WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental effects team

  1. Environmental Response Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website will serve as a resource directory of the Environmental Response Team's roles and capabilities as well as list contacts for each discipline to provide information to EPA personnel and the public.

  2. Diving and Environmental Simulation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Diving and Environmental Simulation Team focuses on ways to optimize the performance and safety of Navy divers. Our goal is to increase mission effectiveness by...

  3. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-04-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.

  4. Employee participation and cleaner technology: learning processes in environmental teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Lorentzen, Børge

    2000-01-01

    working routines, affecting behaviour and increasing environmental consciousness. The project found that the firms' employees had a comprehensive understanding of environmental problems and solutions, including health and safety aspects. Furthermore, the employees in the environmental teams were able...... in the Implementation of Cleaner Technology” was to develop a more active role for employees in the environmental activities of companies. Based on practical experiments in five Danish firms within different industrial sectors, the project concluded that employee participation can have a strong effect on changing...... to improve the firms' environmental activities (e.g. setting up environmental policies, targets and action plans, implementing new procedures and technologies)....

  5. Collocation Impact on Team Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eccles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The collocation of software development teams is common, specially in agile software development environments. However little is known about the impact of collocation on the team’s effectiveness. This paper explores the impact of collocating agile software development teams on a number of team effectiveness factors. The study focused on South African software development teams and gathered data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The key finding was that collocation has a positive impact on a number of team effectiveness factors which can be categorised under team composition, team support, team management and structure and team communication. Some of the negative impact collocation had on team effectiveness relate to the fact that team members perceived that less emphasis was placed on roles, that morale of the group was influenced by individuals, and that collocation was invasive, reduced level of privacy and increased frequency of interruptions. Overall through it is proposed that companies should consider collocating their agile software development teams, as collocation might leverage overall team effectiveness.

  6. Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.

  7. Effects of team emotional authenticity on virtual team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Connelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students, suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others’ emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis (n = 81 student teams suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  8. SYNERGY EFFECTS IN WORK TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca C. ZOLTAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organization increasingly utilizes all kind of teams in order to surpass their competitors through flexibility, adaptability and innovation, features which are seen to characterize the teams. For this purpose, the concept of synergy in teams’ activity is often mentioned as the prime reason for which collective work is considered to be superior comparative with individual work. But what exactly does it mean? The present paper aims to shed some light on the concept of synergy in work teams and its positive effects, namely, the social consequences of collective work such as social compensation, social indispensability, social comparison, social identity, but also its negative effects, such as free-riding, social loafing and sucker effect. These are important group phenomena that managers should be aware of because they have a major impact on team performance, and consequently, on organization performance.

  9. Team Effectiveness and Leadership Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Duygulu, Ethem; Ciraklar, Nurcan

    2008-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the patterns of leadership roles for team effectiveness in non economic organizations compared to economic organizations. For this purpose, we studied three successful organization types, i.e the amateur sports clubs (football, basketball), theater companies and, regional folk groups. Our basic hypothesis is that the relationship between the type of organization (specially teams) and the role of leadership is not random. Therefore, we believe that a...

  10. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Leggat Sandra G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers...

  11. Using teams and committees effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, B

    1998-09-01

    In a corporate setting, the term "team" usually refers to members of a group with different responsibilities and/or skills working together to achieve a common goal or objective. The major reason why a company desires group as opposed to individual involvement is to derive sounder decisions. Two essential issues to resolve in establishing teams or committees are 1) who should be a member or representative; and 2) what is the charter or mandate for the group. Representatives join a team or group in numerous ways; four common methods are 1) appointment by the group member's supervisor; 2) recruitment by the team leader; 3) appointment by a senior manager; and 4) volunteering. There are various profiles of how groups can approach a decision, including "groupthink," the "ideal group process" and the "debating society" approach. Group meetings must be structured to ensure that decisions are reached and then implemented. Foresight and planning are essential prerequisites to have efficient teams and committees that work effectively and achieve their goals. (c) 1998 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  12. TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  13. Team player styles, team design variables and team work effectiveness in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan El-Kot, Ghada Awed

    2001-01-01

    The literature has revealed few studies of management in Arab countries in general and particularly in Egypt. Many Egyptian organisations implemented the team concept a number of years ago, however, there do not appear to be any studies investicitaýt inc",D team work effectiveness in Egypt. The literature review and the findings of a pilot study emphasised the need for empirical research in team work in Egypt. Team effectiveness models are examined in order to identify the fact...

  14. Effective healthcare teams require effective team members: defining teamwork competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggat Sandra G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.

  15. Creating, Invigorating, and Sustaining Effective Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Susan; Miller, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Teams can boost creativity, morale, and communication, but they can also unleash disharmony, create tension, and waste time. To maximize teaming benefits, administrators must share authority, cultivate teacher leadership, train all team members, use situational leadership, model effective team leader behaviors, provide incentives, support each…

  16. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  17. Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucic, Tania; Robinson, Linda; Ramburuth, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the effect of leadership style of a team leader on team-member learning in organizations, to conceptually extend an initial model of leadership and to empirically examine the new model of ambidextrous leadership in a team context. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research utilizing the case study method…

  18. Process Variables Critical for Team Effectiveness: A Delphi Study of Wraparound Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Janetta L.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.

    2001-01-01

    Wraparound team members (n=20) identified as teaming experts rated 109 items that support team effectiveness across six categories: team goals, member roles and membership, communication, cohesion, logistics, and outcomes. Items in the team outcomes, goals, and cohesion categories were ranked most critical to team effectiveness. (Contains…

  19. Peer Effects in Team Sports: Empirical Evidence from NCAA Relay Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Craig A. Depken, II; Lisa E. Haglund

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether disparity in team member quality impacts team production using NCAA 4x400m relay teams. The net peer effects are estimated to have both an absolute and relative negative effect on the team performance. Because NCAA relay teams are comprised of unpaid amateurs, we utilize a direct measure of team-member quality rather than indirect measures such as wages. The evidence suggests that a greater disparity in team member quality reduces team performance, that is, it ...

  20. Factors Contributing to Research Team Effectiveness: Testing a Model of Team Effectiveness in an Academic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zoharah; Ahmad, Aminah

    2014-01-01

    Following the classic systems model of inputs, processes, and outputs, this study examined the influence of three input factors, team climate, work overload, and team leadership, on research project team effectiveness as measured by publication productivity, team member satisfaction, and job frustration. This study also examined the mediating…

  1. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  2. Building effective clinical teams in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezziane, Zoheir; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Gawn, Lynsey; Thompson, Emily A; Athanasiou, Thanos; Warren, Oliver J

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to review teamwork and the creation of effective teams within healthcare. By combining research material found in management, psychology and health services research the article explores the drivers increasing the importance of teamwork, reviews the current knowledge base on how to build a team and focuses on some of the barriers to effective team performance. The simultaneous inflation of healthcare costs and necessity to improve quality of care has generated a demand for novel solutions in policy, strategy, commissioning and provider organisations. A critical, but commonly undervalued means by which quality can be improved is through structured, formalised incentivisation and development of teams, and the ability of individuals to work collectively and in collaboration. Several factors appear to contribute to the development of successful teams, including effective communication, comprehensive decision making, safety awareness and the ability to resolve conflict. Not only is strong leadership important if teams are to function effectively but the concept and importance of followership is also vital. Building effective clinical teams is difficult. The research in this area is currently limited, as is the authors' understanding of the different requirements faced by those working in different areas of the health and social care environment. This article provides a starting place for those interested in leading and developing teams of clinicians.

  3. Me, Myself, My Team How to be an effective team player using NLP

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Angus

    2006-01-01

    Me, Myself, My Team brings you effective strategies to improve your team's communication and motivation, discover new perceptions and begin new courses of action. Full of practical ideas, this exceptional book demonstrates how team playing achieves the best results.

  4. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  5. Effective Virtual Teams for New Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Abdul Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Zahari TAHA

    2012-01-01

    Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., Abdul Rashid, S. H., & Taha, Z. (2012). Effective Virtual Teams for New Product Development. [Full Length Research Paper]. Scientific Research and Essay, 7(21), 1971-1985.; International audience; At present, the existing literature shows that the factors which influence the effectiveness of virtual teams for new product development are still ambiguous. To address this problem, a research design was developed, which includes detailed literature review, preliminary ...

  6. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonie V. Webster; James Hardy; Lew Hardy

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially...

  7. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  8. Flipping my environmental geochemistry classroom using Team-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that active learning disproportionately benefits STEM students from disadvantaged backgrounds and women in male-dominated fields (Lorenzo et al., 2006; Haak et al., 2011). Freeman et al. (2014) went so far as to suggest that increasing the number of STEM graduates could be done, at least in part, by "abandoning traditional lecturing in favor of active learning". Motivated in part by these previous studies and working at a Hispanic-Serving Institution, I decided to flip my environmental geochemistry course, using Team-Based Learning (TBL) - an instructional strategy for using active learning in small groups (Michaelsen et al., 1982). The course is taught over a 3 hour long class period (once a week) with a mix of upper division undergraduate and graduate students from environmental science, geology, engineering, chemistry, and biological sciences. One of the major learning outcomes of my course is that students "will be able to explain and discuss environmental geochemical data and its significance with their peers." This is practiced each class period throughout the course using TBL, where both undergraduate and graduate students learn from each other and uncover misconceptions. It is essentially one version of a flipped classroom where the students' experience changes from acquiring course content in the classroom to applying course content in the classroom in teams. I will share an overview of the teaching and learning strategy and my experience as well as examples of activities done in the classroom. Cited references: Freeman et al. (2014) PNAS 111: 8410-8415; Haak et al. (2011) Science 332: 1213-1216; Lorenzo et al. (2006) Am J Phys 74: 118-122; Michaelsen et al. (1982) Organ Behav Teaching 7: 13-22.

  9. Developing an Effective Board-Administrative Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David B.

    It is beneficial to identify three administrative teams through linking pins: the principal is the linking pin between the instructional team and the administrative team; the superintendent is the linking pin between the administrative team and the policy team, which includes the board of education; the administrative team consisting of all…

  10. Palliative care teams: effective through moral reflection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, M.A.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2005-01-01

    Working as a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary team is an essential condition to provide good palliative care. This widespread assumption is based on the idea that teamwork makes it possible to address the various needs of the patient and family more effectively. This article is about teamwork

  11. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  12. Exploring effectiveness of team communication: Balancing synchronous and asynchronous communication in design teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Otter, Ad; Emmitt, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Effective teams use a balance of synchronous and asynchronous communication. Team communication is dependent on the communication acts of team members and the ability of managers to facilitate, stimulate and motivate them. Team members from organizations using different information systems tend...... to have different understanding, opinions, and rates of adoption and skills levels regarding specific IT tools. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effective use of tools for communication in design teams and the strategies for the use of specific tools....

  13. Building Efficient and Effective Strategic Intelligence Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Colonel Eric...such as the Myer’s Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) as an additional means to select 3 and train intelligence analysts. The goal is to match leaders...To sustain or increase the longevity and effectiveness of these surgically formed teams, national intelligence organizations need to reexamine how

  14. Enhancing Mental Models for Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Enhancing mental models for team effectiveness Marie-Eve Jobidon Alexandra Muller-Gass Matthew Duncan Ann-Renee...Blais Defence R&D Canada Technical Report DRDC Toronto TR 2009-202 September 2011 Enhancing mental ... mental models (TMM) has been the focus of many research endeavours (e.g., Edwards et al., 2006; Marks et al., 2002; Mathieu et al., 2010). The purpose

  15. Enhancing the effectiveness of team science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooke, Nancy J; Hilton, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    ...." Scientific research is increasingly conducted by small teams and larger groups rather than individual investigators, but the challenges of collaboration can slow these teams' progress in achieving...

  16. The relationship between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Value-based leadership practices play a critical role in teamwork in high-performance organisations. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to empirically validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between servant leadership, affective team commitment and team effectiveness. Motivation for the study: The increased eliance on teams for production calls for an analysis of the role of follower-focused leadership practices in enhancing eam effectiveness.Research design, approach and method: A non-probabilityand multicultural sample consisting of 202 primary and secondary school teachers was drawn from 32 chools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Main findings: High levels of reliability were found and uni-dimensionality of the subscales was demonstrated through exploratory factor analyses. Good fit with the data was found for the measurement models through confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modelling showed a reasonable fit for the structural model. Positive relationships were found amongst servant leadership, team effectiveness and affective team commitment. Standard multiple regression analysis showed that affective team commitment moderated the relationship between servant leadership and team effectiveness.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the central role played by servant leadership and affective team commitment in team performance. Servant leadership fosters team effectiveness if employees feel committed to their work team.Contribution/value-add: The servant leadership style alone may not be a sufficient condition for team effectiveness; other variables, such as affective team commitment, also play a role. The study suggested specific variables that may also combine with leadership to positively influence team effectiveness

  17. The effect of team building practices on safety performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Marshall T.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS Team Building creates a working atmosphere where characteristics are developed that enable the team to be effective. Construction projects that have successful safety programs have many of the same characteristics of effective teams. This thesis analyzes whether team building use affects safety performance for different sized projects. Comparisons are also made of safety practices based on team building use. The analysis is centered on the data collected in the 1996 and 1997 Benchma...

  18. Lean-team effectiveness through leader values and members’ informing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, Desirée Hermina; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although empirical tests of effective lean-team leadership are scarce, leaders are often blamed when lean work-floor initiatives fail. In the present study, a lean-team leader’s work values are assumed to affect his or her team members’ behaviors and, through them, to attain team

  19. A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    ignore individual differences , as well as team-level variables. Consequently, very little is knovA, about the determinants of, or how to train or manage ...8217 -* wnmbeed FILDt GOUP gjg.ROUP Team Perfonrmance;’"Individual Differences ; Ptersonality; I’Mn reerhr aeseultdta-esnlt affects team performance, but...team performance. The second task is to develop a means for clausifying team tasks. Leadership research since the 1950’s illustrates the futility of

  20. Effective Team Strategies: Developing "Game Sense" in Youth Soccer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubball, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author recommends that coaches develop effective team strategies with their players to get more out of individual players and make them into an effective sports team. This article identifies effective team strategies for offense and defense in soccer, provides coaches with diagnostic tool to assess the effectiveness of their…

  1. Team effectiveness in Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Khawaja Fawad; Williams, Nigel

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of team context into research and practice regarding team effectiveness in NGOs projects is a constant challenge. The research seeks to address the gap and identify the critical determinants of team effectiveness in projects undertaken by non-governmental organizations. Using a systematic process, the study involved both literature and focus group discussions to generate the required items. A total of 157 respondents (Team Members and Team Leaders) were part of the study that filled the questionnaires. Using exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis, both convergent and discriminant validity was established. The present study found that team effectiveness in NGO social projects has a total of seven dimensions namely: Inter team coordination, community social linkage, team performance, knowledge, skills, and attitudes, leadership communication and engagement, decision making and information sharing, and team formation. There is a significant lack of research on team effectiveness in NGO projects. Where considerably large proportion of research on team effectiveness has focused on the corporate sector, the non-governmental teams have been neglected. This study clearly highlights the determinants that make up team effectiveness in NGOs. The determinants identified will help to specifically look at the effectiveness of teams in NGO projects. The study would help NGOs identify the dimensions in which they may be performing in a weaker manner and direct their energies in improving the factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Creating inclusive teams through perceptions of supplementary and complementary person-team fit: Examining the relationship between person-team fit and team effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cooman, R.; Vantilborgh, T.; Bal, P.M.; Lub, X.D.

    2016-01-01

    Using a multi-wave, multi-level design, this study unravels the impact of subjective (dis)similarities in teams on team effectiveness. Based on optimal distinctiveness theory and the social inclusion model, we assume combined effects of individual and shared perceptions of supplementary and

  3. Structure and characteristics of community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario: an environmental scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, Lusine; Wong, Josephine; Pham, Ba'; Trubiani, Gina; Carcone, Steven; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Rosen, Laura; Rac, Valeria E; Krahn, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team approach is an essential component of evidence-based wound management in the community. The objective of this study was to identify and describe community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. For the study, a working definition of a multidisciplinary wound care team was developed, and a two-phase field evaluation was conducted. In phase I, a systematic survey with three search strategies (environmental scan) was conducted to identify all multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. In phase II, the team leads were surveyed about the service models of the teams. We identified 49 wound care teams in Ontario. The highest ratio of Ontario seniors to wound team within each Ontario health planning region was 82,358:1; the lowest ratio was 14,151:1. Forty-four teams (90%) participated in the survey. The majority of teams existed for at least 5 years, were established as hospital outpatient clinics, and served patients with chronic wounds. Teams were heterogeneous in on-site capacity of specialized diagnostic testing and wound treatment, team size, and patient volume. Seventy-seven percent of teams had members from three or more disciplines. Several teams lacked essential disciplines. More research is needed to identify optimal service models leading to improved patient outcomes. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  4. Effects of Individual Success on Globally Distributed Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Onur

    2013-01-01

    Necessity of different competencies with high level of knowledge makes it inevitable that software development is a team work. With the today's technology, teams can communicate both synchronously and asynchronously using different online collaboration tools throughout the world. Researches indicate that there are many factors that affect the team success and in this paper, effect of individual success on globally distributed team performance will be analyzed. Student team projects undertaken...

  5. Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2017-08-01

    Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning : The importance of team and task awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbert Erkens; Paul Kirschner; Dr. Jos Fransen

    2011-01-01

    Learning teams in higher education executing a collaborative assignment are not always effective. To remedy this, there is a need to determine and understand the variables that influence team effectiveness. This study aimed at developing a conceptual framework, based on research in various contexts

  7. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psycholo...

  8. The Climate/Team Effectiveness Survey: Another Tool for the Program Management Office Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    unhindered feedback so leader - ship has fact-based information from which to chart a “new” course leading to increased productivity, higher morale...Defense AT&L: March-April 2013 6 The Climate/Team Effectiveness Survey Another ‘Tool’ for the Program Management Office Team Capt. Fred...Hepler, USN Mike Kotzian Duane Mallicoat The challenges facing an acquisition Program Management Office (PMO) team are end-less. With the charge to

  9. Helping fluid teams work: A research agenda for effective team adaptation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Wendy L; Ramsay, P Scott; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Although membership changes within teams are a common practice, research into this phenomenon is relatively nascent (Summers et al.; Acad Manag J 55:314-338, 2012). The small literature base, however, does provide insight into skills required for effective adaptation. The purpose of this effort is to provide a brief research synopsis, leading to research hypotheses about medical team training. By generalizing previous scientific findings regarding skills required for effective membership adaptation in different kinds of teams, we posit mechanisms whereby teamwork training might also support adaptation among medical teams (Burke et al.; Qual & Saf Health Care 13:i96-i104, 2004 and Salas et al.; Theor Issues Ergon Sci 8:381-394, 2007). We provide an overview of the membership change literature. Drawing upon literature from both within and outside of the medical domain, we suggest a framework and research propositions to aid in research efforts designed to determine the best content for helping to create adaptable medical teams through team training efforts. For effective adaptation, we suggest ad hoc teams should be trained on generalizable teamwork skills, to share just "enough" and the "right" information, to engage in shared leadership, and to shift from explicit to implicit coordination. Our overarching goal was to present what is known from the general research literature on successful team adaptation to membership changes, and to propose a research agenda to evaluate whether findings generalize to member changes in medical teams.

  10. Effects of team tenure and leadership in self-managing teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This study seeks to identify the relationship between leader behaviour and the effectiveness of the members of a self-managing team (SMT) in terms of perceived individual performance and emotional exhaustion. In particular, it aims to examine the moderating role of individual team tenure.

  11. Implicit Coordination Strategies for Effective Team Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchibabu, Abhizna; Sparano-Huiban, Christopher; Sonenberg, Liz; Shah, Julie

    2016-06-01

    We investigated implicit communication strategies for anticipatory information sharing during team performance of tasks with varying degrees of complexity. We compared the strategies used by teams with the highest level of performance to those used by the lowest-performing teams to evaluate the frequency and methods of communications used as a function of task structure. High-performing teams share information by anticipating the needs of their teammates rather than explicitly requesting the exchange of information. As the complexity of a task increases to involve more interdependence among teammates, the impact of coordination on team performance also increases. This observation motivated us to conduct a study of anticipatory information sharing as a function of task complexity. We conducted an experiment in which 13 teams of four people performed collaborative search-and-deliver tasks with varying degrees of complexity in a simulation environment. We elaborated upon prior characterizations of communication as implicit versus explicit by dividing implicit communication into two subtypes: (a) deliberative/goal information and (b) reactive status updates. We then characterized relationships between task structure, implicit communication, and team performance. We found that the five teams with the fastest task completion times and lowest idle times exhibited higher rates of deliberative communication versus reactive communication during high-complexity tasks compared with the five teams with the slowest completion times and longest idle times (p = .039). Teams in which members proactively communicated information about their next goal to teammates exhibited improved team performance. The findings from our work can inform the design of communication strategies for team training to improve performance of complex tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Overcoming the ten most common barriers to effective team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Communication is at the heart of medical practice management. Yet there are many barriers to effective communication that can interfere with the smooth running of the practice. This article describes the 10 most common barriers to effective medical practice team communication and offers six steps the practice manager can take to break them down. This article also suggests that the practice develop a team communication strategy. It suggests 10 communication principles readers can share directly with their teams and describes three hallmarks of effective team communication. Finally, this article provides a list of 25 practical questions practice managers can use to improve their team's communication.

  13. Learning Games and Student Teams: Their Effects on Classroom Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, David L.; Edwards, Keith J.

    This study examines the effects of using a learning game "Equations," student teams, and the game-teams combination on classroom process variables in seventh grade math classes. Using the game created greater student peer tutoring, less perceived difficulty, and greater satisfaction with the class. Using student teams resulted in greater student…

  14. Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…

  15. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  16. Team Competition Effects on Classroom Group Process. Report Number 174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, David L.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of a unique form of team competition involving competition among individuals and teams on a variety of classroom group processes. A 3 x 2 (treatment x teacher) design was employed using intact high school social studies classes over a 12-week period. When compared to individual competitions, the team competition…

  17. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  18. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  19. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elaine Russo

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams.

  20. The Influence of Multigenerational Workforce in Effective Informal Team Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Marsaulina Sibarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of this research arises from the convergence of two dynamics that are transforming the workplace and impacting organization performance. The first is multigenerational workforce work side by side in the same organization even in the same team. The second is informal learning, a major mode of learning in an organization. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the influence of generational background of Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in relation to informal team learning in the Indonesian business environment. Both, qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted with 21 interviewees and 184 survey respondents representing a total of 191 multigenerational teams participating in this research. The findings suggest that generational background influence informal learner and effective informal team learning, but have no direct impact on team climate. Understanding generational differences will enable individuals to learn informally and create a conducive team climate that will lead to effective informal team learning.

  1. Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seokhwa; Faraj, Samer; Sims, Henry P

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated leadership and effectiveness of teams operating in a high-velocity environment, specifically trauma resuscitation teams. On the basis of the literature and their own ethnographic work, the authors proposed and tested a contingency model in which the influence of leadership on team effectiveness during trauma resuscitation differs according to the situation. Results indicated that empowering leadership was more effective when trauma severity was low and when team experience was high. Directive leadership was more effective when trauma severity was high or when the team was inexperienced. Findings also suggested that an empowering leader provided more learning opportunities than did a directive leader. The major contribution of this article is the linkage of leadership to team effectiveness, as moderated by relatively specific situational contingencies. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Leader-team complementarity: Exploring the interactive effects of leader personality traits and team power distance values on team processes and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Judge, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Integrating the leader trait perspective with dominance complementarity theory, we propose team power distance as an important boundary condition for the indirect impact of leader extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on team performance through a team's potency beliefs and through relational identification with the leader. Using time-lagged, 3-source data from 71 teams, we found that leader extraversion had a positive indirect impact on team in-role and extrarole performance through relational identification, but only for high power distance teams; leader conscientiousness had a positive influence on team in-role performance through team potency, but only for high power distance teams; and leader agreeableness had a positive effect on team in-role and extrarole performance via relational identification and on team in-role performance via team potency, but only for low power distance teams. The findings address prior inconsistencies regarding the relationships between leader traits and team effectiveness, identify an important boundary condition and key team processes that bridge the links, and provide a deeper understanding of the role of leader traits in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effects of two types of intra-team feedback on developing a shared mental model in Command & Control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasker, P.C.; Post, W.M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In two studies, the effect of two types of intra-team feedback on developing a shared mental model in Command & Control teams was investigated. A distinction is made between performance monitoring and team self-correction. Performance monitoring is the ability of team members to monitor each other's

  4. A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Waldman, David A; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    A growing number of studies have examined the "sharedness" of leadership processes in teams (i.e., shared leadership, collective leadership, and distributed leadership). We meta-analytically cumulated 42 independent samples of shared leadership and examined its relationship to team effectiveness. Our findings reveal an overall positive relationship (ρ = .34). But perhaps more important, what is actually shared among members appears to matter with regard to team effectiveness. That is, shared traditional forms of leadership (e.g., initiating structure and consideration) show a lower relationship (ρ = .18) than either shared new-genre leadership (e.g., charismatic and transformational leadership; ρ = .34) or cumulative, overall shared leadership (ρ = .35). In addition, shared leadership tends to be more strongly related to team attitudinal outcomes and behavioral processes and emergent team states, compared with team performance. Moreover, the effects of shared leadership are stronger when the work of team members is more complex. Our findings further suggest that the referent used in measuring shared leadership does not influence its relationship with team effectiveness and that compared with vertical leadership, shared leadership shows unique effects in relation to team performance. In total, our study not only cumulates extant research on shared leadership but also provides directions for future research to move forward in the study of plural forms of leadership.

  5. Leadership in anaesthesia teams: the most effective leadership is shared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzle, Barbara; Zala-Mezö, Enikö; Wacker, Johannes; Kolbe, Michaela; Spahn, Donat R; Grote, Gudela

    2010-12-01

    Leadership plays a crucial role in teams working in complex environments, and research has shown that shared leadership where all team members perform leadership functions is an effective strategy. The authors aimed to describe shared leadership patterns during anaesthesia induction and show how they are linked to team performance. 12 anaesthesia teams consisting of one resident and one nurse during a simulated anaesthesia induction including a non-routine event (asystole) were videotaped, and two kinds of leadership behaviour (content-oriented and structuring) were coded. Team performance was operationalised as the reaction time to the non-routine event. The amount of leadership sharedness was compared between low- and high-performing teams by performing a univariate analysis of variance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyse the distribution of the two kinds of leadership behaviour among team members. Statistical analysis revealed that in high-performing teams, residents and nurses shared their leadership, while in low-performing teams, residents showed significantly higher levels of leadership behaviour than nurses. Further analyses revealed different distributions of leadership functions among team members. While residents of low-performing teams assumed both kinds of leadership behaviour, members of high-performing teams seemed to have distinct leadership roles: nurses mainly used content-oriented leadership behaviour, and residents tended to show structuring leadership behaviour. The study documents the effectiveness of shared leadership in situations with high task complexity and indicates that a clear distribution of content-oriented and structuring leadership among team members is an effective strategy. The findings have implications for training in shared leadership and also give rise to a number of recommendations for further research. ClinicalTrials (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) registration number is NCT00706108.

  6. Effects of a nurse practitioner on a multidisciplinary consultation team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Corry K.; Datema, Linetta; Saan, Ingrid; Stant, Dennis; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    Effects of a nurse practitioner on a multidisciplinary consultation team. This paper is a report of a study to evaluate the impact on office hours capacity, patient satisfaction, quality of life and costs of including a nurse practitioner in a multidisciplinary consultation team for patients with

  7. Organizational leadership for building effective health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The movement toward accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes will increase with implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA will therefore give further impetus to the growing importance of teams in health care. Teams typically involve 2 or more people embedded in a larger social system who differentiate their roles, share common goals, interact with each other, and perform tasks affecting others. Multiple team types fit within this definition, and they all need support from leadership to succeed. Teams have been invoked as a necessary tool to address the needs of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to address medical workforce shortages. Invoking teams, however, is much easier than making them function effectively, so we need to consider the implications of the growing emphasis on teams. Although the ACA will spur team development, organizational leadership must use what we know now to train, support, and incentivize team function. Meanwhile, we must also advance research regarding teams in health care to give those leaders more evidence to guide their work.

  8. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  9. Picking Teams: Motivational Effects of Team Selection Strategies in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.; Beddoes, Zack; Eggett, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The tacitly sanctioned practice of publicly picking teams in physical education has been categorized as instructionally inappropriate, yet its practice persists. Therefore, the purpose of this two-study article was to examine its effects on achievement goals orientations and motivational profiles of male junior high school physical education…

  10. Teaming Teachers. Exploring factors that influence effective team functioning in a vocational education context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijen, K.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study tries to examine the influence of routines and transformational leadership on group efficacy and team effectiveness in secondary vocational education in the Netherlands, in Vocational Education and Training (VET) colleges. First, a qualitative study was conducted. Next, insights from the

  11. Ethics in science and environmental politics: issues for interdisciplinary teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The quest for sustainable use of the planet will require evidence, analysis and judgment from a wide array of disciplines. In order to produce a systematic and orderly analysis of this information, a synthesis will be essential. This synthesis will be generated most effectively if the individuals designing the research and providing the data interact in a variety of ways. Disciplines are isolated from each other and not accustomed to working together; however, this isolation is changing rapidly. Still, there are many issues not yet satisfactorily resolved. This manuscript illustrates these issues and makes suggestions for improving the situation.

  12. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235

  13. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Leonie V; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew

    2017-01-01

    While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  14. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie V. Webster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  15. Using Team-based Learning to teach a Large-enrollment Environmental Science Course Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, V.

    2013-12-01

    Student enrollment in many online courses is usually limited to small classes, ranging from 20-25 students. Over two summers Environmental Science 1301, with an enrollment of 50, has been piloted online using team-based learning (TBL) methods. Teams, consisting of 7 members, were assigned randomly using the group manager tool found in the learning management system. The course was organized around Learning Modules, which consisted of a quiz (individual) over the reading, a team assignment, which covered a topic from one of the chapters was completed for each learning module, and a class/group discussion. The discussion usually entailed a presentation of findings to the class by each team. This allowed teams to interact with one another and was also designed to encourage competition among the teams. Over the course of the class it was observed that as the students became comfortable with the course procedures they developed a commitment to the goals and welfare of their team. They found that as a team they could accomplish much more than an individual; they discovered strengths in their team mates that they, themselves, lacked, and they helped those team mates who struggled with the material. The teams tackled problems that would be overwhelming to an individual in the time allotted, such as running multiple scenarios with the simulations and tackling a large amount of data. Using TBL shifted the majority of responsibility of learning the material to the student with the instructor functioning as a facilitator instead of dispenser of knowledge. Dividing the class into teams made the course load manageable for the instructor while at the same time created a small-class environment for the students. In comparing this course to other, nonTBL-based online courses taught, the work load was very manageable. There were only 7-10 items to be graded per Learning Module and only 7-10 teams to monitor and provide guidance to instead of 50 individuals. Retention rates (86

  16. Team health, an assessment approach to engage first year students in cross-cultural and cross-discipline teams towards more effective team-working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Egea

    Full Text Available Specialists who work in a globalised environment, need to work in teams, if they are to be continuously effective. The challenge for IT educators is to design and implement inter-cultural teamwork practices into their curriculum. Investigating this challenge, this case study describes Team Health, an assessment approach designed to skill students to be more effective in team working in cross-cultural and cross-discipline teams. The educational context is teamwork practice within a first year introductory web design course. Framed by Saunders\\'s virtual team lifecycle model (relationship building and team processes and Hofstede\\'s cultural dimensions (communication and working cross-culturally, the assessment approach utilises reflective and iterative strategies to support team working. At three points in the semester, students complete a survey on these four concepts, identify team strengths and weaknesses from the results of the surveys and work towards addressing one team weakness. The final assessment activity requires students to reflect on team working for the semester. Key attributes for effective team working are identified from the three surveys and the final reflective summaries. This paper compares course outcomes such as team cohesion and student grades to the previous course offering and shows that with the introduction of Team Health, the more complex student cohorts under this study achieve equally well. It is concluded that the guided reflective practices underpinning Team Health can prepare students for first year approaches to teamwork, and thereby provide starting points for working in future global teams where members are both culturally diverse and from different discipline areas.

  17. PERSPECTIVES ON MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM PROCESSES AMONG HEALTHCARE EXECUTIVES: PROCESSES THAT FACILITATE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Amy; Erwin, Cathleen

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are used in healthcare organizations to address both clinical and managerial functions. Despite their prevalence, little is known about how team processes work to facilitate effectiveness among MDT leadership teams. This study explores perceptions of MDT participation experienced by organizational leaders in healthcare organizations in the United States. A survey of American College of Healthcare Executives members was conducted to assess involvement and perceptions of MDTs among health care management professionals. Descriptive statistics, independent T-Tests and Chi-square analyses were used to examine participation in MDTs, perception of MDT processes, and the association of participation and perceived processes with employee and organizational characteristics. The survey yielded a sample comprised of 492 healthcare executive or executive-track employees. An overwhelming majority indicated participation in MDTs. The study identified team processes that could use improvement including communication, cooperation, and conflict resolution. The study provides evidence that can help guide the development of training programs that focus on providing managerial leaders with strategies aimed at improving communication, coordination, and conflict resolution that will improve the effectiveness of MDT functioning in healthcare organizations.

  18. Measuring the effect of conflict on software engineering teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karn, J S; Cowling, A J

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project that aimed to uncover the effects of different forms of conflict on team performance during the important feasibility, requirements analysis, and design phases of software engineering (SE) projects...

