WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental effects application

  1. Environmental effects of ash application in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette

    of ashes being produced and the export of nutrients from the forests. This PhD project aims at investigating how ash application in forest ecosystems affects soil and soil solution properties and whether ash application can be used in a Danish context without environmental harm but with positive effects...

  2. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs.

  3. Consideration of the environmental effects on fatigue behavior of austenitic components. Calculation methods and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichter, Johannes; Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    During the last years environmental effects on the fatigue behavior of nuclear power plant components has worldwide been discussed controversial with respect to the transferability of laboratory data on real components. A publication from Argonne National Laboratory on experimental results concerning environmental effects (air and LWR coolant) on fatigue of austenitic steels included a proposal on calculation methods concerning the lifetime reduction due to environmental effects. This calculation method, i.e. multiplication of the usage factor by a F(en), has been included into the ASME Code, Section III, Division I, as Code Case N-792 (fatigue evaluations including environmental effects). The presented contribution evaluates the practical application of this calculation procedure and demonstrates the determination of the usage factor of an austenitic component under environmental exposure.

  4. Irradiation effects in clays. Environmental and geological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourdrin, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation defects in minerals present at the earth surface gave rise to an important number of studies. Among these minerals, clays possessed properties (cationic exchange capacity, swelling properties) which make them suitable candidate for the retention of actinides in the context of high level radioactive waste storage. In order to insure the stability of the clay located around the waste, it is necessary to study their physico-chemical properties after irradiation. This thesis is divided in three parts that are related to this thematic. In the first part, we will discuss the effect of ionizing irradiation of alpha particles on the specific surface area of kaolinite and the consequences of such an irradiation on the observed spectra by IRTF. The second part is dealing with the solubility of amorphized smectite in alkaline conditions and more especially with the dissolution kinetics. We will present new results on this process. Finally, in the third part, we studied a natural analogue geo-system Nopal which is located in Chihuahua (Mexico). We will discuss how the kaolinite dosimeter can be a powerful tool to asses' ancient uranium migration in the U-deposit. (author)

  5. Application of environmental Decision Support Systems (Ed's) for the assessment of health effects due to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Decision Support System containing a Geographical Information System (GIS) combined with (radio)ecological data and models were developed within different research activities in radioecology and geography for environmental management, especially after accidental release of pollutants into the environment. It may be possible to achieve the full potentials of EDSS, through its application in a variety of ways. These include: 1. Identification of radio-ecological sensitive areas, 2. extending its use in the identification of non-radioactive pollution (e.g., heavy metals) by using the necessary transfer models and parameters and 3. its effective use in defining the role of environmental pollution on health effects. In order to achieve the latter (e.g., defining the role of environmental pollution on health effects), a database containing spatial and temporal information on radioactive and conventional pollution can be combined with ethnic composition, living habits, education, income, age/sex structure, general sanitary situation, production, import and export overlaid with health data (e.g., congenital malformations, cancer, mental retardation, immunological situation, birth and death certificates etc.). Since a spatial as well as temporal resolution of data can be achieved, time trends and spatial trends of a potential impact to human health can be demonstrated. (author)

  6. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review, with 19 references, is given on challenges and possible opportunities for the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring applications. The high cost and slow turnaround times typically associated with the measurement of regulated pollutants clearly indicates...

  7. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Catherine N. [Department Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard W., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants.

  8. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, Catherine N.

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants

  9. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies. A Methodological Approach with an Application to the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beers, C. [Department of Economics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Moor, A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    Up to now a clear theoretical and methodological framework for economic-environmental analysis of environmentally damaging subsidies is lacking. Environmentally damaging subsidies are all kinds of direct and indirect subsidies aimed at achieving a certain (often non-environmental) goal that produce negative external effects to the natural environment. This article develops a transparent method to determine the environmental impact of indirect government subsidies and derive policy lessons. This method has been applied to several major subsidies in the Netherlands, namely in agriculture, energy, and transport. The results reveal large environmental effects, which need to be taken seriously by policy makers. The method enables policy makers to evaluate the environmental impacts of indirect government subsidies.

  10. APPLICATION OF MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING IN STUDYING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  11. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  12. Effects Of Environmental And Operational Stresses On RF MEMS Switch Technologies For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar; Simon, Eric; Sharma, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have been heralded for their ability to provide tremendous advantages in electronic systems through increased electrical performance, reduced power consumption, and higher levels of device integration with a reduction of board real estate. RF MEMS switch technology offers advantages such as low insertion loss (0.1- 0.5 dB), wide bandwidth (1 GHz-100 GHz), and compatibility with many different process technologies (quartz, high resistivity Si, GaAs) which can replace the use of traditional electronic switches, such as GaAs FETS and PIN Diodes, in microwave systems for low signal power (x technologies, the unknown reliability, due to the lack of information concerning failure modes and mechanisms inherent to MEMS devices, create an obstacle to insertion of MEMS technology into high reliability applications. All MEMS devices are sensitive to moisture and contaminants, issues easily resolved by hermetic or near-hermetic packaging. Two well-known failure modes of RF MEMS switches are charging in the dielectric layer of capacitive membrane switches and contact interface stiction of metal-metal switches. Determining the integrity of MEMS devices when subjected to the shock, vibration, temperature extremes, and radiation of the space environment is necessary to facilitate integration into space systems. This paper will explore the effects of different environmental stresses, operational life cycling, temperature, mechanical shock, and vibration on the first commercially available RF MEMS switches to identify relevant failure modes and mechanisms inherent to these device and packaging schemes for space applications. This paper will also describe RF MEMS Switch technology under development at NASA GSFC.

  13. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  14. Application of effective discharge analysis to environmental flow decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, S. Kyle; Freeman, Mary C.; Covich, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Well-informed river management decisions rely on an explicit statement of objectives, repeatable analyses, and a transparent system for assessing trade-offs. These components may then be applied to compare alternative operational regimes for water resource infrastructure (e.g., diversions, locks, and dams). Intra- and inter-annual hydrologic variability further complicates these already complex environmental flow decisions. Effective discharge analysis (developed in studies of geomorphology) is a powerful tool for integrating temporal variability of flow magnitude and associated ecological consequences. Here, we adapt the effectiveness framework to include multiple elements of the natural flow regime (i.e., timing, duration, and rate-of-change) as well as two flow variables. We demonstrate this analytical approach using a case study of environmental flow management based on long-term (60 years) daily discharge records in the Middle Oconee River near Athens, GA, USA. Specifically, we apply an existing model for estimating young-of-year fish recruitment based on flow-dependent metrics to an effective discharge analysis that incorporates hydrologic variability and multiple focal taxa. We then compare three alternative methods of environmental flow provision. Percentage-based withdrawal schemes outcompete other environmental flow methods across all levels of water withdrawal and ecological outcomes.

  15. Medical, energetic, environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project at ENEA is mainly based on the TAPIRO experimental nuclear reactor and (more recently) also on the TRIGA reactor, both located at ENEA Casaccia. TAPIRO has two facilities: an epithermal column (EPIMED) constructed for research on deep tumours, such as glioblastoma, and a thermal column (HYTHOR) mainly used in collaboration with the Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and with the University of Padua for in vivo radiobiological studies and neutron microdosimetry. The feasibility of using the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor to treat explanted livers with BNCT is being studied. The collaboration with INFN Pavia and the University of Pavia on applying BNCT to lung tumours continued. In 2007 the final agreement from the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT) was obtained and the reactor operating conditions with the EPIMED facility were established. As described in the 2006 Progress Report, the epithermal neutron beam (neutron energy between 1 eV and 10 keV) entering the reactor hall has been shielded by a bunker of limited volume, appropriate for beam characterisation with the reactor operating at a maximum 10% of nominal power (5 kW). The use of nuclear power in space is technically feasible but, due to the remote risk of an accident at launch or in the event of an uncontrolled re-entry, it still remains politically unacceptable. Nevertheless, small and safe nuclear reactors could generate 30-60 kW of electrical power for a period of 10-15 years even in the case of a deep space mission, where conventional energy conversion devices are useless or inefficient. Furthermore, the standard space systems for electrical power generation (photoelectric conversion and radioactive thermal generator) are unable to sustain similar performances even in orbital conditions. A carefully designed nuclear reactor for space application could also be

  16. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies: Integrated Method and Application to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, C.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; de Moor, A.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    The term 'environmentally damaging subsidies' covers all sorts of direct and indirect subsidies with negative consequences for the environment. This article presents a method to determine the environmental impact of these subsidies. It combines a microeconomic framework with an environmental impact

  17. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  18. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  19. Environmental biotechnology: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winter, Josef; Jördening, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    ... for the - development of new and environmentally improved production technologies with less purified substrates and generation of fewer by-products - bioproducts as non-toxic matters, mostly recyclable. Some impressive studies on industrial applications of biotechnology are published in two OECD reports, which summarized, that biotechnology has the potential o...

  20. Genetic and environmental effects on seed weight in subspecies of big sagebrush: Applications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Hector G. Ortiz; Stephanie L. Carlson; Deidre M. Jaeger; Nancy L. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The sagebrush steppe is a patchwork of species and subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches across the intermountain regions of western North America. These ecosystems face degradation from disturbances and exotic weeds. Using sagebrush seed that is matched to its appropriate niche is a critical component to successful restoration, improving habitat for the...

  1. Yield and environmental effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer applications on mixed-season perennial forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although primarily a research project, this study included a training component whereby undergraduate research assistants gained practical knowledge in plant, soil and soil-water sampling and analysis, and learned about the environmental impact of nutrient loading in ground and surface waters. The ...

  2. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  3. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  4. Design and application of environmentally effective concrete with usage of chrysotile-cement waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova Lada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction is resource-demanding industry, characterized by a large volume of waste. Particularly chrysotile cement waste obtained both in production and in dismantling over age chrysotile-cement products: corrugated asbestos boards and flat sheets, chrysotile-cement tubes. We propose to use dry chrysotile-cement waste as recycled aggregate for concrete. Based on developed compositions and identified properties of heavy concrete with chrysotile-cement waste introduce this technology to the production of foundation wall blocks. The studies confirmed the possibility of using chrysotile-cement aggregate and fine screening of crushing as a secondary coarse and fine aggregates for concrete with proper quality without increasing the cost of the product. Environmental safety of the obtained products was ensured. The direction for implementation of the research project was proposed.

  5. The analysis of the economic and environmental effects of the application of a photovoltaic system to the EXCO (Ex. + Con. Bldg) in Daegu, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, M.H.; Hong, W.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the economic and environmental effects of the application of a photovoltaic system to the exhibition and convention building (EXCO). To determine the economic and environmental effects of the building, energy consumption data should be obtained. Three sides of the EXCO are assumed to be good places of a photovoltaic system. In order to understand the investment cost, the number of years required to recover the cost has to be calculated. In an environmental evaluation, the amount of carbon dioxide is also calculated over a period of time of 5,10,15 years. (author)

  6. Environmental and plant effects of sewage sludge application to forests and pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Miegroet, H.; Boston, H.L.; Johnson, D.W.; Nevada Univ., Reno, NV

    1989-01-01

    Digested sewage sludge was applied to pastures and tree plantations at 19 to 44 Mg/ha (dry weight) as part of a municipal sludge disposal program. The sludge had low concentrations of heavy metals and traces of 137 Cs and 60 Co. Monitoring of soils, soil solutions, and runoff indicated that N, P, heavy metals, and radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15cm of the soil. Soil solutions had elevated NO 3 - concentrations often >100 mg/L, but no significant increases in groundwater NO 3 - were found during the first year. Runoff from active sites had elevated concentrations of NO 3 - (20--30 mg/L), soluble P (1 mg/L), BOD 5 (5--30 mg/L), and fecal coliform (up to 14,000 colonies per 100 ml), not unlike runoff from pastures with cattle. Enrichment of organic N (2 times), available (inorganic) N (5 to 10 times), and Bray-P in the upper soils persisted for several years following sludge application. Sludge increased vegetation N concentrations from 1.5% to 2.3% and P concentrations from 0.16% to 0.31%. With the exception of Zn, heavy metals did not accumulate substantially in the vegetation. The sludge addition increased the survival and growth of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). For a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation future growth improvements are expected based on elevated foliar N concentrations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n=112 to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5±7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n=52 were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r=0.69, n=66. Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r=0.58, n=28. These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  8. Evaluation of noise and blur effects with SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm: Application to fast environmental transmission electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjak, Hussein; Grenier, Thomas; Epicier, Thierry; Koneti, Siddardha; Roiban, Lucian; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Magnin, Isabelle; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichita

    2018-06-01

    Fast tomography in Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) is of a great interest for in situ experiments where it allows to observe 3D real-time evolution of nanomaterials under operating conditions. In this context, we are working on speeding up the acquisition step to a few seconds mainly with applications on nanocatalysts. In order to accomplish such rapid acquisitions of the required tilt series of projections, a modern 4K high-speed camera is used, that can capture up to 100 images per second in a 2K binning mode. However, due to the fast rotation of the sample during the tilt procedure, noise and blur effects may occur in many projections which in turn would lead to poor quality reconstructions. Blurred projections make classical reconstruction algorithms inappropriate and require the use of prior information. In this work, a regularized algebraic reconstruction algorithm named SIRT-FISTA-TV is proposed. The performance of this algorithm using blurred data is studied by means of a numerical blur introduced into simulated images series to mimic possible mechanical instabilities/drifts during fast acquisitions. We also present reconstruction results from noisy data to show the robustness of the algorithm to noise. Finally, we show reconstructions with experimental datasets and we demonstrate the interest of fast tomography with an ultra-fast acquisition performed under environmental conditions, i.e. gas and temperature, in the ETEM. Compared to classically used SIRT and SART approaches, our proposed SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm provides higher quality tomograms allowing easier segmentation of the reconstructed volume for a better final processing and analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of (negative) emotion on pro-environmental behavior : an application of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With climate change becoming ever-present as a huge environmental issue for the modern era to address, pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is becoming an increasingly relevant area. There seems to be a divergence between how different actors try and encourage PEB when using emotion as the motivational tool. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore this effect of (negative) emotion on decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework, with the primar...

  10. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  11. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  13. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  14. Environmental auditing: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dixon; Wilson, Melvin J.

    1994-07-01

    The environmental audit has become a regular part of corporate environmental management in Canada and is also gaining recognition in the public sector. A 1991 survey of 75 private sector companies across Canada revealed that 76% (57/75) had established environmental auditing programs. A similar survey of 19 federal, provincial, and municipal government departments revealed that 11% (2/19) had established such programs. The information gained from environmental audits can be used to facilitate and enhance environmental management from the single facility level to the national and international levels. This paper is divided into two sections: section one examines environmental audits at the facility/company level and discusses environmental audit characteristics, trends, and driving forces not commonly found in the available literature. Important conclusions are: that wherever possible, an action plan to correct the identified problems should be an integral part of an audit, and therefore there should be a close working relationship between auditors, managers, and employees, and that the first audits will generally be more difficult, time consuming, and expensive than subsequent audits. Section two looks at environmental audits in the broader context and discusses the relationship between environmental audits and three other environmental information gathering/analysis tools: environmental impact assessments, state of the environment reports, and new systems of national accounts. The argument is made that the information collected by environmental audits and environmental impact assessments at the facility/company level can be used as the bases for regional and national state of the environment reports and new systems of national accounts.

  15. Emerging applications of nanoparticles: Biomedical and environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shivani; Sachdeva, M.; Bhasin, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology finds a wide range of applications from energy production to industrial fabrication processes to biomedical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be engineered to possess unique compositions and functionalities to empower novel tools and techniques that have not existed previously in biomedical research. The unique size and shape dependent physicochemical properties along with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a wide variety of potential applications in the field of diagnostics and medicines. In the plethora of scientific and technological fields, environmental safety is also a big concern. For this purpose, nanomaterials have been functionalized to cope up the existing pollution, improving manufacturing methods to reduce the generation of new pollution, and making alternative and more cost effective energy sources.

  16. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  17. High power accelerator for environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  18. High power accelerator for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, S. M. [EB-TECH Co., Ltd., Yuseong-gu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  19. Selected environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    2001-01-01

    NAA is very useful for the determination of trace and minor elements in many environmental applications. While instrumental NAA (INAA) has a number of valid applications in this field, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) prior to, or post irradiation provides some significant advantages. One of the major focus points for environmental applications of NAA is to assess the magnitude of various pollutants. This paper discusses doing this via two methods, namely air monitoring and biological monitoring. (author)

  20. ) The Application of Remote Sensing to Exploration and Production Projects in Shell Petroleum Development Company for Effective Environmental Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpaka, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years (especially within the last decade) environmental issues have assumed a proportion that the oil industry appeared unprepared for. The oil industry has not been immune from the consequences of the awareness generated by various interest groups world-wide. Environmental Assessment has become an integral part of all projects in Shell Development Company [SPDC] and the remote sensing tool has shown to be vital for effective management of the environment. The Niger Delta operations area covers approximately 70.0002km, an area including mangrove swamps, extensive forest and agricultural development, and most SPDC onshore operations are carried out in this fragile environment. Project citing in this environment requires careful planning and articulation of environmentally friendly and cost effective routes and sites. The implementation of satellite image processing and analysis, using georeferenced multispectral imagery have provided information on vegetation and other land cover types, topography including drainage, and infrastructure. The derived information is used for planning new well locations; flowlines and location access routes; impact assessment and monitoring of the environment. This article discusses how the environment is better managed by applying the remote sensing technology in each project embarked upon in SPDC. Some of he projects discussed include: Forcados CCP, Oluwa-Ore and Awoba-Soku-Bonny gasline routes/site investigation and selection projects Oben, Uzere/Oroni Field Development Planning ;3D Ovio Seismic prospect planning ;Obigbo Pipeline squatter mapping

  1. Electrospinning for advanced energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications delivers a state-of-the-art overview of the use of electrospun fibers in energy conversion and storage, as well as in environmental sensing and remediation. Featuring contributions from leading experts in electrospinning and its specific applications, this book: Introduces the electrospinning technique and its origins, outlining achievable one-dimensional (1D) nanoscaled materials and their various applications Discusses the use of electrospun materials in energy devices, including low- and high-temperature fuel cells, hydrogen storage, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors Explores environmental applications of electrospun fibers, such as the use of electrospinning-issued materials in membranes for water and air purification, as well as in sensors and biosensors for pollution control Beneficial to both academic and industrial audiences, Electrospinning for Advanced Energy and Environmental Applications present...

  2. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be ...

