavior in humans in terms of risk avoidance

  2. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M A; Romero, Juan I; Holubiec, Mariana I; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  3. Framing sound: Using expectations to reduce environmental noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-10-01

    Annoyance reactions to environmental noise, such as wind turbine sound, have public health implications given associations between annoyance and symptoms related to psychological distress. In the case of wind farms, factors contributing to noise annoyance have been theorised to include wind turbine sound characteristics, the noise sensitivity of residents, and contextual aspects, such as receiving information creating negative expectations about sound exposure. The experimental aim was to assess whether receiving positive or negative expectations about wind farm sound would differentially influence annoyance reactions during exposure to wind farm sound, and also influence associations between perceived noise sensitivity and noise annoyance. Sixty volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either negative or positive expectations about wind farm sound. Participants in the negative expectation group viewed a presentation which incorporated internet material indicating that exposure to wind turbine sound, particularly infrasound, might present a health risk. Positive expectation participants viewed a DVD which framed wind farm sound positively and included internet information about the health benefits of infrasound exposure. Participants were then simultaneously exposed to sub-audible infrasound and audible wind farm sound during two 7 min exposure sessions, during which they assessed their experience of annoyance. Positive expectation participants were significantly less annoyed than negative expectation participants, while noise sensitivity only predicted annoyance in the negative group. Findings suggest accessing negative information about sound is likely to trigger annoyance, particularly in noise sensitive people and, importantly, portraying sound positively may reduce annoyance reactions, even in noise sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental enrichment brings a beneficial effect on beam walking and enhances the migration of doublecortin-positive cells following striatal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, S; Hida, H; Masuda, T; Misumi, S; Kim, T-S; Nishino, H

    2007-02-09

    Rats raised in an enriched environment (enriched rats) have been reported to show less motor dysfunction following brain lesions, but the neuronal correlates of this improvement have not been well clarified. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of chemical brain lesions and environmental enrichment on motor function and lesion-induced neurogenesis. Three week-old, recently weaned rats were divided into two groups: one group was raised in an enriched environment and the other group was raised in a standard cage for 5 weeks. Striatal damage was induced at an age of 8 weeks by injection of the neuro-toxins 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) into the striatum, or by injection of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra (SN), which depleted nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation. Enriched rats showed better performance on beam walking compared with those raised in standard conditions, but both groups showed similar forelimb use asymmetry in a cylinder test. The number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled proliferating cells in the subventricular zone was increased by a severe striatal lesion induced by QA injection 1 week after the lesion, but decreased by injection of 6-OHDA into the SN. Following induction of lesions by striatal injection of 6-OHDA or QA, the number of cells positive for doublecortin (DCX) was strongly increased in the striatum; however, there was no change in the number of DCX-positive cells following 6-OHDA injection into the SN. Environmental enrichment enhanced the increase of DCX-positive cells with migrating morphology in the dorsal striatum. In enriched rats, DCX-positive cells traversed the striatal parenchyma far from the corpus callosum and lateral ventricle. DCX-positive cells co-expressed an immature neuronal marker, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, but were negative for a glial marker. These data suggest that environmental enrichment improves motor performance on beam walking and enhances neuronal migration toward

  5. Environmental program audit: Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex, Piketon, Ohio. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The audit was performed by observing operations, inspecting facilities and equipment, examining monitoring procedures and data, and evaluating compliance with applicable DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. On the basis of available information, no imminent danger to public health or safety was disclosed by the audit. Wastewater treatment facilities are well operated, and there appears to be adequate characterization of current hazardous waste. Similarly, regulatory compliance with NPDES surface water monitoring and discharge requirements is satisfactory. Specific deficiencies in the environmental management program are defined for improvement. These areas include the monitoring network and compliance with air quality standards, water quality standards, waste disposal, and record keeping

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment on the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrells, A D; Corcoran-Gomez, K; Eckert, K A; Fahey, A G; Hoots, B L; Charleston, L B; Charleston, J S; Roberts, C R; Markowitz, H

    2009-04-01

    The manner in which an animal's environment is furnished may have significant implications for animal welfare as well as research outcomes. We evaluated four different housing conditions to determine the effects of what has been considered standard rodent enrichment and the exercise opportunities those environments allow on disease progression in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. Forty-eight copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mice (strain: B6SJL-TgN [SOD1-G931]1Gur) (SOD1) and 48 control (C) (strain: B6SJL-TgN[SOD1]2Gur) male mice were randomly assigned to four different conditions where 12 SOD1 and 12 C animals were allotted to each condition (n = 96). Conditions tested the effects of standard housing, a forced exercise regime, access to a mouse house and opportunity for ad libitum exercise on a running wheel. In addition to the daily all-occurrence behavioural sampling, mice were weighed and tested twice per week on gait and Rotor-Rod performance until the mice reached the age of 150 days (C) or met the criteria for our humane endpoint (SOD1). The SOD1 mice exposed to the forced exercise regime and wheel access did better in average lifespan and Rotor-Rod performance, than SOD1 mice exposed to the standard cage and mouse house conditions. In SOD1 mice, stride length remained longest throughout the progression of the disease in mice exposed to the forced exercise regime compared with other SOD1 conditions. Within the control group, mice in the standard cage and forced exercise regime conditions performed significantly less than the mice with the mouse house and wheels on the Rotor-Rod. Alpha motor neuron counts were highest in mice with wheels and in mice exposed to forced exercise regime in both mouse strains. All SOD1 mice had significantly lower alpha neuron counts than controls (P model, and may have implications for the effects of these strategies on experimental outcomes.

  7. Maternal exposure to environmental enrichment before and during gestation influences behaviour of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuena, Anna Rita; Zinni, Manuela; Giuli, Chiara; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Giuliani, Alessandro; Catalani, Assia; Casolini, Paola; Cozzolino, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial effects of Environmental Enrichment (EE) applied immediately after weaning or even in adulthood have been widely demonstrated. Less is known about the possible changes in behaviour and brain development of the progeny following the exposure of dams to EE. In order to further investigate this matter, female rats were reared in EE for 12weeks, from weaning until delivery. After having confirmed the presence of relevant behavioural effects of EE, both control and EE females underwent mating. Maternal behaviour was observed and male and female offspring were then administered a battery of behavioural test at different ages. EE mothers showed a decreased frequency of total nursing and, during the first 2days of lactation, an increase in licking/grooming behaviour. Maternal exposure to EE affected offspring behaviour in a sex-specific manner: social play behaviour and anxiety-like behaviour were increased in males but not in females and learning ability was improved only in females. As a general trend, maternal EE had a marked influence on motility in male and female offspring in both locomotor activity and swimming speed. Overall, this study highlights the importance of environmental stimulation, not only in the animals directly experiencing EE, but for their progeny too, opening the way to new hypothesis on the heritability mechanisms of behavioural traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation and enrichment of gold(III) from environmental samples prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senturk, Hasan Basri; Gundogdu, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, Volkan Numan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Elci, Latif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Tufekci, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    A simple and accurate method was developed for separation and enrichment of trace levels of gold in environmental samples. The method is based on the adsorption of Au(III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complex on Amberlite XAD-2000 resin prior to the analysis of gold by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after elution with 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in acetone. Some parameters including nitric acid concentration, eluent type, matrix ions, sample volume, sample flow rate and adsorption capacity were investigated on the recovery of gold(III). The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit of gold were greater than 95% and 16.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 200. The relative standard deviation of the method was <6%. The adsorption capacity of the resin was 12.3 mg g{sup -1}. The validation of the presented procedure was checked by the analysis of CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil certified reference material. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of gold in some environmental samples.

  9. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834319

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such

  10. Measurement of extremely (2) H-enriched water samples by laser spectrometry: application to batch electrolytic concentration of environmental tritium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Kumar, B; Douence, C; Belachew, D L; Aggarwal, P K

    2016-02-15

    Natural water samples artificially or experimentally enriched in deuterium ((2) H) at concentrations up to 10,000 ppm are required for various medical, environmental and hydrological tracer applications, but are difficult to measure using conventional stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate that off-axis integrated cavity output (OA-ICOS) laser spectrometry, along with (2) H-enriched laboratory calibration standards and appropriate analysis templates, allows for low-cost, fast, and accurate determinations of water samples having δ(2) HVSMOW-SLAP values up to at least 57,000 ‰ (~9000 ppm) at a processing rate of 60 samples per day. As one practical application, extremely (2) H-enriched samples were measured by laser spectrometry and compared to the traditional (3) H Spike-Proxy method in order to determine tritium enrichment factors in the batch electrolysis of environmental waters. Highly (2) H-enriched samples were taken from different sets of electrolytically concentrated standards and low-level (tritium samples, and all cases returned accurate and precise initial low-level (3) H results. The ability to quickly and accurately measure extremely (2) H-enriched waters by laser spectrometry will facilitate the use of deuterium as a tracer in numerous environmental and other applications. For low-level tritium operations, this new analytical ability facilitated a 10-20 % increase in sample productivity through the elimination of spike standards and gravimetrics, and provides immediate feedback on electrolytic enrichment cell performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Environmental enrichment and gut inflammation modify stress-induced c-Fos expression in the mouse corticolimbic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Reichmann

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE has a beneficial effect on rodent behaviour, neuronal plasticity and brain function. Although it may also improve stress coping, it is not known whether EE influences the brain response to an external (psychological stressor such as water avoidance stress (WAS or an internal (systemic stressor such as gastrointestinal inflammation. This study hence explored whether EE modifies WAS-induced activation of the mouse corticolimbic system and whether this stress response is altered by gastritis or colitis. Male C67BL/6N mice were housed under standard or enriched environment for 9 weeks, after which they were subjected to a 1-week treatment with oral iodoacetamide to induce gastritis or oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Following exposure to WAS the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was measured by immunocytochemistry. EE aggravated experimentally induced colitis, but not gastritis, as shown by an increase in the disease activity score and the colonic myeloperoxidase content. In the brain, EE enhanced the WAS-induced activation of the dentate gyrus and unmasked an inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression within this part of the hippocampus. Conversely, EE inhibited the WAS-evoked activation of the central amygdala and prevented the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this region. EE, in addition, blunted the WAS-induced activation of the infralimbic cortex and attenuated the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this area. These data reveal that EE has a region-specific effect on stress-induced c-Fos expression in the corticolimbic system, which is likely to improve stress resilience. The response of the prefrontal cortex - amygdala - hippocampus circuitry to psychological stress is also modified by the systemic stress of gut inflammation, and this interaction between external

  12. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, L.M.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ampe, B.; Reubens, B.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds’ fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the

  13. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Environmental monitoring (operational period) of the uranium enrichment facility Almirante Alvaro Alberto. Quadrimonthly report of gamma spectroscopy measurements: march to june 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, L.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1990-02-01

    In this report we present the assessment of the environmental monitoring radiation levels during the operation period of the Uranium Enrichment Facility Almirante Alvaro Alberto from March to July 1988. The purpose was achieved by sampling and analyzing using gamma spectrometry, water and terrestrial and biological indicators. (author) [pt

  15. A meta-analysis of the combined effect of housing and environmental enrichment characteristics on the behaviour and performance of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Edge, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the combined effect of housing conditions and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and performance of pigs, a meta-analysis was performed using information from 45 experiments in 42 published manuscripts. Multiple regression models were applied to evaluate the effects of space

  16. Effects of environmental enrichment on anxiety-like behavior, sociability, sensory gating, and spatial learning in male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, Taylor R; Cronin, Marie E; Langella, Stephanie; McGuinness, Patrick S; Basu, Alo C

    2016-11-01

    The influence of housing on cognition and emotional regulation in mice presents a problem for the study of genetic and environmental risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders: standard laboratory housing may result in low levels of cognitive function or altered levels of anxiety that leave little room for assessment of deleterious effects of experimental manipulations. The use of enriched environment (EE) may allow for the measurement of a wider range of performance in cognitive domains. Cognitive and behavioral effects of EE in male mice have not been widely reproduced, perhaps due to variability in the application of enrichment protocols, and the effects of EE in female mice have not been widely studied. We have developed an EE protocol using common laboratory equipment that, without a running wheel for exercise, results in significant cognitive and behavioral effects relative to standard laboratory housing conditions. We compared male and female wild-type C57BL/6J mice reared from weaning age in an EE to those reared in a standard environment (SE), using common measures of anxiety-like behavior, sensory gating, sociability, and spatial learning and memory. Sex was a significant factor in relevant elevated plus maze (EPM) measures, and bordered on significance in a social interaction (SI) assay. Effects of EE on anxiety-like behavior and sociability were indicative of a general increase in exploratory activity. In male and female mice, EE resulted in reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and enhanced spatial learning and use of spatially precise strategies in a Morris water maze task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. ► Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. ► The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. ► The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  18. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  19. Environmental Assessment for the shipment of low enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom from the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This Environmental Assessment provides the necessary information so that a decision can be made on whether a Finding of No Significant Impact Environmental Impact Statement should be prepared for the proposed action. The proposed action is to transfer 2,592 low enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom. The billets are currently stored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action would consist of two types of activities: loading and transportation. The loading activities would include placing the billets into the appropriate containers for transportation. The transportation activities would include the tasks required to transport the containers 215 miles (344 km) via highway to the Port of Seattle, Washington, and transfer the containers aboard an ocean cargo vessel for transportation to the United Kingdom. The Department of Energy would only be responsible for conducting the loading activities. The United Kingdom would be responsible for conducting the transportation activities in compliance with all applicable United States and international transportation laws. The tasks associated with the proposed action activities have been performed before and are well defined in terms of requirements and consequences. A risk assessment and a nuclear safety evaluation were performed to address safety issues associated with the proposed action. The risk assessment determined the exposure risk from normal operation and from the maximum credible accident that involves a truck or ship collision followed by a fire that engulfs all the billets in the shipment and the release of the radiological contents of the shipment to the environment. The criticality assessment determined the nuclear safety limits for handling, transporting and storing the shipment under incident-free and accident transport conditions

  20. Traumatic brain injury and post-acute decline: what role does environmental enrichment play? A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eFrasca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. While a number of studies provide evidence of neural and cognitive decline in traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors during the post-acute stages of injury, there is a dearth of research on the possible mechanisms underlying this decline. The purposes of this paper, therefore, are to (1 examine evidence that environmental enrichment (EE can influence long-term outcome following TBI, and (2 examine the nature of post-acute environments, whether they vary in degree of EE, and what impact these variations have on outcomes.Methods. We conducted a scoping review to identify studies on EE in animals and humans, and post-discharge experiences that relate to barriers to recovery.Results. Ninety-six articles that met inclusion criteria demonstrated the benefits of EE on brain and behaviour in healthy and brain-injured animals and humans. Nineteen papers on post-discharge experiences provided evidence that variables such as insurance coverage, financial and social support, home therapy, and transition from hospital to home, also play a vital role in regaining independence. Conclusion. There is evidence to suggest that lack of EE, whether from lack of resources or limited ability to engage in such environments, may play a role in post-recovery cognitive and neural decline. Maximizing EE in the post-acute stages of TBI may improve long-term outcomes for the individual, their family and society.