  19. Getting Groups to Develop Good Strategies: Effects of Reflexivity Interventions on Team Process, Team Performance, and Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner, Andrea; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K.; Nagele, Christof

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a…

  20. Prevalence and social-environmental correlates of sports team participation among alternative high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J

    2011-07-01

    Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

  1. Investigating the effect of connectivity of top management team on their resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Rahimnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations are operating in a full of complex, ever changing and unpredictable environment, so that technological changes in providing goods and services, creating new organizational structures, new competitive methods and unique methods of sales indicate the importance of planning of top management team in line with the organizational success. Therefore, an attribute, which is important more than ever is resilience of top management team from two dimensions of its beliefs and adaptive capacity with these environmental events. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of connectivity of top management team on their resilience was investigated amongst 500 industrial active units located in northeast of Iran as the statistical population. Statistical sample was comprised of 139 organizations. Analysis results using structural equation modeling showed that the tested model had a goodness of fit to data. The effect of connectivity of top management team on efficacious beliefs of resilience and adaptive capacity of resilience was confirmed in line with related previous studies.

  2. Effect of team sport participation on genetic predisposition to adolescent smoking progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Wileyto, E Paul; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Shields, Peter G

    2006-04-01

    There is much to be learned about why some adolescents progress to a regular smoking habit and others do not. To evaluate whether (1) team sport participation buffers the effect of having 2 smoking risk genotypes (the dopamine reuptake transporter [SLC6A3] and the dopamine D(2) receptor [DRD2]) or 1 of these risk genotypes vs having none on adolescent smoking progression and (2) the buffering effects of team sports were due to physical activity associated with team sport participation. Longitudinal cohort study. Survey data were collected annually from grade 9 to the end of grade 12. Self-report measures included smoking, team sport participation, physical activity, depression, smoking exposure, and alcohol and marijuana use. DNA was collected via buccal swabs. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Five public high schools in Virginia. A total of 361 students of European ancestry. Main Outcome Measure Smoking progression. For adolescents participating in at least 1 team sport, but not for adolescents with no team sport participation, physical activity had a significant negative effect on smoking progression (z = -3.85, Psport but not for adolescents with no team sport participation. This study provides the first evidence of an interaction between environmental influences and specific genes on adolescent smoking and may promote an understanding of important protective relationships in the environment.

  3. Team effectiveness in academic medical libraries: a multiple case study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Martin, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to apply J. Richard Hackman's framework on team effectiveness to academic medical library settings. Methods: The study uses a qualitative, multiple case study design, employing interviews and focus groups to examine team effectiveness in three academic medical libraries. Another site was selected as a pilot to validate the research design, field procedures, and methods to be used with the cases. In all, three interviews and twelve focus groups, with approximately seventy-five participants, were conducted at the case study libraries. Findings: Hackman identified five conditions leading to team effectiveness and three outcomes dimensions that defined effectiveness. The participants in this study identified additional characteristics of effectiveness that focused on enhanced communication, leadership personality and behavior, and relationship building. The study also revealed an additional outcome dimension related to the evolution of teams. Conclusions: Introducing teams into an organization is not a trivial matter. Hackman's model of effectiveness has implications for designing successful library teams. PMID:16888659

  4. Highly effective cystic fibrosis clinical research teams: critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsch-Bogart, George Z; Van Dalfsen, Jill M; Marshall, Bruce C; George, Cynthia; Pilewski, Joseph M; Nelson, Eugene C; Goss, Christopher H; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2014-08-01

    Bringing new therapies to patients with rare diseases depends in part on optimizing clinical trial conduct through efficient study start-up processes and rapid enrollment. Suboptimal execution of clinical trials in academic medical centers not only results in high cost to institutions and sponsors, but also delays the availability of new therapies. Addressing the factors that contribute to poor outcomes requires novel, systematic approaches tailored to the institution and disease under study. To use clinical trial performance metrics data analysis to select high-performing cystic fibrosis (CF) clinical research teams and then identify factors contributing to their success. Mixed-methods research, including semi-structured qualitative interviews of high-performing research teams. CF research teams at nine clinical centers from the CF Foundation Therapeutics Development Network. Survey of site characteristics, direct observation of team meetings and facilities, and semi-structured interviews with clinical research team members and institutional program managers and leaders in clinical research. Critical success factors noted at all nine high-performing centers were: 1) strong leadership, 2) established and effective communication within the research team and with the clinical care team, and 3) adequate staff. Other frequent characteristics included a mature culture of research, customer service orientation in interactions with study participants, shared efficient processes, continuous process improvement activities, and a businesslike approach to clinical research. Clinical research metrics allowed identification of high-performing clinical research teams. Site visits identified several critical factors leading to highly successful teams that may help other clinical research teams improve clinical trial performance.

  5. Effects of a Brief Team Training Program on Surgical Teams' Nontechnical Skills: An Interrupted Time-Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-04-27

    Up to 60% of adverse events in surgery are the result of poor communication and teamwork. Nontechnical skills in surgery (NOTSS) are critical to the success of surgery and patient safety. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of a brief team training intervention on teams' observed NOTSS. Pretest-posttest interrupted time-series design with statistical process control analysis was used to detect longitudinal changes in teams' NOTSS. We evaluated NOTSS using the revised NOTECHS weekly for 20 to 25 weeks before and after implementation of a team training program. We observed 179 surgical procedures with cardiac, vascular, upper gastrointestinal, and hepatobiliary teams. Mean posttest NOTECHS scores increased across teams, showing special cause variation. There were also significant before and after improvements in NOTECHS scores in respect to professional role and in the use of the Surgical Safety Checklist. Our results suggest associated improvements in teams' NOTSS after implementation of the team training program.

  6. Effective Student Teams for Collaborative Learning in an Introductory University Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the types of student teams that are most effective for collaborative learning in a large freshman university physics course. We compared teams in which the students were all of roughly equal ability to teams with a mix of student abilities, we compared teams with three members to teams with four members, and we examined teams with…

  7. The Effects of Development Team Skill on Software Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the effect of the skill/experience of the software development team on the quality of the final software product. A method for the assessment of software development team skill and experience is proposed, and was derived from a workforce management tool currently in use by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Using data from 26 smallscale software development projects, the team skill measures are correlated to 5 software product quality metrics from the ISO/IEC 9126 Software Engineering Product Quality standard. in the analysis of the results, development team skill is found to be a significant factor in the adequacy of the design and implementation. In addition, the results imply that inexperienced software developers are tasked with responsibilities ill-suited to their skill level, and thus have a significant adverse effect on the quality of the software product. Keywords: software quality, development skill, software metrics

  8. Computer Security Incident Response Team Effectiveness: A Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Kleij, Rick; Kleinhuis, Geert; Young, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs) respond to a computer security incident when the need arises. Failure of these teams can have far-reaching effects for the economy and national security. CSIRTs often have to work on an ad hoc basis, in close cooperation with other teams, and in time constrained environments. It could be argued that under these working conditions CSIRTs would be likely to encounter problems. A needs assessment was done to see to which extent this argument holds true. We constructed an incident response needs model to assist in identifying areas that require improvement. We envisioned a model consisting of four assessment categories: Organization, Team, Individual and Instrumental. Central to this is the idea that both problems and needs can have an organizational, team, individual, or technical origin or a combination of these levels. To gather data we conducted a literature review. This resulted in a comprehensive list of challenges and needs that could hinder or improve, respectively, the performance of CSIRTs. Then, semi-structured in depth interviews were held with team coordinators and team members of five public and private sector Dutch CSIRTs to ground these findings in practice and to identify gaps between current and desired incident handling practices. This paper presents the findings of our needs assessment and ends with a discussion of potential solutions to problems with performance in incident response.

  9. Computer Security Incident Response Team Effectiveness: A Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Van der Kleij

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs respond to a computer security incident when the need arises. Failure of these teams can have far-reaching effects for the economy and national security. CSIRTs often have to work on an ad hoc basis, in close cooperation with other teams, and in time constrained environments. It could be argued that under these working conditions CSIRTs would be likely to encounter problems. A needs assessment was done to see to which extent this argument holds true. We constructed an incident response needs model to assist in identifying areas that require improvement. We envisioned a model consisting of four assessment categories: Organization, Team, Individual and Instrumental. Central to this is the idea that both problems and needs can have an organizational, team, individual, or technical origin or a combination of these levels. To gather data we conducted a literature review. This resulted in a comprehensive list of challenges and needs that could hinder or improve, respectively, the performance of CSIRTs. Then, semi-structured in depth interviews were held with team coordinators and team members of five public and private sector Dutch CSIRTs to ground these findings in practice and to identify gaps between current and desired incident handling practices. This paper presents the findings of our needs assessment and ends with a discussion of potential solutions to problems with performance in incident response.

  10. Are self-directed work teams successful and effective tools for today`s organization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnwine, A.D.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to (1) show the effectiveness and success of self-directed work teams within the organization, (2) emphasize the importance of team building in the success of the team, and (3) assist organizations in building self-directed work teams. The researcher used a direct survey and studied the following team building techniques: (1) Is the team`s mission clearly defined to each team member? (2) Are the goals clearly defined and achievable by all team members? (3) Will empowerment (decision-making power) be given equally to all team members? (4) Will open and honest communication be allowed among team members? (5) Will each team member be respected and valued for his/her position on the team? (6) Are self-directed work teams effectively rewarded for accomplishments? (7) Have team members received adequate training to effectively complete their job tasks? Upon completion of the literature review and statistical data, and after analyzing the seven areas of team building techniques, it was determined three of the four teams were successful and effective. The only area of concern to the organization is that the participants felt they did not have true ownership of their teams; that is, team members were not given full empowerment. According to this study and the review of literature, full empowerment must be given to achieve successful and effective teams. If true empowerment is not given, the team will suffer in other areas of team building, and the organization will lose a valuable tool.

  11. Team Creativity: The Effects of Perceived Learning Culture, Developmental Feedback and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Song, Ji Hoon; Lim, Doo Hun; Yoon, Seung Won

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of perceived learning culture, developmental feedback and team cohesion on team creativity. The results showed that the demographic variables, the three antecedents and their interactions explained 41 per cent of variance in team creativity. Team creativity was positively correlated with a higher level of…

  12. The effect of a team strategy discussion on military team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Sander; Vogelaar, Ad L W; Beersma, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    In modern military operations, people from diverging backgrounds often have to work together in ad hoc teams. These team members are often well trained to perform their own part of the teamwork. However, for optimal performance they should also act as a team. The question is how optimal team

  13. Leading Teams in an International Project Context : The Effectiveness of Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Gøran H.; Hellesøy, Bjørn Tore

    2011-01-01

    Several scholars have argued that the effects of transformational leadership vary according to the context in which it is executed. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership on job satisfaction and team performance, and the effectiveness of transformational and transactional leader behaviors in different levels of environmental dynamism. We also tested tolerance for ambiguity as a moderator on the relationship between transformational leader...

  14. Using conflict to improve effectiveness of nurse teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I

    1998-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model is presented that aims not at reducing conflict but at making it more effective. The author traces the influence of preconflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to aid in applying the model to practice, two examples are presented, demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  15. A Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    dramas are played out, from political intrigues to romantic encounters. Our present focus on task effectiveness does not deny the multiple purposes...attributes of group members). 5 Research on process-outcome relationships has emphasized the impact of group interaction on the attitudes, beliefs, and...orocal effects on each other. This model suggests that group interaction does mediate the impact of input conditions--but also that performance outcomes

  16. Effective Team Learning in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van de Vrie, Evert

    2018-01-01

    Learning in the cloud can be a lonely activity for self-directing and self-organizing learners. Lack of sustained learner motivation can lead to less effective, less bond-creating learning experiences. By providing collaborative project-based learning opportunities these shortcomings can be

  17. Learning styles and team roles – Lessons for Gregorc based teams for effective enterprise development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kbathgate

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop robust and coherent models for effective entrepreneurial training and development has never been more relevant than in the contemporary economic and educational milieu. The demand for the promotion of enterprise and enterprise development calls on those entrusted with nurturing entrepreneurial talent to create fecund environments for students and participant is alike to promote sustainable enterprise development. Essential to achieving this are considerations of learning styles and the relationship of these to team roles in business start-up activities. This research exercise attempts to establish linkages between different learning styles with the allocation of roles and responsibilities in teams who have aspirations to create and explore business start-up opportunities, within an educational setting. The context will be explored and a proposed model will be developed with considerations to cost of effective teaching and learning for enterprise development. The model will be used to demonstrate how an integrated and effective learning environment can be created through the use of Gregorc considerations and how this paradigm can contribute to cost effective teaching and learning methodologies.

  18. Negative affect reduces team awareness: the effects of mood and stress on computer-mediated team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    This article presents research on the effects of varying mood and stress states on within-team communication in a simulated crisis management environment, with a focus on the relationship between communication behaviors and team awareness. Communication plays a critical role in team cognition along with cognitive factors such as attention, memory, and decision-making speed. Mood and stress are known to have interrelated effects on cognition at the individual level, but there is relatively little joint exploration of these factors in team communication in technologically complex environments. Dyadic communication behaviors in a distributed six-person crisis management simulation were analyzed in a factorial design for effects of two levels of mood (happy, sad) and the presence or absence of a time pressure stressor. Time pressure and mood showed several specific impacts on communication behaviors. Communication quantity and efficiency increased under time pressure, though frequent requests for information were associated with poor performance. Teams in happy moods showed enhanced team awareness, as revealed by more anticipatory communication patterns and more detailed verbal responses to teammates than those in sad moods. Results show that the attention-narrowing effects of mood and stress associated with individual cognitive functions demonstrate analogous impacts on team awareness and information-sharing behaviors and reveal a richer understanding of how team dynamics change under adverse conditions. Disentangling stress from mood affords the opportunity to target more specific interventions that better support team awareness and task performance.

  19. The effect of multidisciplinary team care on cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Ganiy Opeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the multidisciplinary team management of many medical conditions especially cancers has increasingly taken a prominent role in patient management in many hospitals and medical centres in the developed countries. In the United Kingdom, it began to gain prominence following the Calman-Heine report in 1995 which suggested that each Cancer Unit in a hospital should have in place arrangements for non-surgical oncological input into services, with a role for a non-surgical oncologist. The report further suggested that a lead clinician with a well established interest in cancer care should be appointed to organise and coordinate the whole range of cancer services provided within the Cancer Unit. Many people have argued that the multidisciplinary team management of patients has resulted in better care and improved survival. However, there are barriers to the optimal effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team. This paper aims to review various studies on the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team in the management of cancer patients and also discuss some of the barriers to the multidisciplinary team.

  20. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams: A Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2017-12-01

    Teamwork has been at the core of human accomplishment across the millennia, and it was a focus of social psychological inquiry on small group behavior for nearly half a century. However, as organizations world-wide reorganized work around teams over the past two decades, the nature of teamwork and factors influencing it became a central focus of research in organizational psychology and management. In this article, I reflect on the impetus, strategy, key features, and scientific contribution of "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams," by Kozlowski and Ilgen, a review monograph published in Psychological Science in the Public Interest in 2006.

  1. The effect of communication skills on team and individual sports

    OpenAIRE

    AKDAGCIK, I. Umran; MAMAK, Hudaverdi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study isto determine the effect of communication skills on team and individual sports.A total of 251 students/athletes studying in the School of Physical Educationand Sports of Niğde University during the academic year of 2015-2016 and areinvolved in any team or individual sports have participated in thisstudy.“Communication Skills Evaluation Scale” (CSES), developed by Korkut, wascarried out to the subjects in the study. A significant difference was detectedbetween the st...

  2. A season-long team-building intervention: examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senécal, Julie; Loughead, Todd M; Bloom, Gordon A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal-setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai's trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal-setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

  3. Measuring the effect of conflict on software engineering teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, J S; Cowling, A J

    2008-05-01

    This article describes a project that aimed to uncover the effects of different forms of conflict on team performance during the important feasibility, requirements analysis, and design phases of software engineering (SE) projects. The research subjects were master of science students who were working to produce software commissioned by real-world clients. A template was developed that allowed researchers to record details of any conflicts that occurred. It was found that some forms of conflict were more damaging than others and that the frequency and intensity of specific conflicts are important factors to consider. The experience of the researchers when using the final template suggests that it is a valuable weapon to have in one's arsenal if one is interested in observing and recording the details of conflict in either SE teams or teams in different contexts.

  4. Effects of Team Teaching on Students Performance in Introductory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pre-test post-test non randomized experimental study investigated the effects of team teaching on students' performance in Introductory Technology. A total 316 Junior Secondary School Two students were randomly selected from four schools in Akwa Ibom State for the study. Data for the study was collected using ...

  5. Effect of Team Teaching on Secondary School Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team teaching on students' achievement in Secondary School Business Studies in Onitsha North Local Government area of Anambra State. A population of one hundred and eighty students from the local Government Area were randomly selected for the study and it was a ...

  6. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  7. Effect of Team Teaching on Secondary School Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team teaching on students' achievement in Secondary School Business Studies in Onitsha. North Local Government area of Anambra State. A population of one hundred and eighty students from the local Government Area were randomly selected for the study ...

  8. Effects of Team Teaching on Students Performance in Introductory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). Effects of Team Teaching on Students Performance in Introductory Technology in Secondary Schools in. Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Pp 41-54). Akpan, Godwin A. – Department of Vocational Education, University of. Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. E-mail: akpanga2020@yahoo.com.

  9. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  10. A longitudinal study on the effects of team building for university baseball team in Japan: from the view point of team-vitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kitamura, Kaoru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect in the experience of TB among university baseball team from the view point of team-vitalization. We carry out one university baseball team (102 males, 6 female). The average age of the participants was 19.99 years (SD = 1.41). Then, using Check List of Team- Vitalization that was developed by consulting firm in Japan, we examined the degrees of team-vitalization. The answers of this investigation were collected from the participants at fifth times (before intervention of TB, immediately after TB, after three months of TB, before intervention of follow-up training of TB, and immediately after follow-up training of TB). This study for eight months provided the following three conclusions; 1) University baseball team was vitalized through the experience of TB. 2) Team-vitalization was higher than before TB experience, but this effect of the TB did not seem to be permanent. 3) To keep intervention of TB was very important.

  11. Building the infrastructure: the effects of role identification behaviors on team cognition development and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Bell, Bradford S

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, and Smith's (1999) model of team compilation, we examined the effect of role identification behaviors and posited that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto team performance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported our hypotheses. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Aspirational characteristics for effective leadership of improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lane F

    2017-01-01

    Working on quality improvement has become an innate part of managing a pediatric radiology service. To help radiologists effectively lead improvement teams, eight aspirational characteristics are discussed. These are: 1) Be a good listener, 2) Effectively communicate around an accountability cycle, 3) Stress simplicity: Prioritization and pace, 4) Expend energy to optimize people development, 5) Lead with optimism, 6) Create a culture of wellness and sustainability, 7) Have a progressive attitude toward failure and 8) Project humility over arrogance.

  13. Virtual Teams Management: Overcoming the Obstacles to an Effective Team : Case Company: Blooming Twig LLC

    OpenAIRE

    Mina, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Virtual team is a relatively new and unique phenomenon, which develops constantly. The number of remote teams is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the growing awareness of this flexible type of employment among companies and working population. The main purpose of this thesis was to introduce virtual teams as an alternative to traditional workforce, as well as to demonstrate its advantages from both employees’ and companies’ perspective. The research was based on the case company B...

  14. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  15. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  16. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Popularity ofteams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting theirwork done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that thecollective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances.Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensionsand qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as teamperformance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, teamefficiency, team decision making and team conflicts and Qualitative dimensionsof teams such as team communication, team coordination, team cooperation, teamcohesion, team climate, team creativity, team leadership and team conflictshave been discussed in this article.

  17. The Effect of Personality Style and Team Organization on Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    teams. Teams consisted of personnel assembling small appliances , personnel assembling small electronic equipment, and fabrication and maintenance...action/feedback loops, time stress, high stakes, multiple players , and organizational goals and norms (Klein et al., 1993). NDM is difficult enough when...participated in the study. Thirty participants were identified from an initial distribution of 117 NEO-FFI surveys. There were 24 males and six females

  18. Explaining variation in perceived team effectiveness: Results from eleven quality improvement collaboratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims and objectives. Explore effectiveness of 11 collaboratives focusing on 11 different topics, as perceived by local improvement teams and to explore associations with collaborative-, organisational- and team-level factors. Background. Evidence underlying the effectiveness of quality

  19. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, JL; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, M.; Shields, MC; Wright, C; Gino, F.; Sundt, TM; Singer, SJ

    2017-01-01

    $\\textit{Background.}$ The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. $\\textit{Methods.}$ We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member ...

  20. User experience management essential skills for leading effective UX teams

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Arnie

    2011-01-01

    The role of UX manager is of vital importance -- it means leading a productive team, influencing businesses to adopt user-centered design, and delivering valuable products customers. Few UX professionals who find themselves in management positions have formal training in management. More often than not they are promoted to a management position after having proven themselves as an effective and successful practitioner.Yet as important as the position of manager is to the advancement of the field there are no books that specifically address the needs of user experience managers. Though informat

  1. Effective Interprofessional Teams: "Contact Is Not Enough" to Build a Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Joan; Loney, Elaine; Murphy, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Teamwork and interprofessional practice and learning are becoming integral to health care. It is anticipated that these approaches can maximize professional resources and optimize patient care. Current research, however, suggests that primary health care teams may lack the capacity to function at a level that enhances the individual…

  2. Enhancing decision-making effectiveness in problem-solving teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, S

    1998-01-01

    Active participation by all group members as well as the generation, presentation, and critical evaluation of a wide range of perspectives and alternatives are hallmarks of effective problem-solving teams. Diverse groups with an odd number of participants (five to seven members are generally best) are manageable and provide an adequate range of perspectives and alternatives. Several problems limit the effectiveness of problem-solving teams. Dysfunctional concurrence or "groupthink" occurs when concurrence seeking in cohesive groups overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Managers initially should withhold their own opinions, assign members the role of critical evaluators, and bring in people from outside the initial group to minimize this problem. Domination by a select few is also a problem because it can squelch the presentation of diverse opinions. Brainstorming and nominal group technique can mitigate this problem. In nominal group technique, a manager guides the group through steps involving brainstorming, recording, and voting on the merits of various alternatives before open discussion is allowed. Decision-making dropouts are group members who withdraw from active participation in the group. Managers can reduce this problem by emphasizing the importance of active participation and by monitoring performance.

  3. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  4. Team cohesiveness, team size and team performance in team-based learning teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Haidet, Paul; Borges, Nicole J; Carchedi, Lisa R; Roman, Brenda J B; Townsend, Mark H; Butler, Agata P; Swanson, David B; Anderson, Michael P; Levine, Ruth E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among variables associated with teams in team-based learning (TBL) settings and team outcomes. We administered the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Test first to individuals and then to teams of Year three students at four medical schools that used TBL in their psychiatry core clerkships. Team cohesion was analysed using the Team Performance Scale (TPS). Bivariate correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the relationships among team-level variables (mean individual TPS scores for each team, mean individual NBME scores of teams, team size, rotation and gender make-up) and team NBME test scores. A hierarchical linear model was used to test the effects of individual TPS and individual NBME test scores within each team, as well as the effects of the team-level variables of team size, team rotation and gender on team NBME test scores. Individual NBME test and TPS scores were nested within teams and treated as subsampling units. Individual NBME test scores and individual TPS scores were positively and statistically significantly (p team NBME test scores, when team rotation, team size and gender make-up were controlled for. Higher team NBME test scores were associated with teams rotating later in the year and larger teams (p teams at four medical schools suggest that larger teams on later rotations score higher on a team NBME test. Individual NBME test scores and team cohesion were positively and significantly associated with team NBME test scores. These results suggest the need for additional studies focusing on team outcomes, team cohesion, team size, rotation and other factors as they relate to the effective and efficient performance of TBL teams in health science education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of transformational and shared leadership styles on employees' perception of team effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Seung-Wan; Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Using 3 sets of multiple regression models, we examined the effectiveness of transformational and shared leadership styles in relation to team effectiveness, based on the perceptions of 424 employees...

  6. Threat-rigidity effects on planning and decision making in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2008-01-01

    In an experimental study, the effects of external threat on team processes and performance were investigated during a complex planning and decision making task. Results showed that teams under threat suffered from rigidity effects in their information processing, leadership, team perspective and

  7. Modeling Distributed Leadership and Management Effectiveness: Primary School Senior Management Teams in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the significance of distributed leadership and management effectiveness; provides background for primary-school senior management teams research; reports headmasters' criteria for judging the effectiveness of senior management teams; reports findings from case studies of four senior management teams; discusses an inductively derived…

  8. Characteristics of School Leadership Teams in Highly Effective Elementary Schools in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify the task and relationship behaviors and processes used by school leadership teams identified as effective. In addition, the study will identify similar characteristics across effective teams. Methodology:The participants in the present study were 12 school leadership teams from highly effective…

  9. Managing Conflict in School Teams: The Impact of Task and Goal Interdependence on Conflict Management and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although conflict has traditionally been considered destructive, recent studies have indicated that conflict management can contribute to effective teamwork. The present study explores conflict management as a team phenomenon in schools. The author examined how the contextual variables (task interdependence, goal interdependence) are…

  10. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  11. THE EFFECT OF VISION AND ROLE CLARITY ON TEAM PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Gary; Kalay, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTAlthough many studies conclude that vision and role clarity are important at the organizational level, the impacts of vision and role clarity on innovation/teams have received far less attention. A strong vision and role definition can provide direction to a team and can positively impact its ability to succeed. The purpose of this research is to discuss vision components and Role Clarity, and explore their impacts on team performance. After studying the vision on a series of nine inn...

  12. Open innovation with an effective open innovation team.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanvoorden, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This master's thesis explores how open innovation teams can successfully support open innovation inside of an organisation. Open innovation is a paradigm introduced by Henry Chesbrough (2003) a decade ago. It expands the innovation potential of organisations by opening them up to new ways of working with external partners. To implement open innovation, many companies rely on a small group of managers named open innovation teams. Although open innovation teams can potentially be vital for impl...

  13. ASPECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF EFFECTIVE TEAM RELATED VARIABLES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERCULTURAL WORK TEAMS IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBU Nicolae

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various phenomena generated by the new context of globalization have focused our research interest towards studying in what ways management of Intercultural Work teams (IWT could and should contribute to the increase of their performance at work. Despite the recognition of the fact that many MNCs fail in the management of IWTs, there is still a significant knowledge gap about their non-functionalities. Managerial literature „blames” national and organizational culture differences for the failure of this process. This is because each member brings his own style of work, with his own way of ensuring effective cooperation, making difficult to identify a clear recipe of a team organization and management in intercultural context. Teamwork, managing work teams made the subject of numerous researchers from many fields, denoting so difficult exercise in practice. However, we have identified high performance IWTs whose members are from different countries. Therefore, we assume that their management identified and used methods and instruments able to ensuring IWT performance. If we look at international research, intercultural teams management models have a reductionist and not holistic approach, namely stochastic in terms of selection of specific cultural dimensions cultural models specific to the interest of the researcher. In contrast, in Romania, intercultural management and intercultural management teams performance is less studied. The research presented below is set up to be a part of a pilot study, an exploratory research of how intercultural management assigned dimensions are directly related to the concept of EIA performance dimensions assigned. Our assumption for the empirical research is the following: work team performance (effective, efficient, with a high degree of satisfaction of its members is the result of application performance management in the context of a particular style of interaction specific team. Because the dependent

  14. Leadership and Organizational Tenure Diversity as Determinants of Project Team Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Poel, Frouke M.; Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Zee, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals how leadership effectiveness in project teams is dependent on the level of organizational tenure diversity. Data from 34 project teams showed that transformational leadership is related to organizational commitment, creative behavior, and job satisfaction, but only in teams

  15. The effects of diversity faultlines and team task autonomy on decision quality and social integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Ramon; Molleman, Eric; Sanchez-Manzanares, Miriam; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    This study examines the effects of diversity faultlines stemming from educational background and conscientiousness on team decision quality and social integration and the moderating role of team task autonomy. Using a 2 x 2 (Weak/Strong Faultlines x Low/High Team Task Autonomy) factorial design, 52

  16. Disentangling the effects of new venture team functional heterogeneity on new venture performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Goethner, Maximilian; Stuetzer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on entrepreneurial teams has failed to settle the controversy over whether team heterogeneity helps or hinders new venture performance. Reconciling this inconsistency, this paper suggests a new conceptual approach to disentangle differential effects of team heterogeneity by modeling two separate heterogeneity dimensions, namely knowledge scope and knowledge disparity. Analyzing unique data on functional experiences of the members of 337 start-up teams, we find support for ou...

  17. HOW TO IMPROVE TEAM EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH GROUP PROCESSES: AN EXAMPLE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Meneses

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing group and team effectiveness is fundamental for any organisation, especially during periods of economic crisis. In order to build or design a team or to optimise its work, it is necessary to consider tasks, processes and results. Given that teams are a key tool for competitiveness in the automotive sector, this paper focuses on how to improve the performance and the effectiveness of production teams in Spain's automotive industry through three processes: group development, group identification, and team potency. The results show that these processes predict 57% of group performance, and in particular two of the effectiveness criteria used in this sector: absenteeism and order and hygiene in the workplace. We discuss the usefulness of these results for managers and team leaders in order to improve team performance and effectiveness in the automotive sector.

  18. Virtual Team Effectiveness: An Empirical Study Using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Swati Kaul; Pande, Neerja; Ahuja, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Advances in communication and information technology create new opportunities for organizations to build and manage virtual teams. Virtual teams have become a norm for organizations whose members work across disparate geographical locations, relying primarily or exclusively, on the usage of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for the…

  19. Storytelling effectively translates TeamSTEPPS skills into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Myrta; Johnson, Lynn E; Mazzapica, Denise; O'Leary, Jayne

    2010-11-01

    This column shares the lived experiences of four Master Trainers who used storytelling as the methodology for teaching TeamSTEPPS to interprofessional staff members of a large health system. TeamSTEPPS is an evidence-based program that focuses on skills and behaviors that improve teamwork and communication, which are key to preventing medical errors. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Teams under threat : Uncovering and overcoming rigidity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.

    2010-01-01

    Veel organisaties maken gebruik van teams om de steeds complexer wordende werkomgeving het hoofd te bieden. Deze teams kunnen met allerlei soorten dreigingen te maken krijgen. Zo zijn er dreigingen van financieel verlies, verlies van aanzien, of zelfs het verlies van levens. Allerlei catastrofale

  1. Interdependence and Controversy in Group Decision Making: Antecedents to Effective Self-Managing Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper; Tjosvold; Law

    1998-04-01

    Self-managing teams have the challenge to make decisions regarding their tasks and to manage their internal affairs. Findings on 60 self-managing teams with 540 employees indicate that the theory of cooperation and competition is useful for identifying the social processes that help these teams grapple with problems and work effectively. Specifically, teams with highly cooperative goals were found to discuss their opposing views open-mindedly and constructively which in turn developed confidence in team dynamics that contributed to effective team performance. Competitive goals appeared to interfere with constructive controversy, confidence, and effectiveness. Findings were interpreted as suggesting that structuring cooperative goals and constructive controversy can help self-managing teams gain confidence and work productively. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Do you see what we see? The complex effects of perceptual distance between leaders and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cristina B; Cooper, Cecily D; Conger, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    Previous distance-related theories and concepts (e.g., social distance) have failed to address the sometimes wide disparity in perceptions between leaders and the teams they lead. Drawing from the extensive literature on teams, leadership, and cognitive models of social information processing, the authors develop the concept of leader-team perceptual distance, defined as differences between a leader and a team in perceptions of the same social stimulus. The authors investigate the effects of perceptual distance on team performance, operationalizing the construct with 3 distinct foci: goal accomplishment, constructive conflict, and decision-making autonomy. Analyzing leader, member, and customer survey responses for a large sample of teams, the authors demonstrate that perceptual distance between a leader and a team regarding goal accomplishment and constructive conflict have a nonlinear relationship with team performance. Greater perceptual differences are associated with decreases in team performance. Moreover, this effect is strongest when a team's perceptions are more positive than the leader's are (as opposed to the reverse). This pattern illustrates the pervasive effects that perceptions can have on team performance, highlighting the importance of developing awareness of perceptions in order to increase effectiveness. Implications for theory and practice are delineated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effect of focused debriefing on team communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokorie, Ndidi; Svoboda, Deborah; Rovito, Debra K; Krugman, Scott D

    2012-10-01

    Community hospitals often lack tertiary care support such as pediatric intensivists and anesthesiologists. Resuscitation of critically ill and injured children in community hospitals requires a well-coordinated team effort, because good team performance improves quality of care. The lack of subspecialty support makes team coordination and communication more imperative yet much more challenging. This study sought to determine if the addition of a defined focused post-mock code debriefing session improved communication skills among team members in a community pediatric emergency department. Twenty-two volunteer members of the pediatric emergency and respiratory therapy departments at Medstar Franklin Square Medical Center took part in monthly simulated resuscitations for 3 consecutive months. After each simulation, participants answered an 18-item survey on observed communication among their team members. Members then participated in a 30-minute debriefing session in which they reflected on their own communication skills. A video taping of the resuscitation was later scored by one of the investigators by using a rubric designed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics were calculated for both the participant survey and the team communication indicator scores. Paired-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test examined the difference in the scores between each of 3 sessions. The mean scores by investigator-scored video recordings of the teams' mock resuscitation by session showed overall team communication improved between sessions 1 and 3 for all communication areas (P = .03), with significant improvement in 4 of 9 communication areas by the third session. All team members improved communication skills as well, with the greatest improvement by the clinical multifunctional technicians. Communication skills improve with the addition of focused debriefing sessions after mock codes as perceived by participants during debriefing sessions and evidenced by investigator

  4. The relationship between servant leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and team effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Team effectiveness and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB are outcomes vital for team success. Servant leadership practices also play a critical role in team effectiveness and OCB.Research purpose: The goal of the study was to analyse the relationships between servant leadership, OCB and team effectiveness in the South African school system.Motivation for the study: The changing nature of leadership, coupled with the increased use of teams, necessitates a study on how follower-focused leadership practices enhance team member effectiveness.Research approach, design and method: A non-probability sample of 288 teachers was drawn from 38 schools in the Western Cape in South Africa. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on the data.Main findings: The team effectiveness and refined servant leadership questionnaires displayed high levels of internal consistency. The organisational citizenship behaviour scale exhibited moderate reliability coefficients. Good fit was found for the structural and measurement models of the latent variables through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Positive relationships were found between servant leadership, team effectiveness and OCB.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the role played by servant leadership behaviours in promoting positive behaviours and outcomes for teams. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further, by identifying other variables that influence team effectiveness positively and testing the model using revenue-oriented teams.Contribution/value-add: Schools today face the challenge of developing strategies for achieving team effectiveness. The servant leadership style recognises and promotes the one-on-one development of followers likely to promote positive outcomes and team effectiveness.