  3. Engineering proteins for environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Schanstra, Joost P.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, significant new insight has been obtained into the structure and catalytic mechanism of enzymes that convert environmental pollutants. Recent advances in protein engineering make it possible to use this information for improving the catalytic performance of such enzymes to achieve

  4. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  5. Application in agriculture, forestry and environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Holmes, J.W.; Williams, B. G.; Winkworth, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This consideration of the applications of the neutron method in forestry, agriculture and environmental science, focusses on the analyses of the data which can be obtained with the neutron method and draws attention to problem situations associated with its use

  6. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  7. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  8. Application of radiotracers in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present recently emerging trends in the applicability of radiotracers in environmental studies. Since the topic is of general interest and still in the infancy, basic aspects of sampling, instrumentation and methodology are also covered

  9. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  10. Applications of nuclear technique in environmental and medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Shen Hao; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Yao Huiying; Zhou Shijun; Mi Yong

    2001-01-01

    The serious environmental pollution problem and application of the nuclear technique in environmental and medical sciences were discussed. The analysed results of the elemental distribution of particles in automobile exhaust, the aerosol particle of different size and the effect of Rare Earth on cells were reported. The authors can obtain some information related to element concentration. It offers a convenient method in inspecting the environmental pollution

  11. Introduction [Radiation processing: Environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the world. Population growth, higher standards of living, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities all contribute to environmental degradation. For example, fossil fuels - including coal. natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen - are the main primary sources of heat and electrical energy production, and are responsible for a large number and amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry. power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. All of these fuels are composed of major constituents such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and other components including sulphur and nitrogen compounds and metals. During the combustion process, different pollutants are emitted, such as fly ash (containing diverse trace elements (heavy metals)), SO x (including SO 2 and SO 3 ). NO x (including NO 2 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollution caused by particulate matter and other pollutants not only directly impacts the atmospheric environment but also contaminates water and soil, leading to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of the environment. These phenomena have a negative impact on human health and on vegetation

  12. Environmental Projects for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    successful, the end product would be laboratory qualification of a total hexavalent chrome free coating systems for use on magnesium transmission...qualification testing of a completely hexavalent chrome free coating system by utilizing a hexavalent chrome free topcoat, primer, and pretreatment...Evaluate the use of hexavalent chrome free conversion coatings for depot and field applications.  Alodine 5700 and Alodine T 5900 immersion for

  13. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  14. Metagenomic applications in environmental monitoring and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid advances in sequencing technology, the cost of sequencing has dramatically dropped and the scale of sequencing projects has increased accordingly. This has provided the opportunity for the routine use of sequencing techniques in the monitoring of environmental microbes. While metagenomic applications have been routinely applied to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes, their use in environmental monitoring and bioremediation is increasingly common. In this review we seek to provide an overview of some of the metagenomic techniques used in environmental systems biology, addressing their application and limitation. We will also provide several recent examples of the application of metagenomics to bioremediation. We discuss examples where microbial communities have been used to predict the presence and extent of contamination, examples of how metagenomics can be used to characterize the process of natural attenuation by unculturable microbes, as well as examples detailing the use of metagenomics to understand the impact of biostimulation on microbial communities.

  15. Electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong (eds.) [Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials; Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). Nanomaterials Research Center

    2014-10-01

    This book offers a comprehensive review of the latest advances in developing functional electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications, which include fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, supercapacitors, energy storage materials, sensors, filtration materials, protective clothing, catalysis, structurally-colored fibers, oil spill cleanup, self-cleaning materials, adsorbents, and electromagnetic shielding.

  16. Environmental statement for Applications Technology Satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The experiments, environmental impact, and applications of data collected by ATS are discussed. Data cover communications, navigation, meteorology, data collection (including data from small unattended remote stations such as buoys, seismology and hydrology monitors, etc.), geodesy, and scientific experiments to define the environment at synchronous orbit, and to monitor emissions from the sun.

  17. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental ExposuresSherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington,DC) The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

  18. The analysis of organic constituents in leaves by pyrolysis-gas chromatography and its application to selected environmental effects on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbing

    1993-09-01

    The relationship between environmental stress and the concentration of certain organic compounds (carbohydrates, tannins and phenolics) in plant leaves is examined. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PY-GC-MS) can be a rapid and comprehensive method to profile the chemical composition of biomaterials. Enhanced structural information on biomolecules containing acid functional groups can be obtained by a modification of direct pyrolysis; simultaneous pyrolysis methylation (SPM). Initial investigation focused on the characterization of important classes of biomarkers in leaves and optimization of sample preparation and pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolytic techniques were examined as a tool to quantify the compositional changes in leaves of trees which have been subjected to different environmental stresses. Results are reported for three field applications: the effect of thinning on balsam fir trees; the effects of fertilization on kalmia plant; and the effect of ozone on white pine trees. It was found that certain pyrolysates of carbohydrates, tannins and of a dihydrochalcone were good indicators of fertilization and water stress. Two unique pyrolysate biomarkers were discovered in white pine needles as indications of ozone fumigation levels and ozone damage. 132 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  20. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-07

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  1. Environmental applications of manometric respirometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roppola, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this work a manometric respirometric measuring system was applied to practical environmental cases related to wastewater management and biodegradation studies of oil-contaminated soils and materials used in landfill structures. Pollution of groundwater, surface water and soils is a worldwide problem. Therefore, tests simulating the biodegradation behaviour of organic compounds in water media and soils have become increasingly important. Respirometric methods provide direct measurement of the oxygen consumed by micro-organisms in biodegradation processes from an air or oxygen-enriched environment in a closed vessel. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a crucial environmental parameter used to measure the quality of water and treatment results in wastewater. Generally, BOD is measured with standardised methods, which are usually time-consuming as well as laborious. In this work the manometric respirometric test was compared with conventional BOD tests by determining the BOD of pulp and paper mills as well as domestic wastewater samples. The effect of different factors such as type, amount and pre-treatment of inoculum and the effect of dilution of a sample on the BOD values were also tested. A right dilution was noticed to be the most significant factor affecting the BOD values of the industrial wastewater samples. The mathematic estimation of the BOD7 values from the respirometric data was proved to work reliably after a 2-3 day incubation period. Characterisation of organic fractions of the pulp and paper mill wastewater was carried out with methods including filtration, long term BOD measurements and COD analyses. The most significant observation in characterisation analyses was that a remarkable part of the detected oxygen demand was consumed for the biotransformation of biodegradable fractions into new inert decomposition products, not only for mineralisation of the biodegradable COD fraction. Biodegradation behaviour of the peat samples with different

  2. Environmental Development Plan (EDP): space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies and examines the environmental, safety, health, and socioeconomic (ES and H) issues associated with the ongoing DOE Space Applications Program and the associated research, development, and demonstration programs. The EDP presents an ES and H research and development (R/D) program and strategy for timely resolutions of the issues and satisfaction of the associated requirements necessary for precluding impediments to the space nuclear systems technology. The EDP has been limited to the consideration of: (1) space nuclear power system nuclear fuel fabrication; (2) space nuclear power system heat source fabrication; (3) testing of subsystems and assembled systems; (4) R and D in support of space nuclear system development; (5) nuclear system responses to launch and reentry accidents; and (6) nuclear system environmental behavior and recovery

  3. Applications of neural networks in environmental and energy sciences and engineering. Proceedings of the 1995 workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    These proceedings contain edited versions of the technical presentations of the Workshop on Environmental and Energy Applications of Neural Networks, held on March 30--31, 1995, in Richland, Washington. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for discussing environmental, energy, and biomedical applications of neural networks. Panels were held to discuss various research and development issues relating to real-world applications in each of the three areas. The applications covered in the workshop were: Environmental applications -- modeling and predicting soil, air and water pollution, environmental sensing, spectroscopy, hazardous waste handling and cleanup; Energy applications -- process monitoring and optimization of power systems, modeling and control of power plants, environmental monitoring for power systems, power load forecasting, fault location and diagnosis of power systems; and Biomedical applications -- medical image and signal analysis, medical diagnosis, analysis of environmental health effects, and modeling biological systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Remote sensing applications in environmental research

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Prashant K; Gupta, Manika; Islam, Tanvir

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research is the basis for advanced Earth Observation (EO) datasets used in environmental monitoring and research. Now that there are a number of satellites in orbit, EO has become imperative in today's sciences, weather and natural disaster prediction. This highly interdisciplinary reference work brings together diverse studies on remote sensing and GIS, from a theoretical background to its applications, represented through various case studies and the findings of new models. The book offers a comprehensive range of contributions by well-known scientists from around the world and opens a new window for students in presenting interdisciplinary and methodological resources on the latest research. It explores various key aspects and offers state-of-the-art research in a simplified form, describing remote sensing and GIS studies for those who are new to the field, as well as for established researchers.

  5. New decontamination technologies for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; McCoy, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technologies discussed represent a versatile collection of tools and approaches for environmental decontamination applications. The fixatives provide a means for gaining and maintaining control of large contaminated areas, for decontaminating large surface areas, and for protecting equipment and supplies used in decontamination operations. The other decontamination techniques together provide a method for removing loose surface contamination from almost all classes of materials and surfaces. These techniques should have wide application both as direct decontamination processes and for the cleaning of tools and equipment used in the decontamination operations

  6. Environmental applications of biosurfactants: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-18

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  7. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  8. The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-15

    This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.

  9. New environmental applications of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of recent data on environmental applications of radiation technology obtained with participation of the author. It includes the results of the study on combined electron-beam and ozone treatment of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow and electron-beam purification of water from heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium) by two methods (in the presence of formate as an OH radical scavenger or sorbents of inorganic and plant origins)

  10. Remote Sensing: Physics And Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Raey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Basic principles of remote sensing of environment are outlined emphasizing inherent physical and target properties leading to proper identification and classification. Basic processing techniques are discussed. Applications of remote sensing techniques in various aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment is surveyed with emphasis on aspects of main concern to developing communities such as planning, sea level impacts, mine detection and earthquake prediction are all outlined and discussed

  11. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  12. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion models for environmental pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutants are introduced into the air by many of man's activities. The potentially harmful effects these can cause are, broadly speaking, of two kinds: long-term, possibly large-scale and wide-spread chronic effects, including long-term effects on the earth's climate; and acute, short-term effects such as those associated with urban air pollution. This section is concerned with mathematical cloud or plume models describing the role of the atmosphere, primarily in relation to the second of these, the acute effects of air pollution, i.e., those arising from comparatively high concentration levels. The need for such air pollution modeling studies has increased spectacularly as a result of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1968 and, especially, two key court decisions; the Calvert Cliffs decision, and the Sierra Club ruling on environmental non-degradation

  14. Photocatalytic semiconductors synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials.

  15. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  16. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  17. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  18. Place Effects on Environmental Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Colocousis, Chris R.; Duncan, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    How people respond to questions involving the environment depends partly on individual characteristics. Characteristics such as age, gender, education, and ideology constitute the well-studied "social bases of environmental concern," which have been explained in terms of cohort effects or of cognitive and cultural factors related to social…

  19. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  20. Environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Brinch, Anna

    This report presents ecotoxicological data and Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for nine selected nanomaterials which are considered to be environmentally relevant due to high usage or how they are used. These data will together with data from other reports/projects be used in an overall...... assessment of the environmental risk of nanomaterials in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Nano Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black. To support the assessment of the data found in the peer...

  1. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail

  2. Applications of voltammetry in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, D.H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The wide-ranging applications of voltammetry to the analysis of trace metals and other ions of interest to environmental scientists are reviewed. It is concluded that the availability of modern microprocessor controlled instrumentation, capable of performing both anodic stripping and square wave voltammetry, provides a flexible and powerful technique to aid in solving analytical problems and carrying out routine analyses. The recent identification of many sensitizing agents which reduce detection limits to part per thousand million level, or below, is a further exciting development in this field.

  3. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF NANOMETALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Malina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest in metallic nanoparticles has been observed, both because of their unlimited application possibilities, and also because of the unusual biological, chemical and physical features. It is expected that developments in nanotechnology will become the main promoter of scientific and technological innovations in the coming decades. Searching for a new and safe alternative to chemical pesticides, high hopes are associated with nanotechnology development. Particularly useful may be preparations containing nanoscale metal particles with strong antimicrobial properties. Importantly, safe and non-toxic for the plant components of biological origin may be used in nanoparticles synthesis. This article is a description of the potential applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection, which may become the basis for developing of new protection plant products with antimicrobial properties relative to plant pathogens and non-toxic to higher organisms.

  4. Accumulation and effects of copper on aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus L.: Potential application to environmental monitoring and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcela Brandão; Tavares, Francesca Valêncio; Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Martins, Camila de Martinez Gaspar

    2018-07-15

    This study investigated the ability of Potamogeton pectinatus L. to accumulate copper and its effects on plants. In accumulation tests, macrophytes were exposed (96 h) to different copper concentrations (0-1000 µM) and the metal was measured in media and plant tissues (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the bioconcentration factor (BCF). Plants accumulated high concentrations of copper in a dose-dependent manner and roots was the main organ for copper accumulation. However, the more copper increased in water, the more BCF values decreased. It may be due to either saturation of copper uptake or down-regulation of metal uptake by plants. In the physiological and morphological analyses, plants were kept (96 h) in Hoagland nutrient solution without copper, in full Hoagland solution (0.5 µM Cu) and in Hoagland medium with copper from 1 to 100 µM. The absence and the presence of copper above to 1 µM inhibited photosynthesis. Chlorophylls and carotenoid levels also decreased with the excess of copper, a fact that may have affected the photosystem II-dependent of chlorophyll and caused photosynthesis suppression. Only macrophytes at 10 µM Cu showed decrease in length and number of leaves on the 10th day of the test, when they died. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in control groups and groups with extra copper, but not in Hoalgand group. Overall, the macrophyte P. pectinatus can be considered a suitable plant for monitoring environments contaminated by copper, based on results of copper accumulation in the plant, decrease in pigment concentration and presence of chlorosis and necrosis. However, values of BCF based on fresh water tissues was not proper to indicate the use of P. pectinatus for cleaning environments contaminated by copper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The HTR, applications, economics and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Schad, M.; Candeli, H.

    1990-01-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR), as the only nuclear system producing high temperature heat up to 1000 deg. C, offers a wide variety of applications. Besides electricity production, via steam turbines and in future via gas turbines, there is: District heat with high efficiency, long distance energy for urban energy supply, high pressure injection steam production for enhanced oil recovery, medium range temperature heat direct application in chemical and related industry and last not least, high temperature application for the refinement of fossil energy carriers. Recent results of studies and programmes will be presented: Near term applications are identified, e.g. refineries and alumina industry with smaller HTR units. Another large market is the production of hydrogen, methanol and ammonia on the basis of natural gas, the relevant technology has been developed up to the pilot scale. The refinement of fossil energy carriers, in particular of coal, is subject of the R+D programme in the cooperation between German industrial companies and the Nuclear Research Center. The results are very promising and will be explained in detail. This programme will be continued. Objectives are: improvement of the technology and of the economics as well as environmental aspects, e.g. the reduction of emissions of carbon-dioxid. The topics of the programme deal with the different apparatus, e.g. steam methane reformer, steam coal gasifier, intermediate heat exchanger and last not least, the process heat HTR. (author)

  6. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  7. 18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effects of those hazards on the facility, and methods proposed to reduce the effects or risks. Resource... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental reports... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.12 Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications...

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  9. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  10. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  11. Isotope applications in the environmental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Established uses of enriched isotopes in the environmental field were surveyed to determine future trends in isotope needs. Based on established isotope uses, on the projected increase in the pollution problem, and on the apparent social and economic pressure for pollution abatement, a significant demand for enriched isotopes appears to be developing for the assessment and control of air, water, and soil pollutants. Isotopic techniques will be used in combination with conventional methods of detection and measurement, such as gas chromatography, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption. Recent advances in economical isotope separation methods, instrumentation, and methodology promise to place isotopic technology within the reach of most research and industrial institutions. Increased application of isotope techniques appears most likely to occur in areas where data are needed to characterize the movement, behavior, and fate of pollutants in the environment

  12. Portable cosmic muon telescope for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnafoeldi, Gergely Gabor [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hamar, Gergo [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklos Str., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Melegh, Hunor Gergely [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 3-9 Muegyetem rkp., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Olah, Laszlo [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Suranyi, Gergely [Geological, Geophysical and Space Science Research Group of the HAS, Eoetvoes University, 1/C Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, Dezso, E-mail: dezso.varga@cern.ch [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, 1/A Pazmany P. setany, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-10-11

    A portable, low power consumption cosmic muon tracking system based on Close Cathode MWPC technology is presented, which is designed for operation in highly humid environmental conditions such as underground caves, tunnels, or cellars. The system measures the angular distribution of cosmic muons with resolution of 10 mrad, allowing for a tomographic mapping of the soil density above the detector unit. The size of the detector, 0.1 m{sup 2} of total sensitive surface, was designed to fulfill the requirement of transport through humanly passable natural cave tunnels. First results from the Ariadne Cave System in Pilis Mountains, Hungary are shown, which constrains the necessary data taking time for meaningful tomographic mapping. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cosmic muon tracking system for underground applications presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operation in highly humid environment of natural caves demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tomographic mapping at 60 m depth was performed during 50 days in Pilis Mountains, Hungary.

  13. Are environmental scanning units effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbart, C

    1982-06-01

    Many authorities have urged companies to set up environmental scanning to assist corporate planning. Some advocates have recommended a unit at corporate level. This would give breadth of view and penetration into the future. It would arm decision makers with accurate forecasts. The information would be broad in scope and future directed. It could provide also assumptions for long-range planning. The Fahey and King study produced a model of corporate scanning types. The data showed that environmental information was built into the plan. Though the political environment was important, scanning was inadequate. The best location for scanning was not at corporate level and most firms used irregular methods. The Thomas study concluded that effective environmental scanning was permanent and multi level and that 'best practice' was continuous scanning. In 1978 the sample organizations were revisited. Five of the twelve have not changed their practice. The factors which encouraged a continuous model were the attitudes of academics and business media, demonstrated success of the units, the right kind of personnel. Contrary influences were changes in top management, decentralization moves, resource cuts, defining the environment and its significance, the availability of scanning competent personnel, surprise itself, and the availability of alternatives e.g. external forecasts.

  14. Environmental effects in titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental effects on titanium aluminide alloys are potentially of great importance for engineering applications of these materials, although little has been published to date on such effects. The primary emphasis in this paper is on hydrogen effects, with a brief reference to oxygen effects. Hydrogen is readily absorbed at elevated temperature into all the titanium aluminide compositions studied to date, in amounts as large as 10 at.%, and on cooling virtually all this hydrogen is precipitated as a hydride phase or phases. The presence of these precipitated hydride plates affects mechanical properties in ways similar to what is observed in other hydride forming materials, although effects per unit volume of hydride are not particularly severe in the titanium aluminides. Microstructure, and thus thermal and mechanical history, plays a major role in controlling the severity of hydrogen effects

  15. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  16. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  17. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    in the design process is key to environmentally conscious design;- the environmental profile of a product is affected the most in the very early stages of the design process, particularly in the pre-specification stage, where tools for environmentally conscious design decision-making are lacking...... when companies have integrated environmental considerations into the design process.In the context of advanced practitioners of environmentally conscious design in the Western European and North American electrical/electronics industry sector, it is shown that:- the timing of environmental decisions...... into their product development processes. This starts with motivation, leading to widening communication and information flows and finally to whole-life thinking....