  1. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (pcooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (pcooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3 effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Eghm; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes. This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study. A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D 3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D 3 . There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. -4.6 (-6.4, -2.8) nmol/L, P D levels  0.1). Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D 3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

  3. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes

  4. Note on current position regarding the development by the UKAEA of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, B.

    1983-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority have an MTR fuel fabrication plant located at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland. The prime function of the plant is to manufacture fuel elements for the UKAEA's own DIDO and PLUTO heavy water reactors located at their research establishment at Harwell. The plant, which has a capacity of about 1000 fuel elements per annum, also manufactures fuel elements, on a commercial basis, for university reactors in the United Kingdom and for a number of customers in overseas countries. The UKAEA have been manufacturing MTR fuel elements of a wide range of designs for over twenty-five years. Following the initiative of the US Government's RERTR programme, the UKAEA have embarked on a modest programme of MTR fuel manufacturing development., irradiation and post-irradiation examination to establish the techniques required to manufacture fuel elements containing uranium of a significantly lower enrichment than that in the fuel elements they currently manufacture. In the first instance this work is being directed towards the production of fuel elements containing uranium of 45% enrichment. After an initial analysis it was recognised that although a satisfactory 45% enriched version of certain of the designs of fuel elements currently manufactured could probably be produced using established U/Al alloy technology, it would be necessary to utilise powder technology for other elements in order to achieve the higher uranium density required. Studies of published information and consideration of the technology and facilities already available at Dounreay prompted the decision to concentrate on the development Of U 3 O 8 /Al cermet type fuel elements of similar geometry to those currently manufactured. Some of the fuel element designs currently manufactured by the UKAEA are listed: Concentric (Extruded) 74% enriched; Concentric Plates 80% enriched with densities 0.60 and 0.53 g U/ cm 3 ; Flat Plate (Swaged) 80% enriched and Flat Plate

  5. Development of Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    ESTCP Environmental Security Technology Certification Program FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FFA Free Fatty Acid FPt Freezing Point; first...based on altering the tail-end of the process for making fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ) by transesterification of triglycerides typically derived from...converted to glycerin while the rest are converted to fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME ) that have traditionally been used in oleochemical industry. Recently

  6. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phẁm Tân HỚu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutions also have a handful of disadventages such as being unable to thoroughly resoulve problems, high cost, and very difficult to improve the quality of ship exhaust gas emissions for old ships. Exhaust gas treatment method uses a centralized treatment system where exhaust gas from the thermal engines is taken in a centralized treatment system before discharging into the air. After centralized treatment system, in comparision with raw exhaust gas, soot can be reduced by 98%, NOx can be reduced by 75%, SOx can be reduced by 80%. This method of treatment is not only low cost, good quality but also make marine heat-engines still use traditional fuels as well as need not improve its structure.

  7. Dissociating the therapeutic effects of environmental enrichment and exercise in a mouse model of anxiety with cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J; Vo, U; Buret, LS; Pang, TY; Meiklejohn, H; Zeleznikow-Johnston, A; Churilov, L; van den Buuse, M; Hannan, AJ; Renoir, T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT1AR) gene polymorphisms are associated with anxiety disorders and deficits in cognition. In animal models, exercise (Ex) and environmental enrichment (EE) can change emotionality-related behaviours, as well as enhance some aspects of cognition and hippocampal neurogenesis. We investigated the effects of Ex and EE (which does not include running wheels) on cognition and anxiety-like behaviours in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT1AR knock-out (KO) mice. Using an algorithm-based classification of search strategies in the Morris water maze, we report for we believe the first time that Ex increased the odds for mice to select more hippocampal-dependent strategies. In the retention probe test, Ex (but not EE) corrected long-term spatial memory deficits displayed by KO mice. In agreement with these findings, only Ex increased hippocampal cell survival and BDNF protein levels. However, only EE (but not Ex) modified anxiety-like behaviours, demonstrating dissociation between improvements in cognition and innate anxiety. EE enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation in WT mice only, suggesting a crucial role for intact serotonergic signalling in mediating this effect. Together, these results demonstrate differential effects of Ex vs EE in a mouse model of anxiety with cognitive impairment. Overall, the 5-HT1AR does not seem to be critical for those behavioural effects to occur. These findings will have implications for our understanding of how Ex and EE enhance experience-dependent plasticity, as well as their differential impacts on anxiety and cognition. PMID:27115125

  8. Behavioral responses of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Canidae) to different categories of environmental enrichment stimuli and their implications for successful reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Young, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1815, Canidae) is a threatened species that inhabits the cerrados of Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Captive maned wolves could be potentially used in reintroduction programs for species conservation; however, it is necessary that their behavior and cognitive abilities are conserved. Environmental enrichment is a tool used to stimulate captive animals and maintain a natural behavioral repertoire. To compare the variation of captive maned wolves' behavioral responses to environmental enrichment, we studied three maned wolves held by Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil. Foraging, interspecific, and intraspecific stimuli were offered to the animals and their responses were compared with a baseline and postenrichment treatments. The test was used to help in choosing which one of the three individuals would participate in a reintroduction project. The results showed that stimuli type did influence the animal's responses, and that individually wolves responded differently to foraging, interspecific, and intraspecific enrichment items (P80.05 for some behaviors in each enrichment category). The individual's personality seemed to influence their behavioral responses, with animals showing bold and shy responses, and this trait should be considered during decision makings for reintroduction. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  10. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  11. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Reducing environmental risks in water management in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownlow, H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of water management regarding hydroelectric generating facilities in British Columbia was discussed. BC Hydro has adopted the following three processes to address water management risks: (1) the Electric System Operating Review, (2) Water Use Plans, and (3) an Environmental Management System. The greatest concern regarding water management are the potential impacts to fish and fish habitat. More than 90 per cent of BC Hydro's installed capacity is hydroelectric, with the balance produced by natural gas and diesel. All facilities are licensed under the provincial Water Act which has been in effect for the past century and is currently way out of date. Among its inadequacies is the fact that it does not provide for the protection of fish. The B.C. Fish Protection Act suggests that effective immediately, there should be no new dams on the Fraser and other significant rivers. BC Hydro facilities impact 16 of the 2,576 streams in British Columbia that support anadromous (migrating) salmon stocks. BC Hydro has 25 dams and diversions located on these 16 rivers. It was concluded that BC Hydro's impact on fish and fish habitat, although relatively small compared to the total fish resource in the province, is significant. The technology now used by BC Hydro is claimed to have the capacity to allow for easy documentation, rapid communication and the development of a comprehensive database for use in identifying and managing the impact of the Utility's operations on the fish population. 10 refs., 12 figs

  13. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia

    2014-10-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability of childhood and early detection is possible using evidence based assessments. Systematic reviews indicate early intervention trials rarely demonstrate efficacy for improving motor outcomes but environmental enrichment interventions appear promising. This study is built on a previous pilot study and has been designed to assess the effectiveness of a goal - oriented motor training and enrichment intervention programme, "GAME", on the motor outcomes of infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy (CP) compared with standard community based care. A two group, single blind randomised controlled trial (n = 30) will be conducted. Eligible infants are those diagnosed with CP or designated "at high risk of CP" on the basis of the General Movements Assessment and/or abnormal neuroimaging. A physiotherapist and occupational therapist will deliver home-based GAME intervention at least fortnightly until the infant's first birthday. The intervention aims to optimize motor function and engage parents in developmental activities aimed at enriching the home learning environment. Primary endpoint measures will be taken 16 weeks after intervention commences with the secondary endpoint at 12 months and 24 months corrected age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale second edition. Secondary outcomes measures include the Gross Motor Function Measure, Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Parent well-being will be monitored using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. This paper presents the background, design and intervention protocol of a randomised trial of a goal driven, motor learning approach with customised environmental interventions and parental education for young infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. This trial is registered on the Australian

  15. Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Skalsky

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  16. Novel approaches and tools to reduce environmental impacts in agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    possible to obtain fibres in the range of tens of nanometres to few micrometres to create 2D and 3D fibrous scaffolds. These nanostructures are characterised by considerable porosity and large surface area. The further possibility to use a variety of materials (inorganic and organic) to produce pure and composite polymers enlarge the possible properties of the resulting nanostructures for a multitude of applications (medicine, environment, healthcare, textile, energy, etc.) considerably. The nanofibrous scaffolds we created on purpose were specifically aimed at i) preventing micronutrient deficiency in plants (iron mobilisation mediated by siderophore release followed by plant uptake); ii) developing PGPR-biofilms stimulating plant growth by hormones and mobilising nutrients (phosphorus) and micronutrients (iron); iii) developing biocontrol fungal biofilms protecting plants from diseases by suppressing phytopathogen activity; iv) removing organic xenobiotics by adsorption and degradation mechanisms, thus limiting their environmental and health impact; v) developing sensing systems to detect xenobiotics, monitor their degradation and assess holistic soil metabolic activity.

  17. 'Four Seasons' in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Scottish Spca; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2015-05-01

    On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7 days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7 day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7 days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30 h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as μRR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in μHR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and

  18. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  19. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication, and application of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). Base technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-08-01

    The international effort to develop new fuel materials and designs which will make it feasible to fuel research and test reactors throughout the world with low-enrichment uranium, instead of high-enrichment uranium, has made significant progress during the past year. This progress has taken place at research centers located in many different countries, and is of crucial interest to reactor operators and licensors whose geographical distribution is even more varied. It is appropriate, therefore, that international meetings be held periodically to foster direct communication among the specialists in this area. To achieve this purpose, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the third of a series which begun in 1978. The papers presented at this meeting were divided into sessions according to relevant subject: status of RERTR program and safety issues; development of new fuel types; testing of new fuel elements; specific reactor applications. These proceedings were edited by various members of the RERTR Program.

  20. Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread reduces subsequent energy intake with no effect on post-prandial glucose and cholesterol in healthy, overweight males. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A C; Fairclough, A C; Mahadevan, K; Paxman, J R

    2012-02-01

    It is well recognised that the consumption of seaweed isolates (such as alginate) successfully reduce energy intake and modulate glycaemic and cholesterolaemic responses. However, to date, the effect of adding whole seaweed to bread has not been widely investigated. Hence, this study aims to investigate the acceptability of Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread as part of a meal, and measure its effect on energy intake and nutrient absorption in overweight, healthy males to see if it has a similar impact. Results from the acceptability study, (79 untrained sensory panellists) indicated that it is acceptable to incorporate seaweed (A. nodosum) into a staple food such as bread at concentrations of up to 4% per 400 g wholemeal loaf. A single blind cross over trial (n=12 males, aged 40.1±12.5 years; BMI 30.8±4.4 kg/m(2)) was used to compare energy intake and nutrient uptake after a breakfast meal using the enriched bread (4% A. nodosum) against the control bread (0% A. nodosum). Consumption of the enriched bread at breakfast led to a significant reduction (16.4%) in energy intake at a test meal 4 h later. Differences between treatment arms for area under the curve, peak values, and time of peak for blood glucose and cholesterol were not significant. Further investigation of potential mechanisms of action is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication, and application of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). Base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The international effort to develop new fuel materials and designs which will make it feasible to fuel research and test reactors throughout the world with low-enrichment uranium, instead of high-enrichment uranium, has made significant progress during the past year. This progress has taken place at research centers located in many different countries, and is of crucial interest to reactor operators and licensors whose geographical distribution is even more varied. It is appropriate, therefore, that international meetings be held periodically to foster direct communication among the specialists in this area. To achieve this purpose, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the third of a series which begun in 1978. The papers presented at this meeting were divided into sessions according to relevant subject: status of RERTR program and safety issues; development of new fuel types; testing of new fuel elements; specific reactor applications. These proceedings were edited by various members of the RERTR Program

  2. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-06-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  3. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Madinier

    Full Text Available Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT, and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new

  4. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a simplified treatment for measuring tritium concentration in the environmental water. Removal of dissolved ions by reverse osmosis membrane for electrolysis enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganezawa, Takayuki; Iida, Takao; Ogata, Yoshimune; Tsuji, Naruhito; Kakiuchi, Masahisa; Satake, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Sakuma, Yoichi

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for tritium enrichment by electrolysis using solid polymer electrolyte was recently developed. The apparatus has the advantage that is to be electrolyzed without adding electrolyte to the sample water. The new treatment both being replaced the distillation process with filtration before electrolysis and being omitted the distillation process after electrolysis, was proposed. Impurities eluted by the electrolysis of ultra pure water with the device introduced no influence on tritium measurement. As alternative treatment to distillation before enrichment, micro filtration and reverse osmosis was carried out. When the sample water treated by micro filtration was electrolyzed, ions adhered both to the electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte of the device since micro filtration cannot remove ions in the sample water. Therefore, the sample water treated by micro filtration caused some troubles in the electrolysis device. On the other hand, the sample water treated by reverse osmosis did not cause any troubles because it could remove ions. Applying the new treatment to measure some environmental waters, such as river water, resulted in an effective measurement without any influence to liquid scintillation counting. The results proved that a period of the pretreatment process of the water sample could be decreased from about 2 days to about 1.5 hours by applying the proposed treatment. A simplified treatment on the procedure of electrolysis enrichment was established for tritium measurements in the environmental water samples via liquid scintillation counting. (author)

  6. The effect of intraoral suction on oxygen-enriched surgical environments: a mechanism for reducing the risk of surgical fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Andrea M; Jones, James E; McGlothlin, James D; Saxen, Mark A; Sanders, Brian J; Vinson, LaQuia A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was applied in order to replicate potential surgical fire conditions in an oxygen-enriched environment with and without high-volume suction typical for dental surgical applications. During 41 trials, 3 combustion events were measured: an audible pop, a visible flash of light, and full ignition. In at least 11 of 21 trials without suction, all 3 conditions were observed, sometimes with an extent of fire that required early termination of the experimental trial. By contrast, in 18 of 20 with-suction trials, ignition did not occur at all, and in the 2 cases where ignition did occur, the fire was qualitatively a much smaller, candle-like flame. Statistically comparing these 3 combustion events in the no-suction versus with-suction trials, ignition (P = .0005), audible pop (P = .0211), and flash (P = .0092) were all significantly more likely in the no-suction condition. These results suggest a possible significant and new element to be added to existing surgical fire safety protocols toward making surgical fires the "never-events" they should be.