  5. Recognizing "me" benefits "we": Investigating the positive spillover effects of formal individual recognition in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoming; Harris, T Brad; Liu, Xin; Kirkman, Bradley L

    2016-07-01

    Many organizations use formal recognition programs (e.g., "employee of the month") as a way to publically acknowledge an individual employee's outstanding performance and motivate continued high performance. However, it remains unclear whether emphasizing individual achievement in a team context is beneficial or detrimental for recipients' teammates and, by extension, the team as a whole. Drawing on a social influence perspective, we examine potential spillover effects of individual formal recognition programs in teams. We hypothesize that a single team member's recognition will produce positive spillover effects on other team members' performance, as well as overall team performance, via social influence processes, especially when the award recipient is located in a central position in a team. Findings from 2 lab experiments of 24 teams and 40 teams (Study 1 and Study 2, respectively) and a field experiment of 52 manufacturing teams (Study 3) reveal that formally recognizing a team member leads to positive changes in her/his teammates' individual and collective performance. Thus, formal social recognition programs can potentially provide a motivational effect beyond individual recipients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Effective Team Support: From Modeling to Software Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie; Sycara, Katia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and engineers and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in modeling infrastructure and task infrastructure. Work is continuing under a different contract to complete empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support the teams task.

  7. The effect of multidisciplinary team care on cancer management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-06-17

    Jun 17, 2011 ... 1Cardiff University of Wales College of Medicine, School of Medicine Registry, Cardiff University, United Kingdom ... multidisciplinary team in the management of cancer patients and also ... original work is properly cited.

  8. High Performing Teams: The Moderating Effects of Communication Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamora, Edgard I

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to support the Air Force's goal of improving team performance by bringing visibility to several overlapping areas of study where little comprehensive research has been conducted...

  9. Effects of team-building on communication and teamwork among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of team-building on communication and teamwork (i.e. teamwork skills and team effectiveness) among nursing students. Team-building is effective for improving communication and teamwork among the nursing organization. However, the effects of team-building are not well known especially in Korea. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The sample was composed of 195 junior-year nursing students in Korea. The experimental group (100 subjects) participated in team-building activities over a 100-day period, whereas no intervention was applied to the control group (95 subjects). Pretest was conducted in both groups, and post-test was conducted after the 100-day intervention. The pre-post change in mean communication competence score did not differ between the two groups. However, the mean scores for teamwork skills and team effectiveness differed significantly between the two groups after team-building activity. This study was not a double-blind test, and randomized sampling was not implemented. Caution should thus be used when interpreting the findings. Team-building activities were effective for improving the teamwork skills and team effectiveness among Korean nursing students. It is recommended that team-building activities should be included regularly as an integral educational approach in nursing education. The findings suggest that suggests that team-building for improving communication and teamwork should be designated as one of the required criteria for nursing college programme accreditation in many countries, including Korea. However team-building requires further testing to verify this across cultures. Nurses need to receive formal team-building training for improving communication and teamwork, and formal education should be included in their job training schedule. It is recommended that communication competence and teamwork be used as one of job performance evaluations in their workplace. © 2015

  10. Improving Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CSIRT) Skills, Dynamics and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    recommendations for optimal CSIRT performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Incident Response, Response Teams, Cognitive Task Analysis 16. SECURITY...CSIRT, such as forensics or threat intelligence. This network of teams is known as a multiteam system, or MTS. This concept was emphasized throughout...this project. When reading the chapters in the Handbook, it is important to keep in mind that building a productive CSIRT requires not just

  11. The Effect of Simultaneous Sponsorship of Rival Football Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Barbosa de Amorim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of team identification and team-sponsor fit on the sponsor’s brand equity. The study’s main theoretical references are (a the Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; (b the Schema Theory (Singer, 1968 and (c the Associative Network Theories (Collins & Loftus, 1975, both about the functioning of the human memory; and (d customer-based brand equity (Keller, 1993. Research was conducted in Porto Alegre, RS, a Brazilian city where rival football (soccer teams Grêmio and Internacional share their main sponsors, Banrisul and Unimed, since 2001 and 2002, respectively, a rare context that was previously studied only once before (Davies, Veloutsou, & Costa, 2006. The valid sample comprised 2,000 fans of both teams. The sample was non-probabilistic with equal gender and team quotas. Data analysis was performed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA; and the reliability, convergent, discriminant and nomological validity of the constructs were verified. To test the substantive hypotheses, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM using the ADF technique was applied. The empirical results suggest that, in the studied context, the sponsor’s brand equity is more influenced by teamsponsor fit than by team identification, which is different from a non-rivalry sponsorship context.

  12. Head and neck multidisciplinary team meetings: Effect on patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Markus; Gore, Sinclair M; Read, Rebecca L; Alexander, Ashlin; Mehta, Ankur; Elliot, Michael; Milross, Chris; Boyer, Michael; Clark, Jonathan R

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was for us to present our findings on the prospectively audited impact of head and neck multidisciplinary team meetings on patient management. We collected clinical data, the pre-multidisciplinary team meeting treatment plan, the post-multidisciplinary team meeting treatment plans, and follow-up data from all patients discussed at a weekly multidisciplinary team meeting and we recorded the changes in management. One hundred seventy-two patients were discussed in 39 meetings. In 52 patients (30%), changes in management were documented of which 20 (67%) were major. Changes were statistically more likely when the referring physician was a medical or radiation oncologist, when the initial treatment plan did not include surgery, and when the histology was neither mucosal squamous cell cancer nor a skin malignancy. Compliance to the multidisciplinary team meeting treatment recommendation was 84% for all patients and 70% for patients with changes in their treatment recommendation. Head and neck multidisciplinary team meetings changed management in almost a third of the cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effect of action recognition and robot awareness in cooperative robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-03-01

    Previous research in cooperative robotics has investigated several possible ways of coordinating the actions of cooperative teams -- from implicit cooperation through sensory feedback to explicit cooperation using the exchange of communicated messages. These various approaches differ in the extent to which robot team members arc aware of, or recognize, the actions of their teammates, and the extent to which they use this information to effect their own actions. The research described in this paper investigates this issue of robot awareness of team member actions and its effect on cooperative team performance by examining the results of a series of experiments on teams of physical mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup. In these experiments. we vary the team size (and thus the level of redundancy in team member capabilities) and the level of awareness robots have of their teammates` current actions and evaluate the team`s performance using two metrics: time and energy. The results indicate that the impact of action awareness on cooperative team performance is a function not only of team size and the metric of evaluation. but also on the degree to which the effects of actions can be sensed through the world, the relative amount of work that is available per robot, and the cost of replicated actions. From these empirical studies, we propose a number of principles regarding the use of action recognition and robot awareness of team member actions in cooperative teams -- principles which will help guide engineers in the design and composition of the proper cooperative team for a given robotic mission.

  14. The effects of intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on conflict management, few have considered the effects of unit technology and intrapersonal, intragroup, and intergroup conflict on team performance effectiveness and work satisfaction. The model was tested using a nonexperimental design. Path analysis using multiple regression was used to test the model. The nonrandom sample consisted of 141 nurses employed on 13 inpatient units at a state-supported, 597-bed academic medical center in a southeastern city. Findings indicated that intrapersonal conflict had a direct negative impact on intragroup conflict and work satisfaction. Intragroup conflict had direct negative effects on work satisfaction and team performance effectiveness. Unit technology had a direct negative impact on work satisfaction. Findings have implications for administrators to implement strategies to decrease a stressful work environment and increase team-building activities.

  15. Breaking Down the Siloes: Developing Effective Multidisciplinary HIV Research Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Manya; Castel, Amanda

    2016-09-01

    As the HIV epidemic passes its 35 years mark, the role of multidisciplinary approaches to HIV research has become increasingly important. Development of diverse, cross-cutting research teams has been found to be key to engaging and retaining participants in population-based studies; it is also a crucial component of designing studies capable of examining the sensitive and nuanced issues that surround HIV related risk and adherence behavior. Expanding our understanding of these issues is central to being able to overcome them and ultimately to the development of best practices for translation of research discovery into improvements in prevention and care. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the importance of multidisciplinary teams in HIV research where they are critical to gaining information that can have a positive impact on the epidemic and to propose specific methods for creating teams to conduct research with optimal public health impact.

  16. Workforce diversity: implications for the effectiveness of health care delivery teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreachslin, J L; Hunt, P L; Sprainer, E

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the implications of racial diversity for the self-perceived communication effectiveness of nursing care teams. An RN leads the nursing care team (NCT) and delivers care in collaboration with two or more nonlicensed caregivers. Overlap is intentionally designed into the roles of NCT members and the range of duties the team performs is generally expanded to include functions previously performed by personnel from centralized departments. NCTs are highly reliant on mutual respect and effective communication among team members. Team conflict and miscommunication can be exacerbated by the strong correlation between role on the nursing care team (NCT) and race. Verbatim transcripts of fourteen focus groups from two study hospitals were used to develop a grounded theory of the role that race plays in the self-perceived communication effectiveness of nursing care teams. Two themes that emerged from the focus group discussions constitute the overarching framework within which racially diverse team members evaluate team communication effectiveness: different perspectives and alternative realities. Three additional themes, social isolation, selective perception and stereotypes, that serve as reinforcing factors were also identified, i.e., these factors deepen the conflict and dissatisfaction with team communication that occurs as a natural consequence of the overarching framework of different perspectives and alternative realities. Leadership emerged as a powerful mitigating factor in the model of how race influences the self-perceived communication effectiveness of nursing care teams. Leaders who can transcend racial identity as evidenced by the ability to validate alternative realities and appreciate different perspectives appear to moderate the potential negative effects of racial diversity on team communication processes and strengthen the positive aspects of diversity.

  17. Cross-Level Effects Between Neurophysiology and Communication During Team Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Martin, Melanie J; Dunbar, Terri A; Stevens, Ronald H; Galloway, Trysha L; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Likens, Aaron D

    2016-02-01

    We investigated cross-level effects, which are concurrent changes across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis as teams interact, between neurophysiology and team communication variables under variations in team training. When people work together as a team, they develop neural, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that they would not develop individually. It is currently unknown whether these patterns are associated with each other in the form of cross-level effects. Team-level neurophysiology and latent semantic analysis communication data were collected from submarine teams in a training simulation. We analyzed whether (a) both neural and communication variables change together in response to changes in training segments (briefing, scenario, or debriefing), (b) neural and communication variables mutually discriminate teams of different experience levels, and (c) peak cross-correlations between neural and communication variables identify how the levels are linked. Changes in training segment led to changes in both neural and communication variables, neural and communication variables mutually discriminated between teams of different experience levels, and peak cross-correlations indicated that changes in communication precede changes in neural patterns in more experienced teams. Cross-level effects suggest that teamwork is not reducible to a fundamental level of analysis and that training effects are spread out across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis. Cross-level effects are important to consider for theories of team performance and practical aspects of team training. Cross-level effects suggest that measurements could be taken at one level (e.g., neural) to assess team experience (or skill) on another level (e.g., cognitive-behavioral). © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. [Verification of Learning Effects by Team-based Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Yoshihisa; Ishige, Kumiko; Inokuchi, Norio; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Asami, Satoru; Izumisawa, Megumi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kishikawa, Yukinaga; Hata, Harumi; Kose, Eiji; Tabata, Kei-Ichi

    2017-11-01

     It has been recommended that active learning methods, such as team-based learning (TBL) and problem-based learning (PBL), be introduced into university classes by the Central Council for Education. As such, for the past 3 years, we have implemented TBL in a medical therapeutics course for 4-year students. Based upon our experience, TBL is characterized as follows: TBL needs fewer teachers than PBL to conduct a TBL module. TBL enables both students and teachers to recognize and confirm the learning results from preparation and reviewing. TBL grows students' responsibility for themselves and their teams, and likely facilitates learning activities through peer assessment.

  19. Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, J B

    1996-09-01

    Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.

  20. Team innovation climate and knowledge sharing among healthcare managers: mediating effects of altruistic intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Cheng, Kai-Lin; Chao, Minston; Tseng, Hsu-Min

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence concerning the impact of team climate on knowledge sharing behavior and the mediating effects of individuals' altruistic intentions in the context of healthcare settings. Questionnaire data were collected from 212 administrators employed at a medical center in Taiwan. Team climate was assessed by the Team Climate Inventory composed of four factors, participative safety, support for innovation, vision, and task orientation. The proposed hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. The influence of the team innovation climate on knowledge sharing behavior was evident. Furthermore, individuals' altruistic intentions played a full mediating role in the relationship between team innovation climate and knowledge sharing behavior. These results contribute to the field of the people-orientated perspective in knowledge management. The full mediating effect of employees' altruistic intentions provides healthcare team managers the direction to accelerate knowledge sharing behavior.

  1. Real teams and their effect on the quality of care in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Anders Kvale; Skogstad, Anders; Veenstra, Marijke; Romøren, Tor Inge

    2013-12-01

    Use of teams has shown to be an important factor for organizational performance. However, research has shown that a team has to meet certain criteria and operate in a certain way to realize the potential benefits of team organizing. There are few studies that have examined how teams operate in the nursing home sector and their effect on quality of care. This study investigates the relationship between teams that meet an academic definition of the team concept and quality of care in nursing homes. A cross-sectional survey of forty nursing home wards throughout Norway was used to collect the data. Five sources of data were utilized to test our research question: (1) self-report questionnaires to 444 employees, (2) interviews with 40 ward managers, (3) self-report questionnaires to 40 ward managers, (4) telephone interviews with 378 relatives, and (5) 900 hours of field observations. Use of teams in nursing home wards was assessed by field observations and by interviews with ward mangers. Quality of care was assessed by data from surveys and interviews with relatives and staff and through field observations. All data were aggregated to the ward level and two-level analyses were used to assess the relationships. The multi-level analyses showed that teams - as operationalized in the present study - were significantly positively related to two out of the three quality of care indices when controlled for ward size, days of sick leave and care level. One significant interaction effect was found between teams and days of sick leave, implying that the effect of teams decreased with higher numbers of days of sick leave. The results suggest that teams are related to higher levels of quality of care in nursing homes. However, the study shows that there is a substantial difference between real, functional teams that meet an academic definition of the concept and quasi teams, the latter having a significantly lower effect on quality of care. Hence, nursing home leaders

  2. Is Information Technology Education Betters Learned in Teams? An Exploratory Study of Teamwork Effectiveness at a Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if the effectiveness of technology education can be significantly increased through use of team-based activities including both real-time team encounters and results-driven team assignments. The research addresses this purpose by examining perceptions regarding effectiveness of team-based learning in…

  3. Common care practices among effective community-based specialist palliative care teams: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Hsien; Bainbridge, Daryl; Brouwers, Melissa; Bryant, Deanna; Tan Toyofuku, Sue; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2017-04-19

    Evidence has shown that, despite wide variation in models of care, community-based specialist palliative care teams can improve outcomes and reduce acute care use at end of life. The goal of this study was to explore similarities in care practices among effective and diverse specialist teams to inform the development of other community-based teams. Interviews with 78 providers and administrators from 11 distinct community-based specialist palliative care teams from Ontario, Canada were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive approach to identify common themes. 3 key themes across all teams emerged. First, the distinct models of care were generally summarised into 3 models: primary care and specialist providers either collaborated by transferring, sharing or consulting in care. Second, teams explicitly or implicitly followed 7 common care practices related to: specialised expertise 24/7; intrateam communication; timeliness; physical symptom and psychosocial-spiritual management; education; peace and fulfilment; and advocacy for patient preferences. Third, all teams emphasised the importance of team building, even more than using clinical tools and processes. Despite wide variation in models of care among community-based specialist palliative care teams, this large qualitative study identified several common themes in care practices that can guide the development of other teams. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-10-01

    Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML hydration status on team sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.

  5. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  6. Psychological contracts in self-directed work teams : Development of a validated scale and its effect on team commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, F.; Schalk, R.; de Jong, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine reciprocal exchange in teams using a psychological contract (PC) framework. Adopting Rousseau’s conceptualization of the contract, the authors explore the extent to which the team members reciprocate perceived team obligations and fulfilment by adjusting their own

  7. Conceptual framework of acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work, and perceptions of team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Lamothe, Lise; Ritchie, Judith A; Doran, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new conceptual framework for acute care nurse practitioner role enactment, boundary work and perceptions of team effectiveness. Acute care nurse practitioners contribute positively to patient care by enacting an expanded scope of practise. Researchers have found both positive and negative reactions to the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. The process of role enactment, shifting role boundaries, and perceptions of team effectiveness has been studied disparately. A framework linking team structures and processes to desirable outcomes is needed. Literature was obtained by searching CINAHL, PsycInfo, MedLine, PubMed, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, JSTOR Archive, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1985-2010. A descriptive multiple-case study was completed from March 2009-May 2009. A new conceptual framework describing how role enactment and boundary work affect perceptions of team effectiveness was developed by combining theoretical and empirical sources. The framework proposes proximal indicators used by team members to assess their team's performance. The framework identifies the inter-related dimensions and concepts that different stakeholders need to consider when introducing nurse practitioners in healthcare teams. Further study is needed to identify team-level outcomes that reflect the contributions of all providers to quality patient care, and explore the patients' and families' perceptions of team effectiveness following the introduction of acute care nurse practitioners. The new framework can guide decision-making and research related to the structures, processes, and outcomes of nurse practitioner roles in healthcare teams. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    effectively complete complex tasks that are beyond the scope of what an individual could reasonably accomplish. In particular, teams ...conditions for team effectiveness (Tannenbaum, Mathieu, Salas, & Cohen, 2012). When compared to traditional or conventional teams , organizational leaders may...following topics will be combined: global teams , virtual teams , multicultural teams , distributed teams , team diversity, S. Miloslavic et al. 21 22 23

  9. Effects of skill dissimilarity and task interdependence on helping in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.

    This study examined the effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and task interdependence on individual team members' helping behavior in a panel study of senior business students enrolled in a management game. The students were randomly assigned to 20 teams and functioned as a firm's top management

  10. Factors that influence the stroke care team's effectiveness in reducing the length of hospital stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.T. Schouten (Loes); M.E.J.L. Hulscher (Marlies); R.P. Akkermans (Reinier); J.J.E. van Everdingen (Jannes); R.P.T.M. Grol (Richard); R. Huijsman (Robbert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a quality improvement program for improving stroke care and the determinants of success at the team and hospital levels. METHOD: For 16 months, 23 multidisciplinary stroke service teams participated in a

  11. Factors that influence the stroke care team's effectiveness in reducing the length of hospital stay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Akkermans, R.; Everdingen, J.J. van; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Huijsman, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a quality improvement program for improving stroke care and the determinants of success at the team and hospital levels. Method- For 16 months, 23 multidisciplinary stroke service teams participated in a quality

  12. Multiple Dimensions to the Application for the Effectiveness of Team Building in ROTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Che; Chen, Yun-Chi; Tsao, Ya-Lun

    2009-01-01

    Team building has been given increasing attention and applied in diverse disciplines in recent years. The purpose of this study was to determine the multiple dimensions to the application for the effectiveness of team building in the military units such as ROTC since not many existing literature has investigated this in such an expectedly high…

  13. Team spirit makes the difference : The interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Berg, C. van den; Euwema, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and

  14. The Effect of Geographical Separation, Mediated Communications, and Culture, on Tester Team Member Trust of Other Information Technology Virtual Project Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find evidence that employees in the project role of systems and software tester may experience less effect on their trust of team members in other project roles when working in a virtual team setting. In this study, the independent variables of geographic proximity, culture, and communications were studied as…

  15. Effect of CRM team leader training on team performance and leadership behavior in simulated cardiac arrest scenarios: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Castelao, Ezequiel; Boos, Margarete; Ringer, Christiane; Eich, Christoph; Russo, Sebastian G

    2015-07-24

    Effective team leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is well recognized as a crucial factor influencing performance. Generally, leadership training focuses on task requirements for leading as well as non-leading team members. We provided crisis resource management (CRM) training only for designated team leaders of advanced life support (ALS) trained teams. This study assessed the impact of the CRM team leader training on CPR performance and team leader verbalization. Forty-five teams of four members each were randomly assigned to one of two study groups: CRM team leader training (CRM-TL) and additional ALS-training (ALS add-on). After an initial lecture and three ALS skill training tutorials (basic life support, airway management and rhythm recognition/defibrillation) of 90-min each, one member of each team was randomly assigned to act as the team leader in the upcoming CPR simulation. Team leaders of the CRM-TL groups attended a 90-min CRM-TL training. All other participants received an additional 90-min ALS skill training. A simulated CPR scenario was videotaped and analyzed regarding no-flow time (NFT) percentage, adherence to the European Resuscitation Council 2010 ALS algorithm (ADH), and type and rate of team leader verbalizations (TLV). CRM-TL teams showed shorter, albeit statistically insignificant, NFT rates compared to ALS-Add teams (mean difference 1.34 (95% CI -2.5, 5.2), p = 0.48). ADH scores in the CRM-TL group were significantly higher (difference -6.4 (95% CI -10.3, -2.4), p = 0.002). Significantly higher TLV proportions were found for the CRM-TL group: direct orders (difference -1.82 (95% CI -2.4, -1.2), p leaders in CRM improves performance of the entire team, in particular guideline adherence and team leader behavior. Emphasis on training of team leader behavior appears to be beneficial in resuscitation and emergency medical course performance.

  16. The effect of interprofessional team-based learning among nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arkers Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chan, Lap Ki; Chan, Namkiu; Ganotice, Fraide A; Ho, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    Although interprofessional education has received attention in recent years as a means of providing opportunities for health-care professionals to learn with, from and about other disciplines and enhance the quality of patient care, evidence of its effectiveness is limited. Interprofessional team-based learning was introduced to make it possible for students in different healthcare disciplines to interact with each other, and to prepare them to function effectively within a team in their future career. To examine the effects of interprofessional team-based learning for undergraduate nursing students in terms of knowledge level, readiness for interprofessional learning, attitude towards various aspects of team learning, and perceived collective efficacy. The study employed a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. An interprofessional education program was given to students from two universities in Hong Kong who were in different healthcare disciplines including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, biomedical science, and Chinese medicine programs. The program was based on four phases of student learning- individual readiness assessment test, ice breaking session, team readiness assessment test, and application exercise. Nursing students involved in the program were invited to complete anonymous questionnaires to evaluate their interprofessional team experience. A total of 40 nursing students (9 male, 31 female) participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was identified in their knowledge level (pattitude towards readiness for interprofessional learning, team learning, and perceived collective efficacy (plearning can enhance cross-disciplinary learning and outcomes resulting from team efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective Team Practices: Interprofessional Contributions to Communication Issues With a Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Duffy, Karena; Eaker, Kerri

    2017-05-17

    This clinical focus article contains a detailed description of how to build effective teams that use interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) with special-education professionals, speech-language pathologists, and families of children with severe disabilities. This clinical focus article provides information on using the essential elements of team building and IPCP to provide quality care to families who have children with severe disabilities. The 6 essential elements for team building are described, with suggestions for including families in each: goal-setting, roles and responsibilities, effective and efficient process, communication and interpersonal relationships, collaborative problem solving, and evaluation. The 4 competency domains of IPCP are embedded into each of the team-building elements to demonstrate how teams can implement IPCP. A case study illustrates the difficulty one parent experienced working with a team across the 6 essential team-building elements when seeking communication services for her child with severe disabilities. Building teams with IPCP can be effective for including families and creating high-quality outcomes for individuals with severe disabilities.

  18. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. The effects of autonomy and empowerment on employee turnover: test of a multilevel model in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Lei; Lee, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Extending research on voluntary turnover in the team setting, this study adopts a multilevel self-determination theoretical approach to examine the unique roles of individual and social-contextual motivational precursors, autonomy orientation and autonomy support, in reducing team member voluntary turnover. Analysis of multilevel time-lagged data collected from 817 employees on 115 teams indicates that psychological empowerment mediates the main effect of autonomy orientation and the interactive effect of autonomy support and its differentiation on a team member's voluntary turnover. The findings have meaningful implications for the turnover and self-determination literatures as well as for managers who endeavor to prevent voluntary turnover in teams. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Beuck, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The Thesis analyzes the effecvtiveness of international environmental regimes. A case study of four of the most important river regimes in Germany - the Commissions for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR), Elbe (ICPE), Oder (ICPO) and Lake Constance (IGKB)- was conducted. The first part of the thesis explains the theoretical foundation the thesis rests upon. Neoliberal Institutionalism was the chosen theory, accompanied by aspects of regime and game theory. A definition of effectiveness was ge...

  1. Explaining variation in perceived team effectiveness: results from eleven quality improvement collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-06-01

    Explore effectiveness of 11 collaboratives focusing on 11 different topics, as perceived by local improvement teams and to explore associations with collaborative-, organisational- and team-level factors. Evidence underlying the effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives is inconclusive and few studies investigated determinants of implementation success. Moreover, most evaluation studies on quality improvement collaboratives are based on one specific topic or quality problem, making it hard to compare across collaboratives addressing different topics. A multiple-case cross-sectional study. Quality improvement teams in 11 quality improvement collaboratives focusing on 11 different topics. Team members received a postal questionnaire at the end of each collaborative. Of the 283 improvement teams, 151 project leaders and 362 team members returned the questionnaire. Analysis of variance revealed that teams varied widely on perceived effectiveness. Especially, members in the Prevention of Malnutrition and Prevention of Medication Errors collaboratives perceived a higher effectiveness than other groups. Multilevel regression analyses showed that educational level of professionals, innovation attributes, organisational support, innovative culture and commitment to change were all significant predictors of perceived effectiveness. In total, 27·9% of the individual-level variance, 57·6% of the team-level variance and 80% of the collaborative-level variance could be explained. The innovation's attributes, organisational support, an innovative team culture and professionals' commitment to change are instrumental to perceived effectiveness. The results support the notion that a layered approach is necessary to achieve improvements in quality of care and provides further insight in the determinants of success of quality improvement collaboratives. Understanding which factors enhance the impact of quality improvement initiatives can help professionals to achieve

  2. Team spirit makes the difference: the interactive effects of team work engagement and organizational constraints during a military operation on psychological outcomes afterwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermans, S M; Kamphuis, W; Delahaij, R; van den Berg, C; Euwema, M C

    2014-12-01

    This article prospectively explores the effects of collective team work engagement and organizational constraints during military deployment on individual-level psychological outcomes afterwards. Participants were 971 Dutch peacekeepers within 93 teams who were deployed between the end of 2008 and beginning of 2010, for an average of 4 months, in the International Security Assistance Force. Surveys were administered 2 months into deployment and 6 months afterwards. Multi-level regression analyses demonstrated that team work engagement during deployment moderated the relation between organizational constraints and post-deployment fatigue symptoms. Team members reported less fatigue symptoms after deployment if they were part of highly engaged teams during deployment, particularly when concerns about organizational constraints during deployment were high. In contrast, low team work engagement was related to more fatigue symptoms, particularly when concerns about organizational constraints were high. Contrary to expectations, no effects for team work engagement or organizational constraints were found for post-traumatic growth. The present study highlights that investing in team work engagement is important for those working in highly demanding jobs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effectiveness of teams: Lessons from biomimicry, an ecological inquiry E=MC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Team effectiveness in swarms like bees, colonies of ants, schools of fish, flocks of birds, and fireflies flashing synchronously are all as a result of highly coordinated behaviors that emerge from collective, decentralized intelligence. The purpose of this article was to conduct an ecological research inquiry of what lessons business can borrow from biomimicry especially by studying ants’ colonies, swarm of bees and packs of wild African dogs. A systems science theory borrowed from Albeit Einstein E = mc2 was used, where effectiveness of teams was equal to mastery of each individual x coordination x communication (collective intelligence. The author used using secondary data analysis to obtain information on team effectiveness and collective intelligence. The research found out that, team effectiveness is a function of mastery of individual x coordination x communication (collective intelligence. The research further recommended corporate to mimic the biosphere especially to adopt collective intelligence strategies from ants, swarm of bees and wild dogs for business sustainability

  4. Team innovation climate and knowledge sharing among healthcare managers: mediating effects of altruistic intentions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Feng-Chuan; Cheng, Kai-Lin; Chao, Minston; Tseng, Hsu-Min

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence concerning the impact of team climate on knowledge sharing behavior and the mediating effects of individuals' altruistic intentions in the context of healthcare settings...

  5. Effect of proprioception training on knee joint position sense in female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánics, G; Tállay, A; Pavlik, A; Berkes, I

    2008-06-01

    A number of studies have shown that proprioception training can reduce the risk of injuries in pivoting sports, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. To determine the contributing effects of propioception on knee joint position sense among team handball players. Prospective cohort study. Two professional female handball teams were followed prospectively for the 2005-6 season. 20 players in the intervention team followed a prescribed proprioceptive training programme while 19 players in the control team did not have a specific propioceptive training programme. The coaches recorded all exposures of the individual players. The location and nature of injuries were recorded. Joint position sense (JPS) was measured by a goniometer on both knees in three angle intervals, testing each angle five times. Assessments were performed before and after the season by the same examiner for both teams. In the intervention team a third assessment was also performed during the season. Complete data were obtained for 15 subjects in the intervention team and 16 in the control team. Absolute error score, error of variation score and SEM were calculated and the results of the intervention and control teams were compared. The proprioception sensory function of the players in the intervention team was significantly improved between the assessments made at the start and the end of the season (mean (SD) absolute error 9.78-8.21 degrees (7.19-6.08 degrees ) vs 3.61-4.04 degrees (3.71-3.20 degrees ), p0.05). This is the first study to show that proprioception training improves the joint position sense in elite female handball players. This may explain the effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the injury rate.

  6. Environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Brinch, Anna

    This report presents ecotoxicological data and Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for nine selected nanomaterials which are considered to be environmentally relevant due to high usage or how they are used. These data will together with data from other reports/projects be used in an overall...... assessment of the environmental risk of nanomaterials in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Nano Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black. To support the assessment of the data found in the peer...... reviewed scientific literature, the current project has developed a scoring system that evaluates the liability and relevance of the data in relation to nanomaterials....

  7. Participation in Team Sports Can Eliminate the Effect of Social Loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Szmajke, Andrzej; Kruger, Ankebé; Kübler, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Self and team prioritisation effects in perceptual matching: Evidence for a shared representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enock, Florence; Sui, Jie; Hewstone, Miles; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2017-11-20

    Previous research has demonstrated that in-group favouritism occurs not only in higher-level judgments such as reward allocation, but also in low-level perceptual and attentional tasks. Recently, Moradi, Sui, Hewstone, and Humphreys (2015) found a novel effect of in-group bias on a simple perceptual matching task in which football fans responded more efficiently to stimuli newly associated with their own football team than stimuli associated with rival or neutral teams. This result is consistent with a robust self-bias effect in which individuals show a large performance advantage in responding to stimuli associated with the self over stimuli associated with a close friend or a stranger (Sui, He, & Humphreys, 2012). The present research utilised a perceptual matching paradigm to investigate the relations between self and in-group prioritisation amongst a sample of college rowers. Across two experiments, we demonstrated a reliable performance advantage for self and team stimuli. We also found a relationship between the self and team advantage in RT, and demonstrated an overlap in the perception of self- and team-associated shapes that was stronger in participants who reported a greater sense of group identity with their team. Further, we found no relation between the team bias and positive valence implicitly associated with the team, showing that the team bias effects are unlikely to be driven by emotional significance. The results are consistent with an overlap between self and in-group representation, which may provide evidence for a common process driving both self and in-group perceptual advantage effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Transition From a Unit-Based Team to External Transport Team for a Pediatric Critical Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Brian M; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Yager, Phoebe H; Noviski, Natan

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric hospitals must consider staff, training, and direct costs required to maintain a pediatric specialized transport team, balanced with indirect potential benefits of marketing and referral volume. The effect of transitioning a unit-based transport team to an external service on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is unknown, but information is needed as hospital systems focus on population management. We examined the impact on PICU transports after transition to an external transport vendor. Single-center retrospective review performed of PICU admissions, referrals, and transfers during baseline, post-, and maintenance period with a total of 9-year follow-up. Transfer volume was analyzed during pre-, post-, and maintenance phase with descriptive statistics and statistical process control charts from 1999 to 2012. Total PICU admissions increased with an annual growth rate of 3.7%, with mean annual 626 admissions prior to implementation to the mean of 890 admissions at the end of period, P transport to total admissions decreased from 27% to 21%, but mean annual transports were unchanged, 175 to 183, P = .6, and mean referrals were similar, 186 to 203, P = .8. Seasonal changes in transport volume remained as a predominant source of variability. Annual transport refusals increased initially in the postimplementation phase, mean 11 versus 33, P transport vendor availability. In a transition to a regional transport service, PICU transport volume was maintained in the long-term follow-up and total PICU admissions increased. Further research on the direct and indirect impact of transport regionalization is needed to determine the optimal cost-benefit and quality of care as health-care systems focus on population management.

  10. The effects of individual and team competitions on performance, emotions, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    It is well documented that competition can affect performance and emotion in sport. However, our understanding of the comparative effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion is limited. We also know little about emotion-based mechanisms underlying the effects of different types of competition on performance. To address these issues, 64 participants completed a handgrip endurance task during time-trial, one-on-one, two-on-two, and four-on-four competitions while self-report and possible corroborative physiological measures of enjoyment, anxiety, and effort were assessed. Results indicated that performance, enjoyment, anxiety, and effort increased from individual to team competitions. The observed increases in performance were mediated by increased enjoyment and effort. Our findings illustrate differential effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion. Moreover, they indicate that both enjoyment-based and anxiety-based mechanisms can explain changes in performance among different types of individual and team competition.