  18. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  19. Environmental applications of electron-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The main directions of modern environmental applications of electron-beam technology are the following: 1) treatment of polluted natural and drinking water, municipal and industrial wastewater, other liquid wastes; 2) purification of gases; 3) treatment of sewage sludges; 4) treatment of solid wastes (medical wastes, contaminated soil and so on). In some cases, the results of respective researches and developments found a large-scale application. For example, recently several industrial plants for electron-beam purification of flue gases of thermal power plants from SO2 and NOx were created in China, Poland and Japan. In the report, a brief summary of the most important results obtained in the mentioned directions will be presented. A special attention will be paid to the data in the first direction. In particular, the recent results on radiation treatment of some liquid systems obtained in the laboratory under author's leadership will be considered. One of them is water polluted with petroleum products (motor oil, diesel fuel, residual fuel oil). The pollutants were present in water in dissolved form and as a separate phase. It was found that irradiation (dose 25-40 kGy) decomposes and removes the pollutants as a precipitate. The second system is natural oil gas consisting of gaseous and low-boiling hydrocarbons, water and so on. Laboratory- and pilot-scale (with electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV and 30 kW) studies have shown that electron-beam treatment (in a recycling regime with continuous sampling the liquid phase) of this gas leads to the formation of a mixture of liquid branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers and so on, i.e., there is a radiation-induced liquefaction of the natural oil gas. The mechanism of radiolytic conversions occurring in the mentioned systems will be discussed

  20. Environmental implications and applications of engineered ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review focus on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that take advantages of their superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition, hydrothermal process, emulsion, and microbial process. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for making excellent anode electrode materials in lithium-ion battery, for constructing biosensors, and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are made as antimicrobial agent for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dye, oil, arsenic, Cr(VI), heavy metals, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization. Submit to Journal of Hazardous Materials.

  1. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  2. Application of radiation to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Machi, Sueo

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made to investigate the current applications of radiations to environmental protection. Electron irradiation is used for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas. Flue gas generated from combusted fossil fuel such as coal and oil is irradiated with electrons to oxidize sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are then removed to clean the flue gas. Ammonia or lime may be added before irradiation to convert sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides into ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate or convert sulfur dioxide into calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Radiations are helpful for treatment of waste water. When water is irradiated with radiations, most of the energy is absorbed by water to cause decomposition of water molecules, resulting in the production of highly reactive species such as OH radical and H atom. Contaminants then react with these species and are oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Other methods are also available for applying radiations to water treatment. Sludge contains a large amount of organic substances that serve as fertilizer components. Thus, radiations can be used to sterilize and compost sludge. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  4. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  5. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer....406 Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit, the...

  6. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  7. Application of remote sensing to environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, J F

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of remote sensing to environmental management procedures at the sub-regional scale is examined in relation to the County Structure environmental management plan for Merseyside County, England. The various seasons, scales and emulsions used for aerial photography in the county are indicated, and results of aerial surveys of the distribution of derelict and despoiled land and of natural environments are presented and compared with ground surveys. The use of color infrared and panchromatic aerial photographs indicating areas of environmental stress and land use in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of environmental management activities is then discussed.

  8. Demonstrating the cost effectiveness of an expert occupational and environmental health nurse: application of AAOHN's success tools. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J A; Smith, P S

    2001-12-01

    According to DiBenedetto, "Occupational health nurses enhance and maximize the health, safety, and productivity of the domestic and global work force" (1999b). This project clearly defined the multiple roles and activities provided by an occupational and environmental health nurse and assistant, supported by a part time contract occupational health nurse. A well defined estimate of the personnel costs for each of these roles is helpful both in demonstrating current value and in future strategic planning for this department. The model highlighted both successes and a business cost savings opportunity for integrated disability management. The AAOHN's Success Tools (1998) were invaluable in launching the development of this cost effectiveness model. The three methods were selected from several tools of varying complexities offered. Collecting available data to develop these metrics required internal consultation with finance, human resources, and risk management, as well as communication with external health, safety, and environmental providers in the community. Benchmarks, surveys, and performance indicators can be found readily in the literature and online. The primary motivation for occupational and environmental health nurses to develop cost effectiveness analyses is to demonstrate the value and worth of their programs and services. However, it can be equally important to identify which services are not cost effective so knowledge and skills may be used in ways that continue to provide value to employers (AAOHN, 1996). As evidence based health care challenges the occupational health community to demonstrate business rationale and financial return on investment, occupational and environmental health nurses must meet that challenge if they are to define their preferred future (DiBenedetto, 2000).

  9. Radiation Application in the Environmental. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaliah Sharif; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ming, T.T.; Nor Hasimah Mohamed; Siti Fatahiyah Mohamad; Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman

    2017-01-01

    Radiation has always been a natural part of environment. It is valuable working resources for civil, chemical and environmental engineers and scientist involved with pollution control, water treatment and industrial waste treatment. Electron beam technology for environmental conservation can be achieved if we took into account the economic factors which enable it to compete with existed technology.

  10. Minerals ontology: application in the environmental field to silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Saulnier, A.; Garcia Gimenez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of an ontology, or up-to-date computerized tool, developed in the field of artificial intelligence and in particular of knowledge engineering, to inert elements, in this case the silicate class, which are minerals of scientific, technical and economic interest. The importance of applying ontology to minerals lies in the fact that these substances are capable of causing negative environmental impacts upon other variables in the natural environment, such as the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and possible subsequent effects on human health. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  12. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

  13. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  14. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 970.506 Section... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find that... adverse effect on the quality of the environment, taking into account the analyses and information in any...

  15. Uranium Fuel Plant. Applicants environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The Uranium Fuel Plant, located at the Cimarron Facility, was constructed in 1964 with operations commencing in 1965 in accordance with License No. SNM-928, Docket No. 70-925. The plant has been in continuous operation since the issuance of the initial license and currently possesses contracts extending through 1978, for the production of nuclear fuels. The Uranium Plant is operated in conjunction with the Plutonium Facility, each sharing common utilities and sanitary wastes disposal systems. The operation has had little or no detrimental ecological impact on the area. For the operation of the Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant, initial equipment provided for the production of UO 2 , UF 4 , uranium metal and recovery of scrap materials. In 1968, the plant was expanded by increasing the UO 2 and pellet facilities by the installation of another complete production line for the production of fuel pellets. In 1969, fabrication facilities were added for the production of fuel elements. Equipment initially installed for the recovery of fully enriched scrap has not been used since the last work was done in 1970. Economically, the plant has benefited the Logan County area, with approximately 104 new jobs with an annual payroll of approximately $1.3 million. In addition, $142,000 is annually paid in taxes to state, local and federal governments, and local purchases amount to approximately $1.3 million. This was all in land that was previously used for pasture land, with a maximum value of approximately 37,000 dollars. Environmental effects of plant operation have been minimal. A monitoring and measurement program is maintained in order to ensure that the ecology of the immediate area is not affected by plant operations

  16. Beneficial Effects of Environmental Gases: Health Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; IBrahim, M.S.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone

  17. Application of radiophotoluminescence dosemeters for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, A.; Tamura, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Numakunai, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Ohi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Feasibility study has been made on the radiofluorescence glass (RPL) dosemeters for environmental radiation monitoring. Main items in the laboratory tests are batch uniformities of pre-dose and sensitivity, build-up characteristics of RPL intensity, energy and angular responses, stabilities for RPL reading, anneal cycling and climatic conditional changes. We have determined self-irradiation dose and cosmic ray contribution. Radiation monitoring field test for the RPL dosemeters has been conducted in comparison with the present TLD systems. A procedure manual for the environmental monitoring by the use of RPL dosemeters is in preparation

  18. Environmental effects on molecules immersed in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sese, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology to study environmental effects is thoroughly discussed. It combines molecular quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics of molecular fluids. Pair distribution functions collecting statistical information appear quite naturally in the quantum equations describing a single molecule. As well as allowing the computation of any individual molecular property in a liquid phase, this approach satisfies a number of theoretical requirements (dependence on density and temperature, validity in the thermodynamic limit). In a sense, it can be regarded as a useful alternative to the well-known Monte Carlo averaging processes for calculating molecular properties. Numerical applications studying liquid carbon disulphide and liquid carbon tetrachloride at several state points are given. Results cover typical RHF information (CNDO/2) on molecules, and show the sensitivity of the presented methodology to structural changes in liquids. (orig.)

  19. Jensen's Inequality Predicts Effects of Environmental Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan J. Ruel; Matthew P. Ayres

    1999-01-01

    Many biologists now recognize that environmental variance can exert important effects on patterns and processes in nature that are independent of average conditions. Jenson's inequality is a mathematical proof that is seldom mentioned in the ecological literature but which provides a powerful tool for predicting some direct effects of environmental variance in...

  20. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  1. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  2. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication

  3. Environmental Monitoring Curriculum System and Application-Oriented Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Through building the environmental monitoring curriculum system for application-oriented talents, the comprehensive design and practice were constructed from the syllabus, textbooks, web-based courses, top-quality courses, test paper bank, open laboratory and scientific research etc. The aims are to promote environmental science professional,…

  4. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  5. Searching for reciclability of modified clays for an environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen; Solange Lozano García, Marina; Sánchez Escribano, Vicente; Antequera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Thanks to the development of the science and the technology of the nourishment in the last 50 years, there have revealed itself several new substances that can fulfill beneficial functions in the food, and these substances, named food additives, are today within reach of all. The food additives recover a very important role in the complex nourishing supply. The additives fulfill several useful functions in the food, which often we give for sat. Nevertheless the widespread use of food additives in the food production also influences the public health. The food industries, which are very important for the economy, spill residues proved from its activity that they have to be controlled to evaluate the environmental impact and to offer the necessary information about the quantitative evaluation of the chemical risk of the use of food additives for the public health. The clay materials have led to numerous applications in the field of public health (del Hoyo, 2007; Volzone, 2007) having been demonstrated its effectiveness as adsorbents of all contaminants. Some biodegradable materials are used for for adsorption of chemical contaminants: lignins (Valderrabano et al., 2008) and also clays and clay minerals, whose colloidal properties, ease of generating structural changes, abundance in nature, and low cost make them very suitable for this kind of applications. Among the strategies used at present to preserve the quality of the water and this way to diminish the environmental risk that supposes the chemical pollution, stands out the use of adsorbents of under cost, already they are natural or modified, to immobilize these compounds and to avoid the pollution of the water with the consequent reduction of environmental and economic costs. We have studied the adsorption of several contaminants related to the food industry by natural or modified clays, searching their interaction mechanisms and the possible recycling of these materials for environmental purposes and

  6. Microalgae for biofuels production and environmental applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review presents the current classification of biofuels, with special focus on microalgae and their applicability for the production of biodiesel. The paper considered issues related with the processing and culturing of microalgae, for not only those that are involved in biofuel production, but as well as the possibility of their ...

  7. Geomaterials: their application to environmental remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Yamada, Kenji Tamura, Yujiro Watanabe, Nobuo Iyi and Kazuya Morimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomaterials are materials inspired by geological systems originating from the billion years long history of the Earth. This article reviews three important classes of geomaterials. The first one is smectites—layered silicates with a cation-exchange capacity. Smectites are useful for removing pollutants and as intercalation compounds, catalysts and polymer nanocomposites. The second class is layered double hydroxides (LDHs. They have an anion-exchange capacity and are used as catalysts, catalyst precursors, sorbents and scavengers for halogens. The third class of geomaterials is zeolites—microporous materials with a cation-exchange capacity which are used for removing harmful cations. Zeolite composites with LDHs can absorb ammonium and phosphate ions in rivers and lakes, whereas zeolite/apatite composites can immobilize the radioactive iodine. These geomaterials are essential for environmental remediation.

  8. Geomaterials: their application to environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirohisa; Tamura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yujiro; Iyi, Nobuo; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    Geomaterials are materials inspired by geological systems originating from the billion years long history of the Earth. This article reviews three important classes of geomaterials. The first one is smectites—layered silicates with a cation-exchange capacity. Smectites are useful for removing pollutants and as intercalation compounds, catalysts and polymer nanocomposites. The second class is layered double hydroxides (LDHs). They have an anion-exchange capacity and are used as catalysts, catalyst precursors, sorbents and scavengers for halogens. The third class of geomaterials is zeolites—microporous materials with a cation-exchange capacity which are used for removing harmful cations. Zeolite composites with LDHs can absorb ammonium and phosphate ions in rivers and lakes, whereas zeolite/apatite composites can immobilize the radioactive iodine. These geomaterials are essential for environmental remediation. PMID:27877455

  9. Environmental applications of the LANL nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Herrin, J.M.; Abell, R.; George, M.; Gauerke, E.R.; Denniston, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The LANL nuclear microprobe has been used to study the distributions of trace elements (TE) of environmental interest including: (1) metals in coal and fly ash, (2) Pb in the Bandelier Tuff (BT), (3) Ba in tree rings, (4) Mn, Fe, Sr and Y in Yucca Mountain calcites. Micro-PIXE (MP) analyses with 5-10 micrometer spatial resolution provide constraints on processes that redistribute contaminants in the environment, and hence may help answer environmental problems where fine-scale chemical records are important. MP analyses of particulates in coal and ash show that pyrite contains As, Se, Hg and Pb; macerals contain Cr, halogens and S; cenospheres contain As, Se and Ni; and hematite ash contains Ni and As. Understanding these elemental modes of occurrence allows prediction of metal behavior in boilers and may enhance compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments. Fine-grained high-Pb minerals were identified using SEM and MP analyses of BT minerals. These minerals were from samples associated with deep-groundwater wells containing Pb at levels greater than regulatory limits. Pb is concentrated in Pb minerals (e.g. cerussite), smectite, and hematite formed during low-T alteration of tuff. Understanding mineralogic speciation of metals may provide insights into sources of groundwater pollution. Tree rings from ponderosa pines that grew in a Ba-contaminated drainage were analyzed using MP. Ba concentrations are typically higher in rings that formed after operations discharging Ba to the environment began. Such tree-ring analyses may ultimately provide information on rates of contaminant migration in the environment. TE in zoned calcites from Yucca Mountain were analyzed by MP. Calcites from the saturated zone (SZ) have distinct chemical signatures (high Fe, Mn and low Y). No calcites in the unsaturated zone with SZ chemical signatures were found using MP

  10. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly reviews previous WHO work on the health consequences of nuclear war and concentrates on current information about the effects of nuclear weapons on health, and related environmental problems. 15 refs

  11. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  12. Radon detectors for continuous environmental monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisoutham, O.; Werczynski, S.; Chambers, S.; Zahorowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    The two-filter method is presently the best technique available for real-time low-level counting of atmospheric 222 Rn. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has developed and deployed a range of dual flow loop, two-filter radon detectors around the world for various applications. The detectors have a response time of 45 minutes, and can be custom built for specific purposes. The largest detectors have a lower limit of detection of ∼10 mBq m -3

  13. Environmental aspects of nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, S.S.; Howe, J.P.; Icerman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper estimates the future dangers from the nuclear industry. Historically, the occurrence of nuclear reactor accidents has not been a hazard to the U.S. population, because of relatively limited reactor deployment and because of relatively safe operation. Some factual inputs were taken from the Rasmussen Report, ''An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' It is noted that data on nuclear power plant accidents follow a curve about four orders of magnitude below that for persons on the ground killed by air crashes. Data show that coal mining produced about ten times as many disabilities as uranium mining and milling per 10 6 MW(e)h of energy recovered, while the number of injuries per 10 6 man-hours of work was roughly comparable for these two types of occupations. Information on the following subjects is then presented: radiation protection standards, radiation exposures; radiation emitted from nuclear reactors under normal operating conditions; accidents involving nuclear fission reactors; fuel reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; estimates of environmental and safety aspects of fusion power; licensing of nuclear reactors; nuclear safeguards: diversion of nuclear materials, sabotage, and subversion; and nuclear energy and trade deficits in which data are presented estimating a timetable expressing the economic power of OPEC, or the time required for OPEC wealth to purchase the world's major assets

  14. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  15. Automated quantitative micro-mineralogical characterization for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hoal, K.O.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Stammer, J.G.; Pietersen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ore and waste-rock material using automated quantitative micro-mineralogical techniques (e.g., QEMSCAN® and MLA) has the potential to complement traditional acid-base accounting and humidity cell techniques when predicting acid generation and metal release. These characterization techniques, which most commonly are used for metallurgical, mineral-processing, and geometallurgical applications, can be broadly applied throughout the mine-life cycle to include numerous environmental applications. Critical insights into mineral liberation, mineral associations, particle size, particle texture, and mineralogical residence phase(s) of environmentally important elements can be used to anticipate potential environmental challenges. Resources spent on initial characterization result in lower uncertainties of potential environmental impacts and possible cost savings associated with remediation and closure. Examples illustrate mineralogical and textural characterization of fluvial tailings material from the upper Arkansas River in Colorado.

  16. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  17. Application of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yingnan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent application and development of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry in the following aspects: gas isotopes (He, C) tracing of warm springs; H, O isotope tracing on the origin and cause of geothermal water, environmental isotope dating of geothermal water, and the advantage of excess parameter of deuterium (d) in geothermal research. The author also suggests that isotope method should combine with other geological methods to expand its advantage. (authors)

  18. Application of radiation technology for industry and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueo Machi

    1996-01-01

    The world population today is 5.7 billion and increasing by 94 million per year. In order to meet the increasing consumption of food and energy due to the tremendous population growth, unproved technologies which are environmentally friendly, are indispensable. In this context. a number of advanced technologies have been brought about by the LISC of radiation and isotopes. This paper highlights radiation technology, applications in industry, environmental conservation, and agriculture

  19. Environmental effects from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Since 1969 several meetings have been convened to study the possibility of using high-level radiation in waste treatment. It was agreed that ionizing radiation offered some compromise as a feasible technology for a certain unique purpose, but economic considerations mitigated any overwhelming enthusiasm for early industrial realization. Recently a significant change has taken place in the world energy supply picture, and the expanded projection of nuclear power generation affects the analysis of comparative economic feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment of wastes. In addition, increased consideration of environmental quality not only calls for the re-evaluation of conventional waste treatment technologies, but also the development of more effective means where conventional methods might be unsatisfactory. As a result of several allied considerations, it was thought necessary and timely to review the status of research and development in the application of ionizing radiation to waste treatment and to consider the environmental implication of the proposed technology. Accordingly, the Symposium on the Use of High-Level Radiation in Waste Treatment - Status and Prospects was convened by the IAEA, in co-operation with the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau. Forty-eight papers were presented in eight sessions covering the current technology of waste-water treatment and re-use, radiosensitivity of micro-organisms, disinfection and microbiological control, physical and chemical modification of aqueous pollutants, technological and economic considerations, pilot-plant design and operating experiences, and radiation treatment of gaseous and solid wastes

  20. Environmental application of modified natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikashina, V.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The following techniques were used for the chemical modification of the natural zeolites: (1) treatment of natural zeolites with organic substances. Examples of applications of these sorbents to the decontamination and disinfection of solutions of different composition and surface waters are presented. (2) Treatment of the natural zeolites with a inorganic substances. (2.1) The clinoptilolite-rich tuffs were treated with a hot suspensions of freshly precipitated magnetite. This leads to the preparation of sorbents possessing magnetic properties. The radionuclides and heavy metals recovery from soils and silts was investigated using different soil and ferromagnetic zeolite weights ratios and contact times. Different soils and sorbent of varying capacities were used for these investigations. As example, the recovery 137 Cs and 85 Sr from soils of different nature is presented. (2.2) Treatment of natural zeolites with Fe-containing solutions of Fe-containing natural waters. The filtration of these solutions through clinoptilolite-rich tuffs makes leads to preparation of materials possessing high selectivity to PO 4 3- ions. The properties of these sorbents can be utilized for the PO 4 3+ decontamination of waters (e.g. waste waters) and for the subsequent use of these materials in agriculture as fertilizers.(author)

  1. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  2. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, O.; Bernard, J.; Vermeersch, F.