  7. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  8. Reducing the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt: a scenario approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankendaal, T.; Schuur, Peter; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, measures are evaluated to reduce the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt. Several composition scenarios are designed for these materials and are evaluated based on their environmental performance using life-cycle assessment (LCA). The effect of low-energy production

  9. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  10. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation

  11. Computational environmental ethnography: combining collective sensing and ethnographic inquiries to advance means for reducing environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Entwistle, Johanne Mose

    2013-01-01

    research experiments are attempting to motivate environmental improvements through feedback via, e.g., room displays, web pages or smart phones, based on (smart) metering of energy usage, or for saving energy by automatic control of, e.g., heating, lighting or appliances. However, existing evaluation...

  12. Environmental enrichment has antidepressant-like action without improving learning and memory deficits in olfactory bulbectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, H.; Meulendijks, D.; Douma, T.N.; Bink, D.I.; Breuer, M.E.; Westphal, K.G.; Olivier, B.; Oosting, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Depression, especially in the elderly, is associated with poor cognitive functioning. Exercise has received much attention in the treatment for depression and also dementia. Here we studied the effect of an enriched environment combined with voluntary exercise (EE/VE) on the olfactory bulbectomized

  13. Standardising the assessment of environmental enrichment and tail-docking legal requirements for finishing pigs in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hothersall, B.; Whistance, L.K.; Zedlacher, H.; Algers, B.; Andersson, E.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Courboulay, V.; Ferrari, P.; Leeb, C.; Mullan, S.; Nowicki, J.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Schwarz, T.; Stadig, L.; Main, D.

    2016-01-01

    An online training package providing a concise synthesis of the scientific data underpinning EU legislation on enrichment and tail-docking of pigs was produced in seven languages, with the aim of improving consistency of professional judgements regarding legislation compliance on farms. In total,

  14. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral deficits and alterations in hippocampal BDNF induced by prenatal exposure to morphine in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, A; Sadeghzadeh, J; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Mohammadkhani, R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal morphine exposure throughout pregnancy can induce a series of neurobehavioral and neurochemical disturbances by affecting central nervous system development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an enriched environment on behavioral deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by prenatal morphine in rats. On pregnancy days 11-18, female Wistar rats were randomly injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. They were subjected to a standard rearing environment or an enriched environment on PNDs 22-50. On PNDs 51-57, the behavioral responses including anxiety and depression-like behaviors, and passive avoidance memory as well as hippocampal BDNF levels were investigated. The light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for the study of anxiety, forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depression-like behavior and passive avoidance task was used to evaluate learning and memory. Prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in time spent in the EPM open arms and a reduction in time spent in the lit side of the L/D box. It also decreased step-through latency and increased time spent in the dark side of passive avoidance task. Prenatal morphine exposure also reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in FST. Postnatal rearing in an enriched environment counteracted with behavioral deficits in the EPM and passive avoidance task, but not in the L/D box. This suggests that exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence period alters anxiety profile in a task-specific manner. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced hippocampal BDNF levels, but enriched environment significantly increased BDNF levels in both saline- and morphine-exposed groups. Our results demonstrate that exposure to an enriched environment alleviates behavioral deficits induced by prenatal morphine exposure and up-regulates the decreased levels of BDNF

  16. The consumption of bread enriched with betaglucan reduces LDL-cholesterol and improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatis, S; Tsapogas, P; Chala, E; Dimosthenopoulos, C; Kyriakopoulos, K; Kapantais, E; Katsilambros, N

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the water-soluble dietary fibre betaglucan, a natural component of oats, reduces cholesterol and postprandial hyperglycaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaglucan-enriched bread consumption on the lipid profile and glucose homoeostasis of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in which 46 patients with T2D and LDL-C greater than 3.37 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) were randomized to incorporate into their diet, for 3 weeks, either bread enriched with betaglucan (providing 3g/day of betaglucan) or white bread without betaglucan. The consumption of bread containing betaglucan led to significant reductions (vs the control group) in LDL-C of 0.66 mmol/l (15.79%) versus 0.11 mmol/l (2.71%) (P=0.009), in total cholesterol of 0.80 mmol/l (12.80%) versus 0.12 mmol/l (1.88%) (P=0.006), in Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) of 3.23 microU/ml versus an increase of 3.77 microU/ml (P=0.03) and in Homa-IR (Homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) by 2.08 versus an increase of 1.33 (P=0.04). Betaglucan enriched bread may contribute to the improvement of the lipid profile and insulin resistance in patients with T2D.

  17. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitoun, A.

    1994-08-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF 6 , using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no response. These letters were generally in support of the facility

  18. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no response. These letters were generally in support of the facility.

  19. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.; Reimert, I.; Middelkoop, J.A.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Wisselink, H.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Stockhofe, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome

  20. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF 6 ) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ''transparency),'' and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed

  1. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Mesocrystalline SnO2 Nanorods on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets: An Appealing Multifunctional Affinity Probe for Sequential Enrichment of Endogenous Peptides and Phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Zhang, Feng; Li, Liping; Chen, Shuai; Qi, Limin; Liu, Huwei; Bai, Yu

    2016-12-28

    A novel multifunctional composite comprising mesocrystalline SnO 2 nanorods (NRs) vertically aligned on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets was synthesized and developed for sequential capture of endogenous peptides and phosphopeptides. With the hydrophobicity of rGO and high affinity of SnO 2 nanorods, sequential enrichment of endogenous peptides and phosphopeptides could be easily achieved through a modulation of elution buffer. With this multifunctional nanomaterial, 36 peptides were observed from diluted bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digest and 4 phosphopeptides could be selectively captured from β-casein digest. The detection limit of tryptic digest of β-casein was low to 4 × 10 -10 M, and the selectivity was up to 1:500 (molar ratio of β-casein and BSA digest). The effectiveness and robustness of rGO-SnO 2 NRs in a complex biological system was also confirmed by using human serum as a real sample. Our work is promising for small peptide enrichment and identification especially in complicated biological sample preparation, which also opens a new perspective in the design of multifunctional affinity probes for proteome or peptidome.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on self-reported reduced hearing in the old and oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, H; Hoffman, H J

    2001-01-01

    effects. Structural-equation analyses revealed a substantial heritability for self-reported reduced hearing of 40% (95% CI = 19-53%). The remaining variation could be attributed to individuals' nonfamilial environments. CONCLUSION: We found that genetic factors play an important role in self......-reported reduced hearing in both men and women age 70 and older. Because self-reports of reduced hearing involve misclassification, this estimate of the genetic influence on hearing disabilities is probably conservative. Hence, genetic and environmental factors play a substantial role in reduced hearing among......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present twin study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in variation in self-reported reduced hearing among the old and the oldest old. DESIGN: Self-reported hearing abilities of older twins assessed at intake interview...

  4. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, Florian E.; G?ntner, Amelie V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  5. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  6. Environmental enrichment and brain repair: harnessing the therapeutic effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity to enhance experience-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, A J

    2014-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity, inducing enhanced sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation. In wild-type rodents, EE has been found to have a range of effects, such as enhancing experience-dependent cellular plasticity and cognitive performance, relative to standard-housed controls. Whilst environmental enrichment is of course a relative term, dependent on the nature of control environmental conditions, epidemiological studies suggest that EE has direct clinical relevance to a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. EE has been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects in animal models of a wide variety of brain disorders. The first evidence of beneficial effects of EE in a genetically targeted animal model was generated using Huntington's disease transgenic mice. Subsequent studies found that EE was also therapeutic in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, consistent with epidemiological studies of relevant environmental modifiers. EE has also been found to ameliorate behavioural, cellular and molecular deficits in animal models of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, depression, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the effects of EE observed in animal models of neurodegenerative brain diseases, at molecular, cellular and behavioural levels. The proposal that EE may act synergistically with other approaches, such as drug and cell therapies, to facilitate brain repair will be discussed. I will also discuss the therapeutic potential of 'enviromimetics', drugs which mimic or enhance the therapeutic effects of cognitive activity and physical exercise, for both neuroprotection and brain repair. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  7. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  8. Sustainable solutions for Dutch housing. Reducing the Environmental Impacts of New and Existing Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klunder, G.

    2005-04-12

    Sustainable housing construction and management has, to date, been primarily based on an intuitive approach. Numerous measures have been formulated to promote sustainable construction and to reduce the environmental impacts of the built environment. However, little is yet known about the extent of the environmental benefits thereof. Moreover, methods and tools are mainly directed to new construction. This thesis makes clear that short-term environmental benefits in sustainable housing construction are rather limited. Renewal of the post-war housing stock offers excellent changes for improvement of the environmental performance of housing. With a newly developed method it is proven that renovation causes less environmental impacts than demolition followed by new construction. However, at the same time the usefulness of Life Cycle Assessment for buildings is doubted.

  9. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Reville, Patrick K; Mace, Thomas A; Young, Gregory S; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may affect prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 patients with prostate cancer with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to two slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced TH1 (P = 0.028) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-associated cytokines (P = 0.035). TH2 and TH17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells but showed increased CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) was significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (P = 0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33(+)HLADR(neg)CD14(+)) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (P = 0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  11. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report looks at the following issues: How much Soviet uranium ore and enriched uranium are imported into the United States and what is the extent to which utilities flag swap to disguise these purchases? What are the U.S.S.R.'s enriched uranium trading practices? To what extent are utilities required to return used fuel to the Soviet Union as part of the enriched uranium sales agreement? Why have U.S. utilities ended their contracts to buy enrichment services from DOE?

  12. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Souday

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression.Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2 in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes. Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler.Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001. Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217. Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively.EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing.ISRCTN 31681480.

  13. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  14. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  15. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Mechichi, Tahar; Patel, Bharat K.C.; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20 g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2 g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC 50 values, was Cu, Te > Cd > Fe, Co, Mn > F, Se > Ni, Al, Li > Zn

  17. Using smartphone technology to reduce health impacts from atmospheric environmental hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, F. H.; Wheeler, A. J.; Williamson, G. J.; Campbell, S. L.; Jones, P. J.; Koolhof, I. S.; Lucani, C.; Cooling, N. B.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Background: Global environmental change is exacerbating human vulnerability to adverse atmospheric conditions including air pollution, aeroallergens such as pollen, and extreme weather events. Public information and advisories are a central component of responses to mitigate the human impacts of environmental hazards. Digital technologies are emerging as a means of providing personalised, timely and accessible warnings. Method: We describe AirRater, an integrated online platform that combines symptom surveillance, environmental monitoring, and notifications of changing environmental conditions via a free smartphone app. It was developed and launched in Tasmania, Australia (population 510 000), with the aim of reducing health impacts and improving quality of life in people with conditions such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. We present environmental data, user uptake and results from three online evaluation surveys conducted during the first 22 months of operation, from October 2015 through August 2017. Results: There were 3,443 downloads of the app from all regions of Tasmania. Of the 1,959 individuals who registered, 79% reported having either asthma or allergic rhinitis. Downloads increased during adverse environmental conditions and following publicity. Symptom reports per active user were highest during spring (72%), lowest in autumn (37%) and spiked during periods of reduced air quality. In response to online surveys, most users reported that the app was useful and had improved their understanding of how environmental conditions affect their health, and in some cases had prompted action such as the timely use of medication. Conclusion: Active engagement and consistent positive feedback from users demonstrates the potential for considerable individual, clinical and wider public health benefits from integrated and personalised monitoring systems such as AirRater. The perceived health benefits require objective verification, and such systems need to address

  18. Dietary Strategies to Reduce Environmental Impact: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G; Hendrie, Gilly A; Noakes, Manny

    2017-11-01

    The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used. Compared with the 14 discrete environmental areas of concern identified in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the located journal literature mainly addressed greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, to a lesser extent, land and water use. Some relevant concerns were rarely addressed or not addressed at all. In the case of GHG emissions, changes in land use and soil carbon stocks were seldom considered. This represents a disconnect between the science informing strategic climate action in the agricultural sector and the science informing public health nutrition. In the case of land and water use, few studies used metrics that are appropriate in a life-cycle context. Some metrics produce inherently biased results, which misinform about environmental impact. The limited evidence generally points to recommended diets having lower environmental impacts than typical diets, although not in every case. This is largely explained by the overconsumption of food energy associated with average diets, which is also a major driver of obesity. A shared-knowledge framework is identified as being needed to guide future research on this topic. Until the evidence base becomes more complete, commentators on sustainable diets should not be quick to assume that a dietary strategy to reduce overall environmental impact can be readily defined or recommended. © 2017 American Society for

  19. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  20. Environmental enrichment improves learning and memory and long-term potentiation in young adult rats through a mechanism requiring mGluR5 signaling and sustained activation of p70s6k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Rikki; O'Riordan, Kenneth; Burger, Corinna

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies from our lab have demonstrated that mild cognitive impairments identified early in life are predictive of cognitive deficits that develop with age, suggesting that enhancements in cognition at an early age can provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve learning and memory in the rodent, but the impact of enrichment on synaptic plasticity and the molecular mechanisms behind enrichment are not completely understood. To address these unresolved issues, we have housed 2-month old rats in environmentally enriched (EE), socially enriched (SE), or standard housing (SC) and conducted tests of learning and memory formation at various time intervals. Here we demonstrate that animals that have been exposed to one month of social or environmental enrichment demonstrate enhanced learning and memory relative to standard housed controls. However, we have found that after 4months EE animals perform better than both SE and SC groups and demonstrate an enhanced hippocampal LTP. Our results demonstrate that this LTP is dependent on mGluR5 signaling, activation of ERK and mTOR signaling cascades, and sustained phosphorylation of p70s6 kinase, thus providing a potential target mechanism for future studies of cognitive enhancement in the rodent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Trembath-Reichert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM. This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag. Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to

  2. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Case, David H; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co

  3. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  4. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  5. Combined Treatment With Environmental Enrichment and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Ameliorates Learning Deficits and Hippocampal Alterations in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catuara-Solarz, Silvina; Espinosa-Carrasco, Jose; Erb, Ionas; Langohr, Klaus; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Notredame, Cedric; Dierssen, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) is accompanied by altered neuro-architecture, deficient synaptic plasticity, and excitation-inhibition imbalance in critical brain regions for learning and memory. Recently, we have demonstrated beneficial effects of a combined treatment with green tea extract containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and cognitive stimulation in young adult DS individuals. Although we could reproduce the cognitive-enhancing effects in mouse models, the underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects are unknown. Here, we explored the effects of a combined therapy with environmental enrichment (EE) and EGCG in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS at young age. Our results show that combined EE-EGCG treatment improved corticohippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Cognitive improvements were accompanied by a rescue of cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) dendritic spine density and a normalization of the proportion of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic markers in CA1 and dentate gyrus.