  11. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  12. Assessing Trust and Effectiveness in Virtual Teams: Latent Growth Curve and Latent Change Score Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Coovert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their relationship to team effectiveness as reflected through satisfaction with one’s team and task performance. Latent growth curve analysis reveals both trust types start at a significant level with individual differences in that initial level. Cognitive trust follows a linear growth pattern while affective trust is overall non-linear, but becomes linear once established. Latent change score models are utilized to examine change in trust and also its relationship with satisfaction with the team and team performance. In examining only change in trust and its relationship to satisfaction there appears to be a straightforward influence of trust on satisfaction and satisfaction on trust. However, when incorporated into a bivariate coupling latent change model the dynamics of the relationship are revealed. A similar pattern holds for trust and task performance; however, in the bivariate coupling change model a more parsimonious representation is preferred.

  13. What makes maternity teams effective and safe? Lessons from a series of research on teamwork, leadership and team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siassakos, Dimitrios; Fox, Robert; Bristowe, Katherine; Angouri, Jo; Hambly, Helen; Robson, Lauren; Draycott, Timothy J

    2013-11-01

    We describe lessons for safety from a synthesis of seven studies of teamwork, leadership and team training across a healthcare region. Two studies identified successes and challenges in a unit with embedded team training: a staff survey demonstrated a positive culture but a perceived need for greater senior presence; training improved actual emergency care, but wide variation in team performance remained. Analysis of multicenter simulation records showed that variation in patient safety and team efficiency correlated with their teamwork but not individual knowledge, skills or attitudes. Safe teams tended to declare the emergency earlier, hand over in a more structured way, and use closed-loop communication. Focused and directed communication was also associated with better patient-actor perception of care. Focus groups corroborated these findings, proposed that the capability and experience of the leader is more important than seniority, and identified teamwork and leadership issues that require further research. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Leading effective virtual teams overcoming time and distance to achieve exceptional results

    CERN Document Server

    Settle-Murphy, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    A proliferation of new technologies has lulled many into thinking that we actually have to think less about how we communicate. In fact, communicating and collaborating across time, distance, and cultures has never been more complex or difficult.Written as a series of bulleted tips drawn from client experiences and best practices, Leading Effective Virtual Teams: Overcoming Time and Distance to Achieve Exceptional Results presents practical tips to help leaders engage and motivate their geographically dispersed project team members. If you're a leader of any type of virtual team and want to he

  15. Trust in Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    Multicultural membership and diversity in teams are important to maintain effectiveness in organizations in a global business environment. Multicultural teams offer great potential in international collaboration just as top management teams are becoming increasingly diversified. However......, maintaining team cohesiveness in multicultural teams to collaborate effectively presents a number of challenges. The present study employs the concept of trust to explore influences on team collaboration in high performing teams. The study is based on observation of teams in seven multinational corporations...... as nationalities, gender, functional expertise and international experience. The study contributes insights to diverse teams through a processual study of micro-processes in global organizational contexts crossing multicultural boundaries....

  16. The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture Knud Ryom, Reinhard Stelter University of Copenhagen, Denmark Boys with migrant background have major difficulties to adjust and participate in the Danish school system and society (OECD,2010). This study aimed to investigate the possible...... effects of team sport as a social tool, used to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. A team sport (football) was chosen because of positive results in social integration for individuals with a diverse cultural background...... (Hatzigeorgiadis et al,2013). The overall aim was to develop life-skills and social resilience by being part of a team sport. Furthermore, the goal was to enhance social capability and to increase the possibilities for acting actively and responsibly in one’s own life and in the local community...

  17. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  18. Dispositional factors, experiences of team members and effectiveness in self-managing work teams / Susanna Catherina Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Susanna Catherina

    2003-01-01

    Changes in South Africa's political and economic sphere demand the democratisation of the workplace, participation and empowerment of the work force. Flatter hierarchical structures, as a result of downsizing, enhance involvement but also demand that workers function in a more autonomous manner. The use of self-managing work teams has increased in response to these competitive challenges. Self-managing work teams are groups of employees who are fully responsible for a well-d...

  19. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  20. Evaluating the effect of a reader worker program on team performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Alvarez, Y.P. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1994-03-01

    When safety, security, or other logistical concerns prevent direct objective assessment of team performance, other evaluation techniques become necessary. In this paper, the effect of a Department of Energy-mandated reader worker program on team performance at a particular DOE facility was evaluated using unstructured observations, informal discussions with technicians, and human reliability analysis. The reader worker program is intended to enhance nuclear explosive safety by improving the reliability of team performance. The three methods used for the evaluation combine to provide a strong indication that team performance is in fact enhanced by a properly implemented reader worker procedure. Because direct quantitative data on dependent variables particular to the task of interest is not available, however, there has been some skepticism regarding the results by staff at the facility.

  1. The Relative Age Effect On The Selection In The Slovakia National Football Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulič Martin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to determine the relative age effect (RAE on selection in the Slovakia national football teams. A factor that may have a significant impact on the quality of players chosen for the national teams or may result in a poor selection of players for the elite teams. Anthropometric and cognitive acceleration of players born in the first months of the calendar year concerning the overall context of the competition for placement in the national teams may be considered as a significant advantage. The aim of this research was to examine, determine and verify the presence of relative age effect in the selection of football players for the Slovakia national teams starting with the under 16 age category (U-16 through to the A - senior national football team. We presumed that the elite teams under this review and study consisted predominantly of players born in the first quarter of the calendar year, while also presuming that relative age effect receded with the increasing age category. Our survey sample U16 consisted of 79 players, U17 consisted of 47 players, U18 consisted of 58 players, U19 consisted of 71 players, U21 consisted of 52 players and A - senior national team consisted of 302 Slovakia national football players. The information obtained from the Slovak Football Association has been processed by the application of statistical methods and statistical significance test (T-test. Our research confirmed the presence of relative age effect in the U-16, U-17 and U-18 teams under our investigation (p≤0.01. In the U19 and U21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. As for the senior national team, statistically significant difference has been found in relation to players born in the last quarter of the year as opposed to players born in the first three months of the year (p≤0.01. Our results have shown that with the increasing age, the relative age effect fades and vanishes in full in the

  2. Effects of a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training program upon police officers before and after Crisis Intervention Team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Horace A

    2014-02-01

    In communities across the United States and internationally, police officers frequently come into contact with individuals experiencing mental health crisis despite not having the skills to safely intervene. This often results in officers resorting to excessive or even deadly force. The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) is heralded as a revolutionary and transformative intervention to correct this gap in practice. Several previous interdisciplinary national and international studies, including criminology and sociology, have examined these concepts using quantitative and qualitative methodological designs, however, no prior nursing studies have been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CIT training on police officers' knowledge, perception, and attitude toward persons with mental illness. Twenty five police officers participated. An explorative, quasi experimental, descriptive design was used to collect the data on the three major concepts. Results on knowledge about mental illness improved at p<.0125 (p<.05 after Bonferroni correction). Perception scores improved at p<.0125 (p<.05 after Bonferroni correction), and attitudes were more favorable at p<.0125 (p<.05 after Bonferroni correction). The results of this study validated the CIT program as an innovative community health program that benefits law enforcement, consumers, mental health professionals, and stakeholders. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors that influence the stroke care team's effectiveness in reducing the length of hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Loes M T; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Akkermans, Reinier; van Everdingen, Jannes J E; Grol, Richard P T M; Huijsman, Robbert

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a quality improvement program for improving stroke care and the determinants of success at the team and hospital levels. Method- For 16 months, 23 multidisciplinary stroke service teams participated in a quality improvement collaborative designed to set up stroke services and reduce the length of hospital stay (LOHS). We monitored the LOHS and the discharge delay during the project and measured indicators of well organized stroke services at baseline and after the intervention. A multiple and multilevel regression model was used to relate the outcome variables to the team and hospital characteristics. National LOHS figures served as reference data. Data regarding 4549 stroke patients were included in the analyses. The LOHS decreased significantly from 18.3 to 13.3 days. The mean LOHS varied substantially (9.2 to 20.9 days) after the intervention. Teams with higher team functioning scores showed lower LOHS scores and higher scores for the indicators of well organized stroke services. Team characteristics explain almost 40% of the variance in LOHS and 53% in the indicators of well organized stroke care. Participation in a national quality improvement collaborative effected a significant decrease of the LOHS and a significant increase in the presence of key features of stroke services. Variation in ability to reduce the LOHS and increase key features of stroke services were related to team functioning. The data suggest that the composite of team functioning is pivotal in quality-of-care improvement and may need specific attention in any quality improvement program.

  4. Rapid response team composition effects on outcomes for adult hospitalised patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Rose Mary; Bova, Ann Marie; LeGar, Michelle; Smith, Pauline J; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M

    2011-01-01

    Utilisation of a rapid response team (RRT) in a hospital setting has been documented in the literature. RRTs were formed to intervene quickly when the hospitalised patient first shows signs of deterioration. The purpose was to prevent failure to rescue, leading to intensive care unit transfers, cardiac arrest and mortality. To date, however, there is a lack of evidence to support the effectiveness of this intervention. The focused question, subsequent systematic review and data analysis are presented. To synthesise the best available research evidence on the impact of rapid response team composition on cardiopulmonary arrest outside the intensive care unit (ICU), unplanned transfers to ICU, in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay in hospitalised non-ICU adult medical-surgical patients and staff satisfaction. Published and unpublished literature were searched. The databases searched for studies from 1989 to 2010 were CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Mednar, New York Academy of Medicine, Proquest and PubMed. Reference lists of included studies were hand searched. Initial keywords searched were rapid response team, rapid response system, medical emergency team, medical emergency system and team composition. The studies included in the systematic review were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In absence of sufficient RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, cohort studies, observational and control trials without randomization were included. Types of participants were adults (18 years and older) hospitalised in an acute care setting, not requiring the specialized care and management of an ICU. Hospitalised paediatric patients, ICU patients, hospice or palliative care patients were excluded. JBI MAStARI Critical Appraisal Tools were used for the methodological assessment of identified studies. Data were collected specifically related to RRT intervention, study methods and design, randomization, length of intervention, data collection points and inclusion criteria

  5. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.

  6. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence. PMID:28861012

  7. School Board Training: Its Effect on Southern California Governance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact the California School Boards Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program has on effective school board governance practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between effective school boards and a commitment to seek and attend school board training. This…

  8. Comprehensive Emergency Airway Response Team (EART) Training and Education: Impact on Team Effectiveness, Personnel Confidence, and Protocol Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Angela C; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Brook, Chris; Basa, Krystyne; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Crimlisk, Janet; Silva, Julie; Grillone, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and utility of simulation of the Emergency Airway Response Team (EART) at a tertiary care hospital to improve team dynamics and confidence and knowledge in managing an emergency airway. This was a descriptive, quantitative performance improvement study. From September 1, 2013, to December 1, 2013, 177 members of the EART from anesthesia, otolaryngology, trauma surgery, emergency medicine, ICU nursing, and respiratory therapy participated in emergency airway simulations. Team dynamics and confidence levels and knowledge of EART were assessed using pre-and post-simulation questionnaires. All participants regardless of their role, experience in the medical field, or any prior exposure to a difficult airway showed significant improvement in self-rated team participation and confidence and objective knowledge regarding EART after undergoing simulation. Our study highlights the efficacy and utility of simulation in assessing personnel team dynamics and confidence levels and knowledge of emergency airway scenarios. Practitioners in all fields and level of experience benefit in EART training and simulation. We hope that with this information, we will be able to conduct future studies on reduction of patient morbidity and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The effect of management team characteristics on performance and style extremity of mutual fund portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Along with mutual funds’ scale and quantity expanding for our country, it is common for fund management companies hiring new managers or the original fund managers mobilizing from one to another. The high liquidity of fund managers makes different managers regroup to manage the funds that belong to the same fund management company in each fund year. The characteristics of these different management team will influence the fund performance, and also affect the earnings of the fund management company and portfolio investors. The purpose of this paper is as follows. First, evaluating the effect of management team characteristics on portfolio characteristics: risk, performance, and extremity. Second, testing the hypothesis that the ranking of mid-year performance have effect on investment style extremity and research what relationship exists between this phenomenon and management team characteristics in depth.Design/methodology/approach: On the analysis of the relationships between the management team characteristics and portfolio characteristics, a series of OLS regressions is run where the time series regression model (the factor model and cross-sectional regression are included based on using the STATA, EVIEWS and MATLAB. The validity and practicability of the model will be verified in the paper. All of the above are aimed at achieving portfolio optimization and realizing the maximization of the interests of fund management companies and investors.Findings: The main findings are as follows. Teams with more doctors or MBA (CPA and CFA hold more risky portfolios, while teams with long team tenure hold less. More members and large gender diversity have negative effect on performance, and the opposite is age diversity. Teams with more members and long tenure tend to hold less extreme style decisions, but age diversity is related to more. Besides, tournament hypothesis does exist in China investment funds industry especially when the

  10. 'We didn't know anything, it was a mess!' Emergent structures and the effectiveness of a rescue operation multi-team system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleştea, Alina Maria; Fodor, Oana Cătălina; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Miclea, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Multi-team systems (MTS) are used to tackle unpredictable events and to respond effectively to fast-changing environmental contingencies. Their effectiveness is influenced by within as well as between team processes (i.e. communication, coordination) and emergent phenomena (i.e. situational awareness). The present case study explores the way in which the emergent structures and the involvement of bystanders intertwine with the dynamics of processes and emergent states both within and between the component teams. Our findings show that inefficient transition process and the ambiguous leadership generated poor coordination and hindered the development of emergent phenomena within the whole system. Emergent structures and bystanders substituted leadership functions and provided a pool of critical resources for the MTS. Their involvement fostered the emergence of situational awareness and facilitated contingency planning processes. However, bystander involvement impaired the emergence of cross-understandings and interfered with coordination processes between the component teams. Practitioner Summary: Based on a real emergency situation, the present research provides important theoretical and practical insights about the role of bystander involvement in the dynamics of multi-team systems composed to tackle complex tasks and respond to fast changing and unpredictable environmental contingencies.

  11. The Influence of Secure Emotional Expression on Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Emily; Dewitt, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between group effectiveness and secure emotional expression over the course of a 10 week period. The participants consisted of 12 college students who were enrolled in a senior seminar on teamwork. Participants worked in two groups of six and participated in a group meeting each week that consisted of a…

  12. Effects of transformational and shared leadership styles on employees' perception of team effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Seung-Wan; Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    ... of Korean financial and insurance firms. Transformational leadership is a vertical leadership style emanating from the formal leader of a team, whereas shared leadership is a distributed leadership style that emanates from the team members...

  13. The effect of a nurse team leader on communication and leadership in major trauma resuscitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Alana; Curtis, Kate; Horvat, Leanne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2015-01-01

    Effective assessment and resuscitation of trauma patients requires an organised, multidisciplinary team. Literature evaluating leadership roles of nurses in trauma resuscitation and their effect on team performance is scarce. To assess the effect of allocating the most senior nurse as team leader of trauma patient assessment and resuscitation on communication, documentation and perceptions of leadership within an Australian emergency department. The study design was a pre-post-test survey of emergency nursing staff (working at resuscitation room level) perceptions of leadership, communication, and documentation before and after the implementation of a nurse leader role. Patient records were audited focussing on initial resuscitation assessment, treatment, and nursing clinical entry. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Communication trended towards improvement. All (100%) respondents post-test stated they had a good to excellent understanding of their role, compared to 93.2% pre-study. A decrease (58.1-12.5%) in 'intimidating personality' as a negative aspect of communication. Nursing leadership had a 6.7% increase in the proportion of those who reported nursing leadership to be good to excellent. Accuracy of clinical documentation improved (P = 0.025). Trauma nurse team leaders improve some aspects of communication and leadership. Development of trauma nurse leaders should be encouraged within trauma team training programmes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.

  15. Outcome interdependence shapes the effects of prevention focus on team processes and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, B.; Homan, A.C.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the effects of regulatory focus on individual-level performance have often been studied, relatively little is yet known about team-level effects. Filling this void, we integrate the notion that promotion-focused individuals are concerned with progress and achievement, whereas

  16. Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

  17. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  18. The effect of homecare team visits in terminal cancer patients: Role of health teams reaching patients homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Banerjee

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: The eagerness of patients wanting the teams to reach their residence may be judged by the given figures. The total number of patients visited by the homecare teams of Cansupport in the year 2008-2009 was 1025. Out of them, there were about 104 patients who were discharged. The term discharge means that the patients were not interested in our visit or were not available in our subsequent visit. It has to be mentioned here that the service is a definite demand by society provided that the cost may be catered too.

  19. Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Effectiveness. Dependent var Unstand. coeff SE B P Long vs short term 0.117 0.087 0.166 0.182 Masculinity / feminity 0.041 0.091 0.056 0.657 Uncertainty... masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty reduction, and long term versus short term focus. Hofstede formulated these dimensions as a way to understanding...part of a group and power distance indicates the extent to which there is inequality (hierarchy) between supervisors and subordinates. In masculine

  20. Peer Pressure in Work Teams : The effects of Inequity Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Masclet, David

    2002-01-01

    Working Paper du GATE 2002-15; Many empirical studies have shed light on the efficiency of peer pressure. I propose here to model peer pressure by incorporating in the utility function self centered inequity aversion. I find that opportunity for sufficiently inequity averse players to punish their peers, is effective in inducing others to cooperate. At the equilibrium, all players cooperate and punish any shirker since punishing is a way to reduce inequity. Contrary, nobody cooperates without...

  1. Effect of team training on improving MRI study completion rates and no-show rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbash, Alexander; Yucel, Kent; Yuh, William; Doros, Gheorghe; Ajam, Amna; Lang, Elvira; Pauker, Stephen; Mayr, Nina

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a high-cost imaging modality, and an optimized encounter ideally provides high-quality care, patient satisfaction, and capacity utilization. Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of team training and its impact on patient show-up and completion rates for their MRI examinations. A total of 97,712 patient visits from three tertiary academic medical centers over 1-year intervals were evaluated, totaling 49,733 visits at baseline and 47,979 after training. Each center's MRI team received team training skill training including advanced communication and team training techniques training. This training included onsite instruction including case simulation with scenarios requiring appropriate behavioral and communicative interventions. Orientation and training also utilized customized online tools and proctoring. The study completion rate and patient show-up rate during consecutive year-long intervals before and after team training were compared to assess its effectiveness. Two-sided chi-square tests for proportions using were applied at a 0.05 significance level. Despite differing no-show rates (5-22.2%) and study incompletion rates (0.7-3.7%) at the three academic centers, the combined patients' data showed significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in the patients' no-show rates (combined decreases from 11.2% to 8.7%) and incompletion rates (combined decreases from 2.3% to 1.4%). Our preliminary results suggest training of the imaging team can improve the no-show and incompletion rates of the MRI service, positively affecting throughput and utilization. Team training can be readily implemented and may help address the needs of the current cost-conscious and consumer-sensitive healthcare environment. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:1040-1047. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliana L; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create a novel framework of surgical leadership derived from direct observation. We surveyed nonsurgeon team members about their perceptions of individual surgeon's leadership effectiveness on a 7-point Likert scale and correlated survey measures with individual surgeon profiles created by calculating percentage of behavior types, leader functions, and valence. Surgeon leadership was rated by nonsurgeons from 4.2 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4). Among the 33 types of behaviors observed, most interactions constituted elucidating (24%) and tone setting (20%). Overall, 66% of interactions (range, 43%-84%) were positive and 11% (range, 1%-45%) were negative. The percentage of positive and negative behaviors correlated strongly (r = 0.85 for positive and r = 0.75 for negative, p leadership. Facilitating engagement related most positively (r = 0.80; p = 0.03), and negative forms of elucidating, ie, criticism, related most negatively (r = -0.81; p = 0.03). We identified 7 surgeon leadership functions and related behaviors that impact perceptions of leadership. These observations suggest actionable opportunities to improve team leadership behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What makes teacher teams in a vocational education context effective? A qualitative study of managers' view on team working

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijen, K.J.P.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Meelissen, Martina R.M.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – At a time when secondary vocational education is implementing competence-based education (CBE) on a large scale, to adapt to the needs of students and of the labour market in a modern society, many vocational schools have recognised that interdisciplinary teacher teams are an important

  4. What makes teacher teams in a vocational education context effective?: A qualitative study of managers' view on team working

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijen, Karin; Sleegers, Peter; Meelissen, Martina; Nieuwenhuis, Loek

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – At a time when secondary vocational education is implementing competence-based education (CBE) on a large scale, to adapt to the needs of students and of the labour market in a modern society, many vocational schools have recognised that interdisciplinary teacher teams are an important

  5. elative age effect in the selection process of handball players of the regional selection teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gómez López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of age on adolescent handball players of the regional selection teams. To do this, data of sex and date of birth of 84 youth players from different regional selection teams in the 2015-2016 season were analyzed, performing comparisons and differences being studied by χ2 and Z tests and the Bonferroni method. The analysis of results by quarter and half of birth revealed no statistically significant differences in gender and category. It seems to confirm that there is not relative age effect in the analyzed Teams. Whereupon, seems to confirm that in handball base, all young people participate, regardless of the degree of maturity submit.

  6. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations ( p transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals ( p transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  7. Potential environmental effects of the leading edge hydrokinetic energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Volpe Center evaluated potential environmental challenges and benefits of the ARPA-E funded research project, Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Harvesting Using Cyber-Physical Systems, led by Brown University. The Leading Edge research team develo...

  8. A Survey of Response to Intervention Team Members' Effective Practices in Rural Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Janna

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of general and special education teachers regarding the effectiveness of intervention teams in rural elementary schools. The passage of IDEIA 2004 brought considerable support for the use of the Response to Intervention (RtI) process providing research-based interventions to students who are struggling. Response…

  9. The Effect of Team-Based Learning as an Instructional Strategy on Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniewel, Marla Dawn

    2012-01-01

    National bodies of nursing have identified that nurse educators in undergraduate nursing education need to incorporate student-centered and evidenced-based instructional strategies to promote application of nursing concepts. Team-based learning (TBL) has been identified as an effective method of fostering a deeper understanding of content and…

  10. Scientific team effectiveness and the external CEO: A study of biotechnology university spin-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Marianne; Englis-Danskin, Paula; Englis, Basil George

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical exploration of the effectiveness of scientific teams and the role of an external CEO in the spin-off formation process. The paper contributes to the literature by focusing on the role of the experienced or 'external' entrepreneur (their commercial resources and

  11. The catalyst effect: how meta-knowledge can improve team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N. Mell (Julija); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); W.P. van Ginkel (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Effective teamwork is critical given the complexities of doing business today. However, it is all too often the case that teams fail to get the best out of the specialist knowledge they possess. Addressing this problem, new research shows that understanding who

  12. Cutthroat cooperation : The effects of team role decisions on adaptation to alternative reward structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Bianca; Hollenbeck, John R.; Conlon, Donald E.; Humphrey, Stephen E.; Moon, Henry; Ilgen, Daniel R.

    Structural Adaptation Theory proposes that it is more difficult for teams to change from competitive to cooperative reward conditions than it is for them to change in the opposite direction, and this has been labeled the cutthroat cooperation effect [Johnson, M. D., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R.,

  13. Scientific Team Effectiveness and the External CEO: A Study of Biotechnology University Spin-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Marianne; Englis, Paula Danskin; Englis, Basil G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical exploration of the effectiveness of scientific teams and the role of an external CEO in the spin-off formation process. The paper contributes to the literature by focusing on the role of the experienced or "external" entrepreneur (their commercial resources and capabilities) in the early phase of spin-off…

  14. Attribution of Team Members' Responsibility: The Effect of Temporal Pattern of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Donn L.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1978-01-01

    Assessed effects of an individual's temporal pattern of success on attributions of responsibility for winning or losing simulated free throw contests. The player on a winning team who scored at the end was judged responsible for the outcome. (Author/BEF)

  15. Learning Games and Student Teams: Their Effects on Student Attitudes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith J.; DeVries, David L.

    A 2x2x3 randomized block design was employed with 117 seventh grade students to investigate the independent and combined effects of a learning game and student teams on students' attitudes and achievement in mathematics. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance revealed that students in classes using games were more positive toward math…

  16. Tagclouds and Group Cognition: Effect of Tagging Support on Students' Reflective Learning in Team Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Lin, Shu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of supported tagging (a prompting mechanism for students to stop and think about their writing) for team blogging on undergraduate students' reflective learning and the relationship between tagclouds and group cognition. Thirty-nine students were randomly assigned to six groups and blogged for 5 weeks. Three groups were…

  17. School-Based Multidisciplinary Teacher Team-Building Combining On-Line Professional Development (ESSEA) and Field-Based Environmental Monitoring (GLOBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.

    2003-12-01

    The multidisciplinary nature of Earth system science provides a strong foundation for integrated science teaching at the K-12 level. In a Minneapolis-St. Paul based project, urban middle school teaching teams composed of language arts and math specialists as well as physical, Earth, and biological science teachers participate in the NASA Earth system science course (ESSEA) and in the international GLOBE environmental monitoring project. For students, the goal is to integrate science throughout the curriculum as well as involve classes from different subjects in a high-interest school science project. For teachers, the project provides greatly-needed classroom support and teacher team building, as well as professional development. The on-line course provides continuity and communication between the different team members. Face-to-face meetings with the instructors on site are conducted every 4 weeks. The problem-based learning approach to environmental issues developed in the ESSEA course lends itself to application to local environmental issues. New ESSEA modules developed for the project highlight environmental problems associated with flooding, introduced species, and eutrofication of lakes and rivers located near the participating schools. In addition, ESSEA participants are certified as GLOBE teachers, and assist their students in monitoring water quality. The synergistic partnership of ESSEA and GLOBE provides an attractive package upon which long-term school-based environmental monitoring projects can be based.

  18. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Paul Leuteritz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty. Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p < 0.05. Although transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p < 0.05, this seems not to contribute to team effectiveness. The data provided by the leaders was used to assess common source bias, which did not affect the interpretability of the results. Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  19. Effects of team coordination during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Castelao, Ezequiel; Russo, Sebastian G; Riethmüller, Martin; Boos, Margarete

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate to what extent the literature on team coordination during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) empirically confirms its positive effect on clinically relevant medical outcome. A systematic literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases was performed for articles published in the last 30 years. A total of 63 articles were included in the review. Planning, leadership, and communication as the three main interlinked coordination mechanisms were found to have effect on several CPR performance markers. A psychological theory-based integrative model was expanded upon to explain linkages between the three coordination mechanisms. Planning is an essential element of leadership behavior and is primarily accomplished by a designated team leader. Communication affects medical performance, serving as the vehicle for the transmission of information and directions between team members. Our findings also suggest teams providing CPR must continuously verbalize their coordination plan in order to effectively structure allocation of subtasks and optimize success. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Jensen's Inequality Predicts Effects of Environmental Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan J. Ruel; Matthew P. Ayres

    1999-01-01

    Many biologists now recognize that environmental variance can exert important effects on patterns and processes in nature that are independent of average conditions. Jenson's inequality is a mathematical proof that is seldom mentioned in the ecological literature but which provides a powerful tool for predicting some direct effects of environmental variance in...

  1. Building the team for team science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; O'Rourke, M.; Hong, G. S.; Hanson, P. C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Crowley, S.; Brewer, C. A.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively exchange information and develop trusting, collaborative relationships across disciplinary boundaries is essential for 21st century scientists charged with solving complex and large-scale societal and environmental challenges, yet these communication skills are rarely taught. Here, we describe an adaptable training program designed to increase the capacity of scientists to engage in information exchange and relationship development in team science settings. A pilot of the program, developed by a leader in ecological network science, the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), indicates that the training program resulted in improvement in early career scientists’ confidence in team-based network science collaborations within and outside of the program. Fellows in the program navigated human-network challenges, expanded communication skills, and improved their ability to build professional relationships, all in the context of producing collaborative scientific outcomes. Here, we describe the rationale for key communication training elements and provide evidence that such training is effective in building essential team science skills.

  2. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  3. The importance of moral emotions for effective collaboration in culturally diverse healthcare teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Catherine; Brunton, Margaret

    2017-07-20

    Moral emotions shape the effectiveness of culturally diverse teams. However, these emotions, which are integral to determining ethically responsive patient care and team relationships, typically go unrecognised. The contribution of emotions to moral deliberation is subjugated within the technorational environment of healthcare decision-making. Contemporary healthcare organisations rely on a multicultural workforce charged with the ethical care of vulnerable people. Limited extant literature examines the role of moral emotions in ethical decision-making among culturally diverse healthcare teams. Moral emotions are evident in ethnocentric moral perspectives that construct some colleagues' practices as 'other'. This article examines how moral emotions are evoked when cultural dissonance influences nurses' moral perceptions. We use a qualitative investigation of teamwork within culturally diverse healthcare organisations. We use Haidt's () account of moral emotions to examine practice-based accounts of 36 internationally educated and 17 New Zealand educated nurses practising in New Zealand. The study provides evidence that moral emotions are frequently elicited by communication and care practices considered 'foreign'. The main implication is that although safe practice in healthcare organisations is reliant on highly functioning teams, collaboration is challenged by interprofessional power relations of contested culturally shaped values. We address practice-based strategies that enable engagement with moral emotions to enhance effective teamwork. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The effect of transforming care at the bedside initiative on healthcare teams' work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; O'Conner, Patricia; Harripaul, Anastasia; Biron, Alain; Ritchie, Judith; Lavigne, Genevieve L; Baillargeon, Sophie; Ringer, Justin; Macgibbon, Brenda; Taylor-Ducharme, Sharon; Sourdif, Jacynthe

    2014-02-01

    Different initiatives have been implemented in healthcare organizations to improve efficiency, such as transforming care at the bedside (TCAB). However, there are important gaps in understanding the effect of TCAB on healthcare teams' work environments. The specific aim of the study is to describe findings regarding the TCAB initiative effects on healthcare teams' work environments. A pretest and posttest study design was used for this study. The TCAB initiative was implemented in fall 2010 in a university health center in Montreal, Canada. The sample consisted of healthcare workers from four different care units. Statistically significant improvement was observed with the communicating specific information subscale from the measure of processes of care variable, and a significant difference was found between the support from colleagues variable, which was higher at baseline than postprogram. The differences for psychological demand, decisional latitude, and effort-reward were not significant. TCAB is an intervention that allows healthcare teams to implement change to improve patients' and families' outcomes. Ongoing energy should focus on how to improve communication among all members of the team and ensure their support. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Exploring the effects of substituting basketball players in high-level teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Silva, Roberto; Lorenzo, Alberto; Kreivyte, Rasa; Sampaio, Jaime

    2017-02-01

    Substituting basketball players during competition is a key process to optimise collective performance. Available research on this topic is scarce, probably due to the difficulty in isolating these effects; thus, the aim of this study was to identify the temporal effects of substitutions in basketball (Spanish professional basketball league). The sample was composed of 1118 substitutions gathered from 21 basketball games. The analysed variables were coach-controlled (player and team's personal fouls, player in and player out roles, player's in and out minutes on-court and timeout situation); on-court (foul committed, free throws, 2- and 3-point field-goal effectiveness) and situational variables (scoreline, quality of opposition, game location and game quarter). The results showed positive scoring performances after the substitution for all the analyses. During the first quarter, there were significant effects for fouls committed, scoreline and game location after the substitution. The player's out personal fouls, free-throw effectiveness, player in, minutes on-court player in, timeout situation and 3-point field-goal effectiveness were significant during the second quarter. The team's personal fouls, game location, and scoreline were identified as important in the third quarter. The fourth quarter did not show significant effects on the independent variables. Current findings allow optimising coaches' plans and team management of on-court and bench players throughout the game.

  6. Processes in healthcare teams that include nurse practitioners: what do patients and families perceive to be effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Jabbour, Mira; Fortin, Chantal

    2016-03-01

    To explore patient and family perceptions of team effectiveness of teams those include nurse practitioners in acute and primary care. Nurse practitioners provide safe and effective care. Patients are satisfied with the care provided by nurse practitioners. Research examining patient and family perceptions of team effectiveness following the implementation of nurse practitioners in teams is lacking. A descriptive qualitative design was used. We used purposeful sampling to identify participants in four clinical specialties. We collected data from March 2014-January 2015 using semi-structured interviews and demographic questionnaires. Content analysis was used. Descriptive statistics were generated. Participants (n = 49) believed that the teams were more effective after the implementation of a nurse practitioner and this was important to them. They described processes that teams with nurse practitioners used to effectively provide care. These processes included improved communication, involvement in decision-making, cohesion, care coordination, problem-solving, and a focus on the needs of patients and families. Participants highlighted the importance of interpersonal team dynamics. A human approach, trust, being open to discussion, listening to patient and family concerns and respect were particularly valued by participants. Different processes emerged as priorities when data were examined by speciality. However, communication, trust and taking the time to provide care were the most important processes. The study provides new insights into the views of patients and families and micro-level processes in teams with nurse practitioners. The relative importance of each process varied according to the patient's health condition. Patients and providers identified similar team processes. Future research is needed to identify how team processes influence care outcomes. The findings can support patients, clinicians and decision-makers to determine the processes to focus on to

  7. Takım Yönetimi ve Takım Etkinliğini Belirleyen Faktörler : Savunma Sanayinde Ar - Ge Yapan Takımlar Üzerinde Bir Saha Araştırması = Team Management and the Determinants of Team Effectiveness : a Field Research on the Team Operating in Research and Development in Defence Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Özşahin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to benefit from teams, the effectiveness of teams should be increased. The role and responsibilities should be defined, team members should be educated to improve their skills, performance objectives should be identified, resources should be used at optimum level, team culture and leadership should be established to increase the team effectiveness. In this study, we aim to examine the relationship among the team effectiveness factors - specified as team synergy, use of resources, skills, communication and performance objectives - innovation orientation and quality orientation at teams in defense industry while leadership effect is high, low and absent. Survey is conducted on 15 team producing equipment for defense industry. Questionnaire form employing five - point Likert Scale is used and data are analyzed through the SPSS statistical program packet.