    2007-01-01

    For a few years, the evolution of measuring equipment and of interpretation software have permitted to develop a new electrical resistivity technique called resistivity imaging where the equipment, which includes a large number of electrodes located along a line at the same time, carries out an automatic switching of these electrodes for acquiring profiling data. The apparent resistivity pseudo sections measured with such a technique are processed by an inversion software which gives interpreted resistivity and depth values for the anomalies detected along the profile. The multi-electrode resistivity technique consists in using a multi-core cable with as many conductors (24, 48, 72, 96) as electrodes plugged into the ground at a fixed spacing, every 5m for instance. In the resistivitymeter itself are located the relays which ensure the switching of those electrodes according to a sequence of readings predefined and stored in the internal memory of the equipment. The various combinations of transmitting (A,B) and receiving (M,N) pairs of electrodes construct the mixed sounding / profiling section, with a maximum investigation depth which mainly depends on the total length of the cable. The 2D resistivity images obtained with such a multi-electrode technique are used for studying the shallow stuctures of the underground located a few tens of metres down to about one hundred metres depth; these images supply an information which complements the one obtained with the more traditionnal Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique, which mainly aims at determining the depths of horizontal 1D structures from the surface down to several hundreds metres depths. Several examples are presented for various types of applications: groundwater (intrusion of salt water in fresh water), geotechnics (detection of a fault in a granitic area), environment (delineation of a waste disposal area) and archaeology (discovery of an ancient tomb)

  3. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by

  4. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the ‘legal requirement’ discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The ‘common ground’ regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less

  5. Distributional Effects of Environmental Taxes in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Poltimäe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the distributional effects of Estonian environmental taxes in 2000-2007 and recent reforms in 2008 using Estonian Household Budget Survey data and a microsimulation model. The results show that the share of environmental taxes in consumption expenditures is about 1-1.5%. Environmental taxes in 2000- 2007 were progressive due to the progressivity of motor fuel excises, which was the largest component of the environmental taxes until 2007. Since 2008, the taxes are less progressive, because of the new electricity excise and increased taxes on gas and other inputs used for distance domestic heating. To minimize the disproportionate effect of future ecological tax reform on low-income households, close monitoring of tax developments is required and necessary compensatory policies need to be implemented

  6. Community Environmental Education as a Model for Effective Environmental Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Morag

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of community environmental education outlined in environmental education literature are supported by the findings and implications of a research study undertaken in New Zealand. Evidence from a two-case case study suggests that environmental programmes guided by the key principles and practices of community environmental education,…

  7. Toward Environmentally Robust Organic Electronics: Approaches and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kwang; Lee, Moo Yeol; Park, Cheol Hee; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak

    2017-11-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics has led to a paradigm shift in consumer electronics, and the emergent development of stretchable and wearable electronics is opening a new spectrum of ubiquitous applications for electronics. Organic electronic materials, such as π-conjugated small molecules and polymers, are highly suitable for use in low-cost wearable electronic devices, and their charge-carrier mobilities have now exceeded that of amorphous silicon. However, their commercialization is minimal, mainly because of weaknesses in terms of operational stability, long-term stability under ambient conditions, and chemical stability related to fabrication processes. Recently, however, many attempts have been made to overcome such instabilities of organic electronic materials. Here, an overview is provided of the strategies developed for environmentally robust organic electronics to overcome the detrimental effects of various critical factors such as oxygen, water, chemicals, heat, and light. Additionally, molecular design approaches to π-conjugated small molecules and polymers that are highly stable under ambient and harsh conditions are explored; such materials will circumvent the need for encapsulation and provide a greater degree of freedom using simple solution-based device-fabrication techniques. Applications that are made possible through these strategies are highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Environmental Effect on Egress Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Giese, Andrew; Amato, Nancy M.; Zarrinmehr, Saied; Al-Douri, Firas; Clayton, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Evacuation and egress simulations can be a useful tool for studying the effect of design decisions on the flow of agent movement. This type of simulation can be used to determine before hand the effect of design decisions and enable exploration of potential improvements. In this work, we study at how agent egress is affected by the environment in real world and large scale virtual environments and investigate metrics to analyze the flow. Our work differs from many evacuation systems in that we support grouping restrictions between agents (e.g., families or other social groups traveling together), and model scenarios with multiple modes of transportation with physically realistic dynamics (e.g., individuals walk from a building to their own cars and leave only when all people in the group arrive).

  9. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  10. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs

  11. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources

  12. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  13. Advanced Carbon Materials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2014-01-01

    Carbon based materials, including porous carbons and carbon layer composites, are finding increased usage in latest environmental and energy related research. Among porous carbon materials, hierarchical porous carbons with multi-modal porosity are proving out to be an effective solution for applications where the traditional activated carbons fail. Thus, there has been a lot of recent interest in developing low-cost, facile, easy to scale-up, synthesis techniques for producing such multi-modal porous carbons. This dissertation offers two novel synthesis techniques: (i) ice templating integrated with hard templating, and (ii) salt templating coupled with hard templating, for producing such hierarchically porous carbons. The techniques offer tight control and tunability of porosity (macro- meso- and microscale) in terms of both size and extent. The synthesized multi-modal porous carbons are shown to be an effective solution for three important environment related applications – (i) Carbon dioxide capture using amine supported hierarchical porous carbons, (ii) Reduction in irreversible fouling of membranes used for wastewater reuse through a deposition of a layer of hierarchical porous carbons on the membrane surface, (iii) Electrode materials for electrosorptive applications. Finally, because of their tunability, the synthesized multi-modal porous carbons serve as excellent model systems for understanding the effect of different types of porosity on the performance of porous carbons for these applications. Also, recently, there has been a lot of interest in developing protective layer coatings for preventing photo-corrosion of semiconductor structures (in particular Cu2O) used for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Most of the developed protective strategies to date involve the use of metals or co-catalyst in the protective layer. Thus there is a big need for developing low-cost, facile and easy to scale protective coating strategies. Based on the expertise

  14. Advanced Carbon Materials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2014-05-01

    Carbon based materials, including porous carbons and carbon layer composites, are finding increased usage in latest environmental and energy related research. Among porous carbon materials, hierarchical porous carbons with multi-modal porosity are proving out to be an effective solution for applications where the traditional activated carbons fail. Thus, there has been a lot of recent interest in developing low-cost, facile, easy to scale-up, synthesis techniques for producing such multi-modal porous carbons. This dissertation offers two novel synthesis techniques: (i) ice templating integrated with hard templating, and (ii) salt templating coupled with hard templating, for producing such hierarchically porous carbons. The techniques offer tight control and tunability of porosity (macro- meso- and microscale) in terms of both size and extent. The synthesized multi-modal porous carbons are shown to be an effective solution for three important environment related applications – (i) Carbon dioxide capture using amine supported hierarchical porous carbons, (ii) Reduction in irreversible fouling of membranes used for wastewater reuse through a deposition of a layer of hierarchical porous carbons on the membrane surface, (iii) Electrode materials for electrosorptive applications. Finally, because of their tunability, the synthesized multi-modal porous carbons serve as excellent model systems for understanding the effect of different types of porosity on the performance of porous carbons for these applications. Also, recently, there has been a lot of interest in developing protective layer coatings for preventing photo-corrosion of semiconductor structures (in particular Cu2O) used for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Most of the developed protective strategies to date involve the use of metals or co-catalyst in the protective layer. Thus there is a big need for developing low-cost, facile and easy to scale protective coating strategies. Based on the expertise

  15. Supercritical fluid technology for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources - including renewable materials - using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine...

  16. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  17. Application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a review of current status of the application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology. Different aspects of radiation treatment of natural and polluted drinking water, radiation purification of industrial and municipal wastes, radiation treatment of sewage sludge and radiation purification of exhaust gases are considered. The special attention is paid to the respective pilot and industrial facilities. (author) 70 refs

  18. Environmental effects of cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1974 Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations (Technical Reports Series No.155), much progress has been made in the understanding of phenomena related to thermal discharges. Many studies have been performed in Member States and from 1973 to 1978 the IAEA sponsored a co-ordinated research programme on 'Physical and Biological Effects on the Environment of Cooling Systems and Thermal Discharges from Nuclear Power Stations'. Seven laboratories from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, India and the United States of America were involved in this programme, and a lot of new information has been obtained during the five years' collaboration. The progress of the work was discussed at annual co-ordination meetings and the results are presented in the present report. It complements the previous report mentioned above as it deals with several questions that were not answered in 1974. With the conclusion of this co-ordinated programme, it is obvious that some problems have not yet been resolved and that more work is necessary to assess completely the impact of cooling systems on the environment. It is felt, however, that the data gathered here will bring a substantial contribution to the understanding of the subject

  19. A novel ontology approach to support design for reliability considering environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Li, Yu; Ye, Tianyuan; Ren, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Environmental effects are not considered sufficiently in product design. Reliability problems caused by environmental effects are very prominent. This paper proposes a method to apply ontology approach in product design. During product reliability design and analysis, environmental effects knowledge reusing is achieved. First, the relationship of environmental effects and product reliability is analyzed. Then environmental effects ontology to describe environmental effects domain knowledge is designed. Related concepts of environmental effects are formally defined by using the ontology approach. This model can be applied to arrange environmental effects knowledge in different environments. Finally, rubber seals used in the subhumid acid rain environment are taken as an example to illustrate ontological model application on reliability design and analysis.

  20. The environmental effects of taxes on packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroten, A.; Nelissen, D.; Bergsma, G.C.; Blom, M.J.

    2010-08-01

    The results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of taxes for packages are presented, differentiated for greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation used a qualitative analysis of information from eighteen depth-interviews with experts in the packaging market, foreign experiences, relevant price elasticities and 'expert guesses'. It appears that tax package so far had a limited effect on the packaging market. For the longer term (ten years) larger, but probably also limited, effects are expected. The environmental impact of packaging tax can be increased if the taxes are substantially increased. [nl

  1. Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th century have produced no deleterious effects upon global climate or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates as inferred from numerous laboratory and field experiments. There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO 2 on climate. Meaningful integrated assessments of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic CO 2 are not yet possible because model estimates of global and regional climate changes on interannual, decadal and centennial timescales remain highly uncertain.(author)

  2. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:22573992

  3. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  4. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  5. A study of the effectiveness and application of environmental tritium as a groundwater tracer in a semi-arid region of Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.

    1974-12-01

    To assess the potential use of environmental tritium in groundwater studies, an extensive sampling programme was carried out from a network of wells in groundwater basins of Lobatse and Serowe in South Africa. Statistical evaluations were performed on collected data to assess the significance of low-level tritium concentrations observed in groundwaters. Tritium depth profiles were studied at selected sites to estimate the rate of direct recharge to the aquifers. The tritium data were used to study mixing patterns and mechanism of recharge, and quantitative estimates of storage capacity were made for different aquifer units in the areas studied. Supplementary, carbon-14, stable isotope and hydrochemical data were discussed to achieve a full understanding of the behaviour of the aquifers. The results of the study indicate that environmental tritium, even at the low concentrations found in the southern hemisphere, is a powerful tool in hydrogeological studies and, together with simultaneous measurements of other environmental isotopes, could prove very useful for studying the behaviour of aquifers and for quantitative estimates of certain parameters of groundwater systems

  6. Environmental impact statement - an effective tool for successful mine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Mining is a hazardous operation which must be designed to succeed under very unpredictable environmental, geological and marketing conditions over a committed life of thirty years or longer. It is well-established by now that mining has tremendous social, economic and environmental impacts on society in general and on local communities in particular. Mining's image has begun to improve with effective hazard controls and property reclamation through improved mine design and restoration plans. Much of the credit for this achievement should go to Environmental Impact Statement and related permitting requirements for mining projects. An Environmental Impact Statement with respect to almost every type of mining project is now frequently required by major banks, and other funding agencies, governmental agencies and/or citizen groups involved in the permitting process. This impact statement ensures that the proposed project has the potential to succeed under all foreseeable environmental, geological and marketing problems throughout its projected life and to guarantee the return of the initial capital with interest. In short, the impact statement offers assurance that the final project will culminate with positive environmental and social impacts. The relevance and contributions of Environmental Impact Statements in mine design, as well as their applications and development procedures are presented. 3 refs., 8 figs

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry and its applications in environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kexin; Li Kun; Ma Hongji; Guo Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    Some important work worldwide in environmental science, like urban air pollution, discharges of radioactive wastes from nuclear plants, and global climate change were introduced. Based on the improvements of facility and studies on 14 C dating method, a precision better than 0.5% has been reached for the PKUAMS. A large number of samples have been measured for the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology project. 14 C data of PKUAMS have made important contributions to creation of more reliable chronological table of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. The improvements of PKUAMS are of benefit to the applications in environmental science in the future

  8. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  9. Application of Environmental Management in Danish Companies: The Statistical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    in business presents a challenge to management, however, since it implies a fundamental change in some of the ways of operating a company. This paper will describe how information on the actual extent of environmental management in Danish companies and the way it is applied has been collected based...... contributed to an increasing awareness of the effect of business activities on the physical environment. To assist companies reduce, evaluate, monitor and control their environmental impact the concept of corporate environmental and resource management has been developed. Implementation of this concept...

  10. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  11. Indispensable role of biochar-inherent mineral constituents in its environmental applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yinghao; Sima, Jingke; Zhao, Ling; Mašek, Ondřej; Cao, Xinde

    2017-10-01

    Biochar typically consists of both carbon and mineral fractions, and the carbon fraction has been generally considered to determine its properties and applications. Recently, an increasing body of research has demonstrated that mineral components inherent in biochar, such as alkali or alkaline earth metals in the form of carbonates, phosphates, or oxides, could also influence the properties and thus the applications. The review articles published thus far have mainly focused on multiple environmental and agronomic applications of biochar, including carbon sequestration, soil improvement, environmental remediation, etc. This review aims to highlight the indispensable role of the mineral fraction of biochar in these different applications, especially in environmental applications. Specifically, it provides a critical review of current research findings related to the mineral composition of biochar and the effect of the mineral fraction on the physicochemical properties, contaminant sorption, carbon retention and stability, and nutrient bioavailability of biochar. Furthermore, the role of minerals in the emerging applications of biochar, as a precursor for fuel cells, supercapacitors, and photoactive components, is also summarized. Overall, inherent minerals should be fully considered while determining the most appropriate application for any given biochar. A thorough understanding of the role of biochar-bound minerals in different applications will also allow the design or selection of the most suitable biochar for specific applications based on the consideration of feedstock composition, production parameters, and post-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  13. Utilizing steel slag in environmental application - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Chew, L. H.; Choong, T. S. Y.; Tezara, C.; Yazdi, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Steel slags are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel making industries.The potential environmental issues which are related with the slag dump or reprocessing for metal recovery are generally being focused in the research. However the chemistry and mineralogy of slag depends on metallurgical process which is able to determine whether the steel slag can be the reusable products or not. Nowadays, steel slag are well characterized by using several methods, such as X-ray Diffraction, ICP-OES, leaching test and many more. About the industrial application, it is mainly reused as aggregate for road construction, as armour stones for hydraulic engineering constructions and as fertilizers for agricultural purposes. To ensure the quality of steel slag for the end usage, several test methods are developed for evaluating the technical properties of steel slag, especially volume stability and environmental behaviour. In order to determine its environmental behaviour, leaching tests have been developed. The focus of this paper however is on those applications that directly affect environmental issues including remediation, and mitigation of activities that negatively impact the environment.

  14. Environmental effects of geothermal energy exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Japan

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of geothermal power generation which cause air and water pollution and destruction of natural areas are reviewed. The production of steam and hot water affect existing hot springs sources and can cause ground subsidence. Harmful gas can be released onto the atmosphere from fumarolic gas and hot springs. Hydrothermal geothermal fields occasionally contain harmful substances such as arsenic in the hot water. Serious environmental effects can result from geothermal exploitation activities such as the felling of trees for road construction, well drilling, and plant construction. Once geothermal power generation has begun, the release of H/sub 2/S into the atmosphere and the reinjection of hot water are conducted continuously and sufficient countermeasures can be taken. One problem is the effects of plant construction and operation on natural parks. It is important to reach a compromise between development and protection of natural senic areas. Two figures, two tables, and 13 references are provided.

  15. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc.

  16. Development and environmental applications of activated carbon cloths

    OpenAIRE

    Cukierman, Ana Lea

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon cloths have received growing attention because they offer comparative advantages over the traditional powdered or granular forms of this well-known adsorbent, providing further potential uses for technological innovations in several fields. The present article provides an overview of research studies and advances concerned with the development of activated carbon cloths and their use as adsorbent in environmental applications, mostly reported in the last years. The influence ...

  17. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  18. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects

  19. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc

  20. A hyperspectral image data exploration workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyna, M.A.; Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Hyperspectral Image Data Exploration Workbench (HIDEW) software system has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to enable analysts at Unix workstations to conveniently access and manipulate high-resolution imagery data for analysis, mapping purposes, and input to environmental modeling applications. HIDEW is fully object-oriented, including the underlying database. This system was developed as an aid to site characterization work and atmospheric research projects.

  1. 40 CFR 8.2 - Applicability and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and effect. 8.2 Section 8... OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.2 Applicability and effect. (a) This part is intended to ensure that potential environmental effects of nongovernmental activities undertaken in Antarctica...

  2. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  3. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: araya@sup.ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kamishiro, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakuta, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: itozaki@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-10-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise.