  6. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Erik Klonek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT, threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT, threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI—an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation—can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group. We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions. As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk. Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  7. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  8. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, V.; Arad, S.; Costinas, B.; Marchis, G.

    1997-01-01

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  9. Genomic selection using indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Fikse, W F; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this simulation study was to test the hypothesis that phenotype information of specific indicator traits of environmental importance recorded on a small-scale can be implemented in breeding schemes with genomic selection to reduce the environmental impact of milk production. A stochastic...... was, however, best in the scenarios where the genetic correlation between IT and EI was ≥0.30 and the accuracy of direct genomic value was ≥0.40. The genetic gain in EI was 26 to 34% higher when indicator traits such as greenhouse gases in the breath of the cow and methane recorded in respiration...... of direct genomic values will be reasonably high...

  10. US enrichment reduction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A major national program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is currently under way in the U.S., centered at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), to reduce the potential of research and test reactor fuels for increasing the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices. The main objective of the program is to provide the technical means by which the uranium enrichment to be used in these reactors can be reduced to less than 20% without significant economic and performance penalties. The criteria, basis and goals of the program are consistent with the results of a number of case studies which have been performed as part of the program

  11. Temperatura e enriquecimento ambiental sobre o bem-estar de coelhos em crescimento Temperature and environmental enrichment on the welfare of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Valéria Siloto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da temperatura e o efeito do enriquecimento do piso de gaiola sobre o bem-estar de coelhos em crescimento foram avaliados. Quarenta e oito coelhos do grupo genético Botucatu, desmamados aos 35 dias de idade, foram alojados em Câmara Climática, quatro por gaiola (1,00 x 0,60 x 0,40m, em 12 gaiolas que tinham (ou não metade do piso coberto com cama de palha. As gaiolas foram instaladas metade em sala com temperatura ambiente e metade em sala resfriada. Os animais tiveram livre acesso à ração balanceada e à água nos dois tipos de piso. Para se avaliar o bem-estar, foram realizadas cinco observações de 24 horas cada, uma por semana, sendo registradas as freqüências dos comportamentos: lúdico, estereotipado, exploratório, cuidados corporais e interação e comparadas entre gaiolas enriquecidas ou não nas duas salas. A média de temperatura e a média de umidade relativa do ar foram: 23,6°C e 78,7% na sala natural e 20,6°C e 71,0% na sala resfriada. O comportamento lúdico foi mais freqüente nas gaiolas enriquecidas (7,6 vs 4,3% sala natural e 7,8 vs 3,8% sala resfriada, P0,01. Coelhos mantidos em temperatura natural preferiram a grade à cama de palha (77,9 vs. 22,1%, P>0,01, enquanto na sala resfriada eles não mostraram preferência em relação ao piso (45,9 vs 54,1%, P=0,41. Em sala resfriada, o enriquecimento com palha favoreceu o bem-estar animal.The effects of temperature and cage floor enrichment on the welfare of growing rabbits were evaluated. Forty-eight rabbits from the Botucatu genetic group, weaned at 35 days of age were housed in an Environmental Chamber, four per cage (1.00 x 0.60 x 0.40m, in 12 cages that had (or not half of the floor covered with litter straw. The cages were housed half in a room temperature chamber and half in a refrigerated chamber. Animals had free access to a balanced feed and water in the two types of floor. In order to evaluate welfare, five 24-hour observations were carried out

  12. Statin action enriches HDL3 in polyunsaturated phospholipids and plasmalogens and reduces LDL-derived phospholipid hydroperoxides in atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Kontush, Anatol; Chapman, M. John

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) in MetS is indeterminate. Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma TGs (−41%) and LDL-cholesterol (−38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI. Native plasma LDL (baseline vs. 180 days) was oxidized by aqueous free radicals under mild conditions in vitro either alone or in the presence of the corresponding pre- or poststatin HDL2 or HDL3 at authentic plasma mass ratios. Lipidomic analyses revealed that statin treatment i) reduced the content of oxidizable polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PUPC) species containing DHA and linoleic acid in LDL; ii) preferentially increased the content of PUPC species containing arachidonic acid (AA) in small, dense HDL3; iii) induced significant elevation in the content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens containing AA and DHA in HDL3; and iv) induced formation of HDL3 particles with increased capacity to inactivate PCOOH with formation of redox-inactive phospholipid hydroxide. Statin action attenuated LDL oxidability Concomitantly, the capacity of HDL3 to inactivate redox-active PCOOH was enhanced relative to HDL2, consistent with preferential enrichment of PE plasmalogens and PUPC in HDL3. PMID:27581680

  13. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-03-08

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian.

  14. Strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of room air conditioners in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grignon-Masse, Laurent; Riviere, Philippe; Adnot, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, buildings tend to be equipped with individual air conditioners, which constitute a fast growing electrical end-use. In this context, this study aims to assess the environmental impacts of European individual air conditioners and to analyse policy strategies to reduce these impacts. After analysing the European context concerning individual air conditioners, the environmental impacts of European air conditioners are assessed using a Life Cycle Analysis approach. The following step consists in studying, both technically and economically, different improvement options aiming at reducing the environmental impacts of these appliances. These results, obtained at the product level, are then generalised at the European level and different policy measures are defined and analysed. The main conclusion is that the implementation of a Minimum Energy Performance Standard based on Least Life Cycle Costs could save up to 49 TWh and 20 MtCO 2-eq in 2020 and be economically beneficial to the European end-user. - Research highlights: → A methodology based on Life Cycle Analysis is applied to European air conditioners. → Environmental impacts are mainly due to energy consumption. → There is a high potential for energy savings at very low costs for end users.

  15. The use of bio-based materials to reduce the environmental impact of construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the construction industry is responsible for over 50 % of total carbon emissions. 20% of these carbon emissions are embodied within the construction and materials of buildings and the balance is expended in environmental control (heating, lighting, air conditioning) and other ‘in use’ aspects of occupation of buildings. This is replicated in other countries to a similar extent. This lecture identifies ways in which the use of bio-based construction materials can significantly reduc...

  16. Of Fish and Fishermen: Shifting Societal Baselines to Reduce Environmental Harm in Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi E. Lam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If reasonable fishery harvests and environmental harms are specified in new regulations, policies, and laws governing the exploitation of fish for food and livelihoods, then societal baselines can shift to achieve sustainable fisheries and marine conservation. Fisheries regulations can limit the environmental and social costs or harms caused by fishing by requiring the fishing industry to pay for the privilege to fish, via access fees for the opportunity to catch fish and extraction fees for fish caught; both fees can be combined with a progressive environmental tax to discourage overcapitalization and overfishing. Fisheries policies can be sustainable if predicated on an instrumental and ethical harm principle to reduce fishing harm. To protect the public trust in fisheries, environmental laws can identify the unsustainable depletion of fishery resources as ecological damage and a public nuisance to bind private fishing enterprises to a harm principle. Collaborative governance can foster sustainable fisheries if decision-making rights and responsibilities of marine stewardship are shared among government, the fishing industry, and civil society. As global food security and human welfare are threatened by accelerating human population growth and environmental impacts, decisions of how to use and protect the environment will involve collective choices in which all citizens have a stake - and a right.

  17. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  18. A comparison of stable-isotope probing of DNA and phospholipid fatty acids to study prokaryotic functional diversity in sulfate-reducing marine sediment enrichment slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gordon; Watt, Lynsey C; Rinna, Joachim; Fry, John C; Evershed, Richard P; Parkes, R John; Weightman, Andrew J

    2006-09-01

    Marine sediment slurries enriched for anaerobic, sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities utilizing glucose and acetate were used to provide the first comparison between stable-isotope probing (SIP) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and DNA (16S rRNA and dsrA genes) biomarkers. Different 13C-labelled substrates (glucose, acetate and pyruvate) at low concentrations (100 microM) were used over a 7-day incubation to follow and identify carbon flow into different members of the community. Limited changes in total PLFA and bacterial 16S rRNA gene DGGE profiles over 7 days suggested the presence of a stable bacterial community. A broad range of PLFA were rapidly labelled (within 12 h) in the 13C-glucose slurry but this changed with time, suggesting the presence of an active glucose-utilizing population and later development of another population able to utilize glucose metabolites. The identity of the major glucose-utilizers was unclear as 13C-enriched PLFA were common (16:0, 16:1, 18:1omega7, highest incorporation) and there was little difference between 12C- and 13C-DNA 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. Seemingly glucose, a readily utilizable substrate, resulted in widespread incorporation consistent with the higher extent of 13C-incorporation (approximately 10 times) into PLFA compared with 13C-acetate or 13C-pyruvate. 13C-PLFA in the 13C-acetate and 13C-pyruvate slurries were similar to each other and to those that developed in the 13C-glucose slurry after 4 days. These were more diagnostic, with branched odd-chain fatty acids (i15:0, a15:0 and 15:1omega6) possibly indicating the presence of Desulfococcus or Desulfosarcina sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sequences related to these SRB were in the 13C-acetate-DNA dsrA gene library. The 13C-acetate-DNA 16S rRNA gene library also contained sequences closely related to SRB, but these were the acetate-utilizing Desulfobacter sp., as well as a broad range of uncultured Bacteria. In

  19. The Role of Environmental Education in Increasing the Awareness of Primary School Students and Reducing Environmental Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hesami Arani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Schools environmental management plays an important role in preparing students for environmental education that the results of this study showed a significant relationship between education and promotion of students' environmental awareness.

  20. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  1. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  2. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of... Governmental Entities Regarding Environmental Portion of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding February 24.... White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment Services...

  3. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Unique Transcriptional Signatures of Running and Running-Independent Environmental Enrichment in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine-Alexandra Grégoire

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE is a powerful stimulus of brain plasticity and is among the most accessible treatment options for brain disease. In rodents, EE is modeled using multi-factorial environments that include running, social interactions, and/or complex surroundings. Here, we show that running and running-independent EE differentially affect the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Outbred male CD1 mice housed individually with a voluntary running disk showed improved spatial memory in the radial arm maze compared to individually- or socially-housed mice with a locked disk. We therefore used RNA sequencing to perform an unbiased interrogation of DG gene expression in mice exposed to either a voluntary running disk (RUN, a locked disk (LD, or a locked disk plus social enrichment and tunnels [i.e., a running-independent complex environment (CE]. RNA sequencing revealed that RUN and CE mice showed distinct, non-overlapping patterns of transcriptomic changes versus the LD control. Bio-informatics uncovered that the RUN and CE environments modulate separate transcriptional networks, biological processes, cellular compartments and molecular pathways, with RUN preferentially regulating synaptic and growth-related pathways and CE altering extracellular matrix-related functions. Within the RUN group, high-distance runners also showed selective stress pathway alterations that correlated with a drastic decline in overall transcriptional changes, suggesting that excess running causes a stress-induced suppression of running’s genetic effects. Our findings reveal stimulus-dependent transcriptional signatures of EE on the DG, and provide a resource for generating unbiased, data-driven hypotheses for novel mediators of EE-induced cognitive changes.

  4. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Unique Transcriptional Signatures of Running and Running-Independent Environmental Enrichment in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Tobin, Stephanie; Goldenstein, Brianna L; Samarut, Éric; Leclerc, Andréanne; Aumont, Anne; Drapeau, Pierre; Fulton, Stephanie; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a powerful stimulus of brain plasticity and is among the most accessible treatment options for brain disease. In rodents, EE is modeled using multi-factorial environments that include running, social interactions, and/or complex surroundings. Here, we show that running and running-independent EE differentially affect the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), a brain region critical for learning and memory. Outbred male CD1 mice housed individually with a voluntary running disk showed improved spatial memory in the radial arm maze compared to individually- or socially-housed mice with a locked disk. We therefore used RNA sequencing to perform an unbiased interrogation of DG gene expression in mice exposed to either a voluntary running disk (RUN), a locked disk (LD), or a locked disk plus social enrichment and tunnels [i.e., a running-independent complex environment (CE)]. RNA sequencing revealed that RUN and CE mice showed distinct, non-overlapping patterns of transcriptomic changes versus the LD control. Bio-informatics uncovered that the RUN and CE environments modulate separate transcriptional networks, biological processes, cellular compartments and molecular pathways, with RUN preferentially regulating synaptic and growth-related pathways and CE altering extracellular matrix-related functions. Within the RUN group, high-distance runners also showed selective stress pathway alterations that correlated with a drastic decline in overall transcriptional changes, suggesting that excess running causes a stress-induced suppression of running's genetic effects. Our findings reveal stimulus-dependent transcriptional signatures of EE on the DG, and provide a resource for generating unbiased, data-driven hypotheses for novel mediators of EE-induced cognitive changes.