  8. Effects of Cohesion-Based Feedback on the Collaborations in Global Software Development Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Castro-Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that examines the effect of cohesion-based feedback on a team member’s behaviors in a global software development project. Chat messages and forum posts were collected from a software development project involving students living in the US and Mexico. Half of the teams in the project received feedback in the form of a graphical representation that displayed the group’s cohesion level, while the other teams received no feedback. The nature of the group interactions as well as the linguistic content of such interactions was then analyzed and compared. Results from this analysis show statistically significant differences between the feedback and non-feedback c onditions. More s pecifically, cohesion-based feedback had a positive relation to a team’s total message count, response rate, and individual cohesion score. In addition, the analysis of linguistic categories showed that the most salient categories observed were related to words about time and work. Furthermore, a comparison between feedback variables and type (i.e., positive and negative feedback indicates that those individuals exposed to negative feedback had an increase in their communication pacing rates when exposed to positive feedback. Although the feedback system did not appear to affect individual performance, the findings s u ggest t h at t h e c o hesion m e asure d e fined in th is st ud y is positively correlated to the task cohesion construct and is also related to individual and team performance.

  9. [Effectiveness of a Rapid Response Team (RRT) in a case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campechano-López, José Miguel; Carranza-Bernal, María Lourdes; Juanico-Morales, Guillermina; Reyes-Gil, María Rayo

    2016-01-01

    An ectopic pregnancy happens when a fertilized egg attaches somewhere outside the endometrial surface. This sort of pregnancy has an estimated incidence of 1.6 to 2 each 100 births. The main objective was to expose the effective answer of a Rapid Response Team in a case of ruptured cervical ectopic pregnancy. We also describe a clinical case of this sort of pregnancy. 37-year-old female with a two-month history of amenorrhea. The patient entered the Labor & Delivery department with hypovolemic shock secondary to vaginal bleeding. The Código Mater (Mater Code) was activated and the Rapid Response Team arrived to the L&D department. This team performed pelvic examination and detected tissue in cervix with mild bleeding. The pelvic ultrasound displayed the presence of gas and the endometrium status was normal (no gestational sac was detected). The immunologic test for pregnancy was positive. It was diagnosed cervical ectopic pregnancy and hypovolemic shock. Providing timely access to care with standardized criteria by interdisciplinary teams in all the cases of obstetric emergency avoids maternal deaths related to obstetric hemorrhage.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONED PROPERTIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    relationship between the incidence of abandonment and variables of environmental problems. Effects observed include pollution, health problem, city's financial loss, obscenity, crime, property value decline, development control problem ... and their environmental impacts on the aesthetics and the general livability of towns ...

  11. The team that plays together stays together: the effect of departmental Christmas party attendance on team cohesion within a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromb, Daniel; Thomas, Helen; Garcia-Nicoletti, Martin; Cheung, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    To understand the effect of attendance at departmental Christmas parties on cohesion and teamwork within the healthcare setting. METHOD DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOME MEASURES: We used the 'Team Development Measure' questionnaire to assess team cohesiveness among healthcare professionals before and after departmental Christmas parties took place. A pooled mean score (PMS) of responses was used to compare between groups. There were no significant differences in perceived measures of team cohesion when comparing responses before (PMSbefore=1.86±0.20) and after (PMSafter=1.91±0.22) the departmental Christmas party (p=0.37), nor was there a significant difference when comparing responses from attendees (PMSbefore=1.83±0.23, PMSafter=1.89±0.24, p=0.52) or non-attendees (PMSbefore=1.84±1.47, PMSafter=1.83±0.15, p=0.91). No difference was observed between professional groups (PMSdoctors=1.85±0.23, PMSnurses=1.95±0.18, p=0.064). Attendance at departmental Christmas parties does not seem to result in improved team cohesion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Direct and contextual effects of individual values on organizational citizenship behavior in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthaud-Day, Marne L; Rode, Joseph C; Turnley, William H

    2012-07-01

    The authors use Schwartz's values theory as an integrative framework for testing the relationship between individual values and peer-reported organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in teams, controlling for sex, satisfaction, and personality traits. Using hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 582 students distributed across 135 class project teams, the authors find positive, direct effects for achievement on citizenship behaviors directed toward individuals (OCB-I), for benevolence on citizenship behaviors directed toward the group (OCB-O), and for self-direction on both OCB-I and OCB-O. Applying relational demography techniques to test for contextual effects, the authors find that group mean power scores negatively moderate the relationship between individual power and OCB-I, whereas group mean self-direction scores positively moderate the relationship between self-direction and both OCB-I and OCB-O. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Effects of Plyometric Education Trainings on Balance and Some Psychomotor Characteristics of School Handball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizli, Zeynep Inci

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search the effects of plyometric education trainings which was applied for 10-week on static-dynamic balance and some psychomotor characteristics of students who were been handball team of school. The female students-players (N = 16) who are in age 14,57 ± 0,92 years. All student have got 3,66 ± 0,63 years sport experience.…

  14. Tainted visions: the effects of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Homan, A.C.; de Hoogh, A.H.B.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We

  15. First, Get Your Feet Wet: The Effects of Learning from Direct and Indirect Experience on Team Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Argote, Linda; Miron-Spektor, Ella; Todorova, Gergana

    2010-01-01

    How does prior experience influence team creativity? We address this question by examining the effects of task experience acquired directly and task experience acquired vicariously from others on team creativity in a product-development task. Across three laboratory studies, we find that direct task experience leads to higher levels of team…

  16. The effects of team expert choice on group decision-making in collaborative new product development; a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; van Rossum, Wouter; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Rakhorst, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of Team Expert Choice on group decision-making in collaborative new product development. We applied Team Expert Choice to support a product evaluation conducted by a new product development group composed of professionally diverse members. The evaluation resulted in

  17. Case Studies' Effect on Undergraduates' Achievement, Attitudes, and Team Shared Mental Models in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzouk, Rim; Johnson, Tristan E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of case studies on learning outcomes, attitudes toward instructions, and team shared mental models (SMM) in a team-based learning environment in an undergraduate educational psychology course. Approximately 105 students who participated in this study were randomly assigned to either a case-study…

  18. EPA’s Role in Emergency Response - Special Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Team; Radiological Response Team; Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Consequence Management Advisory Division; and National Criminal Enforcement Response Team provide specialized support.

  19. Proposal of a Model for effective Management and Development of virtual Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Skyrik

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present a pilot proposal of a model of “Virtual Development Management System” (ViDeMaS which will facilitate more effective management and development of virtual teams. Management and development of virtual teams is not a simple concept. It comprises a body of knowledge from a number of fields and scientific disciplines. The complexity of the concept may not be simplified as it is absolutely essential for full understanding of its nature. In order to gain better orientation in the concept, different perspectives will be used in the description of the model, which will enable us to achieve the goal of the work and to present the main results of the work (creation of a model for Virtual Development Management System. The present paper thus describes from different perspectives the proposal of a sufficiently detailed and complex model that may be utilized both on theoretical and application level.

  20. American College Football Division I Team Attachment: A Model for Sponsorship Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine sponsorship effectiveness at the Division I level, including the relationship between fans and sponsors. To collect the necessary data, the 13-item questionnaire was disseminated at two college football games by volunteer sampling at three Division I universities in the United States. With a total of 407 respondents, LISREL 8.52 and SPSS 17.0 were used to analyze the data for descriptive statistics, CFA, and SEM. By utilizing SEM, the variables of team attachment, sponsor image, word of mouth, and purchase intentions fit the proposed model.  Pragmatically, the significance of team attachment can be understated in its role as an initial construct to begin the sponsorship process. Considering the construct of sponsor image as a mediating variable, sponsor image played an important role to anticipate an increase in positive word of mouth or an increase in consumer purchase intentions.

  1. Effect of motivational climate profiles on motivational indices in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Y; Roberts, G C

    1999-12-01

    Contemporary perspectives of achievement motivation have been based on social cognitive theories which give motivational climate a central place in the regulation of subsequent affective states, cognitions and behaviour in achievement contexts. This study examined the relationship between different profiles of the motivational climate in teamsport and achievement, and socially related cognitions among Norwegian team sport athletes. Players (N= 148) assessed their perception of the motivational climate using the Norwegian version of the Motivational climate in sport questionnaire, sources of satisfaction in team sport, achievement strategies, perceived purposes of sport, and conceptions of ability. Multivariate analysis of variance (2x2) showed both main effects for profiles of the motivational climate and an interaction effect. Athletes perceiving the climate as high in mastery and high in performance oriented criteria reported psychological responses that were more adaptative than those perceiving the climate as low in mastery and high in performance criteria. With one exception, the findings showed that those high in mastery and low in performance were more likely to emphasise self-referenced criteria when judging perceived ability in team sport. For both social responsibility and lifetime skills as purposes in sport, it was the high performance and low mastery athletes who were least likely to endorse these purposes. And importantly, the high mastery climate seemed to moderate the impact of being in a high performance climate. The pattern of findings suggests that perceiving the motivational climate as performance oriented may not be motivationally maladaptive when accompanied by mastery oriented situational cues.

  2. Effectiveness of intervention with a perioperative multidisciplinary support team for radical esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuji; Iwaya, Takeshi; Endo, Fumitaka; Shioi, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Motoi; Takahara, Takeshi; Otsuka, Koki; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Koeda, Keisuke; Mizuno, Masaru; Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Sasaki, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention by a perioperative multidisciplinary support team for radical esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 85 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical esophagectomy via right thoracotomy or thoracoscopic surgery with gastric tube reconstruction. Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the non-intervention group (group N) from May 2011 to September 2012, 31 patients in the perioperative rehabilitation group (group R) from October 2012 to April 2014, and 33 patients in the multidisciplinary support team group (group S) from May 2014 to September 2015. Morbidity rates were 38, 45.2, and 42.4% for groups N, R, and S, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in the incidence of pneumonia among the groups, the durations of fever and C-reactive protein positivity were shorter in group S. Moreover, postoperative oral intake commenced earlier [5.9 (5-8) days] and postoperative hospital stay was shorter [19.6 (13-29) days] for group S. The intervention by a perioperative multidisciplinary support team for radical esophagectomy was effective in preventing the progression and prolongation of pneumonia as well as earlier ambulation, oral feeding, and shortening of postoperative hospitalization.

  3. Automatic day-2 intervention by a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship-Team leads to multiple positive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem H Dik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance rates are increasing. This is, among others, caused by incorrect or inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To target this, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship-Team (A-Team was implemented at the University Medical Center Groningen on a urology ward. Goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of the case-audits done by this team, looking at length of stay (LOS and antimicrobial use.Methods: Automatic e-mail alerts were sent after 48 hours of consecutive antimicrobial use triggering the case-audits, consisting of an A-Team member visiting the ward, discussing the patient’s therapy with the bed-side physician and together deciding on further treatment based on available diagnostics and guidelines. Clinical effects of the audits were evaluated through an Interrupted Time Series analysis and a retrospective historic cohort. Results: A significant systemic reduction of antimicrobial consumption for all patients on the ward, both with and without case-audits was observed. Furthermore, LOS for patients with case-audits who were admitted primarily due to infections decreased to 6.20 days (95% CI: 5.59-6.81 compared to the historic cohort (7.57 days; 95% CI: 6.92-8.21 (p=0.012. Antimicrobial consumption decreased for these patients from 8.17 DDD/patient (95% CI: 7.10-9.24 to 5.93 DDD/patient (95% CI: 5.02-6.83 (p=0.008. For patients with severe underlying diseases (e.g. cancer these outcome measures remained unchanged.Conclusions: The evaluation showed a considerable positive impact. Antibiotic use of the whole ward was reduced, transcending the intervened patients. Furthermore, LOS and mean antimicrobial consumption for a subgroup was reduced, thereby improving patient care and potentially lowering resistance rates.

  4. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey ... on the East and West coasts. There are teams and divisions all over the country for men, ...

  5. Radio Gaga? Intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football umpires - effect of radio communication on content, structure and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Timothy J; Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M

    2018-02-01

    Intra-team communication plays an important role in team effectiveness in various domains including sport. As such, it is a key consideration when introducing new tools within systems that utilise teams. The difference in intra-team communication of Australian Rules Football (AFL) umpiring teams was studied when umpiring with or without radio communications technology. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to analyse the verbal communication of seven umpiring teams (20 participants) grouped according to their experience with radio communication. The results identified that radio communication technology increased the frequency and altered the structure of intra-team communication. Examination of the content of the intra-team communication identified impacts on the 'Big Five' teamwork behaviours and associated coordinating mechanisms. Analysis revealed that the communications utilised did not align with the closed-loop form of communication described in the Big Five model. Implications for teamwork models, coaching and training of AFL umpires are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Assessing the impact of technology on performance is of interest to ergonomics practitioners. The impact of radio communications on teamwork is explored in the highly dynamic domain of AFL umpiring. When given radio technology, intra-team communication increased which supported teamwork behaviours, such as backup behaviour and mutual performance monitoring.

  6. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  7. Thick as Thieves: The Effects of Ethical Orientation and Psychological Safety on Unethical Team Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover compositional and emergent influences on unethical behavior by teams. Results from 126 teams indicated that the presence of a formalistic orientation within the team was negatively related to collective unethical decisions. Conversely, the presence of a utilitarian orientation within the team was positively…

  8. Making teams more resilient : Effects of shared transformational leadership training on resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Molenaar, D.; Schraagen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Resilience is of great importance to teams operating in complex environments, such as command and control teams. Team resilience is the ability of teams to respond to sudden, unanticipated demands for performance quickly and with minimum decrement of performance. The objective of this study was to

  9. Overcoming distance in virtual teams : Effects of communication media, experience, and time pressure on distributed teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der

    2007-01-01

    Een virtueel team is een team waarvan de leden elkaar niet of zelden in levenden lijve ontmoeten, bijvoorbeeld omdat de teamleden verschillende werktijden hebben of op verschillende vestigingen van een organisatie werken. Anders dan reguliere teams zijn virtuele teams in grote mate afhankelijk van

  10. Making Teams More Resilient: Effects of Shared Transformational Leadership Training on Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, Rick; Molenaar, David; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Resilience is of great importance to teams operating in complex environments, such as command and control teams. Team resilience is the ability of teams to respond to sudden, unanticipated demands for performance quickly and with minimum decrement of performance. The objective of this study was to

  11. Teams of community health workers and nursing students effect health promotion of underserved urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandee, Gail Landheer; Bossenbroek, Debra; Slager, Dianne; Gordon, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of CHW/nursing student teams in promoting secondary protection and improving access to care for residents of three urban underserved neighborhoods. The study also sought to measure CHW and resident satisfaction of such a program. Quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs were used for the study. Convenience samples consisted of residents who participated in the CHW program during 2005-2006, CHWs and residents who participated in the CHW program during 2005-2007 and a systematic random sample of residents across the three neighborhoods. Three quantitative measures were used in the study: a pre/post test with residents who participated in the program, a satisfaction survey of CHWs and participants, and a community assessment survey of the neighborhoods in which the program occurred. CHW/nursing student teams were shown to increase awareness of community resources, increase access to dental care, decrease use of the ER, promote use of a medical home/regular source of care, and increase the percentage of people having their blood pressure screened in the last 2 years. CHW/nursing student teams can positively impact the health of underserved populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abednego Feehi Okoe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A total of 372 responses were used in the final analysis. The scale items were adapted from the existing literature. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the model. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture significantly exerts positive influence on Service Recovery Performance of frontline employees. The findings from the study imply that there are several antecedents to Service Recovery Performance. Team Culture, Workplace Commitment, and Employee Commitment can influence Job Satisfaction which in turn will affect Service Recovery Performance resulting in customer satisfaction and retention.

  13. Effects of a night-team system on resident sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Ping; Gordon, Mary Beth; Sectish, Theodore; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Children's Hospital Boston implemented a night-team system on general pediatric wards to reduce extended work shifts. Residents worked 5 consecutive nights for 1 week and worked day shifts for the remainder of the rotation. Of note, resident staffing at night decreased under this system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this system on resident sleep and work hours. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents on the night-team system logged their sleep and work hours on work days. These data were compared with similar data collected in 2004, when there was a traditional call system. In 2004 and 2009, mean shift length was 15.22 ± 6.86 and 12.92 ± 5.70 hours, respectively (P = .161). Daily work hours were 10.49 ± 6.85 and 8.79 ± 6.42 hours, respectively (P = .08). Nightly sleep time decreased from 6.72 ± 2.60 to 4.77 ± 2.46 hours (P team system was unexpectedly associated with decreased sleep hours. As residency programs create work schedules that are compliant with the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards, resident sleep should be monitored carefully.

  14. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    K-1 L. INTRA SYSTEM ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ( EMC ) SOURCE/VICTIM ................... L-1 M. PERSONNEL...TEMPEST and test guidance for the addition of test procedures for implementing Electromagnetic Compatibility ( EMC ), Radiated Emissions (RE...for Grounds and Bonds is not addressed since it is sufficiently discussed in MIL-STD-464C. For Shielding Effectiveness, reference American Society

  15. Evidence of environmental education effectiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 2007 study in randomly-selected schools in the Buffalo (group B), Hartenbos and Klein Brak (group H) catchments determined how effectively State-of-Rivers (SoR) communication materials had been used in the education system of grades 1 to 3...

  16. Effect of fuel concentration on cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Mishra, Nirvantosh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2017-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells employ specialized proteins called molecular motors for transporting organelles and vesicles from one location to another in a regulated and directed manner. These molecular motors often work collectively in a team while transporting cargos. Molecular motors use cytoplasmic ATP as fuel, which is hydrolyzed to generate mechanical force. While the effect of ATP concentration on cargo transport by single Kinesin motor function is well understood, it is still unexplored, both theoretically and experimentally, how ATP concentration would affect cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. For instance, how does fuel concentration affect the travel distances and travel velocities of cargo? How cooperativity of Kinesin motors engaged on a cargo is affected by ATP concentration? To answer these questions, here we develop mechano-chemical models of cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. To develop these models we use experimentally-constrained mechano-chemical model of a single Kinesin motor as well as earlier developed mean-field and stochastic models of load sharing for cargo transport. Thus, our new models for cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors include fuel concentration explicitly, which was not considered in earlier models. We make several interesting predictions which can be tested experimentally. For instance, the travel distances of cargos are very large at limited ATP concentrations in spite of very small travel velocity. Velocities of cargos driven by multiple Kinesin have a Michaelis-Menten dependence on ATP concentration. Similarly, cooperativity among the engaged Kinesin motors on the cargo shows a Michaelis-Menten type dependence, which attains a maximum value near physiological ATP concentrations. Our new results can be potentially useful in controlling artificial nano-molecular shuttles precisely for targeted delivery in various nano-technological applications.

  17. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven "closing the loop" feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer's drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams' impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators' interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.   Type: Case Study

  18. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to lower average real fares, although various barriers to entry still allow carriers to keep prices above competitive levels. Environmental effects have thus far not received much attention in the discus...

  19. Environmental Effect on Egress Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Evacuation and egress simulations can be a useful tool for studying the effect of design decisions on the flow of agent movement. This type of simulation can be used to determine before hand the effect of design decisions and enable exploration of potential improvements. In this work, we study at how agent egress is affected by the environment in real world and large scale virtual environments and investigate metrics to analyze the flow. Our work differs from many evacuation systems in that we support grouping restrictions between agents (e.g., families or other social groups traveling together), and model scenarios with multiple modes of transportation with physically realistic dynamics (e.g., individuals walk from a building to their own cars and leave only when all people in the group arrive).

  20. Environmental effects of space systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of large space systems, primarily the Satellite Power System (SPS), on the upper atmosphere, are reviewed. From 56 to 500 km, the major contaminant sources are SPS microwave transmissions and rocket effluents. Although no significant effects have yet been found for microwave transmissions, deposition of rocket effluents causes compositional changes, most of which appear to be associated with the release of large amounts of water. The formation of ionospheric holes is an example of a modification resulting from the injection of propellant exhaust in the F-region. From 500 to 36,000 km, rocket effluents and ion engine contaminants (primarily Ar/sup +/) could alter magnetospheric and plasmaspheric structure and dynamics. One of the major impacts of these alterations could be perturbation of Van Allen radiation belt stability, leading to changed radiation hazards to materials and personnel.

  1. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  2. US pharmacists' effect as team members on patient care: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Kim Lee, Jeannie; Spivey, Christina A; Slack, Marion; Herrier, Richard N; Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Abraham, Ivo; Palmer, John; Martin, Jennifer R; Kramer, Sandra S; Wunz, Timothy

    2010-10-01

    One approach postulated to improve the provision of health care is effective utilization of team-based care including pharmacists. The objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive systematic review with focused meta-analyses to examine the effects of pharmacist-provided direct patient care on therapeutic, safety, and humanistic outcomes. The following databases were searched from inception to January 2009: NLM PubMed; Ovid/MEDLINE; ABI/INFORM; Health Business Fulltext Elite; Academic Search Complete; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; PsycINFO; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; National Guideline Clearinghouse; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; ClinicalTrials.gov; LexisNexis Academic Universe; and Google Scholar. Studies selected included those reporting pharmacist-provided care, comparison groups, and patient-related outcomes. Of these, 56,573 citations were considered. Data were extracted by multidisciplinary study review teams. Variables examined included study characteristics, pharmacists' interventions/services, patient characteristics, and study outcomes. Data for meta-analyses were extracted from randomized controlled trials meeting meta-analysis criteria. A total of 298 studies were included. Favorable results were found in therapeutic and safety outcomes, and meta-analyses conducted for hemoglobin A1c, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and adverse drug events were significant (P < 0.05), favoring pharmacists' direct patient care over comparative services. Results for humanistic outcomes were favorable with variability. Medication adherence, patient knowledge, and quality of life-general health meta-analyses were significant (P < 0.05), favoring pharmacists' direct patient care. Pharmacist-provided direct patient care has favorable effects across various patient outcomes, health care settings, and disease states. Incorporating pharmacists as health care team members in direct patient care is a viable solution to help improve

  3. Environmental/lifestyle effects on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard M

    2010-05-27

    The high incidence of low sperm counts in young (European) men and evidence for declining sperm counts in recent decades mean that the environmental/lifestyle impact on spermatogenesis is an important health issue. This review assesses potential causes involving adverse effects on testis development in perinatal life (primarily effects on Sertoli cell number), which are probably irreversible, or effects on the process of spermatogenesis in adulthood, which are probably mainly reversible. Several lifestyle-related (obesity, smoking) and environmental (exposure to traffic exhaust fumes, dioxins, combustion products) factors appear to negatively affect both the perinatal and adult testes, emphasizing the importance of environmental/lifestyle impacts throughout the life course. Apart from this, public concern about adverse effects of environmental chemicals (ECs) (pesticides, food additives, persistent pollutants such as DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls) on spermatogenesis in adult men are, in general, not supported by the available data for humans. Where adverse effects of ECs have been shown, they are usually in an occupational setting rather than applying to the general population. In contrast, a modern Western lifestyle (sedentary work/lifestyle, obesity) is potentially damaging to sperm production. Spermatogenesis in normal men is poorly organized and inefficient so that men are poorly placed to cope with environmental/lifestyle insults.

  4. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... Purposive control includes those related to animal husbandry and breeding, those directed against the trypanosome and those targeted at the vector. To be sustained and effective in the reduction of ...

  5. [Impact of the creation of a nutritional support team on the quality, safety and effectiveness of total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, C; Abilés, J; Garrido Siles, M; Faus Felipe, V

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is an essential component in the treatment of many hospitalized patients; however its use is associated to severe complications. The monitoring of these patients has been demonstrated as an effective method for the success of nutrition therapy; therefore, nutritional support teams play an important role to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the PN. In Spain, there is no data available about the situation of nutritional support teams in hospitals. Develop a nutritional support team in our hospital and analyze the interventions and outcomes in terms of quality, effectiveness and safety. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with PN were selected during two months, corresponding to the period before and after the creation of the nutritional support team (group 1 and 2, respectively). The functions of the nutritional team include: nutritional evaluation, daily monitoring of vital signs and glycemia, detailed analytical control, management of PN complications, between others. 67% of patients in group 1 (n = 24) maintain the PN 400 mg/dl. 34% of patients showed glycemia > 140 mg/dl (100% of them were solved), and 26% of patients underwent hepatic dysfunction (50% were solved). No refeeding syndrome was reported (thiamine was added to PN in 34% of patients). the nutritional support team work has notably increased the quality, safety and effectiveness of PN. This study demonstrates the need to incorporate multidisciplinary nutritional teams in hospitals and the benefit obtained in the patient medical care.

  6. How to Collaborate through Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are spending more of their time and making more decisions within teams. Effective teacher-based teams provide academic and behavioral support for students as well as professional development for teachers. Learn how the best teams function.

  7. The Effect of Environmental Capabilities on Environmental Strategy and Environmental Performance of Korean Exporters for Green Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Sung Bae

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to verify the relationships between environmental capabilities, environmental strategy and environmental performance. To achieve the objective, this research collects and analyzes 219 data responded by the members of the Korea International Trade Association. Reliability and validity of the data are tested by an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between the variables are tested by an analysis of structural equation modeling. The results are as follows. First, environmental capabilities of Korean exporters have a positive effect on environmental strategy. Capabilities of the firms as an internal resource are based on performing strategy. Firms which have superior environmental capabilities can be possible to make an effort on cooperative environmental improvement among departments and this is based on environmental collaboration with customers and suppliers. Second, external environmental strategy of Korean exporters has a positive effect on environmental performance. Environmental collaboration with customers and suppliers is based on attaining superior environmental performance. Third, environmental capabilities of Korean exporters have a positive effect on environmental performance. Environmental capabilities as a strategic resource of the firms are based on achieving a high level of environmental performance, and the firms can attain a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Therefore, environmental capabilities of Korean exporters have a direct effect of environmental strategy and environmental performance.

  8. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued

    2016-12-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  9. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimani Maamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.

  10. Effects of Plyometric Training on Physical Fitness in Team Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B.; Chéour, Foued

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility) in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT) could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes. PMID:28149427

  11. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  12. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  13. Effects of Inclusive Leadership on Employee Voice Behavior and Team Performance: The Mediating Role of Caring Ethical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging research field of leadership, inclusive leadership reflects the new style of leadership demanded by researchers and practitioners. Is it a leadership style that can better integrate employees and organizations and adapt to new complex management situation? Based on theories of social exchange, organizational support, and self-determination, this study investigated the impact of inclusive leadership on employee voice behavior and team performance through caring ethical climate. We evaluated the model with a time-lagged data of 329 team members from 105 teams in six cities in China. Results indicated as following: inclusive leadership was positively correlated with employee voice behavior at the individual level and team performance at the team level; caring ethical climate mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and employee voice behavior at the individual level, as well as mediated the relationship between inclusive leadership and team performance at the team level. This study revealed the mechanism of the positive cross-level effects of inclusive leadership on the caring ethical climate, employee voice behavior, and team performance. These findings also provided important contributions for human resource management and practice.

  14. The effectiveness of crisis resource management and team debriefing in resuscitation education of nursing students: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Imgard; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (i) whether integrating a course on crisis resource management principles and team debriefings in simulation training, increases self-efficacy, team efficacy and technical skills of nursing students in resuscitation settings and (ii) which phases contribute the most to these outcomes. Crisis resource management principles have been introduced in health care to optimise teamwork. Simulation training offers patient safe training opportunities. There is evidence that simulation training increases self-efficacy and team efficacy but the contribution of the different phases like crisis resource management principles, simulation training and debriefing on self-efficacy, team efficacy and technical skills is not clear. Randomised controlled trial in a convenience sample (n = 116) in Belgium. Data were collected between February 2015-April 2015. Participants in the intervention group (n = 60) completed a course on crisis resource management principles, followed by a simulation training session, a team debriefing and a second simulation training session. Participants in the control group (n = 56) only completed two simulation training sessions. The outcomes self-efficacy, team efficacy and technical skills were assessed after each simulation training. An ancillary analysis of the learning effect was conducted. The intervention group increased on self-efficacy (2.13%, p = .02) and team efficacy (9.92%, p intervention group scored significantly higher on team efficacy (8.49%, p crisis resource management principles and team debriefings in simulation training increases self-efficacy and team efficacy. The debriefing phase contributes the most to these effects. By partnering with healthcare settings, it becomes possible to offer interdisciplinary simulation training that can increase patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...... to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams...

  16. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  17. The effect of web quest and team-based learning on students’ self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOHREH BADIYEPEYMAIE JAHROMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the effects of cooperative learning methods using Web Quest and team-based learning on students’ self-direction, self-regulation, and academic achievement. Methods: This is a comparative study of students taking a course in mental health and psychiatric disorders. In two consecutive years, a group of students were trained using the Web Quest approach as a teaching strategy (n=38, while the other group was taught using team-based learning (n=39. Data gathering was based on Guglielmino’s self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS and Buford’s self-regulation questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive test using M (IQR, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Mann–Whitney U-test in SPSS software, version 13. p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: The results of the Mann–Whitney U test showed that the participants’ self- directed (self-management and self-regulated learning differed between the two groups (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively. Wilcoxon test revealed that self-directed learning indices (self-control and self-management were differed between the two strategies before and after the intervention. However, the scores related to learning (students’ final scores were higher in the WebQuest approach than in team-based learning. Conclusion: By employing modern educational approaches, students are not only more successful in their studies but also acquire the necessary professional skills for future performance. Further research to compare the effects of new methods of teaching is required.

  18. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Alberto; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: “light" (80 s recovery between laps), “moderate" (40 s), “hard" (20 s) and “very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments. PMID:28031762

  19. Uncover it, students would learn leadership from Team-Based Learning (TBL): The effect of guided reflection and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Parmelee, Dean X; Peyton, Elizabeth; Janani, Leila; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about best practices for teaching and learning leadership through Team-Based learning™ (TBL™) with medical students. We hypothesized that guided reflection and feedback would improve shared leadership and shared leadership capacity, and enhance team decision quality in TBL teams. We used the Kolb experiential learning theory as the theoretical framework. The study was conducted at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Three TBL sessions with 206 students (39 teams) participated in the study. Using a quasi-experimental design, one batch received guided reflection and feedback on their team leadership processes (n = 20 teams) and the other received only TBL (n = 19 teams). Observers measured shared leadership using a checklist. Shared leadership capacity was measured using a questionnaire. Scores on a team application exercise were used to assess quality of team decisions. Evidence did not support our first hypothesis that reflection and feedback enhance shared leadership in TBL teams. Percentages of teams displaying shared leadership did not differ between intervention and control groups in sessions 1 (p = 0.6), 2 (p = 1) or 3 (p = 1). The results did not support the second hypothesis. We found no difference in quality of decision making between the intervention and control groups for sessions 1 (p = 0.77), 2 (p = 0.23), or 3 (p = 0.07). The third hypothesis that the reflection and feedback would have an effect on shared leadership capacity was supported (T = -8.55, p > 0.001 adjusted on baseline; T = -8.55, p > 0.001 adjusted on gender). We found that reflection and feedback improved shared leadership capacity but not shared leadership behaviors or team decision quality. We propose medical educators who apply TBL, should provide guided exercise in reflection and feedback so that students may better understand the benefits of working in teams as preparation for their future roles as leaders and

  20. Incorporating Environmental Objectives into the Design Process of Large Made-to-Order Projects. A Case Study of Two Design Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Stoyell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmetal performance needs to be considered during the conceptual design of Large Made-to-Order products and processes. This paper presents work from a case-study of two such companies based on the study of current practice. Key design activities are modeled using an IDEFO based methodology to investigate opportunities for improvement and to isolate the main barriers against achieving clean design. A system for the transfer of client level environmental objectives to the design team is proposed in order to achieve clean design.

  1. Optimal environments for team functioning in sport organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Katrien; Boen, Filip; Stouten, Jeroen; Cotterill, Stewart T.; Vande Broek, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Despite its importance in optimizing a team’s effectiveness, the application of sport psychology practices often gets overshadowed by the training of physical abilities, technical skills, and tactical insight. Yet, in order to fully reach the physical, technical, and tactical potential of athletes in team sports, the environmental circumstances need to be adequate. The present chapter will outline how the team coach can create optimal environments for team functioning in different facets of t...

  2. Examining the Impact of Collaboration Technology Training Support on Virtual Team Collaboration Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Businesses and governmental agencies are increasingly reliant on virtual teams composed of team members in different location. However, such virtual teams face all the interpersonal challenges inherent in working in a group, plus additional challenges that are a consequence from communicating through electronic methods. Numerous technological…

  3. Revealing unexpected effects of rescue robots’ team-membership in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Cuijpers, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    In urban search and rescue (USAR) situations resources are limited and workload is high. Robots that act as team players instead of tools could help in these situations. A Virtual Reality (VR) experiment was set up to test if team performance of a human-robot team increases when the robot act as

  4. The effects of physical threat on team processes during complex task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Teams have become the norm for operating in dangerous and complex situations. To investigate how physical threat affects team performance, 27 threeperson teams engaged in a complex planning and problem-solving task, either under physical threat or under normal conditions. Threat consisted of the

  5. Organizing for Effective Paraprofessional Services in Special Education: A Multilingual/Multiethnic Instructional Service Team Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Ofelia B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper explores elements necessary to develop a stable, well-prepared itinerant instructional team (the Multilingual/Multiethnic Instructional Service team) to serve linguistically diverse exceptional students. Such a team would utilize paraprofessionals under the direct supervision of a certified special education teacher, allowing districts…

  6. Bringing employees closer: the effect of proximity on communication when teams function under time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, D.S.F.; van Eerde, W.; Rutte, C.G.; Chai, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have assumed close proximity to improve team communication on the premise that reduced physical distance increases the chance of contact and information exchange. However, research showed that the relationship between team proximity and team communication is not always straightforward

  7. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  8. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin

    2010-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  9. Psychological Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Effects of Team Composition on Individual Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J.; Hysong, S. J.; Lugg, D. J.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing program of research examining the psychological effects of isolation and confinement on individual adaptation, productivity and group relations in Antarctic winter personnel. This environment is used as an analogue for long-duration space mission scenarios, such as a space station sojourn, or a mission to Mars. Earlier results from this and other environments have demonstrated that: (1) most changes in psychological well-being are event-related and of relatively short duration; and (2) the greatest problem facing most individuals is interpersonal conflict. Content analysis of responses to open-ended questions has identified the numerous enjoyable aspects of Antarctic living, and confirmed that many of the problems reported were interpersonal in nature, and that problems varied significantly by station. Current work is exploring the effects of team assignment on the self-reported psychological changes and self-evaluations of members of isolated teams. This work includes identifying the dimensions by which subjects determine how well they are functioning. These dimensions (e.g., work, social life, internal emotional state) appear to play an important role in how subjects evaluate many aspects of life in isolation.