  4. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Kamishiro, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise

  5. Environmental pollution-effects on national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahyuddin bin Ramli; Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Idris

    1994-01-01

    Environmental pollution is among the major issues highlighted in many discussion between the Government and Non-Government officials whether in the developed or developing countries. The problems becoming worsen when not many people are concerned on its detrimental effects on the future generations. The increasing number of forest activities without proper replanting will also expose to flood problems, soil erosion, landslides and many more as results of environmental impacts. The urbanization process, couple with the rapid industrial development, without having proper planning and inadequate pollutions control, may also create a long term disasters. Penang island territory has been experiencing the most highly physical development growth in this country. Hence, environmental problems are becoming the major issues. This paper will discuss on the various environmental problem, particularly in Penang and possible remedials to be taken by the state and federal authority to overcome the problems. The type of pollutions such as air and water pollutions, acid rain and of course the reduction of ozone layer. Besides that the increase of heat in our climate will also be of our concern in the process of urbanization

  6. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  7. Environmentally applications of invasive bivalves for water and wastewater decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Matos, Ana; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Martins, Rui C

    2018-07-15

    The environmental and economic impact of invasive bivalve species implies the development of suitable pest management strategies. Chemical control is the most usual approach. However, the production of toxic intermediates as well as the unavoidable impact over non target biota is of special concern. Another approach consists on the physical removal of the animals from the invaded sites. The high biofiltration and bioaccumulation capacity of such animals make them interesting for the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater. In this context, environmental applications can be given for these pests encompassing nutrients removal for the recovery of eutrophic sites, water disinfection, organic and metal contaminants abatement. These approaches may be integrated with pest management where the physical removed animals from the invaded spots could be used for assembling biofilter for water and wastewater decontamination. However, some drawbacks must be addressed before proposing such alternative. In fact, the further spreading of the bivalves into non-invaded sites must be avoided. Moreover, some operational questions must be addressed such as the fate of contaminated animals after biofiltration. Bearing in mind the interesting results already available in this subject, this paper aims to critically overview literature regarding the environmental applications of invasive bivalves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental applications based on GIS and GRID technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, R.; Lorrai, E.; Marrone, V. A.; Muscas, L.; Spanu, V.; Vacca, A.; Valera, P.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decades, the collection and use of environmental data has enormously increased in a wide range of applications. Simultaneously, the explosive development of information technology and its ever wider data accessibility have made it possible to store and manipulate huge quantities of data. In this context, the GRID approach is emerging worldwide as a tool allowing to provision a computational task with administratively-distant resources. The aim of this paper is to present three environmental applications (Land Suitability, Desertification Risk Assessment, Georesources and Environmental Geochemistry) foreseen within the AGISGRID (Access and query of a distributed GIS/Database within the GRID infrastructure, http://grida3.crs4.it/enginframe/agisgrid/index.xml) activities of the GRIDA3 (Administrator of sharing resources for data analysis and environmental applications, http://grida3.crs4.it) project. This project, co-funded by the Italian Ministry of research, is based on the use of shared environmental data through GRID technologies and accessible by a WEB interface, aimed at public and private users in the field of environmental management and land use planning. The technologies used for AGISGRID include: - the client-server-middleware iRODS™ (Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System) (https://irods.org); - the EnginFrame system (http://www.nice-italy.com/main/index.php?id=32), the grid portal that supplies a frame to make available, via Intranet/Internet, the developed GRID applications; - the software GIS GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) (http://grass.itc.it); - the relational database PostgreSQL (http://www.posgresql.org) and the spatial database extension PostGis; - the open source multiplatform Mapserver (http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu), used to represent the geospatial data through typical WEB GIS functionalities. Three GRID nodes are directly involved in the applications: the application workflow is implemented at the CRS4 (Pula

  9. Effects of Vacation Rental Websites on the Concentration of Tourists—Potential Environmental Impacts. An Application to the Balearic Islands in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Martín, José Antonio; Zermeño Mejía, Karla Aída; Salinas Fernández, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of tourists at certain times of the year can damage sensitive environments. The use of peer-to-peer vacation rental websites has increased greatly during the last decade. This system could either reduce seasonality in touristic destinations where the tourist activity takes place throughout the year at a lower price or on the contrary, it could increase the number of visitors at certain times of the year even more. This paper intends to analyze the effect that these platforms have on tourism seasonality in order to calculate if they help reduce or increase the pressure on the destinations. To do so, the Gini Index has been applied to one of the main touristic spots in Europe, the Balearic Islands in Spain. The conclusion is that this type of accommodation has aggravated the problem, generating a greater concentration of tourists and a higher pressure on the resources of the islands. PMID:29462863

  10. Effects of Vacation Rental Websites on the Concentration of Tourists-Potential Environmental Impacts. An Application to the Balearic Islands in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José María Martín; Martín, José Antonio Rodriguez; Mejía, Karla Aída Zermeño; Fernández, José Antonio Salinas

    2018-02-15

    The concentration of tourists at certain times of the year can damage sensitive environments. The use of peer-to-peer vacation rental websites has increased greatly during the last decade. This system could either reduce seasonality in touristic destinations where the tourist activity takes place throughout the year at a lower price or on the contrary, it could increase the number of visitors at certain times of the year even more. This paper intends to analyze the effect that these platforms have on tourism seasonality in order to calculate if they help reduce or increase the pressure on the destinations. To do so, the Gini Index has been applied to one of the main touristic spots in Europe, the Balearic Islands in Spain. The conclusion is that this type of accommodation has aggravated the problem, generating a greater concentration of tourists and a higher pressure on the resources of the islands.

  11. Application of operating experience in environmental qualification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Wise, R.

    2000-01-01

    widely used by nuclear utilities in the past two decades. On the other hand, the use of operating experience has had limited application. In order to better position the use of operating experiences in nuclear power plants (NPP); this paper takes a rigorous review of the process involved in the EQ program and to formulate a set of equations to describe the EQ process. These equations identify the role of the methods used in achieving the EQ status. Consequently, these equations establish a baseline for the use of operating experiences in supplementing the qualification established by testing and analysis. This paper also formally defines the scope of using operating experience in EQ, and proposes a guide to compile, process and interpret data gathered such that they will be readily available to support the environmental qualification program. (author)

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given on nuclear analytical techniques and their application to environmental samples. Measurement of the inherent radioactivity of elements or radionuclides allows determination of natural radioelements (e.g. Ra), man-made radioelements (e.g. Pu) and radionuclides in the environment. Activation analysis, in particular instrumental neutron activation analysis, is a very reliable and sensitive method for determination of a great number of trace elements in environmental samples, because the most abundant main constituents are not activated. Tracer techniques are very useful for studies of the behaviour and of chemical reactions of trace elements and compounds in the environment. Radioactive sources are mainly applied for excitation of characteristic X-rays (X-ray fluorescence analysis). (author)

  13. NIF: IFE applications, waste management and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Kirchner, F.R.; Miley, G.H.; Petra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Although many energy sources have been suggested for the future, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been demonstrated as scientifically feasible and deserves support for continued development. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), proposed by US DOE, is a next step in that direction. NIF would use ICF technology to achieve ignition and energy gain that would allow the development and continued support of national security and other civilian applications including inertial fusion energy power plants. NIF would also guarantee US leadership in dense plasma research. Four sites are being considered for NIF: LLNL, Los Alamos, Sandia, and two NTS sites. An environmental evaluation was performed which considered all impacts. This paper provides the results of the waste management analyses conducted on the proposed NIF sites. Overall, the proposed construction and operation of NIF should qualify it as a low-hazard, non-nuclear radiological facility with minor onsite and negligible offsite environmental impacts

  14. 4th European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Jesus; Gómez-Hernández, José

    2004-01-01

    The fourth edition of the European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications (geoENV IV) took place in Barcelona, November 27-29, 2002. As a proof that there is an increasing interest in environmental issues in the geostatistical community, the conference attracted over 100 participants, mostly Europeans (up to 10 European countries were represented), but also from other countries in the world. Only 46 contributions, selected out of around 100 submitted papers, were invited to be presented orally during the conference. Additionally 30 authors were invited to present their work in poster format during a special session. All oral and poster contributors were invited to submit their work to be considered for publication in this Kluwer series. All papers underwent a reviewing process, which consisted on two reviewers for oral presentations and one reviewer for posters. The book opens with one keynote paper by Philippe Naveau. It is followed by 40 papers that correspond to those presented orally d...

  15. Applications of ordered weighted averaging (OWA operators in environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a prioritized weighted aggregation operator based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA to deal with stakeholders' constructive participation in water resources projects. They have different degree of acceptance or preference regarding the measures and policies to be carried out, which lead to different environmental and socio-economic outcomes, and hence, to different levels of stakeholders’ satisfaction. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology has been successfully applied to a Public Participation Project (PPP in watershed management, thus obtaining efficient environmental measures in conflict resolution problems under actors’ preference uncertainties.

  16. 10 CFR 63.24 - Updating of application and environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updating of application and environmental impact statement... Updating of application and environmental impact statement. (a) The application must be as complete as... the time a construction authorization was issued. (c) DOE shall supplement its environmental impact...

  17. Characterization and environmental evaluation of Atikokan coal fly ash for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeheyis, M.B.; Shang, J.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Coal fly ash from thermal power generating stations has become a valuable byproduct in various commercial and environmental applications due to its cementitious, alkaline, and pozzolanic properties. It is used as a raw material in cement production, and also as a replacement for cement in concrete production. This study provided physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations of fresh and landfilled coal fly ash from a thermal generation station in Ontario. Fly ash behaviour under various environmental conditions was examined. Tests were conducted to characterize fly ash acid neutralization capacity and heavy metal sorption capacity. The study showed that fresh and landfilled fly ash samples showed significant variations in morphology, mineralogy, and chemical composition. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that weathering of the fly ash caused the formation of secondary minerals. The study also showed that the heavy metals from both fresh and landfilled fly ash samples were below leachate criteria set by the provincial government. It was concluded that both fresh and landfilled fly ash are suitable for various environmental and engineering applications. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Evaluating strategic environmental assessment in the Netherlands: Content, process and procedure as indissoluble criteria for effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); S.G. Nooteboom (Sibout)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) we distinguish between its contribution to the quality of the ultimate policy choice (usefulness, applicability), the procedural quality of the planning process (transparency, timeliness) and the quality of

  19. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    thermoshrinkable tubes and types possessing '' memory effect ''. Through radiation, grafting metal adsorbents and ion exchange membranes can be developed. Radiation is early applied tool in the area of nanomaterials engineering; arrangement of atoms and ions has been performed using ion or electron beams for many years. New trends concern surface curing and development of ion track membranes and controlled release drug-delivery systems. Finally, radiation processing concerns gem stones colorization, development of high temperature resistant fibers (SiC) and semiconductor modification. Over the past few years, radiation processing technologies aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment have been developed. It has been demonstrated that radiation processing based technologies for flue gas treatment (SO X and NO X removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Electron beam technology is among the most promising advanced technologies of new generation. This is a dry-scrubbing process of simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal, where no waste except the fertilizer by-product are generated.The other possibility is application of the process for VOC removal. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO 2 and NO x removal. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%. The chlorocarbons including dioxins may be removed with high efficiency as well [57, 58]. During the radiolysis of water reactive radicals of strong oxidizing or reducing properties are formed that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. A large number of substances such as hard surfactants, lignin, pesticides cannot be degraded by conventional biochemical methods and thus escape from decomposition in biological treatment. Research and

  20. Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the flow a groundwater quality. This understanding is achieved by measurement of the appropriate chemical and physical subsurface parameters. The ideal measurement would accurately assess a parameter without affecting the parameter or its environment. Fiber optic spectroscopy offers some of the most promising techniques for accurate, non-invasive measurements of environmental parameters. Fiber optic sensors for subsurface applications are currently being developed by several Department of Energy laboratories. Some of these sensors have been successfully deployed in the field and are attaining the goals of accurate, noninvasive, real time measurements in the subsurface

  1. Environmental transformations and ecological effects of iron-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lin, Daohui

    2018-01-01

    The increasing application of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), especially high concentrations of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), has raised concerns regarding their environmental behavior and potential ecological effects. In the environment, iron-based NPs undergo physical, chemical, and/or biological transformations as influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ions, dissolved oxygen, natural organic matter (NOM), and biotas. This review presents recent research advances on environmental transformations of iron-based NPs, and articulates their relationships with the observed toxicities. The type and extent of physical, chemical, and biological transformations, including aggregation, oxidation, and bio-reduction, depend on the properties of NPs and the receiving environment. Toxicities of iron-based NPs to bacteria, algae, fish, and plants are increasingly observed, which are evaluated with a particular focus on the underlying mechanisms. The toxicity of iron-based NPs is a function of their properties, tolerance of test organisms, and environmental conditions. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is considered as the primary toxic mechanism of iron-based NPs. Factors influencing the toxicity of iron-based NPs are addressed and environmental transformations play a significant role, for example, surface oxidation or coating by NOM generally lowers the toxicity of nZVI. Research gaps and future directions are suggested with an aim to boost concerted research efforts on environmental transformations and toxicity of iron-based NPs, e.g., toxicity studies of transformed NPs in field, expansion of toxicity endpoints, and roles of laden contaminants and surface coating. This review will enhance our understanding of potential risks of iron-based NPs and proper uses of environmentally benign NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    conditions are assumed between the aqueous species and the solid matrix for a set of feasible chemical equilibrium reactions defined for each specific application. A module for re-establishing the chemical equilibrium has been developed and included in the system for this purpose. Changes in the porosity......A mathematical model for the electrokinetic phenomena is described. Numerical simulations of different applications of electrokinetic techniques to the fields of civil and environmental engineering are included, showing the versatility and consistency of the model. The electrokinetics phenomena......-Nernst-Planck system of equations, accounting for ionic migration, chemical diffusion and advection is used for modeling the transport process. The advection term contributor is studied by including in the system the water transport through the porous media, mainly due to electroosmosis. The pore solution filling...

  3. Environmental and industrial applications of pulsed power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neau, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, free electron lasers (FEL's), and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications and in supporting new types of industrial manufacturing processes. Some of these processes will require very high average beam power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. In this paper we briefly discuss new technology capabilities and then concentrate on specific application areas that may benefit from the high specific energies and high average powers attainable with short-pulse machines

  4. Studies on time series applications in environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bărbulescu, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis and modelling represent a large study field, implying the approach from the perspective of the time and frequency, with applications in different domains. Modelling hydro-meteorological time series is difficult due to the characteristics of these series, as long range dependence, spatial dependence, the correlation with other series. Continuous spatial data plays an important role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in environmental management. In this context, in this book we present various statistical tests and modelling techniques used for time series analysis, as well as applications to hydro-meteorological series from Dobrogea, a region situated in the south-eastern part of Romania, less studied till now. Part of the results are accompanied by their R code. .

  5. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  6. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  7. Eco-Balancing as a Guideline for Environmentally Sound Regional Planning Supported by GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN J. M. LENZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years, environmental impact assessment, regional or spatial planning, and environmental balancing seem to develop similarities, e.g. joint basic methodological approaches such as the use of environmental indicators, the focus on same environmental goods such air, water, soil, flora/fauna, etc. (Lenz 1999. Especially GIS-based software systems show their multiple applications in these fields.After a short introduction about the central role of indicators in transdisciplinary problem solving processes, experiences from a set of regional environmental (or eco balances show a wide range of advantages as well as disadvantages in the context of the widespread use of GIS-based planning tools. Relying on concepts and examples for the spatial eco-balances in the district of Pfaffenhofen (Upper Bavaria, Germany; cf. Lenz 1997 and the municipality of Mulfingen (Hohenlohe, Germany - both of them related to the concept of environmental indicators of the Advisory Board of Environmental Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany (SRU 1994 and the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA 1995 - we can show GIS-based information systems of a high practical relevancy. On the basis of the GIS software ArcView, the data base management system Access, and html scripts, we developed environmental information systems to balance environmental effects in a map scale of 1:5,000 - 1:50,000, in order to provide the administration with tools for an environmentally sound and sustainable development of their area (Lenz 1997, 1999, Beuttler et al. 1999. The spatial distribution of land use types, solar energy potential, area consumption and drinking water consumption for the municipality of Mulfingen are highlighted in this paper. Still, the practical use of the systems seems to be limited due to the lack of computer skills among the administrators – even after programming graphical user interfaces for the indicator “drinking water consumption”-, as well

  8. Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution: Transportation Means Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects....

  9. Magnesium-Based Micromotors: Water-Powered Propulsion, Multifunctionality, and Biomedical and Environmental Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Karshalev, Emil; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    The new capabilities and functionalities of synthetic micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse environmental and biomedical applications. Water-powered micromachines are particularly attractive for realizing many of these applications. Magnesium-based motors directly use water as fuel to generate hydrogen bubbles for their propulsion, eliminating the requirement of common toxic fuels. This Review highlights the development of new Mg-based micromotors and discusses the chemistry that makes it extremely attractive for micromotor applications. Understanding these Mg properties and its transient nature is essential for controlling the propulsion efficiency, lifetime, and overall performance. The unique and attractive behavior of Mg offers significant advantages, including efficient water-powered movement, remarkable biocompatibility, controlled degradation, convenient functionalization, and built-in acid neutralization ability, and has paved the way for multifunctional micromachines for diverse real-life applications, including operation in living animals. A wide range of such Mg motor-based applications, including the detection and destruction of environmental threats, effective in-vivo cargo delivery, and autonomous release, have been demonstrated. In conclusion, the current challenges, future opportunities, and performance improvements of the Mg-based micromotors are discussed. With continuous innovation and attention to key challenges, it is expected that Mg-based motors will have a profound impact on diverse biomedical and environmental applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Environmental aspects of the district cooling system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitrakovski, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The use of air-conditioning equipment based on CFC and HCFC fluids has a direct influence on the occurrence of the greenhouse effect and damage of the ozone layer. Besides the obligatory shift og HCF cooling fluids, the reduction of such negative influences may also be achieved by the application of the district cooling system to the air-conditioning plants in the area. The paper includes example of the application of the district system, with positive effect regarding the ozone layer protection and greenhouse effect prevention. (Author)

  11. Calcium polysulphide, its applications and emerging risk of environmental pollution-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlawi, Saad Mohammed; Siddiqui, Samreen

    2017-01-01

    Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment. The kinetics of CaS x , technical issues associated with optimization of its dosage and environmental fate is also discussed in detail. This study covers almost all of the peer-reviewed research that has been performed since 1914. Some of the critiques in this article include the lack of integration between the exposure effect and the efficiency of treatment method, effects of oxidizing environments on the long-term performance of CaS x solution, and kinetics of CaS x solution with the PTEs. The working model of CaS x with PTEs is still system dependent, and therefore cannot be used with other applications. The kinetics of CaS x is described in detail with various phase stoichiometric reactions. Environmental fate is discussed based on applications, government reports, peer-reviewed articles and kinetics of CaS x , which provides a clear picture of emerging contaminants in the environment in relation to the insect resistance and ecotoxicology. Real time, lab based research articles are needed to identify toxicity limits of CaS x in environment in order to describe its effective permissible limit in environmental system. This review article provides a risk assessment of environmental pollution by CaS x based on its physicochemical characteristic, stoichiometry, kinetics, field, and industrial applications.

  12. Feasibility study on application of new concept of environmental assessment to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Lee, Kun Jai

    2000-01-01

    The existing environmental assessments of nuclear energy are focused on the two kinds of issues such as prevention of green house gas emission and radiological impact assessment. So, the comparative assessment of the other resources such as fossil fuels has been the main part and this result has been the side of nuclear power as the clean energy resource. However, now is when to develop the methodology that approaches to environmental assessment of energy in terms of the various environmental categories. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) would be the effective environmental assessment tool, which is able to meet the necessity mentioned above. Also classification of the radiological impact and calculation of the environmental impact from the radioactive substances are indispensable as long as the nuclear energy is considered in the application of LCA for the utilization of energy in the industry. However, direct introduction of LCA to the nuclear energy is difficult more or less due to the absence of the methodology for the radiological impact assessment within the LCA framework. Therefore, this study suggests the new concept of environmental assessment. Also current status of development for the classification factor of radiological impact is introduced and investigates the feasibility of application of it to nuclear power generation system

  13. Environmental Effects on Materials for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    o;t tnut wthicni was 6.own fby the elet -nlt,ttr t- I -w~v tool I!.- for .hoolt a f :rther 2 ritt:s,:t. Pihtogtaphs taker-. fo-r erosof 3d seontis...Luigi BALIS CREMA. Renato BARBONI, Antonio CASTELI.ANI Istituto di Tecnologia Aerospaziale Via ’udossiana, 16 -- 00184 Roma - Italy SUMMARY A. series of

  14. Electrochemically Active Biofilms Assisted Nanomaterial Synthesis for Environmental Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Elaf

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials have a great potential for environmental applications due to their high surface areas and high reactivity. This dissertation investigated the use of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) as a synthesis approach for the fabrication and environmental applications of different nanomaterials. Bacteria in EABs generate electrons upon consuming electron donor and have the ability to transport these electrons to solid or insoluble substrates through extracellular electron transport (EET) mechanism. The extracellularly transported electrons, once utilized, can lead to nanoparticle synthesis. In this dissertation, noble metal (i.e., Au, Pd, and Pt) ultra-small nanoparticles (USNPs) were first synthesized with the assistance by the EABs. The assynthesized USNPs had a size range between 2 and 7 nm and exhibited excellent catalytic performance in dye decomposition. Also in this research, a two-dimensional (2D) cobalt nanosheet was successfully synthesized in the presence of EABs. A simple biogenic route led to the transformation of cobalt acetate to produce a green, toxic free homogeneous 2D cobalt nanosheet structure. Further, TiO2 nanotubes were successfully combined with the noble metal USNPs to enhance their photocatalytic activity. In this work, for the first time, the noble metal USNPs were directly reduced and decorated on the internal surfaces of the TiO2 nanotubes structure assisted by the EABs. The USNPs modified TiO2 nanotubes generated significantly improved photoelectrocatatlyic performances. This dissertation shines lights on the use of EABs in ultra-small nanoparticle synthesis.