  5. The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify isotopic enrichment activities; O uso da monitoracao ambiental como tecnica de identificacao de atividades de enriquecimento isotopico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, Jose Henrique

    2000-07-01

    The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle has been proposed, by international organizations, as an additional measure to the safeguards agreements in force. The elements specific for each kind of nuclear activity, or nuclear signatures, inserted in the ecosystem by several transfer paths, can be intercepted with better or worse ability by different live organisms. Depending on the kind of signature of interest, the anthropogenic material identification and quantification require the choice of adequate biologic indicators and, mainly, the use of sophisticated techniques associated with elaborate sample treatments. This work demonstrates the technical viability of using pine needles as bioindicators of nuclear signatures associated with uranium enrichment activities. Additionally, it proposes the use of a technique widely diffused nowadays in the scientific community, the High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), to identify the signature corresponding to that kind of activities in the ecosystem. It can be also found a description of a methodology recently being applied in analytical chemistry,based on uncertainties estimates metrological concepts, used to calculate the uncertainties associated with the obtained measurement results. Nitric acid solutions with a concentration of 0.3 mol.kg{sup -1}, used to wash pine needles sampled near facilities that manipulate enriched uranium and containing only 0.1 {mu}g.kg{sup -1} of uranium, exhibit a {sup 235} U: {sup 238} U isotopic abundance ratio of 0.0092{+-}0.0002, while solutions originated from samples collected at places located more than 200 km far from activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle exhibit a value of 0.0074{+-}0.0002 for this abundance ratio. Similar results were obtained for samples collected in different places permit to confirm the presence of anthropogenic uranium and demonstrate the viability of using

  6. Environmental enrichment does not impact on tumor growth in mice [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/18c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Westwood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environmental enrichment (EE on a variety of physiologic and disease processes has been studied in laboratory mice. During EE, a large group of mice are housed in larger cages than the standard cage and are given toys and equipment, enabling more social contact, and providing a greater surface area per mouse, and a more stimulating environment. Studies have been performed into the effect of EE on neurogenesis, brain injury, cognitive capacity, memory, learning, neuronal pathways, diseases such as Alzheimer’s, anxiety, social defeat, emotionality, depression, drug addiction, alopecia, and stereotypies. In the cancer field, three papers have reported effects on mice injected with tumors and housed in enriched environments compared with those housed in standard conditions. One paper reported a significant decrease in tumor growth in mice in EE housing. We attempted to replicate this finding in our animal facility, because the implications of repeating this finding would have profound implications for how we house all our mice in our studies on cancer. We were unable to reproduce the results in the paper in which B16F10 subcutaneous tumors of mice housed in EE conditions were smaller than those of mice housed in standard conditions. The differences in results could have been due to the different growth rate of the B16F10 cultures from the different laboratories, the microbiota of the mice housed in the two animal facilities, variations in noise and handling between the two facilities, food composition, the chemical composition of the cages or the detergents used for cleaning, or a variety of other reasons. EE alone does not appear to consistently result in decreased tumor growth, but other factors would appear to be able to counteract or inhibit the effects of EE on cancer progression.

  7. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  8. 7C.02: TRAINING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT TO COUNTERACT COGNITIVE DECLINE: TRAIN THE BRAIN - EFFECTS ON CAROTID STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, F; Bruno, R; Ghiadoni, L; Faita, F; Di Lascio, N; Del Turco, S; Maffei, L; Tognoni, G; Taddei, S; Picano, E; Sicari, R

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to vascular health; on the other hand, vascular damage is associated with cognitive impairment. Both physical activity and a cognitively stimulating environment are known to delay the onset of dementia. The Train The Brain study evaluates the effectiveness of a comprehensive program of physical training and mental activity in delaying cognitive decline in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, at the same time investigating the relationship between physical, vascular, neurological, and cognitive fitness : Elders age 65-89 were recruited with the help of family physicians and territorial services. All participants underwent a neurological and cardiologic evaluation. In the vascular study, carotid pressure was measured with the SphygmoCor system (AtCor, Australia); longitudinal ultrasound scans of the common carotid were performed and 10-second video clips were recorded to be analyzed offline through the Cardiovascular Suite software (Quipu srl, Italy), with the computation of diameter, intima-media thickness, wall cross-sectional area, distensibility coefficient, compliance, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Subjects classified as mild cognitive impairment at the neurological examination were randomized either to standard care, or a 7-month program of physical training and environmental stimulation (lectures, games, music, social activities) three hours a week. The evaluation was then repeated. Data were obtained for 57 patients who underwent training (T) and 30 controls (C). The only significant difference at baseline was in the distensibility coefficient (p = 0.045).(Figure is included in full-text article.)Vessel diameter increased in C and decreased in T; distensibility decreased in C; all carotid parameters were influenced by the combination of time and treatment, in a diverging trend, at a statistically significant level, while there was no effect on pressure. Introducing arterial pressures as covariates did not affect

  9. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  10. Sensitive trace enrichment of environmental andiandrogen vinclozolin from natural waters and sediment samples using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2004-12-17

    The presence of vinclozolin in the environment as far as the endocrine disruption effects in biota are concerned has raised interest in the environmental fate of this compound. In this respect, the present study attempts to investigate the feasibility of applying a novel quantitative method, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME), so as to determine this environmental andiandrogen in environmental samples such as water and sediment samples. The technique involved the use of a small amount (3 microL) of organic solvent impregnated in a hollow fiber membrane, which was attached to the needle of a conventional GC syringe. The extracted samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection. Experimental LPME conditions such as extraction solvent, stirring rate, content of NaCl and pH were tested. Once LPME was optimized, the performance of the proposed technique was evaluated for the determination of vinclozolin in different types of natural water samples. The recovery of spiked water samples was from 80 to 99%. The procedure was adequate for quantification of vinclozolin in waters at levels of 0.010 to 50 microg/L (r> 0.994) with a detection limit of 0.001 microg/L (S/N= 3). Natural sediment samples from the Aliakmonas River area (Macedonia, Greece) spiked with the target andiandrogen compound were liquid-liquid extracted and analyzed by the methodology developed in this work. No significant interferences from the samples matrix were noticed, indicating that the reported methodology is an innovative tactic for sample preparation in sediment analysis, with a considerable improvement in the achieved detection limits. The results demonstrated that apart from analyte enrichment, the proposed LPME procedure also serves as clean-up method and could be successfully performed to determine trace amounts of vinclozolin in water and sediment samples.

  11. Reducing DUI among US college students: results of an environmental prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert B; Lange, James E; Shillington, Audrey; Russell, Cristel

    2005-03-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is among the most common and serious alcohol-related problems experienced by US college students. Community-based prevention trials using environmental approaches to DUI prevention have been effective in reducing DUI. Such interventions remain untested in college settings. This study is the first to test the efficacy of an environmental prevention campaign to reduce DUI among college students. We used a quasi-experimental non-equivalent comparison group design to test the efficacy of the DUI prevention intervention. Students at the experimental university were exposed to a DUI prevention intervention that included a social marketing campaign, a media advocacy campaign and increased law enforcement (DUI checkpoints and roving DUI patrols). Students from two large public universities located along the US/Mexico border participated in the seven-semester study. In total, 4832 college students took part. Using telephone interviews of randomly selected students, we took pre- and postintervention measures of self-reported DUI. Self-reported DUI (past year) decreased significantly from pre-test to post-test (odds ratio = 0.55) at the intervention school, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable. The campus-intervention interaction was statistically significant (P < 0.05), suggesting that the campaign led to the observed change in DUI. Environmental DUI campaigns similar to those validated in community prevention trials can be effective in college settings. Further research, however, is needed to determine the robustness of the changes associated with such campaigns.

  12. In vitro and environmental toxicity of reduced graphene oxide as an additive in automotive lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Gaon, Margarita; Nguyen, Nhung H A; Sgroi, Mauro F; Pullini, Daniele; Gili, Flavia; Mangherini, Davide; Pruna, Alina Iuliana; Rosicka, Petra; Sevcu, Alena; Castagnola, Valentina

    2018-04-05

    Despite the ground-breaking potential of nanomaterials, their safe and sustainable incorporation into an array of industrial markets prompts a deep and clear understanding of their potential toxicity for both humans and the environment. Among the many materials with great potential, graphene has shown promise in a variety of applications; however, the impact of graphene based products on living systems remains poorly understood. In this paper, we illustrate that via exploiting the tribological properties of graphene nanosheets, we can successfully improve both the frictional behaviour and the anti-wear capacity of lubricant oil for mechanical transmission. By virtue of reducing friction and enhancing lubricant lifetimes, we can forecast a reduction in friction based energy loss, in addition to a decrease in the carbon footprint of vehicles. The aforementioned positive environmental impact is further strengthened considering the lack of acute toxicity found in our extensive in vitro investigation, in which both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells were tested. Collectively, our body of work suggests that by the use of safe nanoadditives we could contribute to reducing the environmental impact of transportation and therein take a positive step towards a more sustainable automotive sector. The workflow proposed here for the evaluation of human and environmental toxicity will allow for the study of nanosized bare graphene material and can be broadly applied to the translation of graphene-based nanomaterials into the market.

  13. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterly, Clayton R; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than at 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85% less nodule mass in the 90 NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than in the 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3(-). Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30%) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3(-) on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3(-) on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Redistributing environmental tax revenue to reduce poverty in South Africa: The cases of energy and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Van Heerden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, as an upper middle-income, resource-intensive developing country with an open economy, has to find innovative ways to combat poverty, promote economic growth and reduce the intensity of resource use, simultaneously.  One option is to explore the plausibility of achieving a double dividend by levying a tax on water and energy and recycling the revenue back to the economy by allowing for a reduction in other forms of taxation.  According to the double dividend theory it is possible, under some conditions, to achieve both environmental and economic objectives.  We investigated such a possibility in the South African economy using an integrated economy/environment CGE model and found that it is indeed possible to achieve such double dividend benefits.  Given the prevailing economic and environmental contexts, government should actively search for ways to achieve such dividends.

  15. Implementation strategy to reduce environmental impact of energy related activities in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply and demand side were identified in order to reduce GHG emission. The present study addresses environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, the present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy. (EG)

  16. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  17. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  18. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capossela, H.J.; Dwyer, J.R.; Luce, R.G.; McCoy, D.F.; Merriman, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect. 1 figure

  19. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-01-01

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8–150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. - Highlights: • The increasing pressure to meet global cereal demand poses great challenge. • A changing environment further threatens cereal production. • Literature summary shows 8–150% yield advantage from use of INM method. • INM contributions to mitigation of environmental costs are remarkable. • High crop productivity and less environmental impact can be

  20. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei, E-mail: weiwu@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada); Ma, Baoluo, E-mail: Baoluo.Ma@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8–150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. - Highlights: • The increasing pressure to meet global cereal demand poses great challenge. • A changing environment further threatens cereal production. • Literature summary shows 8–150% yield advantage from use of INM method. • INM contributions to mitigation of environmental costs are remarkable. • High crop productivity and less environmental impact can be

  1. Enriched environment reduces apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in reactive astrocytes and attenuates inflammation of the peri-infarct tissue after experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruscher, Karsten; Johannesson, Emelie; Brugiere, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a cholesterol transporter and an immunomodulator, is brain protective after experimental stroke and implicated in brain repair. Here, we study the involvement of ApoE in the restoration of brain function after experimental stroke, by using animal housing conditions...... lower in animals housed in an enriched environment. We propose that during the subacute phase after experimental stroke a zone for tissue reorganization with low cellular ApoE levels is formed. We conclude that the strong sensori-motor stimulation provided by enriched housing conditions mitigates...

  2. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces Lipids in Healthy Caucasian Subjects, Independent of Recommended Macronutrient Replacement and Time Point of Consumption: a Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Charlotte; Rossmeier, Andreas; Lechner, Katharina; Wu, Liya; Waldmann, Elisa; Stark, Renée G; Altenhofer, Julia; Henze, Kerstin; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2017-10-06

    Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates ( n = 62), fat ( n = 65), or both ( n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs. -8.5 ± 37.2 vs. -1.1 ± 35.4 mg/dL; p = 0.002), non-HDL cholesterol (-10.3 ± 35.5 vs. -1.4 ± 33.1 mg/dL; p ≤ 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-7.4 ± 32.4 vs. -1.7 ± 29.7 mg/dL; p = 0.029), triglycerides (-5.0 ± 47.5 vs. 3.7 ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015) and apoB (-6.7 ± 22.4 vs. -0.5 ± 37.7; p ≤ 0.001), while HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) did not change significantly. Neither macronutrient replacement nor time point of consumption significantly affected the effect of walnuts on lipids. Thus, 43 g walnuts/d improved the lipid profile independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement and the time point of consumption.

  3. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run.