  10. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Ocean Energy Generation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, A. E.; Anderson, R.; Schultz, I.; Woodruff, D.; Carlson, T.; Ward, J.; van Cleve, F.; Eere Mhk Environmental Effects

    2010-12-01

    The production of electricity from the moving waters of the ocean has the potential to be a viable addition to the portfolio of renewable energy sources worldwide. The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry seeks to deploy and operate devices that harvest energy from the tides, waves, ocean currents and run of the river. Challenges facing the emerging industry include technology development, rigors of offshore deployments, and financing; however, the barrier most commonly cited by industry, regulators, and stakeholders is the uncertainty surrounding potential environmental effects of devices placed in the water and the permitting processes associated with those impacts. There is a need to evaluate the extensive list of potential interactions that may cause harm to marine organisms and ecosystems, to set priorities for regulatory triggers, and to direct future research. Project developers need information to understand how to minimize environmental effects; regulators need to know what monitoring targets are needed near ocean energy farms; and stakeholders need to know what mitigation strategies are effective in addressing unavoidable impacts. Scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing an Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) to assess environmental effects associated with MHK technologies and projects through a systematic analytical process, with specific input from key stakeholder groups. The ERES development process provides the scientific structure to support risk characterization, comparison of tradeoffs, and risk-informed decision-making by project and technology developers, regulatory agencies, and other interested stakeholders. The PNNL team will determine the range and severity of environmental effects of MHK development, leading to the development of mitigation strategies where residual risk remains. Input to ERES draws from a wide range of marine and freshwater studies to understand which marine receptors may suffer

  11. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi, RPh, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.

  12. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  13. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way ... Methods: The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, ...

  14. Understanding the Effects of Team Cognition Associated with Complex Engineering Tasks: Dynamics of Shared Mental Models, Task-SMM, and Team-SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miyoung; Johnson, Tristan E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how shared mental models (SMMs) change over time in teams of students in a manufacturing engineering course. A complex ill-structured project was given to each team. The objective of the team project was to analyze, test, and propose ways to improve their given manufactured product. Shared mental models were measured in…

  15. Effects of Interdependence and Social Interaction-Based Person-Team Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Glew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The match between employees and their vocations, jobs and organizations has been the focus of the majority of past person-environment fit research. The compatibility between individuals and their work team environments is a more recently recognized, but much less studied, type of fit. Person-team fit is conceptualized here along two fundamental dimensions of team environments: interdependence and social interaction. Results from a study involving 209 cross-functional team members indicate that person-team fit has an impact on satisfaction, commitment, trust and performance.

  16. TEAM GOAL COMMITMENT IN INNOVATIVE PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIN HOEGL; K Praveen Parboteeah

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a relatively neglected but important aspect of team research, namely team goal commitment or the team member's attachment to the team goal. Specifically, we examine whether the performance effect of team goal commitment is contingent on the level of innovativeness of the team task. Furthermore, we also examine five controllable team-level antecedent factors to team goal commitment. Results provide support for the hypothesis that team goal commitment is related to...

  17. The effect of lift teams on kinematics and muscle activity of the upper extremity and trunk in bricklayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Dan; Mizner, Ryan L; Hess, Jennifer A

    2013-04-01

    Workplace-simulation study using a crossover design. To evaluate the effect of lift teams on trunk and upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity among bricklayers. Healthcare practitioners often instruct individuals with work-related musculoskeletal disorders in proper lifting techniques. Bricklayers are especially affected by lifting-related musculoskeletal disorders. Lift teams are a possible intervention for reducing exposure to heavy lifting. Eighteen apprentice bricklayers constructed walls with concrete blocks alone (1 person) and in 2-person lift teams. Peak shoulder and trunk kinematics and normalized mean surface electromyography of the upper trapezius, lumbar paraspinals, and flexor forearm muscles were collected bilaterally. Differences between construction methods and rows 1, 3, and 6 of the wall were calculated with repeated-measures analyses of variance. Working in lift teams required less trunk flexion (P = .008) at row 1 but more sidebending at row 6 (Pteam workers. Lift-team peak shoulder flexion was lower at row 3 (P = .002), whereas abduction was higher at rows 1 (P = .007) and 6 (Pteams at row 6 (Pteams at all rows (P≤.002). Working in lift teams may be a beneficial intervention for reducing trunk flexion and lumbar paraspinal activity when bricklayers work at heights between the knees and waist, but lift teams are not recommended at higher working heights.

  18. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Paul Leuteritz; José Navarro; Rita Berger

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, a...

  19. How knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty: The impact of transformational leadership and group development

    OpenAIRE

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José, imp.; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and t...

  20. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    OpenAIRE

    Leuteritz, J-P.; Navarro Cid, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and t...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24616334

  2. A systematic review examining the effectiveness of blending technology with team-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Jo; Currie, Jane; Crawford, Tonia; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Randall, Sue

    2016-10-01

    Technological advancements are rapidly changing nursing education in higher education settings. Nursing academics are enthusiastically blending technology with active learning approaches such as Team Based Learning (TBL). While the educational outcomes of TBL are well documented, the value of blending technology with TBL (blended-TBL) remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review examining the effectiveness of blended-TBL in higher education health disciplines. This paper aimed to identify how technology has been incorporated into TBL in higher education health disciplines. It also sought to evaluate the educational outcomes of blended-TBL in terms of student learning and preference. A review of TBL research in Medline, CINAHL, ERIC and Embase databases was undertaken including the search terms, team based learning, nursing, health science, medical, pharmaceutical, allied health education and allied health education. Papers were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP). The final review included 9 papers involving 2094 student participants. A variety of technologies were blended with TBL including interactive eLearning and social media. There is limited evidence that blended-TBL improved student learning outcomes or student preference. Enthusiasm to blend technology with TBL may not be as well founded as initially thought. However, few studies explicitly examined the value of incorporating technology into TBL. There is a clear need for research that can discern the impact of technology into TBL on student preference and learning outcomes, with a particular focus on barriers to student participation with online learning components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  4. A Team Study of a Multiple-Power Wireless Random Channel Access Mechanism with Capture Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelillah Karouit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a team analysis of a slotted random wireless channel access mechanism. Under the proposed scheme, denoted wireless random access mechanism with multiple power levels (MPL-WRA, each mobile station contends for a transmission opportunity following the principles of a slotted access mechanism incorporating a random transmitting power value selected among various available power levels. In this way, a capture effect may be produced allowing the packet to be decoded whenever the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio is higher than a given threshold. In order to analyze the performance and optimization of the proposed setup, we build a Markovian model integrating the wireless access mechanism supplemented by the use of multiple power levels in an attractive and simple cross-layer fashion. We follow a team problem approach allowing us to fine tune the design parameters of the overall system configuration. Throughout an extensive numerical analysis, our main results set the basis for the social optimal system configuration of the proposed mechanism taking into account the physical constraints of using multiple power levels and the actual practical implementation of a slotted access mechanism. We end the paper with concluding remarks and future research directions including guidelines for the actual implementation of our proposal.

  5. Tracking dynamic team activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambe, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  6. Metabolic effects of sucralose on environmental bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Arthur; Ahearn, Gregory; Bowers, Doria; Swenson, Janice; Coughlin, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose was developed as a low cost artificial sweetener that is nonmetabolizable in humans. Sucralose can withstand changes in pH and temperature and is not degraded by the wastewater treatment process. Since the molecule can withstand heat, acidification, and microbial degradation, it is accumulating in the environment and has been found in wastewater, estuaries, rivers, and the Gulf Stream. Environmental isolates were cultured in the presence of sucralose looking for potential sucralose metabolism or growth acceleration responses. Sucralose was found to be nonnutritive and demonstrated bacteriostatic effects on all six isolates. This growth inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of sucralose exposure, and the amount of the growth inhibition appeared to be species-specific. The bacteriostatic effect may be due to a decrease in sucrose uptake by bacteria exposed to sucralose. We have determined that sucralose inhibits invertase and sucrose permease. These enzymes cannot catalyze hydrolysis or be effective in transmembrane transport of the sugar substitute. Current environmental concentrations should not have much of an effect on environmental bacteria since the bacteriostatic effect seems to be consecration based; however, as sucralose accumulates in the environment, we must consider it a contaminant, especially for microenvironments.

  7. GAME LOCATION AND TEAM QUALITY EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE PROFILES IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lago-Peñas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i variables related to goals scored; (ii variables related to offense and (iii variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U and multivariate (discriminant analysis analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form

  8. Enhancing the effectiveness of team debriefings in medical simulation: more best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Zajac, Stephanie; Gregory, Megan; Sonesh, Shirley C; Salas, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Teamwork is a vital component of optimal patient care. In both clinical settings and medical education, a variety of approaches are used for the development of teamwork skills. Yet, for team members to receive the full educational benefit of these experiential learning opportunities, postsimulation feedback regarding the team's performance must be incorporated. Debriefings are among the most widely used form of feedback regarding team performance. A team debriefing is a facilitated or guided dialogue that takes place between team members following an action period to review and reflect on team performance. Team members discuss their perceptions of what occurred, why it occurred, and how they can enhance their performance. Simulation debriefing allows for greater control and planning than are logistically feasible for on-the-job performance. It is also unique in that facilitators of simulation-based training are generally individuals external to the team, whereas debriefing on the job is commonly led by an internal team member or conducted without a specified facilitator. Consequently, there is greater opportunity for selecting and training facilitators for team simulation events. Thirteen Best Practices: The 13 best practices, extracted from existing training and debriefing research, are organized under three general categories: (1) preparing for debriefing, (2) facilitator responsibilities during debriefing, and (3) considerations for debriefing content. For each best practice, considerations and practical implications are provided to facilitate the implementation of the recommended practices. The 13 best practices presented in this article should help health care organizations by guiding team simulation administrators, self-directed medical teams, and debriefing facilitators in the optimization of debriefing to support learning for all team members.

  9. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  10. A literature review: factors that impact on nurses' effective use of the Medical Emergency Team (MET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa; King, Lindy; Wilson, Christine

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this literature review is to identify factors, both positive and negative, that impact on nurses' effective use of the Medical Emergency Team (MET) in acute care settings. Outcomes for patients are often dependent on nurses' ability to identify and respond to signs of increasing illness and initiate medical intervention. In an attempt to improve patient outcomes, many acute hospitals have implemented a rapid response system known as the Medical Emergency Team (MET) which has improved management of critically ill ward patients. Subsequent research has indicated that the MET system continues to be underused by nurses. A comprehensive thematic literature review. The review was undertaken using key words and the electronic databases of Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), OVID/MEDLINE, Blackwell Synergy, Science Direct and Informit. Fifteen primary research reports were relevant and included in the review. Five major themes emerged from the analysis of the literature as the major factors effecting nurses' use of the MET system. They were: education on the MET, expertise, support by medical and nursing staff, nurses' familiarity with and advocacy for the patient and nurses' workload. Ongoing education on all aspects of the MET system is recommended for nursing, medical and MET staff. Bringing MET education into undergraduate programs to prepare new graduates entering the workforce to care for acutely ill patients is also strongly recommended. Further research is also needed to determine other influences on MET activation. Relevance to clinical practice. Strategies that will assist nurses to use the MET system more effectively include recruitment and retention of adequate numbers of permanent skilled staff thereby increasing familiarity with and advocacy for the patient. Junior doctors and nurses should be encouraged to attend ward MET calls to gain skills in management of acutely ill patients.

  11. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne

    2017-01-01

    interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited....... Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm...

  12. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  13. Designing a more efficient, effective and safe Medical Emergency Team (MET service using data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bergmeir

    Full Text Available Hospitals have seen a rise in Medical Emergency Team (MET reviews. We hypothesised that the commonest MET calls result in similar treatments. Our aim was to design a pre-emptive management algorithm that allowed direct institution of treatment to patients without having to wait for attendance of the MET team and to model its potential impact on MET call incidence and patient outcomes.Data was extracted for all MET calls from the hospital database. Association rule data mining techniques were used to identify the most common combinations of MET call causes, outcomes and therapies.There were 13,656 MET calls during the 34-month study period in 7936 patients. The most common MET call was for hypotension [31%, (2459/7936]. These MET calls were strongly associated with the immediate administration of intra-venous fluid (70% [1714/2459] v 13% [739/5477] p<0.001, unless the patient was located on a respiratory ward (adjusted OR 0.41 [95%CI 0.25-0.67] p<0.001, had a cardiac cause for admission (adjusted OR 0.61 [95%CI 0.50-0.75] p<0.001 or was under the care of the heart failure team (adjusted OR 0.29 [95%CI 0.19-0.42] p<0.001. Modelling the effect of a pre-emptive management algorithm for immediate fluid administration without MET activation on data from a test period of 24 months following the study period, suggested it would lead to a 68.7% (2541/3697 reduction in MET calls for hypotension and a 19.6% (2541/12938 reduction in total METs without adverse effects on patients.Routinely collected data and analytic techniques can be used to develop a pre-emptive management algorithm to administer intravenous fluid therapy to a specific group of hypotensive patients without the need to initiate a MET call. This could both lead to earlier treatment for the patient and less total MET calls.

  14. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  15. Evaluation of a mental health liaison team. Part 2: the themes and their effect on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Kelly, Shona; Ismail, Mubarak; Breckon, Jeff

    2017-12-08

    Hospitals and emergency departments (EDs) are caring for increasing numbers of patients who present with underlying mental health issues. Managing these patients can be challenging for clinical staff who often lack the specialist knowledge and skills required to provide appropriate care. This article, part two of two on the evaluation of a newly formed mental health liaison team (MHLT) working in a general hospital, focuses on the perceptions and experiences of the MHLT participants, and explores three sub-themes derived from the interview data. The article considers the effect of these themes on practice, and the relationship between MHLT members and staff in EDs and the wider hospital. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  16. SPS environmental effects on the upper atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The ionospheric effects and associated environmental impacts which may be produced during the construction and operation of a solar power satellite system are reviewed. Propellant emissions from heavy lift-launch vehicles are predicted to cause widespread ionospheric depletions in electron and ion densities. Collisional damping of the microwave power beam in the lower ionosphere can significantly enhance the local free electron temperatures. Thermal self-focusing of the power beam in the ionosphere may excite variations in the beam power-flux density and create large-scale field-aligned electron density irregularities. These large-scale irregularities may also trigger the formation of small-scale plasma striations. Ionospheric modifications can lead to the development of potentially serious telecommunications and climate impacts. A comprehensive research program is being conducted to understand the physical interactions driving these ionospheric effects and to determine the scope and magnitude of the associated environmental impacts.

  17. Differential effects of professional leaders on health care teams in chronic disease management groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Disch, Joanne; White, Katie M; Powell, Adam; Rector, Thomas S; Sahay, Anju; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Leadership by health care professionals is likely to vary because of differences in the social contexts within which they are situated, socialization processes and societal expectations, education and training, and the way their professions define and operationalize key concepts such as teamwork, collaboration, and partnership. This research examines the effect of the nurse and physician leaders on interdependence and encounter preparedness in chronic disease management practice groups. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of complementary leadership by nurses and physicians involved in jointly producing a health care service on care team functioning. The design is a retrospective observational study based on survey data. The unit of analysis is heart failure care groups in U.S. Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Survey and administrative data were collected in 2009 from 68 Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Key variables include nurse and physician leadership, interdependence, psychological safety, coordination, and encounter preparedness. Reliability and validity of survey measures were assessed with exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach alphas. Multivariate analyses tested hypotheses. Professional leadership by nurses and physicians is related to encounter preparedness by different paths. Nurse leadership is associated with greater team interdependence, and interdependence is positively associated with respect. Physician leadership is positively associated with greater psychological safety, respect, and shared goals but is not associated with interdependence. Respect is associated with involvement in learning activities, and shared goals are associated with coordination. Coordination and involvement in learning activities are positively associated with encounter preparedness. By focusing on increasing interdependence and a constructive climate, nurse and physician leaders have the opportunity to increase care coordination

  18. Greater Effect of East versus West Travel on Jet Lag, Sleep, and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P < 0.001). On day 2, significantly slower 20-m sprint times were detected in EAST compared with WEST (P = 0.03), with large effect sizes (ES) also indicating a greater reduction in YYIR1 distance in EAST compared with WEST (d = 1.06). Mean sleep onset and offset were significantly later and mean time in bed and sleep duration were significantly reduced across the 4 d in EAST compared with BASE and WEST (P < 0.05). Lastly, mean jet lag, fatigue, and motivation ratings across the 4 d were significantly worse in EAST compared with BASE and WEST (P < 0.05) and WEST compared with BASE (P < 0.05). Long-haul transmeridian travel can impede team sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.

  19. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  20. Effectiveness of team-based learning in microbiology: a non-randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakuni, Sheetal U; Nagamoti, Jyoti M; Mallapur, Maheshwar D

    2015-01-01

    As per the present curriculum in India, pre- and paraclinical subjects are taught away from the clinical setting. Therefore, students fail to connect the subject taught through didactic lectures to the clinical setting. Team-based learning (TBL) can be used in conjunction with lectures to teach applied microbiology. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TBL sessions in conjunction with lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology, among Indian students. All students enrolled in the study were taught systemic bacteriology through lectures. Of the 88 students, 49 students (study group) attended TBL sessions on the topics of diarrhea, fever of unknown origin, urinary tract infection and 39 students (control group) preferred self-study on the topics without attending the TBL sessions. Students' feedback on their perception on TBL sessions was collected using a questionnaire of 10 items. The performance of both the groups on the pre- and post-test were analyzed using unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Gender-wise performance within the teams was analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS version 12. The TBL group outperformed the self-study group on the post-test [F 1 = 5.521, P = 0.021]. Female students as a whole performed better than males on the pre-test, scoring higher within both the TBL and self-study groups. Male students in the TBL group performed significantly better on the post-test than female students who participated in TBL sessions (P = 0.013). Students generally enjoyed and appreciated the TBL sessions. TBL sessions can be used judiciously in combination with the lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology in India. In this study, TBL improved the performance of male students over self-study, but performance for female students following TBL was no better than when they simply studied by themselves.

  1. What is optimal timing for trauma team alerts? A retrospective observational study of alert timing effects on the initial management of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebo, Borge; Seim, Andreas; Vinjevoll, Ole-Petter; Uleberg, Oddvar

    2012-01-01

    Trauma teams improve the initial management of trauma patients. Optimal timing of trauma alerts could improve team preparedness and performance while also limiting adverse ripple effects throughout the hospital. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how timing of trauma team activation and notification affects initial in-hospital management of trauma patients. Data from a single hospital trauma care quality registry were matched with data from a trauma team alert log. The time from patient arrival to chest X-ray, and the emergency department length of stay were compared with the timing of trauma team activations and whether or not trauma team members received a preactivation notification. In 2009, the trauma team was activated 352 times; 269 times met the inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant differences in time to chest X-ray for differently timed trauma team activations (P = 0.003). Median time to chest X-ray for teams activated 15-20 minutes prearrival was 5 minutes, and 8 minutes for teams activated <5 minutes before patient arrival. Timing had no effect on length of stay in the emergency department (P = 0.694). We found no effect of preactivation notification on time to chest X-ray (P = 0.474) or length of stay (P = 0.684). Proactive trauma team activation improved the initial management of trauma patients. Trauma teams should be activated prior to patient arrival.

  2. Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Tanguay, Robert L; Anderson, Kim A

    2012-12-01

    Biological Response Indicator Devices Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES) is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the environment, were deployed in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund site in Portland, OR, USA. Six sampling events were conducted in the summer and fall of 2009 and 2010. Passive sampling device extracts were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and screened for 1,201 chemicals of concern using deconvolution-reporting software. The developmental toxicity of the extracts was analyzed using the embryonic zebrafish bioassay. The BRIDGES tool provided site-specific, temporally resolved information about environmental contaminant mixtures and their toxicity. Multivariate modeling approaches were applied to paired chemical and toxic effects data sets to help unravel chemistry-toxicity associations. Modeling elucidated spatial and temporal trends in PAH concentrations and the toxicity of the samples and identified a subset of PAH analytes that were the most highly correlated with observed toxicity. Although the present study highlights the complexity of discerning specific bioactive compounds in complex mixtures, it demonstrates methods for associating toxic effects with chemical characteristics of environmental samples. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  3. Killer Apps: Developing Novel Applications That Enhance Team Coordination, Communication, and Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buengeler, C.; Klonek, F.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.; Morency, L.-P.; Poppe, R.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Lorentz workshop, “Interdisciplinary Insights into Group and Team Dynamics,” held in Leiden, Netherlands, this article describes how Geeks and Groupies (computer and social scientists) may benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration toward the development of killer apps in team

  4. The Effect of Self-Directed Work Teams on Work Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Doo Hun; Petty, Gregory; Fontan, Johnny; Yoon, Seung Won

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare work ethic of manufacturing machine operators between a self-directed work team and a traditional work team based on four work ethic subscales and identify differences in work ethic based on six demographic factors. The major findings from the study indicated there were significant differences in the work…

  5. Considering diversity: The positive effects of considerate leadership in diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; Greer, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of leader consideration in diverse teams. Based on the categorization-elaboration model, we argue that leader consideration can address the negative group processes that result from categorization processes in diverse teams as well as influence the perceptions of the

  6. An Examination of Leadership Types among Generation Y and Its Impact on Virtual Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C. Matt

    2013-01-01

    The majority of database system development projects end in failure. Reasons that include, the system not being developed on time, the system was developed over budget, and the system developed did not meet the planned project's criteria. These failures are compounded by the use of virtual teams which includes problems with team formation, the…

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Style and Media Richness on Commitment to Telework and Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Michael; Kahnweiler, William; Bommer, William

    2003-01-01

    Sternberg's Thinking Style Inventory and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire were completed by 261 of 552 teleworkers in virtual teams. Cognitive styles and types of media (rich/lean) were associated with commitment to telework and to the team. Results have implications for staff development and the design of telework. (Contains 74…

  8. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  9. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…

  10. Effects of Framing and Team Assisted Individualised Instructional Strategies on Senior Secondary School Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relative effectiveness of framing and team assisted individualised (TAI) instructional strategies on the attitudes toward mathematics of 350 senior secondary school year two Nigerian students. The moderating effects of gender and style of categorisation were also examined. The study adopted pre-test and post-test control…

  11. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students....... A rigorous coding and inductive analysis process was undertaken. Pattern and relationship coding were used to reveal underlying factors, which helped to unveil important similarities and differences between student in different teams’ project progress and perception of learning. Results: When students...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily...

  12. Putting the "Team" in the Fine Arts Team: An Application of Business Management Team Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses current challenges to the idea of teamwork in fine arts teams, redefines the terms team and collaboration using a business management perspective, discusses the success of effective teams in the business world and the characteristics of those teams, and proposes the implementation of the business model of…

  13. Beautiful Teams Inspiring and Cautionary Tales from Veteran Team Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    What's it like to work on a great software development team facing an impossible problem? How do you build an effective team? Beautiful Teams takes you behind the scenes with some of the most interesting teams in software engineering history. You'll learn from veteran team leaders' successes and failures, told through a series of engaging personal stories -- and interviews -- by leading programmers, architects, project managers, and thought leaders.

  14. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  15. School Indoor Environmental Quality Assessments and Interventions: Benefits of Effective Partnerships in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.; Kim, Janice; Smorodinsky, Svetlana

    2002-07-01

    Public, private, government, and university stakeholders have focused increasing attention on children's environmental health. Priority areas have been healthy school environments including indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ); susceptibilities of children to environmental factors and associated illness; and, understanding exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents. As multidisciplinary teams, studies and intervention demonstrations in California public schools were conducted. A common theme among them was a ''partnership,'' the collaboration between stakeholders from the aforementioned sectors. Federal funding and local bond measures for planning, maintenance, and modernization of school facilities have recently been authorized. Therefore, beneficial ''partnerships'' should be established to conduct needed IEQ, environmental health, and productivity research, development and demonstration. This commentary describes benefits for stakeholders and five strategies for future effective collaborations.

  16. Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning in teaching Medical Genetics to Medical Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Akmal Shareela

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the experience of both learners and a teacher during a team-based learning (TBL) session. TBL involves active learning that allows medical students to utilise their visual, auditory, writing and kinetic learning styles in order to strengthen their knowledge and retain it for longer, which is important with regard to applying basic sciences in clinical settings. This pilot study explored the effectiveness of TBL in learning medical genetics, and its potential to replace conventional lectures. First-year medical students (n = 194) studying at Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia, during 2014/2015 were selected to participate in this study. The topic of 'Mutation and Mutation Analysis' was selected, and the principles of TBL were adhered to during the study. It was found that the students' performance in a group readiness test was better than in individual readiness tests. The effectiveness of TBL was further shown in the examination, during which the marks obtained were tremendously improved. Collective commentaries from both the learners and the teacher recommended TBL as another useful tool in learning medical genetics. Implementation strategies should be advanced for the benefit of future learners and teachers.

  17. Effects of team-based learning on self-regulated online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alice A

    2015-04-10

    Online learning requires higher levels of self-regulation in order to achieve optimal learning outcomes. As nursing education moves further into the blended and online learning venue, new teaching/learning strategies will be required to develop and enhance self-regulated learning skills in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) with traditional instructor-led (IL) learning, on self-regulated online learning outcomes, in a blended undergraduate research and evidence-based practice course. The nonrandomized sample consisted of 98 students enrolled in the IL control group and 86 students enrolled in the TBL intervention group. The percentage of total possible online viewing time was used as the measure of self-regulated online learning activity. The TBL group demonstrated a significantly higher percentage (p learning activities than the IL control group. The TBL group scored significantly higher on the course examinations (p = 0.003). The findings indicate that TBL is an effective instructional strategy that can be used to achieve the essential outcomes of baccalaureate nursing education by increasing self-regulated learning capabilities in nursing students.

  18. Effects of multidisciplinary team on emergency care for colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Ming; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Yueh-Hsin; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The literature describing the effectiveness of multidisciplinary team (MDT) for the care of colorectal cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effects of MDT care on the quality of colorectal cancer treatment, and the emergency department visit number was used as an indicator. In total, 45,418 patients newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (2005–2009) were included. Propensity score matching with a ratio of 1:3 was adopted to reduce differences in characteristics between MDT care participants and non-MDT care participants. After matching, 3039 participation MDT care groups and 9117 nonparticipation groups were included and analyzed with χ2 and t tests, determine the distribution was similar. Without the control of variables, the percentage difference between participation and nonparticipation MDT care groups in utilization of emergency care was 0.03% (P > .05). The logistic regression model involving controlled variables demonstrated that odds ratio (OR) by probability of emergency care used for participation MDT care groups within a year of cancer diagnosis was less than that for nonparticipation (OR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.96). Large amount data were used and confirmed significant benefits of MDT in colorectal cancer care. PMID:28591052

  19. Fate and toxic effects of environmental stressors: environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Han-Qing; Henry, Theodore B; Sayler, Gary S

    2015-12-01

    The potential for toxicants to harm organisms in the environment is influenced by the physicochemistry of the substances and their environmental behaviors and transformation within ecosystems. This special issue is composed of 20 papers that report on studies which have investigated the fate and toxicity of various toxicants including engineered nanoparticles, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, antibiotics, pathogens, heavy metals, and agricultural nutrients. The environmental transformations of these substances and how these processes affect their toxicity are emphasized. This paper highlights the important findings and perspectives of the selected papers in this special edition, with an aim of providing insights into full-scale evaluation on the toxicity of various contaminants that exist in ecosystems. General suggestions are provided for the future directions of toxicological research.

  20. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Team. Journal Home > About the Journal > Editorial Team. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editors. admin · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  1. Aditya Team

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. Aditya Team. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 55 Issue 5-6 November-December 2000 pp 727-732 Contributed Papers. Tokamak Plasmas : Mirnov coil data analysis for tokamak ADITYA · D Raju R Jha P K Kaw S K Mattoo Y C Saxena Aditya Team.

  2. Team Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to review current developments in team teaching and to assess its potential in the Calgary, Alberta, schools. An investigation into team teaching situations in schools in the eastern half of the United States and Canada revealed characteristics common to successful programs (e.g., charismatic leadership and innovative…

  3. Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Cha, Sandra E

    2007-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such that higher power distance teams and more collectivistic teams exhibited stronger positive effects of transformational leadership on team potency. The model was supported by data in both Hong Kong and the United States, which suggests a convergence in how teams function in the East and West and highlights the importance of team values.

  4. Gender diversity: how can we facilitate its positive effects on teams?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seong, Jee Young; Hong, Doo-Seung

    2013-01-01

    .... We hypothesized, based on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, that cooperative group norms and transformational leadership would moderate the relationship between gender diversity and team commitment...

  5. What is the effect of a shoulder-strengthening program to prevent shoulder pain among junior female team handball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommervold, Maria; Østerås, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    Excessively high stresses are applied to the shoulder joint of handball players, mainly caused by overhead throwing. Shoulder pain is a significant problem among junior female team handball players and both male and female top-level team handball players in Norway. A randomized selection was performed among the best female junior teams (J 16) in the Trøndelag region of Norway in the 2014-2015 season. Three teams were randomized to the intervention group and three teams to the control group. Players in the intervention group (n=53) participated in a seven-month, three-times-a-week shoulder-muscle strength-training program, while those in the control group (n=53) participated in a comparable handball training, but did not conduct any specific strength training during the season. A strength-training program had no effect on the prevention of shoulder pain. Overall, the players reported shoulder pain, but graded the pain low on visual analog scale (VAS). Both the intervention group and the control group reported pain under 1 on VAS at baseline and posttest, and there was no significant difference within or between the groups when it came to the intensity of pain reported on VAS. A significant difference (phandball. The intervention group was significantly stronger (phandball players.

  6. The use and effect of social capital in new venture creation: Solo entrepreneurs vs. new venture teams

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Stützer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the use of social capital in the venture creation process. We compare solo entrepreneurs (n=182) and new venture teams (n=274) from a random sample of start-ups in innovative industries and test social capital use and its effects on firm performance. Our results reveal that solo entrepreneurs and new venture teams do not differ in their degree of use of social capital. However, there are differences in the determinants of social capital use in both groups. We find that wea...

  7. Effects of Short Term Camp Periods on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Parameters in Ice Hockey National Team Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eler, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted for determining the effects of trainings, applied to athletes during short term camp period, on their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Measurements were made by the participation of 28 volunteer male ice hockey national team players. During the 15-day camp period, 10-minute running and stretching for warming and then…

  8. Classwide Student Tutoring Teams: The Effects of Peer-Mediated Instruction on the Academic Performance of Secondary Mainstreamed Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheady, Larry; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study examined the effects of classwide peer tutoring (involving team assignment, a game format, contingent point rewards, and immediate error correction) on the academic performance of mildly handicapped and nondisabled students (n=91) in ninth- and tenth-grade math classes. Group and individual results indicated significant improvement in…

  9. Effect of Interventions on Potential, Modifiable Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is

  10. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and Students' Motivation toward Physics Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…

  11. Peer led team learning in introductory biology: effects on peer leader critical thinking skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Snyder

    Full Text Available This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.

  12. Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311

  13. Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors - the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals - and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, “firewalls” and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy.

  14. Managing multicultural teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne; Behfar, Kristin; Kern, Mary C

    2006-11-01

    Multicultural teams offer a number of advantages to international firms, including deep knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, and 24-hour work rotations. But those advantages may be outweighed by problems stemming from cultural differences, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of a team or even bring itto a stalemate. How can managers best cope with culture-based challenges? The authors conducted in-depth interviews with managers and members of multicultural teams from all over the world. Drawing on their extensive research on dispute resolution and teamwork and those interviews, they identify four problem categories that can create barriers to a team's success: direct versus indirect communication, trouble with accents and fluency, differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and conflicting norms for decision making. If a manager--or a team member--can pinpoint the root cause of the problem, he or she is likelier to select an appropriate strategy for solving it. The most successful teams and managers, the authors found, dealt with multicultural challenges in one of four ways: adaptation (acknowledging cultural gaps openly and working around them), structural intervention (changing the shape or makeup of the team), managerial intervention (setting norms early or bringing in a higher-level manager), and exit (removing a team member when other options have failed). Which strategy is best depends on the particular circumstances--and each has potential complications. In general, though, managers who intervene early and set norms; teams and managers who try to engage everyone on the team; and teams that can see challenges as stemming from culture, not personality, succeed in solving culture-based problems with good humor and creativity. They are the likeliest to harvest the benefits inherent in multicultural teams.

  15. The leadership effectiveness of multiple leaders : How do they effectively guide their team?

    OpenAIRE

    外浦, 千加; 坂田, 桐子; 早瀬, 良

    2012-01-01

    Whereas many groups have formal or appointed sub-leaders other than their formal leaders, researchers have focused on the effectiveness of a single leader with a few exception (Kouguchi et al., 2002; Mehra et al., 2006). We examined how leadership behavior by a leader (L) and sub-leader (SL) is effective for the group. Leadership behavior was measured using the framework of PM theory (Misumi, 1984), which measures a leader's degree of task-performance behavior (hereinafter called P) and group...