  15. Plasma cleaning techniques and future applications in environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1995-07-01

    Plasmas have frequently been used in industry as a last step surface preparation technique in an otherwise predominantly wet-etch process. The limiting factor in the usefulness of plasma cleaning techniques has been the rate at which organic materials are removed. Recent research in the field of plasma chemistry has provided some understanding of plasma processes. By controlling plasma conditions and gas mixtures, ultra-fast plasma cleaning and etching is possible. With enhanced organic removal rates, plasma processes become more desirable as an environmentally sound alternative to traditional solvent or acid dominated process, not only as a cleaning tool, but also as a patterning and machining tool. In this paper, innovations in plasma processes are discussed including enhanced plasma etch rates via plasma environment control and aggressive gas mixtures. Applications that have not been possible with the limited usefulness of past plasma processes are now approaching the realm of possibility. Some of these possible applications will be discussed along with their impact to environmentally conscious manufacturing.

  16. Environmental effects monitoring for exploration drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Cook, J.A.; Mathieu, A.

    2003-01-01

    Strategies for monitoring the environmental effects of single exploratory offshore wells on the east coast of Canada were evaluated. The report was compiled from consultations with scientists, regulators and stakeholders as well as a review of regulatory regimes and toxicity results. The aim of the report was to develop a decision tree for determining when to conduct environmental effects monitoring (EEM). Respondents evinced lower levels of concern for single exploratory wells than for production developments. A number of scientists argued for full statistical treatment of all data, and many people argued that more assurance was needed that the marine environment was not being unduly harmed. Respondents also considered that biological effects should be a primary focus, rather than the occurrence of trace chemical signals, and that seabirds and mammals should be monitored. Concern was expressed over the value of data collected from monitoring the effects of exploratory drilling activities. It was suggested that local and site-specific issues should be considered in the design of EEM programs. Respondents expressed strong concern about potential cumulative effects with other industrial activities, and suggested that test cases should be established and monitored to develop a scientific rationale for the inclusion or exclusion of specific variables in future EEM programs. A decision tree was developed based on 3 scenarios: (1) compliance monitoring only in well known areas with no sensitive issues; opportunistic EEM surveys of sediments, benthos, seabirds and marine mammals in shallow or deep areas with no known sensitive issues; and (3) custom EEM surveys for sensitive areas. Currently, there are EEM requirements for drilling exploratory wells offshore Canada's east coast. 58 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Synergetic Use of Crowdsourcing for Environmental Science Research, Applications and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U. S.; Thau, D.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental science research and applications often utilize information that is not readily available or routinely collected by government agencies. Whereas, the quality and quantity of environmental monitoring data is continually improving (e. g., spectral and spatial resolution of satellite imagery) contextual information needed to effectively utilize the data is sparse. Examples of such contextual information include ground truth data for land cover classification, presence/absence of species, prevalence of mosquito breeding sites and characteristics of urban land cover. Often, there are no agencies tasked with routine collection of such contextual information, which could be effectively collected through crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing of such information, that is useful for environmental science research and applications, also provide opportunities for experiential learning at all levels of education. Appropriately designed crowdsourcing activity can be transform students from passive recipients of information to generators of knowledge. Multiple examples of synergistic use of crowdsourcing, developed by the Public Environmental Education and Research Apps (PEERA) group, at the University of Alabama in Huntsville will be presented. One example is crowdsourcing of land use and land cover (LULC) data using Open Data Kit (ODK) and associated analysis of satellite imagery using Google Earth Engine (GEE). Implementation of this activity as inquiry based learning exercise, for both middle school and for pre-service teachers will be discussed. Another example will detail the synergy between crowdsourcing for biodiversity mapping in southern India and environmental education. Other crowdsourcing activities that offer potential for synergy between research and public education will also be discussed.

  18. Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" approach for environmental monitoring of offshore renewable energy projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Erwan; Rey, Cibran Camba; Ferreira, Oscar; van Koningsveld, Mark

    2014-08-01

    This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Biochar Application Through Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, I.; Archontoulis, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to study the environmental (emissions, soil quality) and production (yield) impacts of biochar application at regional scales we coupled the APSIM-Biochar model with the pSIMS parallel platform. So far the majority of biochar research has been concentrated on lab to field studies to advance scientific knowledge. Regional scale assessments are highly needed to assist decision making. The overall objective of this simulation study was to identify areas in the USA that have the most gain environmentally from biochar's application, as well as areas which our model predicts a notable yield increase due to the addition of biochar. We present the modifications in both APSIM biochar and pSIMS components that were necessary to facilitate these large scale model runs across several regions in the United States at a resolution of 5 arcminutes. This study uses the AgMERRA global climate data set (1980-2010) and the Global Soil Dataset for Earth Systems modeling as a basis for creating its simulations, as well as local management operations for maize and soybean cropping systems and different biochar application rates. The regional scale simulation analysis is in progress. Preliminary results showed that the model predicts that high quality soils (particularly those common to Iowa cropping systems) do not receive much, if any, production benefit from biochar. However, soils with low soil organic matter ( 0.5%) do get a noteworthy yield increase of around 5-10% in the best cases. We also found N2O emissions to be spatial and temporal specific; increase in some areas and decrease in some other areas due to biochar application. In contrast, we found increases in soil organic carbon and plant available water in all soils (top 30 cm) due to biochar application. The magnitude of these increases (% change from the control) were larger in soil with low organic matter (below 1.5%) and smaller in soils with high organic matter (above 3%) and also dependent on biochar

  20. Environmental effects and large space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  1. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  2. Environmental effects of the electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez Ocon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Every manner to generate electricity has effects on environment and on the way of life of human society. Nevertheless electricity is a way of secondary energy handy and clean and is also frequently the more efficient, and for its reason its use is growing in countries with a rate superior to the increase in national gross product. This is particularly remarkable in Mexico where still exist population sectors without electricity services and where the demand per capita is left behind with respect to other economic indicators. In the last years, preoccupation for environmental effects in human activities, especially that related with the production and use of energy, has been increasing. 'Acid rain', air and water pollution, destruction of stratospheric ozone layer, global heating, radioactive wastes storage, land use, destruction of tropical forest, inundation of archaeological ruins, extintion of animal and vegetable species, are examples of problems daily expound to society (Author)

  3. Application of environmental impact assessment in Spain (1989-2008): the case of Road Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero Rodriguez, J.; Espigares Pinilla, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the application in Spain of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) along the first 20 years since its implementation, paying special attention to road projects. We revised all Environmental Impact Statement (EISs) published during the period 1989-2008 and monitored, among others, the following variables; the record of decision (favorable or unfavorable) of the State Authority, the type of ecosystem affected by the projects and the mitigation measures required to the developer to implement the project. The results allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of EIA procedure for road projects and to suggest some practical recommendations to improve the quality of EISs. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors - the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals - and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, “firewalls” and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy. (paper)

  5. Organophosphate degrading microorganisms and enzymes as biocatalysts in environmental and personal decontamination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Simo; Ofer, Butnaro; Arik, Eisenkraft; Shai, Shrot; Yossi, Rosman; Tzvika, Dushnitsky; Amir, Krivoy

    2008-01-01

    One of the major challenges in dealing with chemical warfare agent (CWA) dispersal, whether in the battlefield or after a terror act, is decontamination and rehabilitation of any contaminated area. Organophosphates (OPs) are considered to be among the deadliest CWAs to date. Other OPs are used as pesticides in modern agriculture, and are considered environmentally hazardous. Current methods for OP decontamination are either dangerous or insufficiently effective. As a promising solution for this problem, bioremediation--the use of biocomponents for environmental remediation--is a potentially effective, safe, and environment-friendly method. The technology relies on several enzymatic mechanisms, and can be applied in various ways. We will review recent achievements and potential applications, such as biocatalyst-containing foams and an enzymatic sponge, for environmental as well as personal exterior decontamination.

  6. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting... following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public... 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e. Name of Project: Flannagan...

  7. Information Management of Web Application Based Environmental Performance Management in Concentrating Division of PTFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Arif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of environmental management system standards into the latest version, i.e. ISO 14001:2015, may cause a change on a data and information need in decision making and achieving the objectives in the organization coverage. Information management is the organization’s responsibility to ensure that effectiveness and efficiency start from its creating, storing, processing and distribution processes to support operations and effective decision making activity in environmental performance management. The objective of this research was to set up an information management program and to adopt the technology as the supporting component of the program which was done by PTFI Concentrating Division so that it could be in line with the desirable organization objective in environmental management based on ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system standards. Materials and methods used covered technical aspects in information management, i.e. with web-based application development by using usage centered design. The result of this research showed that the use of Single Sign On gave ease to its user to interact further on the use of the environmental management system. Developing a web-based through creating entity relationship diagram (ERD and information extraction by conducting information extraction which focuses on attributes, keys, determination of constraints. While creating ERD is obtained from relational database scheme from a number of database from environmental performances in Concentrating Division.

  8. Information Management of Web Application Based Environmental Performance Management in Concentrating Division of PTFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Arif; Mulyono, Nur Budi

    2018-02-01

    The changes of environmental management system standards into the latest version, i.e. ISO 14001:2015, may cause a change on a data and information need in decision making and achieving the objectives in the organization coverage. Information management is the organization's responsibility to ensure that effectiveness and efficiency start from its creating, storing, processing and distribution processes to support operations and effective decision making activity in environmental performance management. The objective of this research was to set up an information management program and to adopt the technology as the supporting component of the program which was done by PTFI Concentrating Division so that it could be in line with the desirable organization objective in environmental management based on ISO 14001:2015 environmental management system standards. Materials and methods used covered technical aspects in information management, i.e. with web-based application development by using usage centered design. The result of this research showed that the use of Single Sign On gave ease to its user to interact further on the use of the environmental management system. Developing a web-based through creating entity relationship diagram (ERD) and information extraction by conducting information extraction which focuses on attributes, keys, determination of constraints. While creating ERD is obtained from relational database scheme from a number of database from environmental performances in Concentrating Division.

  9. A Semantic Sensor Web for Environmental Decision Support Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alasdair J. G.; Sadler, Jason; Kit, Oles; Kyzirakos, Kostis; Karpathiotakis, Manos; Calbimonte, Jean-Paul; Page, Kevin; García-Castro, Raúl; Frazer, Alex; Galpin, Ixent; Fernandes, Alvaro A. A.; Paton, Norman W.; Corcho, Oscar; Koubarakis, Manolis; De Roure, David; Martinez, Kirk; Gómez-Pérez, Asunción

    2011-01-01

    Sensing devices are increasingly being deployed to monitor the physical world around us. One class of application for which sensor data is pertinent is environmental decision support systems, e.g., flood emergency response. For these applications, the sensor readings need to be put in context by integrating them with other sources of data about the surrounding environment. Traditional systems for predicting and detecting floods rely on methods that need significant human resources. In this paper we describe a semantic sensor web architecture for integrating multiple heterogeneous datasets, including live and historic sensor data, databases, and map layers. The architecture provides mechanisms for discovering datasets, defining integrated views over them, continuously receiving data in real-time, and visualising on screen and interacting with the data. Our approach makes extensive use of web service standards for querying and accessing data, and semantic technologies to discover and integrate datasets. We demonstrate the use of our semantic sensor web architecture in the context of a flood response planning web application that uses data from sensor networks monitoring the sea-state around the coast of England. PMID:22164110

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY APPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SEX REVERSAL OF FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnair, Alistair; Lokman, P Mark; Closs, Gerard P; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-03-01

    Environmental sex reversal (ESR), which results in a mismatch between genotypic and phenotypic sex, is well documented in numerous fish species and may be induced by chemical exposure. Historically, research involving piscine ESR has been carried out with a view to improving profitability in aquaculture or to elucidate the processes governing sex determination and sexual differentiation. However, recent studies in evolution and ecology suggest research on ESR now has much wider applications and ramifications. We begin with an overview of ESR in fish and a brief review of the traditional applications thereof. We then discuss ESR and its potential demographic consequences in wild populations. Theory even suggests sex-reversed fish may be purposefully released to manipulate population dynamics. We suggest new research directions that may prove fruitful in understanding how ESR at the individual level translates to population-level processes. In the latter portion of the review we focus on evolutionary applications of ESR. Sex-reversal studies from the aquaculture literature provide insight in to the evolvability of determinants of sexual phenotype. Additionally, induced sex reversal can provide information about the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-linked traits. Recently, naturally occurring ESR has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to the evolution of sex chromosomes.

  11. Radiocarbon application in environmental science and archaeology in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcar Bronic, I., E-mail: krajcar@irb.h [Radiocarbon Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Obelic, B.; Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A. [Radiocarbon Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Minichreiter, K. [Institute of Archaeology, Ulica grada Vukovara 68, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Radiocarbon is a cosmogenic radioisotope equally distributed throughout the troposphere and biosphere. This fact enables its most common application-radiocarbon dating. Natural equilibrium of radiocarbon has been disturbed by diverse anthropogenic activities during the last {approx}150 years, enabling also the use of {sup 14}C in various environmental applications. Here we present three types of studies by using {sup 14}C that were performed in the Zagreb Radiocarbon Laboratory. {sup 14}C in atmospheric CO{sub 2} has been monitored at several sites with various anthropogenic influences and the difference between the clean-air sites, the industrial city and the vicinity of a nuclear power plant has been established. {sup 14}C has been applied in geochronology of karst areas, especially in dating of tufa, speleothems and lake sediments, as well as in studies of geochemical carbon cycle. {sup 14}C has been used in various archaeological studies, among which the dating of the early Neolithic settlements in Croatia is presented. In these studies {sup 14}C was measured by radiometric techniques, i.e., by gas proportional counting and more recently by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Two sample preparation techniques for LSC measurement were used: benzene synthesis for archaeological dating and other applications that require better precision, and direct absorption of CO{sub 2} for monitoring purposes. The presented results show that various studies by using {sup 14}C can be successfully performed by the LSC technique, providing a large enough sample (>1 g of carbon).

  12. Terra Nova Environmental effects monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, U.; Murdoch, M.

    2000-01-01

    Elements of the environmental effects monitoring program in the Terra Nova oil field, about 350 km east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, are described. This oilfield is being developed using a floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) facility. A total of 24 wells are expected to be drilled through seven subsea templates located in four glory holes to protect them from icebergs. Subsea installations will be linked to the FPSO by trenched flowlines connected to flexible risers. The FPSO will offload to shuttle tankers. First oil is expected in 2001. The environmental effects monitoring program will be conducted annually for the first two years beginning in 2000. Subsequent scheduling will be determined after a review of monitoring data collected during the first three years. Input to the design of the monitoring program was provided by all stakeholders, i. e. owners, local public, government agencies and regional and international experts. A model was developed linking project discharges and possible effects to the environment, including marine resources in the area, and the information derived from these activities was used to generate a set of predictions and hypotheses to be tested in the monitoring program. The monitoring program will use two spatial models: a regression or gradient design and a control-impact design. The gradient design will monitor water column and sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity and benthic invertebrate communities. The control-impact design will be used to monitor larger and more mobile fish or shellfish. The evaluated results will serve as the basis for determining impact predictions and to provide information to allow for decisions pertaining to the protection of the marine environment

  13. 10 CFR 60.24 - Updating of application and environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updating of application and environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. (a) The application shall be as complete as possible in the light of information... was issued. (c) The DOE shall supplement its environmental impact statement in a timely manner so as...

  14. Bacterial membrane vesicles, an overlooked environmental colloid: Biology, environmental perspectives and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Masanori; Tashiro, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Yusuke; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipid vesicles play important roles in biological systems. Bacteria are one of the most abundant organisms on Earth, and bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) were first observed 50 years ago. Many bacteria release MVs to the environment that mainly consist of the cell membrane and typically range from 20 to 400 nm in size. Bacterial MVs are involved in several biological functions, such as delivery of cargo, virulence and gene transfer. MVs can be isolated from laboratory culture and directly from the environment, indicating their high abundance in and impact on ecosystems. Many colloidal particles in the environment ranging in size from 1 nm to 1 μm have been reported but not characterized at the molecular level, and MVs remain to be explored. Hence, MVs can be considered terra incognita in environmental colloid research. Although MV biogenesis and biological roles are yet to be fully understood, the accumulation of knowledge has opened new avenues for their applications. Via genetic engineering, the MV yield can be greatly increased, and the components of MVs can be tailored. Recent studies have demonstrated that MVs have promising potential for applications such as drug delivery systems and nanobiocatalysts. For instance, MV vaccines have been extensively studied and have already been approved in Europe. Recent MV studies have evoked great interest in the fields of biology and biotechnology, but fundamental questions, such as their transport in the environment or physicochemical features of MVs, remain to be addressed. In this review, we present the current understanding of bacterial MVs and environmental perspectives and further introduce their applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Effect of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on Elementary School Students' Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, affect, skills and behavior which are the main components of environmental literacy. The sample consisted of 45 students (25 males, 20 females) studying in 4th through 8th grades and living in…

  16. High resolution applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for environmental and forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Labbe, Nicole; Andre, Nicolas; Harris, Ronny; Ebinger, Michael; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Vass, Arpad A.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used in the elemental analysis for a variety of environmental samples and as a proof of concept for a host of forensic applications. In the first application, LIBS was used for the rapid detection of carbon from a number of different soil types. In this application, a major breakthrough was achieved by using a multivariate analytical approach that has brought us closer towards a 'universal calibration curve'. In a second application, it has been demonstrated that LIBS in combination with multivariate analysis can be employed to analyze the chemical composition of annual tree growth rings and correlate them to external parameters such as changes in climate, forest fires, and disturbances involving human activity. The objectives of using this technology in fire scar determinations are: 1) To determine the characteristic spectra of wood exposed to forest fires and 2) To examine the viability of this technique for detecting fire occurrences in stems that did not develop fire scars. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications. LIBS was also applied to a variety of proof of concept forensic applications such as the analysis of cremains (human cremation remains) and elemental composition analysis of prosthetic implants

  17. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  18. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  19. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  20. Effects of Environmental Design on Patient Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess how inpatients were affected by the built environment design during their hospitalization. BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, the healthcare system has become increasingly aware of how focus on healthcare environment might affect patient....... The following databases were searched: Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, and Embase. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of built environment design interventions such as music, natural murals, and plants in relation to patients' health outcome. RESULTS: Built environment...... satisfaction. The focus on environmental design has become a field with great potential because of its possible impact on cost control while improving quality of care. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify current and past studies about evidence-based healthcare design...

  1. Influence of fossil energy applications on environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M.; Ayar, G.; Oguzhan, C.; Uluduz, H.; Faiz, U. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate influence of fossil energy applications on the environmental pollution. Turkey's high rate of economic growth experienced during much of the 1990s, besides resulting in booming industrial production, also led to higher levels of energy consumption, imports, air and water pollution, and greater risks to the country's environment. Air pollution is a major problem in Turkey, with key pollutants including sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide. In Turkey, carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels totaled about 50.07 million tons in 2001. However, fuel share of carbon emissions in 2001 was oil 44.2%, coal 38.8%, and natural gas 16.9%. Total carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels are expected to be 104 million tons in 2025.