  4. Reducing the environmental impact of dietary choice: perspectives from a behavioural and social change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

  5. Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; De-Lille, G.; Ge, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the temperature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on the development and application of alternative technologies to vapour compression refrigeration systems that have the potential to reduce the overall energy consumption and environmental impacts. The review and analysis indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from conventional diesel engine driven vapour compression refrigeration systems commonly employed in food transport refrigeration can be as high as 40% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicle's engine. For articulated vehicles over 33 ton, which are responsible for over 80% of refrigerated food transportation in the UK, the reject heat available form the engine is sufficient to drive sorption refrigeration systems and satisfy most of the refrigeration requirements of the vehicle. Other promising technologies that can lead to a reduction in CO 2 emissions are air cycle refrigeration and hybrid systems in which conventional refrigeration technologies are integrated with thermal energy storage. For these systems, however, to effectively compete with diesel driven vapour compression systems, further research and development work is needed to improve their efficiency and reduce their weight

  6. Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of gaseous detector operation at the CERN LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeans, M.; Guida, R.; Mandelli, B., E-mail: beatrice.mandelli@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Nowadays some of these gases, as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4}, CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6}, are indicated as greenhouse gases (GHG) and dominate the overall GHG emission from particle detectors at the LHC experiments. The release of GHG is an important subject for the design of future particle detectors as well as for the operation of the current experiments. Different strategies have been adopted at CERN for reducing the GHG emissions. The standard approach is the recirculation of the gas mixture with complex gas systems where system stability and the possible accumulation of impurities need to be attentively evaluated for the good operation and safety of the detectors. A second approach is based on the recuperation of the gas mixture exiting the detectors and the separation of its gas components for re-use. At long-term, the use of less invasive gases is being investigated, especially for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) systems. Operation of RPC with environmentally friendly gas mixtures is demonstrated for streamer mode while avalanche mode operation needs more complex gas mixtures. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in the LHC experiments and detectors. • Strategies to reduce the GHG emissions: gas recirculation and recuperation systems. • GHG emission: achievements from LHC Run1 to Run2. • Resistive Plate Chambers operation with new environmentally friendly gases.

  7. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

  9. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies. (letter)

  10. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  11. Enrichment of sulfate reducing anaerobic methane oxidizing community dominated by ANME-1 from Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) sediment in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Susma; Cassarini, Chiara; Rene, Eldon R; Zhang, Yu; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2018-07-01

    This study was performed to enrich anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) present in sediment from the Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) in a polyurethane foam packed biotrickling filter (BTF). The BTF was operated at 20 (±2) °C, ambient pressure with continuous supply of methane for 248 days. Sulfate reduction with simultaneous sulfide production (accumulating ∼7 mM) after 200 days of BTF operation evidenced anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction. High-throughput sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that after 248 days of BTF operation, the ANME clades enriched to more than 50% of the archaeal sequences, including ANME-1b (40.3%) and ANME-2 (10.0%). Enrichment of the AOM community was beneficial to Desulfobacteraceae, which increased from 0.2% to 1.8%. Both the inoculum and the BTF enrichment contained large populations of anaerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria, suggesting extensive sulfur cycling in the BTF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic feasibility of hydrogen enrichment for reducing NOx emissions from landfill gas power generation alternatives: A comparison of the levelized cost of electricity with present strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornbluth, Kurt; Greenwood, Jason; Jordan, Eddie; McCaffrey, Zach; Erickson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent research showing that hydrogen enrichment can lower NO x emissions from landfill gas combustion below future NO x emission control standards imposed by both federal and California state regulations, an investigation was performed to compare the levelized cost of electricity of this technology with other options. In this cost study, a lean-burn reciprocating engine with no after-treatment was the baseline case to compare six other landfill gas-to-energy projects. These cases include a lean burn engine with selective catalytic reduction after treatment, a lean-burn microturbine, and four variations on an ultra-lean-burn engine utilizing hydrogen enrichment with each case using a different method of hydrogen production. Only hydrogen enrichment with an in-stream autothermal fuel reformer was shown to be potentially cost-competitive with current strategies for reaching the NO x reduction target in IC engines. - Highlights: ► Levelized cost of electricity for hydrogen enriched combustion was compared. ► Various ultra-lean-burn engines and microturbines with hydrogen were analyzed. ► Combustion with an autothermal fuel reformer was potentially cost-competitive.

  13. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ∼35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  14. Detection of toxigenic vibrio cholera from environmental water samples by an enrichment broth cultivation-pit-stop semi-nested PCR procedure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, J

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available V. cholerae. The PCR procedure coupled with an enrichment culture detected as few as four V. cholerae organisms in pure culture. Treated sewage, surface, ground and drinking water samples were seeded with V, cholerae and following enrichment, a...

  15. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D; Butz, Arlene M; Hackstadt, Amber J; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2015-02-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  16. Effects of long-term environmental enrichment on anxiety, memory, hippocampal plasticity and overall brain gene expression in C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hüttenrauch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that physical activity exerts positive effects on a variety of brain functions by facilitating neuroprotective processes and influencing neuroplasticity. Accordingly, numerous studies have shown that continuous exercise can successfully diminish or prevent the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic mouse models. However, the long-term effect of physical activity on brain health of aging WT mice has not been studied in detail yet. Here, we show that prolonged physical and cognitive stimulation, mediated by an enriched environment (EE paradigm for a duration of eleven months, leads to reduced anxiety and improved spatial reference memory in C57BL6 wildtype (WT mice. While the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons remained unchanged between standard housed (SH and EE mice, the number of dentate gyrus (DG neurons, as well as the CA1 and DG volume were significantly increased in EE mice. A whole-brain deep sequencing transcriptome analysis, carried out to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects, revealed an up-regulation of a variety of genes upon EE, mainly associated with synaptic plasticity and transcription regulation. The present findings corroborate the impact of continuous physical activity as a potential prospective route in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Impact of Environmental Enrichment on Perineuronal Nets in the Prefrontal Cortex following Early and Late Abstinence from Sucrose Self-Administration in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs are aggregates of extracellular matrix that form structures surrounding a subset of GABAergic interneurons. The staining intensity of PNNs appears to be related to plasticity. Environmental enrichment (EE influences plasticity during adulthood: EE decreases the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and diminishes both drug- and sucrose-seeking behavior. We determined the impact of EE on PNN intensity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in rats trained to self-administer sucrose. We examined the number and intensity of PNNs within the prelimbic (PL, infralimbic (IL, and orbitofrontal (OF regions of the mPFC of adult Long-Evans rats that were trained for sucrose self-administration followed by acute or chronic EE during abstinence and a cue-induced reinstatement test. Rats exposed to EE prior to a cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose seeking had an increase in PNN staining compared with rats in standard housing. Conversely, naïve rats given 1 day of EE had a decrease in PNN intensity in the PL, no change in the IL, and an increase in the OF. Our findings demonstrate that EE increases PNN intensity in the mPFC after sucrose training, suggesting that training enhances the ability of EE to increase PNN intensity. We further demonstrate an interaction between time of abstinence, duration of EE exposure, and cue-induced reinstatement. Our results suggest that increased PNN intensity after EE may alter the excitatory/inhibitory balance of mPFC neurons such that rats are less responsive to a sucrose cue.

  18. Role of the American Institute for Pollution Prevention in reducing environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The EPA Science Advisory Board recommended that in the decade of the 1990's, EPA strategy should focus on the long-term goal of preventing and reducing environmental risk and should shift from end-of-pipe controls to preventing the generation of pollution. To assist EPA in developing and implementing this philosophy, the American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) was founded jointly by EPA and the University of Cincinnati in June, 1989. The mission of the Institute is to generate broad support from private and public sectors and to assist EPA in achieving widespread and expeditious adoption of pollution prevention concepts. AIPP will provide a novel communication bridge between EPA and industry. AIPP will provide and promote liasion between professionals in the field of pollution and those who need to employ new and improved pollution prevention techniques

  19. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing through design optimisation of positive displacement pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josifovic, Aleksandar; Roberts, Jennifer J.; Corney, Jonathan; Davies, Bruce; Shipton, Zoe K.

    2016-01-01

    The current approach to hydraulic fracturing requires large amounts of industrial hardware to be transported, installed and operated in temporary locations. A significant proportion of this equipment is comprised of the fleet of pumps required to provide the high pressures and flows necessary for well stimulation. Studies have shown that over 90% of the emissions of CO_2 and other pollutants that occur during a hydraulic fracturing operation are associated with these pumps. Pollution and transport concerns are of paramount importance for the emerging hydraulic fracturing industry in Europe, and so it is timely to consider these factors when assessing the design of high pressure pumps for the European resources. This paper gives an overview of the industrial plant required to carry out a hydraulic fracturing operation. This is followed by an analysis of the pump's design space that could result in improved pump efficiency. We find that reducing the plunger diameter and running the pump at higher speeds can increase the overall pump efficiency by up to 4.6%. Such changes to the pump's parameters would results in several environmental benefits beyond the obvious economic gains of lower fuel consumption. The paper concludes with a case study that quantifies these benefits. - Highlights: • We develop a parameterized model of hydraulic fracturing pumps. • We explore performance variation to optimise pump efficiency and performance. • New design could increase pump energy efficiency up to 4.6% and improve reliability. • The new design could also reduce environmental and social impacts of pumping. • This illustrates how optimised mechanical design can lower impacts and cost.

  1. Opportunities for reducing environmental emissions from forage-based dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Misselbrook

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern dairy production is inevitably associated with impacts to the environment and the challenge for the industry today is to increase production to meet growing global demand while minimising emissions to the environment. Negative environmental impacts include gaseous emissions to the atmosphere, of ammonia from livestock manure and fertiliser use, of methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, and of nitrous oxide from nitrogen applications to soils and from manure management. Emissions to water include nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, sediment, pathogens and organic matter, deriving from nutrient applications to forage crops and/or the management of grazing livestock. This paper reviews the sources and impacts of such emissions in the context of a forage-based dairy farm and considers a number of potential mitigation strategies, giving some examples using the farm-scale model SIMSDAIRY. Most of the mitigation measures discussed are associated with systemic improvements in the efficiency of production in dairy systems. Important examples of mitigations include: improvements to dairy herd fertility, that can reduce methane and ammonia emissions by up to 24 and 17%, respectively; diet modification such as the use of high sugar grasses for grazing, which are associated with reductions in cattle N excretion of up to 20% (and therefore lower N losses to the environment and potentially lower methane emissions, or reducing the crude protein content of the dairy cow diet through use of maize silage to reduce N excretion and methane emissions; the use of nitrification inhibitors with fertiliser and slurry applications to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching by up to 50%. Much can also be achieved through attention to the quantity, timing and method of application of nutrients to forage crops and utilising advances made through genetic improvements.

  2. A novel approach to reduce environmental noise in microgravity measurements using a Scintrex CG5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Atkins, Phillip; Rodgers, Anthony; Metje, Nicole; Goncharenko, Yuriy; Chapman, David

    2018-05-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of microgravity measurements for surveying purposes are affected by two main sources of noise; instrument noise from the sensor and electronics, and environmental sources of noise from anthropogenic activity, wind, microseismic activity and other sources of vibrational noise. There is little information in the literature on the quantitative values of these different noise sources and their significance for microgravity measurements. Experiments were conducted to quantify these sources of noise with multiple instruments, and to develop methodologies to reduce these unwanted signals thereby improving the accuracy or speed of microgravity measurements. External environmental sources of noise were found to be concentrated at higher frequencies (> 0.1 Hz), well within the instrument's bandwidth. In contrast, the internal instrumental noise was dominant at frequencies much lower than the reciprocal of the maximum integration time, and was identified as the limiting factor for current instruments. The optimum time for integration was found to be between 120 and 150 s for the instruments tested. In order to reduce the effects of external environmental noise on microgravity measurements, a filtering and despiking technique was created using data from noisy environments next to a main road and outside on a windy day. The technique showed a significant improvement in the repeatability of measurements, with between 40% and 50% lower standard deviations being obtained over numerous different data sets. The filtering technique was then tested in field conditions by using an anomaly of known size, and a comparison made between different filtering methods. Results showed improvements with the proposed method performing better than a conventional, or boxcar, averaging process. The proposed despiking process was generally found to be ineffective, with greater gains obtained when complete measurement records were discarded. Field survey results were

  3. Reducing environmental damage through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedulova, E. A.; Akulov, A. O.; Rada, A. O.; Alabina, T. A.; Savina, Ju Ju

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the possibilities of using unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technologies in the field of agriculture and mining. The object of the study is the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as the best available technology. The main areas of application of this technology are identified: agro technical operations, aerial photography of mining operations. The technology of unmanned aerial vehicles is compared with the technologies of ground agricultural machinery. The research methodology includes an expert evaluation of the unmanned aerial vehicle technology belonging to the class of the best available technologies by the criteria: the level of environmental impact, resource saving, the use of low-waste, non-waste processes, the existence of at least two objects, economic efficiency. Expert evaluations were processed using the apparatus of fuzzy sets, which make it possible to construct membership functions. This allowed us to prove that the technology of unmanned aerial vehicles belongs to a fuzzy set of the best available technologies. The results of the research show that the use of unmanned aerial vehicles provides a saving of resources, especially non-renewable combustible minerals, reduces emissions and discharges of pollutants into the atmosphere, and also reduces soil erosion. Unmanned aerial vehicles should be included in the national directories of the best available technologies for the mining industry and agriculture.

  4. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, C T; Matthews, D H; Ashe, M; Jaramillo, P; McMichael, F C

    2010-01-01

    With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

  5. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, C T; Matthews, D H; Ashe, M; Jaramillo, P; McMichael, F C, E-mail: cth@cmu.ed [Green Design Institute, Carnegie Mellon University (United States)

    2010-01-15

    With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

  6. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper analyzes under four different scenarios the adequacy of a $500 million annual deposit into a fund to pay for the cost of cleaning up the Department of Energy's (DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants. These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. In summary the following was found: A fixed annual $500 million deposit made into a cleanup fund would not be adequate to cover total expected cleanup costs, nor would it be adequate to cover expected decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) costs. A $500 million annual deposit indexed to an inflation rate would likely be adequate to pay for all expected cleanup costs, including D and D costs, remedial action, and depleted uranium costs

  7. Environmental resources reduce income inequality and the prevalence, depth and severity of poverty in rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Bir Bahadur Khanal; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed...

  8. Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?

    OpenAIRE

    Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

    2002-01-01

    Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at n...

  9. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Enrichment measurement in TRIGA type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Mazon R, R.