  16. Evaluation of cooling tower environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, G.W.; Sopocy, D.M.

    1974-11-01

    Cooling towers interact with the environment through the discharge of blowdown to a lake or stream and through the emission of moisture and warmed air to the atmosphere. The environmental effects of these interactions can be evaluated by measuring various physical and chemical properties of the cooling system and of the ambient meteorology and hydrology. Blowdown parameters used in this evaluation are temperature, pH, flow rate, total dissolved solids, biocide, and inhibitor concentrations. In addition to meteorological parameters, the atmospheric parameters which require evaluation include fogging, drift, salt deposition, and moist plume characteristics. The instrumentation needs for monitoring these parameters are discussed with respect to current status. Concepts and instrumentation requiring additional development are also cited. Instrumentation required for the measurement of meteorology, humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric temperature and stability, height of the mixed layer, fogging, visibility, and drift are included. Fog dispersal techniques are mentioned. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  17. Effects of a strength-training program for shoulder complaint prevention in female team handball athletes. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, H; Sommervold, M; Skjølberg, A

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential for preventing the prevalence of shoulder complaints in handball players, particularly younger players. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate shoulder-strengthening program on shoulder complaints during a season of team handball. Seven teams, consisting of 15 to 20 players each, were randomized into two groups throughout their competition seasons. Three teams (N.=53) participated in a six-month, three-times-a-week shoulder-muscle strength-training program while four teams (N.=56) participated in a comparable handball training program but did not conduct any specific upper-body strength training. Effects of this strength-training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and post-training data from a survey on shoulder complaints based on a self-report questionnaire, and from maximal strength test data. Overall, the shoulder strength-training showed positive effects on shoulder complaints prevalence; in the exercise group, the prevalence of players with shoulder pain decreased from 34 to 11%, while the control group increased the prevalence from 23 to 36%. The exercise group increased the shoulder-muscle strength significantly, compared to the control group. By increasing shoulder-muscle strength, this pilot program potentially decreases the risk for shoulder complaints in handball athletes.

  18. Diverse Teams Drive Leadership Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Hjortlund Andersen, Lotte

    New research from ISS Denmark shows that leading diverse teams strengthens leaders’ competencies within communication, relationship building and talent development and ensures inclusion. This has a reinforcing effect as the better the leadership, the better the heterogeneous team will function....

  19. What is optimal timing for trauma team alerts? A retrospective observational study of alert timing effects on the initial management of trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillebo B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Borge Lillebo,1 Andreas Seim,2 Ole-Petter Vinjevoll,3 Oddvar Uleberg31Norwegian EHR Research Centre, Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Computer and Information Science, Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Anaesthesia and Emergency Medicine, St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Trauma teams improve the initial management of trauma patients. Optimal timing of trauma alerts could improve team preparedness and performance while also limiting adverse ripple effects throughout the hospital. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how timing of trauma team activation and notification affects initial in-hospital management of trauma patients.Methods: Data from a single hospital trauma care quality registry were matched with data from a trauma team alert log. The time from patient arrival to chest X-ray, and the emergency department length of stay were compared with the timing of trauma team activations and whether or not trauma team members received a preactivation notification.Results: In 2009, the trauma team was activated 352 times; 269 times met the inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant differences in time to chest X-ray for differently timed trauma team activations (P = 0.003. Median time to chest X-ray for teams activated 15–20 minutes prearrival was 5 minutes, and 8 minutes for teams activated <5 minutes before patient arrival. Timing had no effect on length of stay in the emergency department (P = 0.694. We found no effect of preactivation notification on time to chest X-ray (P = 0.474 or length of stay (P = 0.684.Conclusion: Proactive trauma team activation improved the initial management of trauma patients. Trauma teams should be activated prior to patient arrival.Keywords: emergency medical service communication systems

  20. Evaluating Effect of Objectives, Obstacles, Drivers, Team Dynamics and Organizational Support on ICT Effectiveness by Fuzzy DEMATEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Keramati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to different effects of ICT on varied aspects of performing the duties in organizations, governments have been intending to use ICT in the recent years very dramatically. The significant issue to which we should pay attention is the using of ICT without directing attention towards the mutual effects of different ICT domains shall be resulted in malfunction and inefficiency of organizations in carrying out their tasks. Therefore, the present research tried to develop a systematic structure in ICT domain and analyze the various ICT domains in order to identify the penetrating and penetrated factors (cause and effect. In doing so, at the present research firstly by the usage of other researchers' results and achievements, it was attempted to specify the different ICT domains including objectives, obstacles, drivers, team dynamics and organizational support and then another elements so-called ICT effectiveness was added in order to study the effect of above-mentioned factors on ICT effectiveness. Then, standard fuzzy DEMATEL technique questionnaire was distributed among 35 persons of experts working in ICT and IT fields to gather required information and data. After gathering required data and information, they were analyzed through DEMATEL techniques in fuzzy states, respectively. The results obtained from the DEMATEL technique in fuzzy state reveal that in ICT domain, the objectives were determined as the most penetrating elements into other elements of ICT domain and the drivers were the most penetrable element in ICT domain too.

  1. Effective management of patients with diabetes foot ulcers: outcomes of an Interprofessional Diabetes Foot Ulcer Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrin, Rajna; Houghton, Pamela E; Thompson, G William

    2015-08-01

    A longitudinal observational study on a convenience sample was conducted between 4 January and 31 December of 2010 to evaluate clinical outcomes that occur when a new Interprofessional Diabetes Foot Ulcer Team (IPDFUT) helps in the management of diabetes-related foot ulcers (DFUs) in patients living in a small urban community in Ontario, Canada. Eighty-three patients presented to the IPDFUT with 114 DFUs of average duration of 19·5 ± 2·7 weeks. Patients were 58·4 ± 1·4 years of age and 90% had type 2 diabetes, HbA1c of 8·3 ± 2·0%, with an average diabetes duration of 22·3 ± 3·4 years; in 69% of patients, 78 DFUs healed in an average duration of 7·4 ± 0·7 weeks, requiring an average of 3·8 clinic visits. Amputation of a toe led to healing in three patients (4%) and one patient required a below-knee amputation. Six patients died and three withdrew. Adding a skilled IPDFUT that is trained to work together resulted in improved healing outcomes. The rate of healing, proportion of wounds closed and complication rate were similar if not better than the results published previously in Canada and around the world. The IPDFUT appears to be a successful model of care and could be used as a template to provide effective community care to the patients with DFU in Ontario, Canada. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mission possible: Building an effective business continuity team in seven steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David

    2016-01-01

    Several books and studies exist on the creation, development and benefits of high-performing teams; many others offer insights into the business continuity management (BCM) discipline, crisis response and planning. Very rarely, however, do they cover both. This paper will explore the seven main development areas that helped build the foundation for a successful and high-performing BCM team in the Australian Taxation Office. Practical, actionable advice will be provided, recognising that the task for those starting out can be quite daunting and complex.

  3. Effectiveness of the attack and the throw of the first four teams in the Men's Handball Games ODESUR 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González Ramírez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyse the attack actions effectiveness for the first four teams qualified for male team Handball during South American Games 2014 (ODESUR and to compare them with de main international tournaments (Olympics games, World and European Championships. No previous records of this kind of studies had been found in this particular competition of the Olympics classification round. Patterns of observational methodology were followed. Results showed that in ODESUR games, differences between winners and losers where observed in the number of attack endings with throws and ball loses. No meaningful differences where showed in effectiveness throwing. The effectiveness attack and throwing levels were less than in other elite tournaments

  4. Effects of Two Different Training Periodization Models on Physical and Physiological Aspects of Elite Female Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, Carmen; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Manchado, C, Cortell-Tormo, JM, and Tortosa-Martínez, J. Effects of two different training periodization models on physical and physiological aspects of elite female team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 280-287, 2018-The aim of this study was to compare training-induced changes in selected physiological and physical team handball performance factors after 2 training periodization models: traditional periodization (TP) vs. block periodization (BP). Eleven female team handball players who played over 2 consecutive seasons for a Spanish first league team were assessed twice per season during a training cycle. On each occasion, participants completed anthropometric, maximal strength, and lower-body power assessments. In addition, incremental tests to determine maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), sprint- and sport-specific throwing velocity tests were performed. Block periodization group experienced significantly greater improvements than TP on squat jump (5.97%; p handball performance factors in high level female handball players.

  5. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ppsychological well-being, general quality of life, and health-related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. What is the effect of a shoulder-strengthening program to prevent shoulder pain among junior female team handball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommervold M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Sommervold, Håvard Østerås Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Background: Excessively high stresses are applied to the shoulder joint of handball players, mainly caused by overhead throwing. Shoulder pain is a significant problem among junior female team handball players and both male and female top-level team handball players in Norway.Method: A randomized selection was performed among the best female junior teams (J 16 in the Trøndelag region of Norway in the 2014–2015 season. Three teams were randomized to the intervention group and three teams to the control group. Players in the intervention group (n=53 participated in a seven-month, three-times-a-week shoulder-muscle strength-training program, while those in the control group (n=53 participated in a comparable handball training, but did not conduct any specific strength training during the season. Results: A strength-training program had no effect on the prevention of shoulder pain. Overall, the players reported shoulder pain, but graded the pain low on visual analog scale (VAS. Both the intervention group and the control group reported pain under 1 on VAS at baseline and posttest, and there was no significant difference within or between the groups when it came to the intensity of pain reported on VAS. A significant difference (p<0.048 was found between the groups on the sport-specific part of the quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH form, but it did not fulfill the minimal demand to change and the players scored it low, something that indicates little functional problems when it comes to team handball. The intervention group was significantly stronger (p<0.008 on the push-ups test compared to the control group on the posttest. The intervention group increased the number of push-ups from 3.1 to 6.4, while the control group went from 2.3 to 3.6. Aside from this, there were no

  7. The effect of milk on recovery from repeat-sprint cycling in female team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Paula; Lawlor, Michael J; Hills, Frank A; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma J; Cockburn, Emma

    2017-10-03

    The consumption of milk post-eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of post-exercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised cross-over investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500ml of milk (MILK) or 500ml of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development (RFD), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20m sprint), muscle soreness and tiredness, serum creatine kinase (CK), (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and measures of oxidative stress (protein carbonyls (PC) and GSH:GSSG (oxidized glutathione:reduced glutathione) ratio) were determined pre-, 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. MILK had a possible beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180○/s) from baseline to 24h (3.2±7.8% v -6.2±7.5%, MILK v CHO) and a possible beneficial effect in minimising soreness (baseline-48h; baseline-72h) and tiredness (baseline-24h; baseline-72h). There was no change in oxidative stress following the exercise protocol, though a likely benefit of milk was observed for GSH:GSSH ratio at baseline-24h (0.369 x/÷ 1.89, 1.103 x/÷ 3.96, MILK v CHO). MILK had an unclear effect on all other variables. Consumption of 500ml milk post-repeat sprint cycling had little to no benefit in minimising losses in peak torque, or minimising increases in soreness and tiredness and had no effect on serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation.

  8. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    would reduce the food N footprint by ~60%. Such a reduction would result in significant lessening of the impacts of societal use of food resources on both ecosystem and human health. The personal food nitrogen footprints will then be linked to environmental effects based on the N species of the nitrogen footprint. Environmental effects considered will include global warming, air quality, drinking water quality, eutrophication, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Each of the scenarios will be scaled up to represent the full population of the United States, and the total national nitrogen reductions and the impact on environmental effects will be reported. The results of this analysis will help us begin to solve the human dimension of the nitrogen challenge by showing how different personal choices impact nitrogen losses and the environment. This information can then educate and empower consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices.

  9. The Effectiveness of Information Systems Teams as Change Agents in the Implementation of Business Process Reengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Changes to information systems and technology (IS/IT) are happening faster than ever before. A literature review suggested within business process reengineering (BPR) there is limited information on what an IS/IT team could do to reduce resistance to change and increase user acceptance. The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to explore…

  10. Project Probes Digital Media's Effect on Ethics: Howard Gardner Leads Team Studying Youths' Web Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Noted Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner is leading a team studying the social and ethical norms of young people on the Web. Known as the "GoodPlay Project," the study is being financed with a grant from the Chicago-based Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. What researchers hope to do through the project is fill a gap in the burgeoning research…

  11. Effects of a team-based assessment and intervention on patient safety culture in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B; Müller, V; Rochon, J

    2014-01-01

    practices. Conclusions Applied as a team-based instrument to assess safety culture, FraTrix did not lead to measurable improvements in error management. Comparable studies with more positive results had less robust study designs. In future research, validated combined methods to measure safety culture...

  12. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  13. Effect of goal orientation on achievement beliefs, cognition and strategies in team sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G C; Ommundsen, Y

    1996-02-01

    Nicholls' motivation conceptual framework pertaining to achievement goals was used to study the relationship between two implicit goal orientations (task and ego) and achievement cognitions and beliefs about the competitive team sport experience. The study examined the relationship between the goal orientations and purposes of team sport, motivational climate, satisfaction, sources of satisfaction, achievement strategies, and perception of ability in team sport. The subjects were 148 students experienced in team sport at a Norwegian university. The scales were translated specifically for the study and factor analyses used to determine the factor structure of the scales. Seventeen factors along the 6 dimensions emerged, and canonical analysis determined that predominantly task-oriented subjects focused on health-related activities within purposes, preferred mastery climates and focused on mastery-oriented criteria to determine satisfaction and other achievement-related beliefs. In contrast, predominantly ego-oriented subjects focused on status enhancement for purpose, preferred performance-oriented climates and focused on ego-oriented criteria to determine satisfaction and other achievement beliefs.

  14. Jacks-of-all-trades? The effect of balanced skills on team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendahl Huber, L.; Sloof, R.; van Praag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that solo entrepreneurs benefit from having balanced skills: Jacks-of-All-Trades (JATs) are better entrepreneurs than specialists are. Nowadays however, the majority of entrepreneurs start up and run ventures together in teams. In this paper we test whether the

  15. Modified Use of Team-Based Learning for Effective Delivery of Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Nagaswami S.; DeFouw, David O.; Holland, Bart K.

    2008-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional strategy that combines independent out-of-class preparation for in-class discussion in small groups. This approach has been successfully adopted by a number of medical educators. This strategy allowed us to eliminate anatomy lectures and incorporate small-group active learning. Although our strategy is…

  16. Differential effects of individual-linked and team-level status allocation on professionals' job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, H.; Lambooij, M.; Sanders, K.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between status allocation and job performance of professionals. On the basis of Bergery's status characteristics model, it was hypothesized that individual-linked and team-level status allocation would positively affect compliance and contextual job performance.

  17. Team-Based Learning: Moderating Effects of Metacognitive Elaborative Rehearsal and Middle School History Content Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Scammacca, Nancy; Osman, David J.; Hall, Colby; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text (PACT) and similar team-based models directly engage and support students in learning situations that require cognitive elaboration as part of the processing of new information. Elaboration is subject to metacognitive control, as well (Karpicke, "Journal of Experimental…

  18. Effects of Feedback Intervention on Team-Teaching in English Language Classrooms in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, Oluwabunmi Ahoefa; Badaki, Jude Valentine; Kamai, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The typical Nigerian English language classroom has a large class size and lacks qualified language teachers. These factors reflect in the quality and quantity of teaching in the English as a Second Language classroom. Team teaching or co-teaching is an intervention strategy which language teachers can use to address these issues. Not only does…

  19. Understanding the Effect of Audio Communication Delay on Distributed Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    site to rescue the wounded but they came under heavy enemy fire and couldn’t find their way through the maze of city streets. So, an Orion spy...networked studies of individual, team, and human- robot performance. For the present study, each participant will be seated in a separate sound-attenuated

  20. Virtual First Impressions Matter: The Effect of Social Networking Sites on Impression Formation in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of social media has changed the way individuals communicate and collaborate both within and outside the organization. While social media has the potential to change how organizations interact internally, minimal research has examined the impact this media may have within a virtual team environment. This dissertation examines a…

  1. Generating Effective Facilitation Questions for Team-Building/Personal-Challenge Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbei, Ritchie

    2004-01-01

    Team-building/personal-challenge (TB/PC) activities have become popular ways to address students' interpersonal and intrapersonal skills and abilities associated with the affective domain. The outcomes associated with TB/PC activities are often best experienced and learned through the use of indirect methods of instruction. Typically, many…

  2. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  3. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We ensured...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  4. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  5. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  6. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  7. Impact of the team effectiveness design of teaching on critical thinking, self-confidence and learning of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Raoufi, S.; Farhadi, A.; A Sheikhian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Using modern methods of teaching can increase critical thinking skills and confidence of students. This study aims to assess 'team effectiveness design' on critical thinking, confidence and learning of nursing students. Methods: In this study 52 students of the first two semesters of Nursing and Midwifery School of Khoramabad were studied over two semesters. Before and after implementation of teaching method a questionnaire was used to measure student’s confidence, performance a...

  8. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.

  9. environmental policy and the effect of pollution on production

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1980-01-01

    summary: this paper examines how the effect of pollution on production processes is relevant to the formulation of dynamic environmental policy. in the context of a macroeconomic model which includes consumption, production, pollution, and pollution-treatment activities, the reactions of optimal environmental targets to changes in the pollution effect on production are analyzed. furthermore, it is shown how the pollution effect on production conditions the optimal environmental target respons...

  10. Effects of Environmental Stress on Individual Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-15

    DEC 1987 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Environmental Stress on Individual Decision Making 5a...Title of Thesis: Effects of Environmental Stress on Individual Decision Making Name of Candidate: Monica H. Schaeffer Doctor of Philosophy Degree...Psychology Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences ii Abstract Title of Dissertation: Effects of Environmental Stress on Individual

  11. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy.......A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...

  12. Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and Osogbo, Nigeria. ... ANOVA and chi-square test were used to explain the variation in the incidence of environmental effects among the residential densities. Correlation ... Keywords: Effects, Buildings, Lots, Abandonment, Landed Properties, Environment ...

  13. Modeling the Effect of Team Collaboration on the Creation of New Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Feng HSU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To survive global competition in a knowledge economy, respective fields of the enterprise knowledge must be upgraded constantly. There are two means to achieve this goal: inducing new knowledge from outside of the enterprise, or by creating new knowledge from within. The advantages of creating new knowledge from within are to create the core knowledge of the enterprise directly, easily protect commercial confidentialities, especially when the knowledge cannot be acquired from the outside, and since the knowledge is tailor made within enterprise, advantages such as higher applicability and higher compatibility can be achieved. When an enterprise has decided to create new knowledge from within, the following attributes must be contemplated: selecting suitable members, determining the kind of knowledge needed, knowledge complexity, knowledge level, the pressure of time, and the like. This study develops a mathematical model, which utilizes team collaboration in the creation of new knowledge, and helps select a suitable team under limited resources, while achieving the best benefit for knowledge creation. In light of the target knowledge, three knowledge dimensions must be considered concurrently, namely, knowledge complexity, the knowledge level of each employee, and the knowledge correlation between existing knowledge and target knowledge. Furthermore, the model can quantify the contribution of team collaboration on the creation of new knowledge, growth of the new knowledge of members, the time required to increase knowledge, and the total time required to create the target knowledge.

  14. A proof-of-concept implementation of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) role: structural empowerment, role clarity and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Nancye R; Jones, Pam O

    2014-03-01

    The quest for decreased cost of care and improved outcomes has created the need for highly effective clinical roles and teams. This article describes the role of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) within a proof-of-concept implementation of a new care delivery model, the Vanderbilt Anticipatory Care Team. Role clarity is central to both structural empowerment of the APRN and team effectiveness. A modified PeaceHealth Team Development Measure tool measured baseline role clarity as a component of overall team effectiveness. A role description for the unit-based APRN based on a comprehensive assessment of the proof-of-concept unit is provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Model to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Collaborative Online Learning Teams – Self-Disclosure and Social Exchange Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chieh Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative online learning teams (COLTs are teams that are comprised of groups of online students. Accompanying the popularity of online learning, both on campuses and as professional development within many industries, learning in groups has been attracting much attention. However, there is little research constructing intact frameworks to evaluate the effectiveness of COLTs. This study built a framework by incorporating six constructs: self-disclosure, social exchange, trust, cohesion, performance and satisfaction, and validated it by analyzing data from a five-week experiment. The results showed that social exchange had a significant impact on trust, but self-disclosure did not. Trust was significantly related to cohesion and cohesion was significantly related to performance and satisfaction. This study suggests that instructors should incorporate the number of students’ posts into parts of evaluation to facilitate self-disclosure, and to stop “social loafing” behaviors while encouraging social exchange activities.

  16. Collaborative and Bidirectional Feedback Between Students and Clinical Preceptors: Promoting Effective Communication Skills on Health Care Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kara; Chou, Calvin L

    2016-11-01

    Current literature on feedback suggests that clinical preceptors lead feedback conversations that are primarily unidirectional, from preceptor to student. While this approach may promote clinical competency, it does not actively develop students' competency in facilitating feedback discussions and providing feedback across power differentials (ie, from student to preceptor). This latter competency warrants particular attention given its fundamental role in effective health care team communication and its related influence on patient safety. Reframing the feedback process as collaborative and bidirectional, where both preceptors and students provide and receive feedback, maximizes opportunities for role modeling and skills practice in the context of a supportive relationship, thereby enhancing team preparedness. We describe an initiative to introduce these fundamental skills of collaborative, bidirectional feedback in the nurse-midwifery education program at the University of California, San Francisco. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jacob Vorup

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited....... Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm...... levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...

  18. Impact of the team effectiveness design of teaching on critical thinking, self-confidence and learning of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raoufi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using modern methods of teaching can increase critical thinking skills and confidence of students. This study aims to assess 'team effectiveness design' on critical thinking, confidence and learning of nursing students. Methods: In this study 52 students of the first two semesters of Nursing and Midwifery School of Khoramabad were studied over two semesters. Before and after implementation of teaching method a questionnaire was used to measure student’s confidence, performance and critical thinking. Results: In both groups, the mean score of critical thinking after the intervention increased. The score of critical thinking before and after lecture was significantly correlated (P=0.001. The confidence score after conduction of team performance was enhanced. There was no significant relationship between the scores before and after intervention in terms of performance (P=0.5. Test score increase after the intervention (P=0.001 .( Conclusion: Modern methods of teaching, learning and deepening it, is possible through ''team effectiveness design". The method led to the development of critical thinking, increase confidence and satisfaction.

  19. Scoring mode and age-related effects on youth soccer teams' defensive performance during small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carlos Humberto; Duarte, Ricardo; Volossovitch, Anna; Ferreira, António Paulo

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the scoring mode (line goal, double goal or central goal) and age-related effects on the defensive performance of youth soccer players during 4v4 small-sided games (SSGs). Altogether, 16 male players from 2 age groups (U13, n = 8, mean age: 12.61 ± 0.65 years; U15, n = 8, 14.86 ± 0.47 years) were selected as participants. In six independent sessions, participants performed the three SSGs each during 10-min periods. Teams' defensive performance was analysed at every instant ball possession was regained through the variables: ball-recovery type, ball-recovery sector, configuration of play and defence state. Multinomial logistic regression analysis used in this study revealed the following significant main effects of scoring mode and age: (1) line goal (vs. central goal) increased the odds of regaining possession through tackle and in the defensive midfield sector, and decreased the odds of successful interceptions; (2) double goal (vs. central goal) decreased the odds of regaining possession through turnover won and with elongated playing shapes; (3) the probability of regaining possession through interception significantly decreased with age. Moreover, as youth players move forward in age groups, teams tend to structurally evolve from elongated playing shapes to flattened shapes and, at a behavioural level, from defending in depth to more risky flattened configurations. Overall, by manipulating the scoring mode in SSGs, coaches can promote functional and coadaptive behaviours between teams not only in terms of configurations of play, but also on the pitch locations that teams explore to regain possession.

  20. EFFECTS OF CONSECUTIVE BASKETBALL GAMES ON THE GAME-RELATED STATISTICS THAT DISCRIMINATE WINNER AND LOSING TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio J. Ibáñez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that discriminated basketball winning and losing teams in each of the three consecutive games played in a condensed tournament format. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Federation and included game-related statistics from the Under-20 league (2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons. A total of 223 games were analyzed with the following game-related statistics: two and three-point field goal (made and missed, free-throws (made and missed, offensive and defensive rebounds, assists, steals, turnovers, blocks (made and received, fouls committed, ball possessions and offensive rating. Results showed that winning teams in this competition had better values in all game-related statistics, with the exception of three point field goals made, free-throws missed and turnovers (p > 0.05. The main effect of game number was only identified in turnovers, with a statistical significant decrease between the second and third game. No interaction was found in the analysed variables. A discriminant analysis allowed identifying the two-point field goals made, the defensive rebounds and the assists as discriminators between winning and losing teams in all three games. Additionally to these, only the three-point field goals made contributed to discriminate teams in game three, suggesting a moderate effect of fatigue. Coaches may benefit from being aware of this variation in game determinant related statistics and, also, from using offensive and defensive strategies in the third game, allowing to explore or hide the three point field-goals performance

  1. Effectiveness of team-based learning methodology in teaching transfusion medicine to medical undergraduates in third semester: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Neena Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) combines small and large group learning by incorporating multiple small groups in a large group setting. It is a teacher-directed method that encourages student-student interaction. This study compares student learning and teaching satisfaction between conventional lecture and TBL in the subject of pathology. The present study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of TBL method of teaching over the conventional lecture. The present study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, GMERS Medical College and General Hospital, Gotri, Vadodara, Gujarat. The study population comprised 126 students of second-year MBBS, in their third semester of the academic year 2015-2016. "Hemodynamic disorders" were taught by conventional method and "transfusion medicine" by TBL method. Effectiveness of both the methods was assessed. A posttest multiple choice question was conducted at the end of "hemodynamic disorders." Assessment of TBL was based on individual score, team score, and each member's contribution to the success of the team. The individual score and overall score were compared with the posttest score on "hemodynamic disorders." A feedback was taken from the students regarding their experience with TBL. Tukey's multiple comparisons test and ANOVA summary were used to find the significance of scores between didactic and TBL methods. Student feedback was taken using "Student Satisfaction Scale" based on Likert scoring method. The mean of student scores by didactic, Individual Readiness Assurance Test (score "A"), and overall (score "D") was 49.8% (standard deviation [SD]-14.8), 65.6% (SD-10.9), and 65.6% (SD-13.8), respectively. The study showed positive educational outcome in terms of knowledge acquisition, participation and engagement, and team performance with TBL.

  2. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  3. Managing Global Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Every global company’s competitive advantage depends on its ability to coordinate critical resources and information that are spread across different geographical locations. As a result of the increasingly global business environment, many companies are building teams that cross- national borders and / or include members from different countries of origin. Global teams are formed to enhance the efficiency of an organization by making effective use of the diversity or viewpoints.

  4. The Effect of Communication Strategy and Planning Intervention on the Processes and Performance of Course Material Development Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmo Putri, Dewi A.

    2012-01-01

    In most open and distance learning institutions, the development of learning materials, whether in print or electronic form, is created by teams consisting of people with different skills. Team communication has a critical influence on the development of team shared mental models (SMMs) as well as team performance. A review of the literature…

  5. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  6. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  7. Environmental Impact from Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs: Effects of Frequent Stream Classes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossley, Jon P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stewardship is an underlying theme in outdoor education (OE) and environmental education (EE), but maintaining natural areas in a sustainable balance between conservation and preservation requires knowledge about how natural areas respond to anthropogenic disturbance. My five-part study investigated the effects of disturbance on…

  8. Using Teams to Improve Outcomes and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Crider, Nancy Manning

    2017-01-01

    Mastering the use of teams in healthcare organizations can maximize outcomes and optimize the use of resources. Most work in healthcare organizations is done by teams, whether it's the clinical team taking care of patients on a unit, the leadership team accountable for operations of the organization, or a team formed to solve a specific problem, improve quality, or plan an event. Effective teams make organizations successful; ineffective teams can create more problems than they solve. This article describes how to successfully use the power of teams within the healthcare setting, create and develop teams, be a team leader or member, create conditions for team effectiveness and high performance, and provide team training. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  9. Effective Tools for Conflict Resolution in Multicultural Teams in Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videnová, Veronika; Beluský, Martin; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the issue of resolving conflicts within multicultural teams in industrial enterprises. The authors build upon the concept of multiculturalism which seeks for possible ways to enable different cultures to coexist and the means of communication between them. In the introduction, the authors explain the importance of increased attention and interest in the area of multiculturalism. Industrial enterprises nowadays are increasingly aware of this issue as they become more open to different cultures and they are confronted with intensive international migration and previously isolated societies become more pluralistic. As a result of these processes, individuals are more frequently in contact with members of different cultures.

  10. The Effect of Multiprofessional Simulation-Based Obstetric Team Training on Patient-Reported Quality of Care: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijens, Sophie E M; Banga, Franyke R; Fransen, Annemarie F; Pop, Victor J M; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J; Oei, S Guid

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore whether multiprofessional simulation-based obstetric team training improves patient-reported quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth. Multiprofessional teams from a large obstetric collaborative network in the Netherlands were trained in teamwork skills using the principles of crew resource management. Patient-reported quality of care was measured with the validated Pregnancy and Childbirth Questionnaire (PCQ) at 6 weeks postpartum. Before the training, 76 postpartum women (sample I) completed the questionnaire 6 weeks postpartum. Three months after the training, another sample of 68 postpartum women (sample II) completed the questionnaire. In sample II (after the training), the mean (SD) score of 108.9 (10.9) on the PCQ questionnaire was significantly higher than the score of 103.5 (11.6) in sample I (before training) (t = 2.75, P = 0.007). The effect size of the increase in PCQ total score was 0.5. Moreover, the subscales "personal treatment during pregnancy" and "educational information" showed a significant increase after the team training (P training seems to improve patient-reported quality of care. The possibility that this improvement relates to the training is supported by the fact that the items with the largest increase are about the principles of crew resource management, used in the training.

  11. The influence of team members’ personal characteristics on the effectiveness of group management and social stability of organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Chernykh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider issues of organizational management in terms of improving its economic efficiency and interpret personnel risks as potential losses or threats to the economic activities of enterprise. The article focuses on a special group of risks associated with individual characteristics and interpersonal interaction, i. e. social activities of team members within the group. As a rule, organizations use methods of socio-psychological diagnostics at the first step of candidates’ selection to create such an organizational structure that takes into account professional and personal characteristics and competencies of candidates as well as their predisposition to a certain type of activities. The authors consider the problem of candidates’ acceptance or rejection of a certain type of corporate culture prevailing in the enterprise, and at the same time team’s acceptance or rejection of candidates with certain cultural preferences. The second application for social-psychological research techniques, important for management practices, is keeping up the team active state and increasing its effectiveness through its human potential realization. The article presents the results of the study of groups with low social status focusing on their members’ individual characteristics. The authors propose methods to work with team members and groups as a whole that can stabilize social systems and develop techniques for managing personnel risks.

  12. Effect on work ability after team evaluation of functioning regarding pain, self-rated disability, and work ability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard; Littwold-Pöljö, Agneta; Ryhle, Leif; Jansen, Gunilla Brodda

    2010-08-26

    To evaluate the effect of a 1-2 week multiprofessional team assessment, without a real rehabilitation effort, 60 patients suffering from long-standing pain and on long-lasting time on sick leave were studied. A questionnaire concerning their daily activities, quality of life, pain intensity, sick-leave level, and their work state was filled out by all patients before starting the assessment and at a 1-year follow-up. The results from the assessment period and the multiprofessional team decision of the patient's working ability were compared with the actual working rate after 1 year. The follow-up showed a significant reduction of sick leave and a higher level of activity (P work. However, the team evaluation of the patient's work ability did not correlate to predict the actual outcome. The patient's pain intensity, life satisfaction, gender, age, ethnic background, and time absent from work before the start of the evaluation showed no correlation to reduction on time on sickness benefit level. These parameters could not be used as predictors in this study.

  13. Environmental effects of oil spillage on ruralcommunities in Ughelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental effects of oil spillage on ruralcommunities in Ughelli South local government area of Delta State, Nigeria. Z.O. Opafunso, G.A. Apena. Abstract. The study of the environmental effects of oil spillage was carried out in Ughelli South Local Government area of Delta State over a 6 months period (Jan - June, 2000).

  14. Genetic and environmental effects on mortality before age 70 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a familial influence on risk of many diseases and on mortality in general, which, according to studies of twins, is due to a combination of genetic and environmental effects. Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately the genetic...... and environmental effects on rate of dying....

  15. The presence of an Emergency Airway Response Team and its effects on in-hospital Code Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sean O; McClung, Christian D; Sintuu, Chanida; Swadron, Stuart P

    2009-02-01

    The survival rate from in-hospital cardiac arrest due to pulseless electrical activity (PEA)/asystole in our institution was higher than expected (70%). It was the impression of the Emergency Department-led Code Blue Team (CBT) that many of these patients were actually suffering respiratory arrests before their cardiac events. To address this, the facility developed an early intervention team focused on early airway intervention-the Emergency Airway Response Team (EART). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of early intervention in patients during the "pre-Code Blue" period, specifically with regard to airway stabilization. Our hypothesis was that there would be fewer CBT calls (cardiac arrests) due to PEA and asystole and that the survival from these events would decrease. This was a retrospective review of all cardiac arrests responded to by the CBT and EART for a period of 2 years. Charts were reviewed for the initial presenting rhythm (as defined by the Utstein Format) and event survival for the 12-month period immediately before and immediately after the establishment of the EART (Time Periods 1 and 2, respectively). The total number of CBT calls decreased by 15%, return of spontaneous circulation from any rhythm decreased by 9%, and survival to discharge decreased by 8% (p = non-significant). The number of CBT calls specifically for asystole/PEA decreased by 8%. Deaths in hospital were significantly associated with Period 2 (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.28) after adjusting for age, gender, and presenting rhythms. The total number of CBT calls decreased slightly with the creation of the Emergency Airway Response Team. Return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest due to asystole/PEA were significantly decreased, suggesting early intervention may have benefit.