  2. Application of Proteomics and Lipid Studies in Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2008-08-12

    The overview of changes in protein levels or states in response to a growth condition, stress, mutation or metabolic engineering is invaluable in understanding the physiology of a microbial system. The lipid profile of the cell is similarly a valuable diagnostic of the cellular response and health, especially in context of survival in a fluctuating environment. To obtain comprehensive cellular models, post-transcriptional cell wide surveys at the levels of proteins and lipids are required. Both these fields have been greatly bolstered by the development of high throughput methods using mass spectrometry. Multiple strategies now exist for the identification of proteins, and numerous workflows to quantify protein abundance have also been developed. Cellular profiling such as these allows us to assess the potential of a microbial system for environmental applications such as bioremediation and bio-energy.

  3. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  4. Strategic environmental assessment methodologies--applications within the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Nilsson, Maans; Johansson, Jessica; Persson, Aasa; Moberg, Aasa; Carlsson, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical tools can be used in the assessment. Several analytical tools are presented and their relation to SEA is discussed including methods for future studies, Life Cycle Assessment, Risk Assessment, Economic Valuation and Multi-Attribute Approaches. A framework for the integration of some analytical tools in the SEA process is suggested. It is noted that the available analytical tools primarily cover some types of environmental impacts related to emissions of pollutants. Tools covering impacts on ecosystems and landscapes are more limited. The relation between application and choice of analytical tools is discussed. It is suggested that SEAs used to support a choice between different alternatives require more quantitative methods, whereas SEAs used to identify critical aspects and suggest mitigation strategies can suffice with more qualitative methods. The possible and desired degree of site-specificity in the assessment can also influence the choice of methods. It is also suggested that values and world views can be of importance for judging whether different types of tools and results are meaningful and useful. Since values and world views differ between different stakeholders, consultation and understanding are important to ensure credibility and relevance

  5. Recent applications of stable isotopes in environmental medicine in germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.; Herbarth, O.

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years, a new quality in the application of stable isotopes became manifest. It is the establishment of stable isotopes as a tool in medical routine diagnosis - a novel field of nuclear medicine - and in environmental-medical epidemiological surveys. Owing to missing suitable radioactive isotopes of the bio elements carbon and nitrogen and because of ethical problems in the human use of some radionuclides, the stable isotopes 13 C and 1% N play a key role in this new field. A review is given about four new stable isotope-aided methods for in vivo organ function test. Three of them were developed in Leipzig, germany, and one in houston/Texas. We have validated the tests and then introduced into medical and environmental routine diagnostic use: ( 15 N Methacetin and ( 13 C) methacetin liver function tests to characterize the detoxification capacity of the human liver; ( 15 N) Urea and ( 13 C) urea tests to detect the colonization of the human stomach by the bacterium helicobacter pylori. This bacterium is, as known, responsible for gastritis and ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract. The transmission ways of H. Pylori are under investigation world-wide

  6. The environmental effects of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, G; Chong, J; Kluczewska, A; Lau, A; Gorjy, S; Tennant, M

    2000-12-01

    Dental amalgam is one of the most commonly used materials in restorative dentistry. However, one of its major components, mercury, is of particular concern due to its potential adverse effects on humans and the environment. In this review, the environmental impact of dental amalgam will be discussed, with particular reference to the effects attributed to its mercury component. Mercury commonly occurs in nature as sulfides and in a number of minerals. Globally, between 20,000-30,000 tons of mercury are discharged into the environment each year as a result of human activities. According to a recent German report, approximately 46 per cent of the freshly triturated amalgam is inserted as new amalgam restorations and the rest is waste. Depending on the presence of an amalgam separating unit, some of the generated amalgam-contaminated sludge is discharged into the sewage system. Lost or extracted teeth with amalgam fillings and amalgam-contaminated waste, such as trituration capsules and cotton rolls are discharged with the solid waste and, in most instances, are incinerated. Use of disinfectants containing oxidizing substances in dental aspirator kits may contribute to remobilization of mercury and its subsequent release into the environment. Nevertheless, dental mercury contamination is only a small proportion of terrestrial mercury (3-4 per cent), which is quite insignificant compared with industrial pollution and combustion of fossil fuels by vehicles. The environmental impact of dental mercury is mainly due to the poor management of dental amalgam waste. Proper collection of mercury-contaminated solid waste prevents the release of mercury vapour during combustion. In addition, the use of amalgam separating devices reduces the amount of amalgam-contaminated water released from dental clinics.

  7. Environmental standard review plans for the environmental review of construction permit applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Information is presented concerning environmental descriptions; plant description; environmental impacts of construction; environmental impacts of station operation; environmental measurements and monitoring programs; environmental impacts of postulated accidents involving radioactive materials; the need for the plant; alternatives to the project; and evaluation of the proposed action

  8. The application of nuclear science technology to understanding and solving environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuk, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has for many years been involved in applying nuclear science-based and related technologies to the understanding of environmental processes and to the development and implementation of practical and effective solutions to site specific problems, for a broad spectrum of industry, government regulatory agencies, and other organisations in Australia, Europe, North and South America and South East Asia. ANSTO's environmental science program arose out of the need for research to predict, measure, evaluate and monitor the environmental impacts associated with : uranium mining and processing in Australia; the operation of the research reactor at Lucas Heights; and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive and conventional wastes associated with these activities. The expertise developed in these activities, has found application to a much broader range of environmental concerns. This paper will present an overview of ANSTO's application of nuclear science-based techniques to, inter alia: coastal and marine studies; minesite rehabilitation; transport and geochemical modelling of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic chemicals in the geosphere; the application of naturally-occurring radionuclides and radioactive tracers to corrosion and sedimentation studies in the coastal environment; dating sediments, fish corals and archaeological samples; the understanding of the kinetics and the physiological responses of aquatic organisms to radionuclides and metals in the environment: and the use of aquatic organism as archival and 'realtime' monitors of pollutants

  9. Applications of Josephson effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benacka, S.

    Week coupling superconducting systems are described, such as the tunnel system, the bridge-type system, the whisker connection of two superconductors, and the Clark SLUG (Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer). The equivalent diagram is presented. If the power supply resistance is greater than the barrier resistance, the hysteresis occurs of the volt-ampere characteristics as a function of the inherent capacitance and inductance of the system. In the opposite case, hysteresis decays and the negative differential resistance region may be effective. The d.c. and high-='requency SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) systems are described. The whisker and bridge types are mainly used in the high-frequency region. These systems may be used as sources of electromagnetic radiation of up to 10 THz. The generated out.out is in the order of 10 -10 W. (J.B.)

  10. Radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongshi

    2004-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science is introduced, including the assessment criteria, the assessment methods and the environmental impact assessment of three wastes emission. (authors)

  11. State of radiotracer application at the Division of Environmental Engineering, CDTN, NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aun, P.E.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de; Moreira, R.M.; Bandeira, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The history and working phylosophy of the NUCLEBRAS division of environmental engineering are reported. Some aspects of tracer applications and of the tasks performed by the division of environmental engineering are described. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  13. Environmental applications of PIXE at the Institute of Physics, UNAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Mireles, A.; Andrade, E.; Zolezzi R, H.

    2007-01-01

    The particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), developed by Johansson and colleagues in Lund, Sweden, in the 70's has been used since then in a high number of studies requiring detection and quantification of trace elements at high sensitivity (better than I mg/kg). PIXE is grouped among the nuclear analytical techniques because the samples are bombarded with particles (protons generally) accelerated in an accelerator. When protons interact with matter an X-Ray spectrum is produced by the deexcitation of atoms in the sample. From this spectrum the elements contained in the sample as well as their concentrations can be determined. In this work we describe the PIXE technique and several applications in the environmental field developed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (IFUNAM). These practical applications include field studies for analyses of suspended particles in air using tree leaves, irrigation water quality based on heavy metal analyses, and analyses of trace elements in plants cultivated in waste water irrigated soil. (Author)

  14. Eco-Environmental Factors in Green Roof Application in Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, M.

    2014-09-01

    Green-roof is the cost-effective environmental mitigation strategy for urban areas [1]. Its application is limited in India primarily due to inadequate understanding about its cost-benefit analysis and technicalities of its maintenance. Increasing awareness about green roof can alter conservative attitude towards its application. So, this work presents a quantified study on green-roof types, cost and environmental benefits while considering different geo-urban climate scenarios for cities of Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and New Delhi. Cost estimation for extensive and intensive green-roof with reference to commonly used roof in urban India is also worked out. Attributes considered for environmental discussion are energy savings related to thermal heat gain through roof, roof-top storm-water drainage and sound attenuation. The comparative study confirms that further focused study on individual cities would identify city-specific objectives for green-roof application; strategies like awareness, capacity building programmes, incentives, demonstration projects etc. can be worked out accordingly for wider application of green-roof in Indian cities.

  15. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    would reduce the food N footprint by ~60%. Such a reduction would result in significant lessening of the impacts of societal use of food resources on both ecosystem and human health. The personal food nitrogen footprints will then be linked to environmental effects based on the N species of the nitrogen footprint. Environmental effects considered will include global warming, air quality, drinking water quality, eutrophication, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Each of the scenarios will be scaled up to represent the full population of the United States, and the total national nitrogen reductions and the impact on environmental effects will be reported. The results of this analysis will help us begin to solve the human dimension of the nitrogen challenge by showing how different personal choices impact nitrogen losses and the environment. This information can then educate and empower consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices.

  16. Space Environmental Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for AO exposure in MSFC s Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center s Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  17. Resolving Environmental Effects of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; May, Roel [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research; Bennet, Finlay [Marine Scotland Science; Warnas, Marijke [Rijkswaterstaat; Perron, Muriel [nateco AG; Elmqvist, Asa [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-04-25

    Concerns for potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy have created challenges for wind project development. Research is not always adequately supported, results are neither always readily accessible nor are they satisfactorily disseminated, and so decisions are often made based on the best available information, which may be missing key findings. The potential for high impacts to avian and bat species and marine mammals have been used by wind project opponents to stop, downsize, or severely delay project development. The global nature of the wind industry - combined with the understanding that many affected species cross-national boundaries, and in many cases migrate between continents - also points to the need to collaborate on an international level. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Technology Collaborative Programs facilitates coordination on key research issues. IEA Wind Task 34 - WREN: Working Together to Resolve Environmental Effects of Wind Energy-is a collaborative forum to share lessons gained from field research and modeling, including management methods, wildlife monitoring methods, best practices, study results, and successful approaches to mitigating impacts and addressing the cumulative effects of wind energy on wildlife.

  18. Environmental effects of alternative energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinghorst, D.

    1975-06-01

    The exponential increase of the energy consumption has reduced the possibility to pollute air and land so much that the detrimental external effects of economic activities must be regarded in energy modelling. That means to analyse the interdependent connections between the economic system and the environment and to picture the structure of the real system on a mathematical model. To do this, System Dynamics models were developed. Beside the relevant technical variables also sociological variables such as 'public pressure' or 'lobby pressure' were regarded. So it was possible to break open the 'ceteris paribus' assumption of the constant sociological and political influences. The environmental effect of various policies to meet the energy demand were critically examined in simulation runs. It was demonstrated that the pollution of the atmosphere will decrease in the beginning of the 80ies. This is based on the implementation of a new energy technology with a lower pollution and, on the other side, on the increasing amount of pollution control. (orig.) [de

  19. Environmental effects on underwater optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peter C.; Breshears, Brian F.; Cullen, Alexander J.; Hammerer, Ross F.; Martinez, Ramon P.; Phung, Thai Q.; Margolina, Tetyana; Fan, Chenwu

    2017-05-01

    Optical communication/detection systems have potential to get around some limitations of current acoustic communications and detection systems especially increased fleet and port security in noisy littoral waters. Identification of environmental effects on underwater optical transmission is the key to the success of using optics for underwater communication and detection. This paper is to answer the question "What are the transfer and correlation functions that relate measurements of hydrographic to optical parameters?" Hydrographic and optical data have been collected from the Naval Oceanographic Office survey ships with the High Intake Defined Excitation (HIDEX) photometer and sea gliders with optical back scattering sensor in various Navy interested areas such as the Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, east Asian marginal seas, and Adriatic Sea. The data include temperature, salinity, bioluminescence, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, transmissivity at two different wavelengths (TRed at 670 nm, TBlue at 490 nm), and back scattering coefficient (bRed at 700 nm, bBlue at 470 nm). Transfer and correlation functions between the hydrographic and optical parameters are obtained. Bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima, transmissivity minimum with their corresponding depths, red and blue laser beam peak attenuation coefficients are identified from the optical profiles. Evident correlations are found between the ocean mixed layer depth and the blue and red laser beam peak attenuation coefficients, bioluminescence and fluorescence maxima in the Adriatic Sea, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and Philippine Sea. Based on the observational data, an effective algorithm is recommended for solving the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for predicting underwater laser radiance.

  20. The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.A.; Landis, W.G.; Matthews, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the community conditions hypothesis, ecological communities retain information bout events in their history. This hypothesis, which was derived from the concept of nonequilibrium community ecology, was developed as a framework for understanding the persistence of dose-related responses in multispecies toxicity tests. The authors present data from three standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) toxicity tests using the water-soluble fractions from turbine fuels (Jet-A, JP-4, and JP-8). In all three tests, the toxicants depressed the Daphnia populations for several weeks, which resulted in algal blooms in the dosed microcosms due to lower predation rates. These effects were short-lived, and by the second and third months of the experiments, the Daphnia populations appeared to have recovered. However, multivariate analysis of the data released dose/response differences that reappeared during the later part of the tests, often due to differences in other consumers (rotifers, ostracods, ciliates), or algae that are not normally consumed (filamentous green algae and bluegreen algae). The findings are consistent with ecological theories that describe communities as the unique production of their etiologies. The implications of this to environmental toxicology are that almost all environmental events leave lasting effects, whether or not they have observed them

  1. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  2. The sceptical optimist: challenges and perspectives for the application of environmental DNA in marine fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Klitgaard; Bekkevold, Dorte; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    principles in relation to eDNA analysis with potential for marine fisheries application. We describe fundamental processes governing eDNA generation, breakdown and transport and summarize current uncertainties about these processes. We describe five major challenges in relation to application in fisheries......Application of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has attracted the attention of researchers, advisors and managers of living marine resources and biodiversity. The apparent simplicity and cost-effectiveness of eDNA analysis make it highly attractive as species distributions can be revealed from...... assessment, where there is immediate need for knowledge building in marine systems, and point to apparent weaknesses of eDNA compared to established marine fisheries monitoring methods. We provide an overview of emerging applications of interest to fisheries management and point to recent technological...

  3. How Participatory Should Environmental Governance Be? Testing the Applicability of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model in Public Environmental Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Nikolas; Jager, Nicolas W.; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Public participation is potentially useful to improve public environmental decision-making and management processes. In corporate management, the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision-making model has served as a tool to help managers choose appropriate degrees of subordinate participation for effective decision-making given varying decision-making contexts. But does the model recommend participatory mechanisms that would actually benefit environmental management? This study empirically tests the improved Vroom-Jago version of the model in the public environmental decision-making context. To this end, the key variables of the Vroom-Jago model are operationalized and adapted to a public environmental governance context. The model is tested using data from a meta-analysis of 241 published cases of public environmental decision-making, yielding three main sets of findings: (1) The Vroom-Jago model proves limited in its applicability to public environmental governance due to limited variance in its recommendations. We show that adjustments to key model equations make it more likely to produce meaningful recommendations. (2) We find that in most of the studied cases, public environmental managers (implicitly) employ levels of participation close to those that would have been recommended by the model. (3) An ANOVA revealed that such cases, which conform to model recommendations, generally perform better on stakeholder acceptance and environmental standards of outputs than those that diverge from the model. Public environmental management thus benefits from carefully selected and context-sensitive modes of participation.

  4. Exploring the Effect of Increased Energy Density on the Environmental Impacts of Traction Batteries: A Comparison of Energy Optimized Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries for Mobility Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cerdas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest towards increasing the energy density of traction battery technologies has led to the emergence and diversification of battery materials. The lithium sulfur battery (LSB is in this regard a promising material for batteries due to its specific energy. However, due to its low volumetric energy density, the LSB faces challenges in mobility applications such as electric vehicles but also other transportation modes. To understand the potential environmental implication of LSB batteries, a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed. For this study, electrodes for both an NMC111 with an anode graphite and a LSB battery cell with a lithium metal foil as anode were manufactured. Data from disassembly experiments performed on a real battery system for a mid-size passenger vehicle were used to build the required life cycle inventory. The energy consumption during the use phase was calculated using a simulative approach. A set of thirteen impact categories was evaluated and characterized with the ReCiPe methodology. The results of the LCA in this study allow identification of the main sources of environmental problems as well as possible strategies to improve the environmental impact of LSB batteries. In this regard, the high requirements of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP for the processing of the sulfur cathode and the thickness of the lithium foil were identified as the most important drivers. We make recommendations for necessary further research in order to broaden the understanding concerning the potential environmental implication of the implementation of LSB batteries for mobility applications.

  5. Regulatory standards applicable or relevant to the independent Hanford environmental surveillance and oversight program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Siegel, M.R.; Woodruff, M.G.; Belfiglio, J.; Elliott, R.W.

    1990-03-01

    The authors reviewed federal and state statutes and regulations, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other guidance material, for potential applicability to the environmental surveillance program conducted for the Hanford site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). There are no federal or state statutes or regulations which are directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program. However, other regulatory schemes, while not directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program, are important insofar as they are indicative of regulatory concern and direction. Because of the evolving nature of environmental regulations, this area needs to be closely monitored for future impact on environmental surveillance activities. 9 refs.,

  6. Anthropocentric and Ecocentric: An Application of Environmental Philosophy to Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Samuel; Simpson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes environmental philosophers write only for other environmental philosophers, and their insights on the nature-human relationship do not reach environmental educators and adventure programmers. This article investigates one aspect of environmental philosophy and the differences between anthropocentric and ecocentric thinking, and applies…

  7. MIR hollow waveguide (HWG) isotope ratio analyzer for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyou; Zhuang, Yan; Deev, Andrei; Wu, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    An advanced commercial Mid-InfraRed Isotope Ratio (IR2) analyzer was developed in Arrow Grand Technologies based on hollow waveguide (HWG) as the sample tube. The stable carbon isotope ratio, i.e. δ13C, was obtained by measuring the selected CO2 absorption peaks in the MIR. Combined with a GC and a combustor, it has been successfully employed to measure compound specific δ13C isotope ratios in the field. By using both the 1- pass HWG and 5-path HWG, we are able to measure δ13C isotope ratio at a broad CO2 concentration of 300 ppm-37,500 ppm. Here, we demonstrate its applications in environmental studies. The δ13C isotope ratio and concentration of CO2 exhaled by soil samples was measured in real time with the isotope analyzer. The concentration was found to change with the time. We also convert the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) into CO2, and then measure the δ13C isotope ratio with an accuracy of better than 0.3 ‰ (1 σ) with a 6 min test time and 1 ml sample usage. Tap water, NaHCO3 solvent, coca, and even beer were tested. Lastly, the 13C isotope ratio of CO2 exhaled by human beings was obtained <10 seconds after simply blowing the exhaled CO2 into a tube with an accuracy of 0.5‰ (1 σ) without sample preconditioning. In summary, a commercial HWG isotope analyzer was demonstrated to be able to perform environmental and health studies with a high accuracy ( 0.3 ‰/Hz1/2 1 σ), fast sampling rate (up to 10 Hz), low sample consumption ( 1 ml), and broad CO2 concentration range (300 ppm-37,500 ppm).