    2001-05-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of North America, through the program 'Idaho Operations Nuclear Spent Fuel Program' of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), in Idaho Falls; Idaho USA, hires to Global Technologies Inc. (GTI) to develop a prototype device of detection enrichment uranium (DEU Detection of Enrichment of Uranium) to determine quantitatively the enrichment in remainder U-235 in a TRIGA fuel element at the end of it useful life. The characteristics of the prototype developed by GTI are the following ones: It allows to carry out no-destructive measurements of TRIGA type fuel. Easily transportable due to that reduced of it size. The determination of the enrichment (in grams of U-235) it is obtained with a precision of 5%. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), in its facilities of the Nuclear Center of Mexico, it has TRIGA type fuel of high and low enrichment (standard and FLIP) fresh and with burnt, it also has the infrastructure (hot cells, armor-plating of transport, etc) and qualified personnel to carry out the necessary maneuvers to prove the operation of the DEU prototype. For this its would be used standard type fuel elements and FLIP, so much fresh as with certain burnt one. In the case of the fresh fuels the measurement doesn't represent any risk, the fuels before and after the measurement its don't contain a quantity of fission products that its represent a radiological risk in its manipulation; but in the case of the fuels with burnt the handling of the same ones represents an important radiological risk reason why for its manipulation it was used the transport armor-plating and the hot cells. (Author)

  11. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  12. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs and extracellular microvesicles (MVs in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses.

  13. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III) Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs) and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Michalak, Izabela; Kocherova, Ievgeniia; Marędziak, Monika; Weiss, Christine

    2017-12-08

    This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III) trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) and extracellular microvesicles (MVs) in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR) were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III) induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses.

  14. The Cladophora glomerata Enriched by Biosorption Process in Cr(III) Improves Viability, and Reduces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Equine Metabolic Syndrome Derived Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs) and Their Extracellular Vesicles (MV’s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Marędziak, Monika; Weiss, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro effects of freshwater alga Cladophora glomerata water extract enriched during a biosorption process in Cr(III) trivalent chromium and chromium picolinate on adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (ASCs) and extracellular microvesicles (MVs) in equine metabolic syndrome-affected horses. Chemical characterisation of natural Cladophora glomerata was performed with special emphasis on: vitamin C, vitamin E, total phenols, fatty acids, free and protein-bound amino acids as well as measured Cr in algal biomass. To examine the influence of Cladophora glomerata water extracts, in vitro viability, oxidative stress factor accumulation, apoptosis, inflammatory response, biogenesis of mitochondria, autophagy in ASCs of EMS and secretory activity manifested by MV release were investigated. For this purpose, various methods of molecular biology and microscopic observations (i.e., immunofluorescence staining, SEM, TEM, FIB observations, mRNA and microRNA expression by RT-qPCR) were applied. The extract of Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions reduced apoptosis and inflammation in ASCs of EMS horses through improvement of mitochondrial dynamics, decreasing of PDK4 expression and reduction of endoplastic reticulum stress. Moreover, it was found, that Cladophora glomerata and Cr(III) induce antioxidative protection coming from enhanced SOD activity Therefore, Cladophora glomerata enriched with Cr(III) ions might become an interesting future therapeutic agent in the pharmacological treatment of EMS horses. PMID:29292726

  15. Future of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmer, C.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing amount of separative work being done in government facilities to produce low-enriched uranium fuel for nuclear utilities again raises the question: should this business-type, industrial function be burned over the private industry. The idea is being looked at by the Reagan administration, but faces problems of national security as well as from the unique nature of the business. This article suggests that a joint government-private venture combining enriching, reprocessing, and waste disposal could be the answer. Further, a separate entity using advanced laser technology to deplete existing uranium tails and lease them for fertile blankets in breeder reactors might earn substantial revenues to help reduce the national debt

  16. Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

    2002-01-01

    Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at nine health care facilities in the Great Lakes region of the United States. As a result, more than 1 kg of mercury was removed from four facilities. The complexity of the supply chain inhibits a direct environmental information exchange between health-care decision makers and suppliers. However, a dialogue is starting within the health care supply chain to address environmental issues. The HCEPT has been shown to assist health care facilities with that dialogue by identifying products that have environmental consequences. This promising tool is now available for further experimentation and modification, to facilitate overall environmental improvement, and to provide a systematic method for environmental assessment of health care products. PMID:12204816

  17. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave

  18. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  19. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 5. The magnitude and mechanism of enrichment of seaspray with actinides in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.D.; Lally, A.E.; Burton, P.J.; Kilworth, D.R.; Pratley, F.A.

    1982-03-01

    As part of a programme to investigate the transfer to land of radionuclides discharged to the sea from British Nuclear Fuels Ltd, Sellafield, sea spray was collected at several sites between the Solway Firth and Barrow. Samples of seawater and materials from the foreshore were also collected. The samples were analysed for 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. It was demonstrated that, in winds up to 10m sec -1 , actinides in sea spray are derived from sediment suspended in seawater in the surf zone. At Eskmeals, in an on-shore wind of 6m sec -1 , 98 per cent of the plutonium and 93 per cent of the sea spray collected on the beach were injected into the atmosphere in the surf zone. Enrichment factors for plutonium in sea spray ranged from 70 to 800 relative to filtered seawater and from 3 to 66 for unfiltered water. Large enrichment factors were also observed for 241 Am but 137 Cs was only slightly enriched in spray. Laboratory experiments were also performed in which spray was generated by bubbling air through vigorously stirred seawater collected from the surf zone on the Cumbrian coast. Similar enrichment factors were obtained. (author)

  20. How Have Political Incentives for Local Officials Reduced Environmental Pollution in Resource-Depleted Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese resource-exhausted cities face more severe environmental pollution problems than other cities. In addressing these problems, the way local officials (usually senior party and government leaders operate is very important, as their focus on political achievements may complicate how they manage environmental pollution in these cities. On the one hand, the traditional Gross Domestic Product-based quest for political achievement may lead top leaders to de-emphasize environmental pollution. On the other hand, changes made in 2003 to the way the performance of Chinese officials is evaluated have encouraged some local senior party and government leaders to pay more attention to environmental problems. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between political incentives and environmental pollution by applying the 2004–2014 panel data from 37 resource-exhausted cities. The findings reveal that firstly, among the factors which impact the environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities, investment in fixed assets, foreign direct investment, industrial structure, per-capita education expenditure, and population density do not have a significant impact, thus indicating that local openness levels, the degree of industrial upgrading, and local investment in fixed assets are not the key variables in environmental pollution control. Secondly, the extent to which officials vie for political achievement affects environmental pollution in resource-exhausted cities. This depends upon whether the officials are municipal party secretaries or mayors; the former play a greater dynamic role in environmental pollution and have stronger robustness than the latter. The conclusion verifies both the existing authority structure of China and its effectiveness in the control of environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities. That is to say, in contrast to the principles of the party committees, the mayors are in a subordinate position and often fail to

  1. Reducing the environmental impact of the fuel and energy complex in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaev, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    In this article there is a brief overview of some of the Soviet Union's environmental problems. Democratization, decentralization and privatization have stimulated the use of environmental impact assessments and of measures to prevent industrial accidents. A long-term nature conservation and natural resources management programme for the USSR has been developed for the period 1991-2005. (author). 1 tab

  2. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  3. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  4. Reducing conditions on barium absorption in rice plants cultured in BaSO4-enriched soil doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v36i1.17539

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Osvaldo Lima Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the possible solubilization of barium sulfate in soils under reducing conditions and its effects on barium bioavailability, an Oryza sativa pot trial was established. Increasing barium doses and two redox potential conditions were evaluated. The geochemical fractionation data demonstrated that reducing conditions led to an increase in the levels of more labile forms of barium and a reduction in more stable forms. Furthermore, higher doses of barium were found to have a negative impact on grain production. The highest levels of barium accumulation in the leaves, roots, and grains were observed with the highest barium dose under reducing conditions. These results demonstrate that reducing conditions increased barium bioavailability and absorption by rice plants.

  5. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973.…

  6. Nonmarket benefits of reducing environmental effects of potential wildfires in beetle-killed trees: A contingent valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam Tabatabaei; John B. Loomis; Daniel W. McCollum

    2015-01-01

    We estimated Colorado households’ nonmarket values for two forest management options for reducing intensity of future wildfires and associated nonmarket environmental effects wildfires. The first policy is the traditional harvesting of pine beetle-killed trees and burning of the slash piles of residual materials on-site. The second involves harvesting but moving the...

  7. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  8. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  9. Limits to the use of environmental indices to reduce risk and/or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental indices that provide short-term predictions of recruitment have the ... Simulations, based on a 'management procedure' (sensu the International ... to be in the top or bottom third of the distribution of possible recruitment values.

  10. Incorporating lean thinking and life cycle assessment to reduce environmental impacts of plastic injection moulded products

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Leong, Jun; Vichare, Parag

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, environmental footprint of the product manufacture has emerged as an important public concern, causing manufacturers to re-assess their product’s environmental impacts. Responding to global outcry on global warming, world leaders have agreed to limit global temperature rise to less than 2°C above the temperature in pre-industrial times. As a result, governments and industrial leaders around the world have proposed a roadmap for 80% emissions reduction by 2050. The aim of ...

  11. Dynamic Simulation pro-environmental behavior in reducing air pollution in el Valle de Aburra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera P, Juan D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes to expose some of the theoretical, methodological and conceptual aspects of the study of the pro-environmental behaviour on which the Master in Environmental and Development thesis named Dynamic simulation of stake holders under a structure based in beliefs, desires and intentions. Study in case: Pact for Air Quality Improvement of the AMVA, which justifies a reorientation of the intervention programs of the metropolitan authorities. Likewise, it is tried to provide to the reader with an ample point of view, with rigorous criteria, that do possible to analyze the multiple identities, the diversity of aims and the heterogeneity of intentions, to make visible what are behind the citizen's of environmental policies. By means of the analysis of the theoretical models: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It's presented the aspects that influence the pro environmental behaviour of the individuals, and their dynamics in a systemic environment. An approach from methodological individualism of the TRA was applied to the reduction 01 air pollution in the valley of Aburra, and the proposed model is validated in abstract. Finally, so me considerations are presented about their application in the metropolitan environmental management. The analysis of the intention of behaviour of the actors and stake holders who participate in the execution of the programs tend to the diminution of the contamination establishes by the authorities, serves to understand how strong they will try, or how much effort they will exert to realise the promoted pro environmental behaviour.

  12. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  13. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  14. From Rum Jungle to Wismut - Reducing the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.; Jeffree, R.A.; Levins, D.M.; Lowson, R.T.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1994-01-01

    Australia has a long history of uranium mining. In the early days, little attention was given to environmental matters and considerable pollution occurred. ANSTO has been involved in rehabilitation of a number of the early uranium mining sites, from Rum Jungle in Australia's Northern Territory to Wismut in Germany, and is working with current producers to minimise the environmental impact of their operations. ANSTO's expertise in amelioration of acid mine drainage, radon measurements and control, treatment of mill wastes, management of tailings, monitoring of seepage plumes, mathematical modelling of pollutant transport and biological impacts in a tropical environment are summarized. 17 refs., 3 figs

  15. Substituting computers for services - potential to reduce ICT's environmental footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plepys, A. [The International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The environmental footprint of IT products are significant and, in spite of manufacturing and product design improvements, growing consumption of electronics results in increasing absolute environmental impact. Computers have short technological lifespan and a lot of the in-build performance, although necessary, remains idling for most of the time. Today, most of computers used in non-residential sectors are connected to networks. The premise of this paper is that computer networks are an untapped resource, which could allow addressing environmental impacts of IT products through centralising and sharing computing resources. The article presents results of a comparative study of two computing architectures. The first one is the traditional decentralised PC-based system and the second - centralised server-based computing (SBC) system. Both systems deliver equivalent functions to the final users and this can be compared on a one-to-one basis. The study evaluates product lifespan, energy consumption in user stage, product design and its environmental implications in manufacturing. (orig.)

  16. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  17. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  18. Behavioral responses of three lemur species to different food enrichment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Morgan E; Shapiro, Hannah G; Ehmke, Erin E

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior. We recorded lemur behavior using the continuous sampling method to obtain behavior duration and analyzed our results using ANOVA Repeated Measures. Results showed enrichment effectiveness differed for each species and that different enrichment devices had varying impacts on lemur behavior across all species. We attributed the differences in species-specific responses to the unique locomotor patterns and methods of diet acquisition of each species, and the variances in behavioral responses across all species to the characteristics of each device. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific enrichment and encourages further research in this field in order to maximize the positive effects of enrichment, which in turn has the potential to affect the overall well-being of captive populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Analysis of gyrA and parC mutations in enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    The quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC in four species of enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence variations of parC could be related to the different enterococcal species. Mutations...... in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium related to reduced susceptibility were identical to mutations detected in E jaecalis and E. faecium of clinical origin. A minimal inhibitory concentration of 8 mug ml(-1) to ciprofloxacin was not associated with any mutations in the gyrA and parC gene...... of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. These two species may be intrinsically less susceptible to ciprofloxacin....

  20. Foraging enrichment modulates open field response to monosodium glutamate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-07-01

    Environmental enrichment can enhance expression of species-specific behaviour. While foraging enrichment is encouraged in laboratory animals, its impact on novelty induced behaviour remain largely unknown. Here, we studied behavioural response of mice to acute and subchronic oral monosodium glutamate (MSG) in an open field with /without foraging enrichment. Adult male mice, assigned to five groups were administered vehicle (distilled water), or one of four selected doses of MSG (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) for 21 days. Open field novelty induced behaviours i.e. horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last doses of MSG. Results were analysed using MANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test and expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Following acute MSG administration without enrichment, locomotor activity reduced, grooming increased, while rearing activity reduced at lower doses and increased at higher doses. Subchronic administration without enrichment was associated with increased locomotor activity and reduction in grooming, rearing activity however still showed a biphasic response. Addition of enrichment with acute administration resulted in sustained reduction in locomotor and rearing activities with a biphasic grooming response. Subchronically, there was reduction in horizontal locomotion, biphasic rearing response and sustained increase in grooming activity. Behavioural response to varying doses of MSG as observed in the open field is affected by modifications such as foraging enrichment, which can reverse or dampen the central effects seen irrespective of duration of administration.