  16. Team designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and give...... and intercultural teams in design and the understanding of design as a process of transformation and information management call for a model with capacity to facilitate both `the what` and `the how` This paper will describe a systemic model of design based on a holistic approach to design developed by the author...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...

  17. Complex watersheds, collaborative teams: Assessing pollutant presence and effects in the San Francisco Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  18. Effect of a vascular access team on central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legemaat, Monique M; Jongerden, Irene P; van Rens, Roland M F P T; Zielman, Marjanne; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2015-05-01

    To review the effect of a vascular access team on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web-of-Science and the Cochrane Library were searched until December 2013. Studies that evaluated the implementation of a vascular access team, and focused on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, were selected. Incidence rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were extracted, as well as information on vascular access team tasks and team composition. The quality of studies was critically appraised using the McMaster tool for quantitative studies. Seven studies involving 136 to 414 participants were included. In general, the implementation of a vascular access team coincided with the implementation of concurrent interventions. All vascular access teams included nurses, and occasionally included physicians. Main tasks included insertion and maintenance of central lines. In all studies, a relative decrease of 45-79% in central line-associated bloodstream infections was reported. A vascular access team is a promising intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. However, level of evidence for effectiveness is low. Future research is required to improve the strength of evidence for vascular access teams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Specialized Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Team in Acute Kidney Injury Patients Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Youn Kyung; Kim, Eun Jin; Park, Kyoung Sook; Han, Seung Gyu; Han, In Mee; Yoon, Chang Yun; Lee, Eunyoung; Joo, Young Su; Kim, Dae Young; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been established for critically ill acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. In addition, some centers consist of a specialized CRRT team (SCT) with physicians and nurses. To our best knowledge, however, ona a few studies have yet been carried out on the superiority of SCT management. Materials and Methods A total of 551 patients, who received CRRT between January 2008 and March 2009, were divided into two groups based on the controller of CRRT. The impact of the CRRT management on 28-day mortality was compared between two groups by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox analysis. Results During the study period, the number of filters used, down-time per day, and intensive care unit length of day were significantly higher in non-SCT group than in SCT group (6.2 hrs vs. 5.0 hrs, p=0.042; 5.0 hrs vs. 3.8 hrs, pCRRT team could be beneficial for mortality improvement of AKI patients requiring CRRT. PMID:25837170

  20. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  1. Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... The heavy-ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry 'violation' phenomena. For example, certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible ...

  2. Effects of environmental design on patient outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    satisfaction. The focus on environmental design has become a field with great potential because of its possible impact on cost control while improving quality of care. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify current and past studies about evidence-based healthcare design...

  3. Effects of Environmental Design on Patient Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    satisfaction. The focus on environmental design has become a field with great potential because of its possible impact on cost control while improving quality of care. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify current and past studies about evidence-based healthcare design...

  4. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to

  5. FMEA team performance in health care: A qualitative analysis of team member perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Tosha B; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Carayon, Pascale

    2009-06-01

    : Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a commonly used prospective risk assessment approach in health care. Failure mode and effects analyses are time consuming and resource intensive, and team performance is crucial for FMEA success. We evaluate FMEA team members' perceptions of FMEA team performance to provide recommendations to improve the FMEA process in health care organizations. : Structured interviews and survey questionnaires were administered to team members of 2 FMEA teams at a Midwest Hospital to evaluate team member perceptions of FMEA team performance and factors influencing team performance. Interview transcripts underwent content analysis, and descriptive statistics were performed on questionnaire results to identify and quantify FMEA team performance. Theme-based nodes were categorized using the input-process-outcome model for team performance. : Twenty-eight interviews and questionnaires were completed by 24 team members. Four persons participated on both teams. There were significant differences between the 2 teams regarding perceptions of team functioning and overall team effectiveness that are explained by difference in team inputs and process (e.g., leadership/facilitation, team objectives, attendance of process owners). : Evaluation of team members' perceptions of team functioning produced useful insights that can be used to model future team functioning. Guidelines for FMEA team success are provided.

  6. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    2017-01-01

    group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training......, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.......The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport...

  7. Effectiveness of Teamwork in an Integrated Care Setting for Patients with COPD: Development and Testing of a Self-Evaluation Instrument for Interprofessional Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke N; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Muris, Jean W; Wesseling, Geertjan J; Beusmans, George H M I; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2016-04-08

    Teamwork between healthcare providers is conditional for the delivery of integrated care. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model for developing and testing of the Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument. Focus groups with healthcare providers in an integrated care setting for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were conducted to examine the recognisability of the conceptual framework and to explore critical success factors for collaborative COPD practice out of this framework. The resulting items were transposed into a pilot instrument. This was reviewed by expert opinion and completed 153 times by healthcare providers. The underlying structure and internal consistency of the instrument were verified by factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. The conceptual framework turned out to be comprehensible for discussing teamwork effectiveness. The pilot instrument measures 25 relevant aspects of teamwork in integrated COPD care. Factor analysis suggested three reliable components: teamwork effectiveness, team processes and team psychosocial traits (Cronbach's alpha between 0.76 and 0.81). The conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model is relevant in developing a practical full-spectrum instrument to facilitate discussing teamwork effectiveness. The Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument provides a well-founded basis to self-evaluate teamwork effectiveness in integrated COPD care by healthcare providers. Recommendations are provided for the improvement of the instrument.

  8. Effectiveness of Teamwork in an Integrated Care Setting for Patients with COPD: Development and Testing of a Self-Evaluation Instrument for Interprofessional Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke N Van Dijk-de Vries

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teamwork between healthcare providers is conditional for the delivery of integrated care. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model for developing and testing of the Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument. Theory and methods: Focus groups with healthcare providers in an integrated care setting for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were conducted to examine the recognisability of the conceptual framework and to explore critical success factors for collaborative COPD practice out of this framework. The resulting items were transposed into a pilot instrument. This was reviewed by expert opinion and completed 153 times by healthcare providers. The underlying structure and internal consistency of the instrument were verified by factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha. Results: The conceptual framework turned out to be comprehensible for discussing teamwork effectiveness. The pilot instrument measures 25 relevant aspects of teamwork in integrated COPD care. Factor analysis suggested three reliable components: teamwork effectiveness, team processes and team psychosocial traits (Cronbach’s alpha between 0.76 and 0.81. Conclusions and discussion: The conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model is relevant in developing a practical full-spectrum instrument to facilitate discussing teamwork effectiveness. The Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument provides a well-founded basis to self-evaluate teamwork effectiveness in integrated COPD care by healthcare providers. Recommendations are provided for the improvement of the instrument.

  9. Green Team to the Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeper, Lance S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers created an after-school club called The Green Team and implemented an instructional strategy know as service-learning to teach environmental science. This article describes the transformation that occurred over a three-year period and illustrates how service-learning can provide a framework for environmental education. (Contains 1 figure,…

  10. Interdisciplinary Teaming: Solution to Instructing Heterogeneous Groups of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Robert A.; Manning, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interdisciplinary team collaboration for teachers, including structuring a successful team meeting, the 10-step interdisciplinary problem-solving meeting, evaluation of team collaboration, and effective team communication. (SR)

  11. Top Management Team Diversity and Company Performance: The moderating effect of Organization Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper examines the moderating impact of Organizational Life Cycle on the relationship between Top Management Team Diversity and Company Performance. The study first elaborates and establishes the theoretical link between organization lifecycle and composition of management elites. Second, a quantitative empirical study is conducted to test the OLC stages moderating impact on the upper echelons diversity and firm performance of the top companies in the Czech Republic. A detailed procedure is developed to accurately classify organizations at different lifecycle stages, drawing extensively on existing literature and scales. Paper findings state that more mature the company becomes, more diversified the senior management is regardless the firm performance. Also, the industry dynamism impact has its own role in the relationship between the organization life cycle and senior management diversity which is expressed by the paper findings as well.

  12. Team building and perceived effort in an exercise setting: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Spink, Kevin S

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of gender on the team building (TB)/perceived effort relationship in an exercise setting. Youths (n=100) who participated in either a TB or control group exercise setting completed a measure of perceived effort prior to and following a TB intervention. A 2 (group)×2 (gender) ANCOVA controlling for baseline perceived effort revealed a significant interaction, F (1, 95)=4.50, p<.05. The interaction revealed that females in the TB condition reported significantly more perceived effort at the post-assessment than did those in the control condition whereas the perceived effort reported by males did not differ between conditions. These results provide preliminary evidence that gender may need to be considered in future TB investigations that include perceived effort as a dependent measure. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of pre-cooling on repeat-sprint performance in seasonally acclimatised males during an outdoor simulated team-sport protocol in warm conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brade, Carly J; Dawson, Brian T; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10...

  14. Effects of Cold Water Immersion and Contrast Water Therapy for Recovery From Team Sport: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K

    2017-05-01

    Higgins, TR, Greene, DA, Baker, MK. Effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy for recovery from team sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1443-1460, 2017-To enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within high level team sport. Initially, athletes relied solely on anecdotal support. As there has been an increase in the volume of research into recovery including a number of general reviews, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus specifically examining the use of hydrotherapy for recovery in team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data were extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with heterogeneity assessed using I. Twenty-three peer reviewed articles (n = 606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was beneficial for recovery at 24 hours (countermovement jump: p = 0.05, CI: -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p = 0.02, -0.056 to 0.801) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for recovery at 72 hours (fatigue: p = 0.03, CI: 0.061-1.418) and CWT was beneficial for recovery at 48 hours (fatigue: p = 0.04, CI: 0.013-0.942) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for neuromuscular recovery 24 hours following team sport, whereas CWT was not beneficial for recovery following team sport. In addition, when evaluating accumulated sprinting, CWI was not beneficial for recovery following team sports. In evaluating subjective measures, both CWI (72 hours) and CWT (24 hours) were beneficial for recovery of perceptions of fatigue, following team sport. However neither CWI nor CWT was beneficial for recovery, of perceptions of muscle soreness, following team sport.

  15. Metabolic Effects of Sucralose on Environmental Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Omran; Gregory Ahearn; Doria Bowers; Janice Swenson; Charles Coughlin

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose was developed as a low cost artificial sweetener that is nonmetabolizable in humans. Sucralose can withstand changes in pH and temperature and is not degraded by the wastewater treatment process. Since the molecule can withstand heat, acidification, and microbial degradation, it is accumulating in the environment and has been found in wastewater, estuaries, rivers, and the Gulf Stream. Environmental isolates were cultured in the presence of sucralose looking for potential sucralose ...

  16. Environmental Effects on Materials for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    The thin-walled booms are protected against accidental damage by a "bumper system". The bumper system comprises pre-crushed HIR-10 Nomex honeycomb ...characteristics of manned space vehicles with respect to satellite projects are: - internal pressurization and environmental control to sustain life of...have been established. INTRODUCTION For future application satellites lifetimes of more than 5 years will be required. One essential premise to meet this

  17. [Effect of environmental pollutants on the spermatogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, W B

    1986-06-01

    Increasing environmental exposure to harmful substances as a result of industry has led to an enhanced uptake of chemicals by means of food, water and inhalation. Therefore, the danger of damage of the male reproductive potential cannot be excluded. This assumption is supported by reports from the USA indicating a tendency towards a decrease in the number of spermatozoa in fertile men within the last 50 years. A similar tendency has been shown by investigations on the fertility potential in other industrial countries (Australia, Sweden, France). In Germany, however, so far there is no evidence indicating decrease in the quality of semen in fertile men. The influence of heavy metals, herbicides and pesticides on male fertility is well known. Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds have aroused particular interest within recent years. Since there are only a few investigations demonstrating the impairment of male fertility by environmental pollutants, it is time to focus our efforts on studying the problem of environmental hazards regarding male fertility from an experimental, clinical and epidemiological viewpoint in order to prevent irreparable damage to mankind.

  18. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews ( n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  19. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  20. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  1. The effect of multiprofessional simulation-based obstetric team training on patient-reported quality of care : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijens, Sophie; Banga, F.R.; Fransen, A.F.; Pop, Victor; van Runnard Heimel, P.J.; Oei, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore whether multiprofessional simulation-based obstetric team training improves patient-reported quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth. Methods: Multiprofessional teams from a large obstetric collaborative network in the Netherlands were trained in

  2. Exploring space: Effects of environmental stimuli on self-disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okken, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    The research in this dissertation examines the effects of environmental stimuli on self-disclosure during interactions in service environments. Earlier explanations of why behavior can be influenced by environmental factors focused on comfort and affect. In this dissertation experienced spaciousness

  3. Effects of environmental design on patient outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess how inpatients were affected by the built environment design during their hospitalization. BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, the healthcare system has become increasingly aware of how focus on healthcare environment might affect patient...... satisfaction. The focus on environmental design has become a field with great potential because of its possible impact on cost control while improving quality of care. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify current and past studies about evidence-based healthcare design...

  4. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...... to the classic interpretation of financial information. The quantitative environmental information included in the experiment seems to mitigate rather than extend the directional effect of more environmental information. The evidence also seems to indicate that decision makers are not always aware which...

  5. Why Simulation-Based Team Training Has Not Been Used Effectively and What Can Be Done about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Advanced medical education simulators are broadly used today to train both technical/procedural and team-based skills. While there is convincing evidence of the benefits of training technical skills, this is not the case for team-based skills. Research on medical expertise could drive the creation of a new regime of simulation-based team training.…

  6. The Evolving Manager Stereotype: The Effects of Industry Gender Typing on Performance Expectations for Leaders and Their Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Susan F.; Sauer, Stephen J.; Thomas-Hunt, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how external evaluators' assessments of a management team and its leader are impacted by congruence between the leader's gender and the gender typing of the industry in which the team works. We experimentally tested our theory using industries that are either male typed or gender neutral, with teams led by male and female…

  7. Method of significant environmental effects identification in aspect of an effective environmental management in hard coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszka, E.; Korczak, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    A proper commitment to environmental responsibility by an industry should include consideration of the rights of existing land-users and minimization of the adverse environmental impact to the highest possible extent. For the industry as diverse as mining, the challenge is particularly complex. To successfully deal with problems, each mine and plant facility needs to determine its appropriate environmental performance criteria. They can be developed through setting of environmental objectives and targets giving detailed performance requirements. An environmental management programme should incorporate the environmental considerations into the management of enterprise to ensure an effective link between environmental protection, production and other activities. The efficiency of the total programme depends on the correct identification of areas where environmental improvement should occur. An example of Siemianowice Coal Mine in Upper Silesia, Poland was chosen to make a description of significant environmental effects identification procedure of the past mining activities as well as of a decommissioning phase. There, the most important are effects of mining activity since the end of the 18th century and especially when discussed on a background of the undergoing process of mine decommission. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Working with a fixed operating room team on consecutive similar cases and the effect on case duration and turnover time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Pieter S; Vrijland, Wietske W; de Quelerij, Marcel; de Vries, Guus; Heij, Christiaan

    2010-12-01

    If variation in procedure times could be controlled or better predicted, the cost of surgeries could be reduced through improved scheduling of surgical resources. This study on the impact of similar consecutive cases on the turnover, surgical, and procedure times tests the perception that repeating the same manual tasks reduces the duration of these tasks. We hypothesize that when a fixed team works on similar consecutive cases the result will be shorter turnover and procedure duration as well as less variation as compared with the situation without a fixed team. Case-control study. St Franciscus Hospital, a large general teaching hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two procedures, inguinal hernia repair and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were selected and divided across a control group and a study group. Patients were randomly assigned to the study or control group. Preparation time, surgical time, procedure time, and turnover time. For inguinal hernia repair, we found a significantly lower preparation time and 10 minutes less procedure time in the study group, as compared with the control group. Variation in the study group was lower, as compared with the control group. For laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preparation time was significantly lower in the study group, as compared with the control group. For both procedures, there was a significant decrease in turnover time. Scheduling similar consecutive cases and performing with a fixed team results in lower turnover times and preparation times. The procedure time of the inguinal hernia repair decreased significantly and has practical scheduling implications. For more complex surgery, like laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is no effect on procedure time.

  9. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  10. Appropriate extension strategies for effective environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of these on human life only aggravate pollution's direct effect on mankind. This article addresses air and water pollution by man and nature. Its causes were identified. Effect of these on terrestrial life was highlighted. Possible control strategies recommended include education or enlightenment, research, and ...

  11. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G.; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S.; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A.; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be

  12. The Effect of Environmental Change in Single-Subject Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    RD-RI725 779 THE EFFECT 0F ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT - i/i EXPERINENTS(U) DESNATICS INC STATE COLLEGE PA U AS K C BURNS ET AL. FEB 83 TR...238-9621 Applied Research in Statistics - Mathematics - Operations Research THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT EXPERIMENTS by Kevin...necessary to analyze repeated measurements taken on a single subject . In some situations, such an analysis may be carried out under the assumption that

  13. The effect of environmental heterogeneity on species richness depends on community position along the environmental gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Xueqi; Zhou, Mohua; Ai, Dexiecuo; Wang, Gang; Wang, Youshi; Chu, Chengjin; Lundholm, Jeremy T.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is among the most important factors governing community structure. Besides the widespread evidence supporting positive relationships between richness and environmental heterogeneity, negative and unimodal relationships have also been reported. However, few studies have attempted to test the role of the heterogeneity on species richness after removing the confounding effect of resource availability or environmental severity. Here we constructed an individual-based spatially explicit model incorporating a long-recognized tradeoff between competitive ability and stress-tolerance ability of species. We explored the impact of the level of resource availability (i.e. the position of the community along a gradient of environmental severity) on the heterogeneity-diversity relationship (HDR). The results indicate that the shape of HDR depends on the community position along the environmental gradient: at either end of the gradient of environmental severity, a positive HDR occurred, whereas at the intermediate levels of the gradient, a unimodal HDR emerged. Our exploration demonstrates that resource availability/environmental severity should be considered as a potential factor influencing the shape of the HDR. Our theoretical predictions represent hypotheses in need of further empirical study. PMID:26508413

  14. [Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning (TBL) as a new teaching approach for pharmaceutical care education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suno, Manabu; Yoshida, Toshiko; Koyama, Toshihiro; Zamami, Yoshito; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Mizushima, Takaaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Team-Based Learning (TBL) was developed in the late 1970s by Larry Michaelsen, who wanted students to enjoy the benefits of small group learning within large classes in the business school environment. In contrast to problem-based learning (PBL), which is student centered, TBL is typically instructor centered. Recently, TBL is being used as a teaching method in over 60 health science professional schools in the US and other countries. In the present study, the impact of adopting TBL in teaching pharmaceutical care practices to students was evaluated. Students were required to answer a set of multiple-choice questions individually in individual readiness assessment test (IRAT) before the TBL sessions to assess their level of preparation. The same set of questions was then reattempted by the group readiness assessment test (GRAT) during TBL. Comparing the scores obtained in the GRAT and IRAT before the first TBL session, the scores from the GRAT were always higher than those of the IRAT, indicating that TBL has encouraged active learning. In addition, students were surveyed about their level of satisfaction with TBL and written comments about TBL were solicited. The results of the questionnaire showed that 87.3±9.3% of the students were satisfied. Moreover, no student commented that TBL was in any way inferior to the PBL. Implementation of a TBL approach was successfully integrated into the pharmaceutical care education course. In order to further improve the usefulness of TBL in teaching pharmaceutical care, a hybrid teaching approach that also comprises PBL and a lecture-based course is desirable.

  15. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Suraya, F

    2015-12-01

    Environmental air pollution has become a leading health concern especially in the developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and rapidly growing population. Prolonged exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental air pollution on progression of cardiovascular problems. In this study, we identified 6880 published articles through a systematic database including ISI-Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. The allied literature was searched by using the key words such as environmental pollution, air pollution, particulate matter pollutants PM 2.5 μm-PM 10 μm. Literature in which environmental air pollution and cardiac diseases were discussed was included. Descriptive information was retrieved from the selected literature. Finally, we included 67 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Environmental pollution can cause high blood pressure, arrhythmias, enhanced coagulation, thrombosis, acute arterial vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and even heart failure. Environmental air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Environmental pollution exerts its detrimental effects on the heart by developing pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic changes. Environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Characterization of Candidate Solar Sail Material Exposed to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David; Hovater, Mary; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George; Hollerman, William; Gray, Perry

    2003-01-01

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the exposure of candidate solar sail materials to emulated space environmental effects including energetic electrons, combined electrons and Ultraviolet radiation, and hypervelocity impact of irradiated solar sail material. This paper will describe the testing procedure and the material characterization results of this investigation.

  17. We will be champions: Leaders' confidence in 'us' inspires team members' team confidence and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, K; Steffens, N K; Haslam, S A; Vanbeselaere, N; Vande Broek, G; Boen, F

    2016-12-01

    The present research examines the impact of leaders' confidence in their team on the team confidence and performance of their teammates. In an experiment involving newly assembled soccer teams, we manipulated the team confidence expressed by the team leader (high vs neutral vs low) and assessed team members' responses and performance as they unfolded during a competition (i.e., in a first baseline session and a second test session). Our findings pointed to team confidence contagion such that when the leader had expressed high (rather than neutral or low) team confidence, team members perceived their team to be more efficacious and were more confident in the team's ability to win. Moreover, leaders' team confidence affected individual and team performance such that teams led by a highly confident leader performed better than those led by a less confident leader. Finally, the results supported a hypothesized mediational model in showing that the effect of leaders' confidence on team members' team confidence and performance was mediated by the leader's perceived identity leadership and members' team identification. In conclusion, the findings of this experiment suggest that leaders' team confidence can enhance members' team confidence and performance by fostering members' identification with the team. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Moderating Effects of Trust on Environmentally Significant Behavior in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gin Moon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.

  19. Addressing cumulative effects in Strategic Environmental Assessment of spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic environmental Assessment (SEA is a decision support instrument for predicting and evaluating the likely environmental effects of implementing a policy, plan or programme. SEA can consider the cumulative impacts of more than one project or activity on the same environmen- tal component. This paper discusses the analysis of cumulative effects in SEA, with reference to spatial planning by: providing a review of key concepts and methods related to cumulative effects literature; presenting a rationale for the inclusion of cumulative effects in SEA of spatial plans; advancing a proposal to address cumulative effects in different SEA stages. The paper concludes that SEA offers the opportunity to support a better management of cumulative effects arising from many local-level spatial planning decisions. Three aspects emerged as critical to ensure good practices: the selection of valued environmental components, the adoption of future-oriented approaches, and the use of spatially-explicit information.

  20. Environmental effects on school age child psychomotricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, A C; Mancini, S; Zuffellato, S; Bini, F; Polcaro, P; Conti, A A; Molino Lova, R; Macchi, C

    2008-06-01

    This study had the following aims: to verify whether children living in different environmental areas present a different development degree of the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity; to test whether a targeted psychomotricity education program could favourably modify the potential differences which may be observed; to investigate the relationship, if any, between the anthropometric differences and the functional prerequisites of psychomotricity. One hundred and sixty-five Italian children, 83 males and 82 females, 6-7 years old were enrolled in this study. Based on the provenance area, the children were subdivided into two groups: the urban one (N=85) and the rural one (N=80). Both groups underwent an initial psychomotor assessment including standardised psychomotor tests aimed at evidencing the general dynamic coordination ability and the static and dynamic balance capacity of every child. The findings of this research point out that children living in an urban setting selectively showed a lower degree of balance development, if compared to children living in rural areas; a targeted psychomotor education program favourably modified the differences in the balance development between the two examined groups, up to their disappearance. In the urban group the body mass index had a trend towards a negative relationship with balance development. Children grown up in an urban environment showed a delay in balance development, if compared to children of the same age grown up in rural areas. This study also clearly proves that such a delay may be regained by means of a targeted psychomotor education program.

  1. Genetic and environmental effects on performance traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simmentaler cattle of the Highveld Region Development Institute were used in this study to determine the genetic and envi- ronmental effects ... Keywords: Beef cattle, birth mass, environmental effects, gain, genetic effects, weaning mass. * Author to whom .... higher stress levels experienced by animals in the feedlots. There.

  2. Heterogeneity and Work Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyaram, Lata; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to extend and contribute to the domestic diversity literature by presenting a comprehensive model that takes into consideration the Indian work set up. It proposes to examine the effects of the composition of information systems development teams in Indian firms. Besides the conventional demographics which were studied…

  3. [Medical emergency teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, G.; Lund, C.; Petersen, John Asger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of medical emergency teams (MET) is to identify and treat deteriorating patients on general wards, and to avoid cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission and death. The effectiveness of METs has yet to be proven, as the only two randomised, controlled trials on the subject...

  4. Building Teacher Teams: Evidence of Positive Spillovers from More Effective Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Loeb, Susanna; Grissom, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Student peer effects are well documented; however, we know far less about peer effects among teachers. We hypothesize that a relatively effective teacher can positively affect the performance of his or her peers, whereas a relatively ineffective teacher may negatively affect the performance of other teachers with whom he or she works closely.…

  5. Environmental effects, heritability estimates and genetic trends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-01

    Sep 1, 1997 ... Keywords: Dohne Merino, genetic trends, live weight, wool traits, yearling per- ..... The regression of yearling live weight on birth date approached significance (p ... The addition of random effects apart from maternal per-.

  6. Illusions of team working in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael A; Lyubovnikova, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity and value of teams in healthcare are well acknowledged. However, in practice, healthcare teams vary dramatically in their structures and effectiveness in ways that can damage team processes and patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to highlight these characteristics and to extrapolate several important aspects of teamwork that have a powerful impact on team effectiveness across healthcare contexts. The paper draws upon the literature from health services management and organisational behaviour to provide an overview of the current science of healthcare teams. Underpinned by the input-process-output framework of team effectiveness, team composition, team task, and organisational support are viewed as critical inputs that influence key team processes including team objectives, leadership and reflexivity, which in turn impact staff and patient outcomes. Team training interventions and care pathways can facilitate more effective interdisciplinary teamwork. The paper argues that the prevalence of the term "team" in healthcare makes the synthesis and advancement of the scientific understanding of healthcare teams a challenge. Future research therefore needs to better define the fundamental characteristics of teams in studies in order to ensure that findings based on real teams, rather than pseudo-like groups, are accumulated.

  7. Enhanced Moran effect by spatial variation in environmental autocorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Thomas M; Weithoff, Guntram; Kuckländer, Nina; Gaedke, Ursula; Blasius, Bernd

    2015-01-09

    Spatial correlations in environmental stochasticity can synchronize populations over wide areas, a phenomenon known as the Moran effect. The Moran effect has been confirmed in field, laboratory and theoretical investigations. Little is known, however, about the Moran effect in a common ecological case, when environmental variation is temporally autocorrelated and this autocorrelation varies spatially. Here we perform chemostat experiments to investigate the temporal response of independent phytoplankton populations to autocorrelated stochastic forcing. In contrast to naive expectation, two populations without direct coupling can be more strongly correlated than their environmental forcing (enhanced Moran effect), if the stochastic variations differ in their autocorrelation. Our experimental findings are in agreement with numerical simulations and analytical calculations. The enhanced Moran effect is robust to changes in population dynamics, noise spectra and different measures of correlation-suggesting that noise-induced synchrony may play a larger role for population dynamics than previously thought.

  8. Team building: conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; McEwan, Desmond; Waldhauser, Katrina J

    2017-08-01

    Team building has been identified as an important method of improving the psychological climate in which teams operate, as well as overall team functioning. Within the context of sports, team building interventions have consistently been found to result in improvements in team effectiveness. In this paper we review the extant literature on team building in sport, and address a range of conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations that have the potential to advance theory, research, and applied intervention initiatives within the field. This involves expanding the scope of team building strategies that have, to date, primarily focused on developing group cohesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Environmental Variation on Estimating the Bacterial Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjian; Kuang, Jialiang; Jia, Pu; Cadotte, Marc W.; Huang, Linan; Li, Jintian; Liao, Bin; Wang, Pandeng; Shu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the species richness of microorganisms is of great importance in predicting, maintaining and managing microbial communities. Although the roles of environmental heterogeneity and geographical distance in structuring soil microbial communities have been studied intensively, the effects of environmental and spatial variation on the species richness estimation have not been examined. To this end, we have explored their effects on estimating the belowground soil bacterial species richness within a 50 ha forest dynamic plot (FDP) using a published massive sequencing dataset with intensive sampling scheme. Our resampling analyses showed that, for a given sequencing depth, increasing the sample size could significantly enhance the detection of rare species by capturing more of the environmental and spatial variation, thus obtaining higher observed and estimated species richness. Additionally, the estimates of bacterial species richness were significantly and positively correlated with environmental variation among samples, indicating that environmental filtering was the main mechanism driving the processes of community assembly for belowground soil bacterial communities in the plot. Moreover, this effect of environmental variation could be markedly alleviated when the sample size was higher than 450, and thus we predicted that there were at least 42,866 soil bacterial species based on 8,296,878 sequences from 550 samples in the whole 50 ha FDP. Furthermore, we built a power law environmental heterogeneity equation (EHE) as a decision-tool to determine an approximate sample size for comprehensively capturing the environmental gradient within a given habitat. Collectively, this work further links the inherent environmental and spatial variation to the estimation of soil bacterial species richness within a given region, and provides a useful tool of sampling design for a better understanding of microbial biogeographic patterns and estimation of microbial

  10. Effect of Environmental Variation on Estimating the Bacterial Species Richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjian; Kuang, Jialiang; Jia, Pu; Cadotte, Marc W; Huang, Linan; Li, Jintian; Liao, Bin; Wang, Pandeng; Shu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the species richness of microorganisms is of great importance in predicting, maintaining and managing microbial communities. Although the roles of environmental heterogeneity and geographical distance in structuring soil microbial communities have been studied intensively, the effects of environmental and spatial variation on the species richness estimation have not been examined. To this end, we have explored their effects on estimating the belowground soil bacterial species richness within a 50 ha forest dynamic plot (FDP) using a published massive sequencing dataset with intensive sampling scheme. Our resampling analyses showed that, for a given sequencing depth, increasing the sample size could significantly enhance the detection of rare species by capturing more of the environmental and spatial variation, thus obtaining higher observed and estimated species richness. Additionally, the estimates of bacterial species richness were significantly and positively correlated with environmental variation among samples, indicating that environmental filtering was the main mechanism driving the processes of community assembly for belowground soil bacterial communities in the plot. Moreover, this effect of environmental variation could be markedly alleviated when the sample size was higher than 450, and thus we predicted that there were at least 42,866 soil bacterial species based on 8,296,878 sequences from 550 samples in the whole 50 ha FDP. Furthermore, we built a power law environmental heterogeneity equation (EHE) as a decision-tool to determine an approximate sample size for comprehensively capturing the environmental gradient within a given habitat. Collectively, this work further links the inherent environmental and spatial variation to the estimation of soil bacterial species richness within a given region, and provides a useful tool of sampling design for a better understanding of microbial biogeographic patterns and estimation of microbial

  11. When do business units benefit more from collective citizenship behavior of management teams? An upper echelons perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Gong, Yaping; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Drawing upon the notion of managerial discretion from upper echelons theory, we theorize which external contingencies moderate the relationship between collective organizational citizenship behavior (COCB) and unit performance. Focusing on business unit (BU) management teams, we hypothesize that COCB of BU management teams enhances BU performance and that this impact depends on environmental uncertainty and BU management-team decision latitude, 2 determinants of managerial discretion. In particular, the positive effect of COCB is stronger when environmental uncertainty or the BU management-team decision latitude is greater. Time-lagged data from 109 BUs of a telecommunications company support the hypotheses. Additional exploratory analysis shows that the positive moderating effect of environmental uncertainty is further amplified at higher levels of BU management-team decision latitude. Overall, this study extends the internally focused view in the micro OCB literature by introducing external contingencies for the COCB-unit-performance relationship. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  13. Effects of environmental design on patient outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    . The following databases were searched: Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, and Embase. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of built environment design interventions such as music, natural murals, and plants in relation to patients' health outcome. RESULTS: Built environment...

  14. Effects of Environmental Design on Patient Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    . The following databases were searched: Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, and Embase. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of built environment design interventions such as music, natural murals, and plants in relation to patients' health outcome. RESULTS: Built environment...

  15. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    The effect of environment on digestibility and intake is of concern considering global warming. Temperature decreased digestibility by 4.4% and intake by 15% for every degree rise in temperature. The implications on livestock production are considerable, reducing potential milk yields by approximately 36% for one degree ...

  16. Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the SEA also achieved significant successes in terms of 'indirect outputs', such as a more holistic approach to water management, facilitated more effective public participation and contributed to broader strategic planning in the department. The paper concludes by making recommendations to improve the quality ...

  17. Environmental effect indicators for priority pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart D de; Hollander HA den; Geelen L; Huijbregts MAJ; Vakgroep Milieukunde, Radboud; LER

    2006-01-01

    Here a method is described for estimating public health and ecosystem effects due to the emission of priority pollutants in the Netherlands. Priority pollutants are subject to measures of emission reduction because of their immediate threat to the environment. The method proposed calculates

  18. Consumer Preferences, Ecolabels, and the Effects of Negative Environmental Information

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xianwen; Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre

    2014-01-01

    Consumers prefer ecolabeled products. However, little is known about the effects of ecolabels when consumers are simultaneously exposed to negative environmental information. We conducted a stated choice experiment in France with eight fish products that were either ecolabeled or unlabeled. Four types of negative information concerning the potential negative environmental consequences of catching wild fish or producing farmed fish were randomly administered to the participants. The data were ...

  19. Environmental monitoring of soil conditioner effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... 120(3): 1448-1458. Sisto NP, Guajardo-Quiroga R, Aguilar-Barajas I (2011). Estimating the economic impacts of drought. Tecnol. Cienc. Agua. 2(2): 111-123. Stoof CR, Wesseling JG, Ritsema CJ (2010). Effects of fire and ash on soil water retention. Geoderma, 159(3-4): 276-285. Supalkova V, Beklova M, ...

  20. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.