  1. Planning for the closure of uncontrolled landfills in Turkey to reduce environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene Şentürk, Didar; Alp, Emre

    2016-11-01

    Landfilling is the most preferred solid waste disposal method in Turkey owing to both economic and technical reasons. However, beside the sanitary landfills there are also hundreds of uncontrolled waste sites located throughout Turkey, which are often left either abandoned or burning. Because there is a lack of legislative guidelines governing the closure and rehabilitation of these dumpsites, the municipalities that are responsible for waste management do not initiate the proactive strategies required for the closure of these sites. In this study, a method based on a multi-criteria analysis is conducted for different dumpsites in Turkey to evaluate the level of negative impacts on the environment. This method is based on the use of environmental indices for a quantitative assessment of the landfills, such as environmental interaction between the source and the receptors, environmental values of the receptors, and operational conditions. It was possible to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology since the pre- and post-groundwater quality monitoring data was available from the study sites that were closed and rehabilitated in 2014. The results of this study show that the method based on a multi-criteria analysis is an effective tool while in the preliminary planning stages of closure and rehabilitation activities of uncontrolled waste landfills. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Maize feedstocks with improved digestibility reduce the costs and environmental impacts of biomass pretreatment and saccharification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Salvador, A.F.; Slegers, Ellen; Noordam-Boot, C.M.M.; Dolstra, O.; Vlaswinkel, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background - Despite the recognition that feedstock composition influences biomass conversion efficiency, limited information exists as to how bioenergy crops with reduced recalcitrance can improve the economics and sustainability of cellulosic fuel conversion platforms. We have compared the

  3. Mimicking microbial interactions under nitrate-reducing conditions in an anoxic bioreactor: enrichment of novel Nitrospirae bacteria distantly related to Thermodesulfovibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Arslan; Dalcin Martins, Paula; Frank, Jeroen; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Welte, Cornelia U

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms are main drivers of the sulfur, nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycles. These elemental cycles are interconnected by the activity of different guilds in sediments or wastewater treatment systems. Here, we investigated a nitrate-reducing microbial community in a laboratory-scale bioreactor model that closely mimicked estuary or brackish sediment conditions. The bioreactor simultaneously consumed sulfide, methane and ammonium at the expense of nitrate. Ammonium oxidation occurred solely by the activity of anammox bacteria identified as Candidatus Scalindua brodae and Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Fifty-three percent of methane oxidation was catalyzed by archaea affiliated to Ca. Methanoperedens and 47% by Ca. Methylomirabilis bacteria. Sulfide oxidation was mainly shared between two proteobacterial groups. Interestingly, competition for nitrate did not lead to exclusion of one particular group. Metagenomic analysis showed that the most abundant taxonomic group was distantly related to Thermodesulfovibrio sp. (87-89% 16S rRNA gene identity, 52-54% average amino acid identity), representing a new family within the Nitrospirae phylum. A high quality draft genome of the new species was recovered, and analysis showed high metabolic versatility. Related microbial groups are found in diverse environments with sulfur, nitrogen and methane cycling, indicating that these novel Nitrospirae bacteria might contribute to biogeochemical cycling in natural habitats. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bio-Kil, a nano-based disinfectant, reduces environmental bacterial burden and multidrug-resistant organisms in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sen Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Application of Bio-Kil reduced the environmental bacterial burden and MDROs in ICUs. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this nanotechnology-based disinfectant in reducing HAIs.

  5. United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decomissioning Fund financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act) established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D and D Fund, or Fund) to pay the costs for decontamination and decommissioning three gaseous diffusion facilities located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio (diffusion facilities). The Act also authorized the Fund to pay remedial action costs associated with the Government`s operation of the facilities and to reimburse uranium and thorium licensees for the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial actions which are incident to sales to the Government. The report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the D and D Fund financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statement of financial position and the related statements of operations and changes in net position and cash flows.

  6. Reducing health care-associated infections by implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Swee Siang; Huang, Cheng Hua; Yang, Chiu Chu; Hsieh, Yi Pei; Kuo, Chen Ni; Chen, Yi Ru; Chen, Li Ching

    2018-01-01

    Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas. Fifteen high-touch surfaces were selected for cleanliness evaluation by using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Then data regarding HAI densities in the MICU were collected during the baseline, intervention, and late periods. A total of 120 ATP readings were obtained. The total number of clean high-touch surfaces increased from 13% to 53%, whereas that of unclean high-touch surface decreased from 47% to 20%. The densities of HAI were 14.32‰ and 14.90‰ during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. The HAI density did not decrease after the intervention period, but it decreased to 9.07‰ during the late period. Implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors effectively improves cleanliness in MICU environments. However, no decrease in HAI density was observed within the study period. Considering that achieving high levels of hand-hygiene adherence is difficult, improving environmental cleaning is a crucial adjunctive measure for reducing the incidence of HAIs.

  7. Welcome address to 30th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors, 6 October 2008, Washington, D.C., USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.

    2008-01-01

    down blended. By investing in these measures, we could alleviate proliferation concerns associated with the continued uses of HEU and help reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism. I believe that this is an initiative in which all countries - Nuclear Weapon States and Non-Nuclear Weapon States alike - could play a role, and from which all would clearly benefit. The Agency stands ready to continue to take its share of this work through supporting and assisting its Member States in their efforts

  8. Urban agricultural typologies and the need to quantify their potential to reduce a city's environmental 'foodprint'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    . One possible mitigation strategy to these issues is increasing food production in and around cities using urban agriculture (UA). Through a literature review, we found claims surrounding UA as a way to attenuate a cornucopia of environmental burdens due to urban food needs, but that their veracity......Presently, the supply chain supporting urban food consumption is placing stress on the environment at the planetary, regional and local scales. Despite the urban origin of global food demands, cities supply little of their own food, and are susceptible to disruptions across the global supply chain...

  9. Polyethyleneglycol/silver functionalized reduced graphene oxide aerogel for environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, G. Vanitha; Asha, S.; Ananth, A. Nimrodh; Rajan, M. A. Jothi; Mathavan, T.

    2018-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)/Silver (Ag) functionalized reduced graphene oxide aerogel (RGOA) was synthesized. PEG/Ag decorated reduced graphene oxide aerogel was characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The surface morphology of PEG/Ag/RGOA was analyzed using scanning electron microscope. The non-covalent interaction between reduced graphene oxide layers and the interaction between PEG and Ag on RGOA were studied by FT-IR spectra. It was observed that the interaction between Ag and PEG could enhance the properties of RGOA. Methyl Orange (MO) dye degradation was observed from UV-Vis Spectra. The process was studied by monitoring the simultaneous decrease in the height of UV-Vis absorption peak of dye solution. The results show that PEG/RGOA and PEG/Ag/RGOA are an efficient catalyst for dye degradation.

  10. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  11. Carbonated miscanthus mineralized aggregates for reducing environmental impact of lightweight concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courard Luc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the cement industry is largely responsible for the production of CO2 in the construction sector, it is useful to make this production a reverse phenomenon: that is CO2 capture. The CO2 absorption process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Before identifying and quantifying the basic physical characteristics of concrete made from miscanthus, it is necessary to optimize the composition of the product. The long-term stability as well as the reinforcement may be obtained by means of a mineralization process of the natural product: a preparation with a lime and/or cement-based material is necessary to reinforce the cohesion of the bio-based product. Mineralization process is described as well as the way of producing blocks for CO2 capture by means of accelerated carbonation. Finally, concrete blocks produced with miscanthus mineralized aggregates offer interesting mechanical properties and minimal environmental impact.

  12. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.; Slater, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  13. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink R technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO TM automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated

  14. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20–30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects. (letter)

  15. Role of exergy in increasing efficiency and sustainability and reducing environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The use of exergy is described as a measure for identifying and explaining the benefits of sustainable energy and technologies, so the benefits can be clearly understood and appreciated by experts and non-experts alike, and the utilization of sustainable energy and technologies can be increased. Exergy can be used to assess and improve energy systems, and can help better understand the benefits of utilizing green energy by providing more useful and meaningful information than energy provides. Exergy clearly identifies efficiency improvements and reductions in thermodynamic losses attributable to more sustainable technologies. A new sustainability index is developed as a measure of how exergy efficiency affects sustainable development. Exergy can also identify better than energy the environmental benefits and economics of energy technologies. The results suggest that exergy should be utilized by engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers, involved in green energy and technologies in tandem with other objectives and constraints

  16. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helen Hansen; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2015-01-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space......) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national...... of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic...

  17. The role of nuclear energy in reducing the environmental impact of China's energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zongxin; Sun, Yuliang

    1998-01-01

    It is presented in this paper the current status of China's energy market and the projections of its future development. China's energy market, currently and in the next decades, is mainly characterized by rapidly increasing demand and dominant role of coal which is directly related to serious environmental pollution. The role of nuclear energy utilization in improving the primary energy infrastructure is addressed. Status and development of nuclear power generation are described. Potential of introducing nuclear energy into heat market is discussed. An overview of the research and development work of water cooled low temperature heating reactors and gas-cooled high temperature gas cooled reactors in China is given and the technical and safety features of these two reactor types are briefly described. (author)

  18. A method for reducing environmental pollution by using essential oils in rodent pest management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić, Goran; Blažić, Tanja; Đurović-Pejčev, Rada; Đorđević, Tijana; Đedović, Suzana; Vukša, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Strong-smelling plant extracts, such as essential oils, have a variety of feeding effects on mammals. Considering current concerns over long-term health issues and environmental effects of chemicals, plant-based products with repellent or antifungal activities may represent good solutions for improvement of rodent pest control programs. The present study was therefore focused on examining the effects of bergamot, lavender, and thyme essential oils as additional bait components on daily intakes of cereal-based baits by wild house mice. Lavender essential oil, containing linalool and linalyl acetate as main components, and thyme essential oil with a prevailing thymol component had no effects on house mice diet. Bergamot essential oil, whose main components were linalool, limonene, and linalyl acetate, showed a repellent effect on house mouse diet.

  19. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  20. Reducing domestic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a review of attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E; Courage, C; Rushton, L

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews research on attitudes and behaviours towards environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), with a special focus on child health and the indoor environment. Research needs and ways forward to encourage reductions in domestic ETS levels are discussed. Published material was identified through online literature searches (Medline, Toxline, Cancerlit, Biosis, Embase, Enviroline, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Academic Index and Psychinfo). The literature search strategy employed search terms such as "passive smoking" or "environmental tobacco smoke" with "attitude" or "awareness" and other synonyms. Additional publications were identified by citation chasing and expert advice. Focusing on the UK, studies that provided survey-derived data about attitudes and behaviours in relation to ETS exposure in the indoor environment were selected for review. Published studies from other countries were also included when they provided information pertinent to this review. Most people are aware of the health risks associated with ETS exposure, and there is a high level of support for smoking restrictions in public places to protect non-smokers from ETS. However, although there is concern among both non-smoking and smoking parents about children and second-hand smoke, many people allow children to be exposed to ETS in the home. The review suggests that traditional health promotion campaigns have had only limited success in encouraging ETS risk reduction measures in the home. Because ETS is a public health priority, particularly in relation to child health, the barriers to the uptake of such measures need to be explored in detail to inform the future promotion of reductions in domestic levels of ETS.

  1. The feasibility of aromatherapy massage to reduce symptoms of Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Eitaki, Yoko; Kawai, Toshio; Kishi, Reiko

    2012-12-01

    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) is an acquired disorder with multiple recurrent symptoms, which is associated with diverse environmental factors that are tolerated by the majority of people. IEI is an illness of uncertain aetiology, making it difficult to treat using conventional medicine. Therefore, there is a need for novel therapies to control the symptoms of IEI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of aromatherapy massage for individuals with IEI. Non-blinded crossover trial. IEI patients who attended a clinic in Sapporo city were recruited, and sixteen patients were enrolled. Participants were clinically examined by an experienced medical doctor and met the criteria included in the working definition of IEI disorder. During the active period, participants received four one-hour aromatherapy massage sessions every two weeks. During the control period, the participants did not receive any massages. Scores on the IEI-scales trigger checklist, symptoms, life impact, and the State Anxiety Inventory were assessed before and after each period. Short-term mood enhancement was evaluated using the Profiles of Mood Status (POMS) before and after sessions. Due to period effects, evaluation of the results had to be restricted to the first period, and the result showed no effect of intervention. All six sub-scales of the POMS improved after each session (mean score differences: 4.89-1.33, PAromatherapy was well tolerated by subjects with IEI; however, aromatherapy, as applied in this study, did not suggest any specific effects on IEI condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

  3. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  4. PWR fuel of high enrichment with erbia and enriched gadolinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejmer, Klaes-Håkan; Malm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Today standard PWR fuel is licensed for operation up to 65-70 MWd/kgU, which in most cases corresponds to an enrichment of more than 5 w/o "2"3"5U. Due to criticality safety reason of storage and transportation, only fuel up to 5 w/o "2"3"5U enrichment is so far used. New fuel storage installations and transportation casks are necessary investments before the reactivity level of the fresh fuel can be significantly increased. These investments and corresponding licensing work takes time, and in the meantime a solution that requires burnable poisons in all pellets of the fresh high-enriched fuel might be used. By using very small amounts of burnable absorber in every pellet the initial reactivity can be reduced to today's levels. This study presents core calculations with fuel assemblies enriched to almost 6 w/o "2"3"5U mixed with a small amount of erbia. Some of the assemblies also contain gadolinia. The results are compared to a reference case containing assemblies with 4.95 w/o "2"3"5U without erbia, utilizing only gadolinia as burnable poison. The comparison shows that the number of fresh fuel assemblies can be reduced by 21% (which increases the batch burnup by 24%) by utilizing the erbia fuel concept. However, increased cost of uranium due to higher enrichment is not fully compensated for by the cost gain due to the reduction of the number assemblies. Hence, the fuel cycle cost becomes slightly higher for the high enrichment erbia case than for the reference case. (author)

  5. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of

  6. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  7. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies

  8. Understand