  8. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies

  9. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies.

  10. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternatives in environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    Although it has been Federal government officials who have been accused in courts of law with mismanagement with regard to the consideration of alternatives in the environmental impact statement, the responsibility for systematically considering all alternatives to a proposed project remains with project decisionmakers in the Federal, state, or local levels of government and in industry. By applying the techniques of system cost-effectiveness analysis to the assessment of alternatives, it is believed that management will be able to clearly demonstrate that the selection of the proposed approach was neither arbitrary nor capricious. A rational approach to the assessment of alternatives should aid in meeting the mandates of environmental legislation and EIS guidelines, and it should eliminate the merit of any plaintiff's charge of mismanagement with regard to management's consideration of alternatives. Even though many interfaces between the proposed system and the environment cannot as yet be objectively quantified, application of CE techniques will demonstrate that a rigorous exploration and objective evaluation has been applied to the consideration of alternatives with respect to project objectives, financial conditions, and adverse environmental impacts

  11. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  12. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  13. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  14. Hackathons as A Capacity Building Tool for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; Mildorf, T.; Charvat, K.; Berre, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Today's society requires easy, reliable and quick access to environmental information published by various organizations and initiatives. The environment questions require many activities that produce various sorts of data; by authorities through operation of instruments such as satellites, and through informal local and community activities producing videos, photos or oral stories. The collected information can contribute to up-to-date data. Volunteered geographic information (VGI) is the harnessing of tools to create, assemble, and disseminate geographic data provided voluntarily by individuals. Under the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe) umbrella, a number of EU projects co-organize hackathons - the INSPIRE Hack. The INSPIRE Hack focuses on methods where citizens are able to contribute to different environmental and societal issues through smart phones and other sensors. The INSPIRE Hack supports creativity, innovation, technical capabilities and knowledge sharing by combining open data, VGI, and data from citizens observatories or other citizen science activities. This presentation offer a capacity building perspective on the INSPIRE hackathons, the co-design aspects and the argility with respect to the accelerating technological and social innovations, and effective up-take in societal use. Starting in Europe, the concept can be broadened to encompass all continents.

  15. Environmental effects of exploratory drilling offshore Canada : environmental effects monitoring data and literature review : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, G.; Ellis, J.

    2004-10-01

    This study examined pertinent environmental effects monitoring (EEM) information and data associated with offshore exploratory and development drilling in Canada. Two approaches were used: (1) a review of scientific literature was conducted to provide a synthesis of knowledge concerning interactions between exploratory drilling and the environment; and (2) a review of pertinent Canadian EEM data was conducted to evaluate interactions between exploratory drilling and the environment. Virtually all the east coast Canadian data reviewed in the study related to the effects of multiple wells. Although the effects of drilling waste were a primary focus, the effects of accidental discharges, lights and flaring, atmospheric emissions and noise emissions were also considered. Changes in the diversity and abundance of benthic organisms were detected within 1000 metres of many drill sites. The fine particles in drilling wastes contributed to the environmental effects observed around drilling platforms, and elevated body burden concentrations of drill waste indicators were detected over larger scales in a wide range of taxonomic groups. The results of laboratory and field studies suggested a lower potential for toxicity on commercial finfish and shellfish species. However, it was observed that measuring the effects of elevated concentrations of contaminants remained a challenge due to high levels variability in literature studies. A precautionary approach to the management of seismic surveys was recommended. It was concluded that the potential cumulative impacts of exploration drilling should be considered in the context of other anthropogenic activities. 138 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO 2 and SO 3 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x NO + NO 2 ) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO 2 and NO x are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in environment. Wet flue gas

  17. Environmental effects of fossil fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G

    1999-07-01

    Fossil fuel which include natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen are the main source of heat and electrical energy. All these fuels contain beside major constituents (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) other materials as metal, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. During the combustion process different pollutants as fly ash, sulfur oxides (SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} NO + NO{sub 2}) and volatile organic compounds are emitted. Fly ash contain different trace elements (heavy metals). Gross emission of pollutants is tremendous all over the world. These pollutants are present in the atmosphere in such conditions that they can affect man and his environment. Air pollution caused by the particulate matter and other pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of environment. These phenomena affect health of the people, increase corrosion, destroy cultivated soil and forests. Most of the plants, especially coniferous trees are not resistant to sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Following longer exposure leaves wither and fall. Widespread forest damage has been reported in Europe and North America regions. Many cultivated plants are not resistant to these pollutants either especially in the early period vegetation. The mechanisms of pollutants transformation in atmosphere are described by environmental chemistry. An important role in these transformations plays photochemistry. SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are oxidized and sulfuric and nitric acids are formed in presence of water vapours, fog and droplets. Other problem discussed connected with human activities is emission of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. These emissions cause stratospheric ozone depletion, ground level photochemical ozone formation, toxic or carcinogenic human health effects, enhancing the global greenhouse effect, accumulation and persistence in

  18. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  19. Hybrid Magnetic Core-Shell Nanophotocatalysts for Environmental Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulden, Patrick [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-07-29

    This research study describes a facile sol-gel method to creating hybrid iron (III) oxide/silica/titania nanomaterials decorated with gold nanoparticles for use in environmental applications. The multi-functional composition of the nanomaterials allows for photocatalyzed reactions to occur in both the visible and the UV range. The morphologies, elemental composition, and surface charge of the nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Phase Analysis Light Scattering (PALS), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid nanoparticles for breaking down a model analyte, methyl orange (MO), was then evaluated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The efficiency of the photocatalyst under UV light irradiation was measured and compared to other well-studied nanophotocatalysts, namely titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles. The concentration dependence of both the photocatalyst and the analyte was also investigated. By utilizing the known UV-active properties of TiO2, the magnetic properties of Fe2O3, the optical properties of gold in the visible range of the spectrum, and the high stability of silica, a novel, highly efficient photocatalyst that is active on a broad range of the spectrum (UV-Vis) can be created to destroy organic pollutants in wastewater streams.

  20. The application of GIS and remote sensing technologies for site characterization and environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durfee, R.C.; McCord, R.A.; Dobson, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental cleanup and restoration of hazardous waste sites are major activities at federal facilities around the US. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies are very useful computer tools to aid in site characterization, monitoring, assessment, and remediation efforts. Results from applying three technologies are presented to demonstrate examples of site characterization and environmental assessment for a federal facility. The first technology involves the development and use of GIS within the comprehensive Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) to integrate facility data, terrain models, aerial and satellite imagery, demographics, waste area information, and geographic data bases. The second technology presents 3-D subsurface analyses and displays of groundwater and contaminant measurements within waste areas. In the third application, aerial survey information is being used to characterize land cover and vegetative patterns, detect change, and study areas of previous waste activities and possible transport pathways. These computer technologies are required to manage, analyze, and display the large amounts of environmental and geographic data that must be handled in carrying out effective environmental restoration

  1. PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen

    1979-09-01

    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  2. Environmental effects of uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibbs, N.H.; Rath, D.L.; Donovan, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium exploration and mining is increasing as the Nation's demand for energy grows. The environmental impacts associated with this exploration and mining are not severe and compare favorably with impacts from the production of other energy resources

  3. The application of DEA model in enterprise environmental performance auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zhang, J. D.; Liu, C. Y.; Qu, Z. G.; Xiao, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    As a part of society, enterprises have an inescapable responsibility for environmental protection and governance. This article discusses the feasibility and necessity of enterprises environmental performance auditing and uses DEA model calculate the environmental performance of Haier for example. The most of reference data are selected and sorted from Haier’s environmental reportspublished in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2015, and some of the data from some published articles and fieldwork. All the calculation results are calculated by DEAP software andhave a high credibility. The analysis results of this article can give corporate managements an idea about using environmental performance auditing to adjust their corporate environmental investments capital quota and change their company’s environmental strategies.

  4. 78 FR 27196 - Modification of Permit Application and Intent for Additional Public Scoping for an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Application and Intent for Additional Public Scoping for an Environmental Impact Statement for the Port of... Mississippi State Port Authority (MSPA) for which an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared... Low-Income Populations; Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks...

  5. Elemental line scanning of an increment core using EDXRF: from fundamental research to environmental forensics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensics seeks to determine the responsible parties for contamination from leaks or spills of petroleum or other toxic products. Dendrochemistry contributes to environmental forensics at the intersection of analytical chemistry, tree biology, and environmental responsibility. To be useful, dendrochemistry requires the rigorous application of analytical...

  6. Shirley Basin Uranium Mill. Environmental report to accompany source material license application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    This document summarizes all of the environmental monitoring conducted by Utah. This Environmental Report consequently supplements and updates the information presented in the Source Material License application of August 18, 1970 and the Final Environmental Statement (FES) of December 1974. Water and air quality, liquid waste management, soil/vegetation monitoring, and reclamation are covered

  7. Environmental tax shifting in Canada : theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Hornung, R.; Cairns, S.

    2003-03-01

    Canada's leading energy and resource companies along with the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development have collaborated in the Triple E Tax Shift Research Collaborative which examines the use of environmental tax shifting in Canada. The objective is to design, evaluate and advance federal and provincial environmental tax shifts that will influence individual behaviour and decisions to improve ecological integrity through measurable reductions in materials and energy throughput, and to maintain or increase economic competitiveness through the creation of a tax framework that would encourage businesses to improve energy efficiency. Another objective is to increase employment and social benefits through more employment opportunities and improved quality of life. Environmental tax shifting means shifting a portion of a government's tax base onto goods, services and activities associated with harmful environmental impacts that add to societal costs. Tax shifting can be implemented by offering rebates to consumers of environmental significant goods, or by adjustments to existing taxes so that environmentally sensitive goods are taxed at a lower rate than environmentally harmful goods and services. Environmental tax shifting can also be implemented by reducing existing environmental taxes and introducing a carbon dioxide emissions tax. This report is the first product of the collaboration and is intended to promote public dialogue on the subject and identify ways to implement environmental tax shifting. tabs., figs

  8. Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: ten years of applications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy B; Keisler, Jeffrey; Linkov, Igor

    2011-09-01

    Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) emerged as a formal methodology to face available technical information and stakeholder values to support decisions in many fields and can be especially valuable in environmental decision making. This study reviews environmental applications of MCDA. Over 300 papers published between 2000 and 2009 reporting MCDA applications in the environmental field were identified through a series of queries in the Web of Science database. The papers were classified by their environmental application area, decision or intervention type. In addition, the papers were also classified by the MCDA methods used in the analysis (analytic hierarchy process, multi-attribute utility theory, and outranking). The results suggest that there is a significant growth in environmental applications of MCDA over the last decade across all environmental application areas. Multiple MCDA tools have been successfully used for environmental applications. Even though the use of the specific methods and tools varies in different application areas and geographic regions, our review of a few papers where several methods were used in parallel with the same problem indicates that recommended course of action does not vary significantly with the method applied. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Smart sensors and systems innovations for medical, environmental, and IoT applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan; Lin, Youn-Long

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoT). The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from materials, process, circuits, and big data domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc. Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book provides a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms. Profiles active research on smart sensors based on CMOS microelectronics; Describes applications of sensors and sensor systems in cyber physical systems, the social information infrastructure in our modern world; Includes coverage of a variety of related information technologies supporting the application of sensors; Discusses the integration of computation, networking, actuation, database...

  10. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    2017-01-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de, E-mail: felipe.amorim@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: jreis@id.uff.br, E-mail: joaofellipe@id.uff.br, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Itaguai, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Mecania Teorica e Aplicada; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  12. Defining criteria for good environmental journalism and testing their applicability: An environmental news review as a first step to more evidence based environmental science reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rögener, Wiebke; Wormer, Holger

    2017-05-01

    While the quality of environmental science journalism has been the subject of much debate, a widely accepted benchmark to assess the quality of coverage of environmental topics is missing so far. Therefore, we have developed a set of defined criteria of environmental reporting. This instrument and its applicability are tested in a newly established monitoring project for the assessment of pieces on environmental issues, which refer to scientific sources and therefore can be regarded as a special field of science journalism. The quality is assessed in a kind of journalistic peer review. We describe the systematic development of criteria, which might also be a model procedure for other fields of science reporting. Furthermore, we present results from the monitoring of 50 environmental reports in German media. According to these preliminary data, the lack of context and the deficient elucidation of the evidence pose major problems in environmental reporting.

  13. 76 FR 52656 - Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14211-000] Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On June 10, 2011, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management...

  14. Present condition and countermeasures for nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xia; Huang Xin

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of nuclear and radiation safety supervision, great advances have been made in nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province. But some problems and deficiencies still exist in management. This paper describes the present management situation of nuclear application environmental impact assessment, analysis and discusses the existing problems as well as their countermeasures. (authors)

  15. ICP-MS applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendl, J.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with applications of inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry applications for the analysis of geological materials and environmental samples. There are instrumentation, calibration, alternatives of sample introduction, interferences, trace elements analysis, rare earth elements and uranium and thorium, precious metals, isotopic analysis and environmental analysis discussed

  16. 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa R. Meachum

    2004-02-01

    The 2003 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe the conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operations of the facilities during the 2003 permit year are discussed.

  17. Environmental Impact from Outdoor/Environmental Education Programs: Effects of Frequent Stream Classes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossley, Jon P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stewardship is an underlying theme in outdoor education (OE) and environmental education (EE), but maintaining natural areas in a sustainable balance between conservation and preservation requires knowledge about how natural areas respond to anthropogenic disturbance. My five-part study investigated the effects of disturbance on…

  18. Effects of a 1-Day Environmental Education Intervention on Environmental Attitudes and Connectedness with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Besides cognitive learning effects, short-term environmental education (EE) is often regarded as ineffective in intervening with participants' environmental attitudes and behaviour. However, in Germany, school classes often participate in such 1-day EE programmes because they better match the school curriculum in contrast to longer (residential)…

  19. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  20. Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

  1. [Applications of eco-environmental big data: Progress and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao Miao; Zhao, Shi Cheng; Zhang, Li Yun; Zhao, Fen; Shao, Rui; Liu, Li Xiang; Zhao, Hai Feng; Xu, Ming

    2017-05-18

    With the advance of internet and wireless communication technology, the fields of ecology and environment have entered a new digital era with the amount of data growing explosively and big data technologies attracting more and more attention. The eco-environmental big data is based airborne and space-/land-based observations of ecological and environmental factors and its ultimate goal is to integrate multi-source and multi-scale data for information mining by taking advantages of cloud computation, artificial intelligence, and modeling technologies. In comparison with other fields, the eco-environmental big data has its own characteristics, such as diverse data formats and sources, data collected with various protocols and standards, and serving different clients and organizations with special requirements. Big data technology has been applied worldwide in ecological and environmental fields including global climate prediction, ecological network observation and modeling, and regional air pollution control. The development of eco-environmental big data in China is facing many problems, such as data sharing issues, outdated monitoring facilities and techno-logies, and insufficient data mining capacity. Despite all this, big data technology is critical to solving eco-environmental problems, improving prediction and warning accuracy on eco-environmental catastrophes, and boosting scientific research in the field in China. We expected that the eco-environmental big data would contribute significantly to policy making and environmental services and management, and thus the sustainable development and eco-civilization construction in China in the coming decades.

  2. Graphitic Carbon-Based Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Long Donald

    This thesis focuses on the synthesis and characterization of graphitic carbonbased photocatalytic nanostructures for energy and environmental applications. The preparation of carbon- and oxygen-rich graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution property was investigated. Composite materials based on graphene quantum dots were also prepared. These composites were used for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants and photoelectrocatalytic disinfection. The first part of this thesis describes a facile method for the preparation of carbon- and oxygen-rich graphitic carbon nitride by thermal condensation. Incorporation of carbon and oxygen enhanced the photoresponse of carbon nitride in the visible-light region. After exfoliation, the product was c.a. 45 times more active than bulk graphitic carbon nitride in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation. In the second part, a simple approach to enhance the photocatalytic activity of red phosphorus was developed. Mechanical ball milling was applied to reduce the size of red phosphorus and to deposit graphene quantum dots (GQDs) onto red phosphorus. The product exhibited high visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. The incorporation of GQDs in titanium dioxide could also extend the absorption spectrum of TiO2 into the visible-light range. The third part of this thesis reports on the fabrication of a visible-light-driven composite photocatalyst of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) and GQDs. Carboxyl-containing GQDs were covalently coupled to amine-modified TNAs. The product exhibited enhanced photocurrent and high photoelectrocatalytic performance in the inactivation of E. coli under visible-light irradiation. The role of various reactive species in the photoelectrocatalytic process was investigated.

  3. Recent advances in biochar applications in agricultural soils: Benefits and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gang; Lv, Yingchun [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai (China); Sun, Junna; Wei, Linlin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute of Life Sciences,Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai (China)

    2012-10-15

    Biochar, a by-product of biomass pyrolysis, has been suggested as a mean to combat climate change, and at the same time to achieve agricultural and environmental benefits. As one possible source of the components with high aromatic structure in soil humus, biochar is of great importance in increasing soil carbon storage and improving soil nutrient retention and nutrient availability, and in maintaining the balance of soil ecosystem. This paper briefly reviewed and synthesized recent findings and discussions regarding the production and characteristics of biochar, its effects on global climate change and particularly in relation to the environmental effects of biochar in soils. Agronomic benefits of biochar application are critically highlighted because researches show that biochar had varied effects on crop productivity thorough the different bio-physical interactions between the biochar and the soils, which are deserved for further investigations. Potential pitfalls and knowledge gaps were briefly discussed on the environmental behavior and the effects of biochar in agricultural ecosystem. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Spectroscopic studies of uranium species for environmental decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Charlotte

    After the Cold War, Department of Energy began to concentrate its efforts on cleanup of former nuclear material processing facilities, especially uranium-contaminated groundwater and soil. This research aims to study uranium association to both organic and inorganic compounds found in the contaminated environment in the hopes that the information gathered can be applied to the development and optimization of cost-effective remediation techniques. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods will be employed to examine the behavior of uranium in given conditions to further our understanding of its impact on the environment. Uranium found in groundwater and soil bind with various ligands, especially organic ligands present in the environment due to natural sources (e.g. metabolic by-products or degradation of plants and animals) or man-made sources (e.g. chelating agents used in operating or cleanup of uranium processing facilities). We selected reasonable analogs of naturally occurring matter and studied their structure, chemical and electrochemical behavior and found that the structure of uranyl complexes depends heavily on the nature of the ligand and environmental factors such as pH. Association of uranium-organic complexes with anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium sp. was studied to establish if the bacteria can effectively bioreduce uranium while going through normal bacterial activity. It was found that the nature of the organic ligand affected the bioavailability and toxicity of the uranium on the bacteria. In addition, we have found that the type of iron corrosion products and uranyl species present on the surface of corroded steel depended on various environmental factors, which subsequently affected the removal rate of uranium by a citric acid/hydrogen peroxide/deionized water cleaning process. The method was found to remove uranium from only the topmost corrosion layers and residual uranium could be found (a) deeper in the corrosion layers where it is occluded by

  5. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and The Application to The Copper Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan ERTUĞRUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents firstly Environmental Management and Environmental Management Systems (EMS. The certification process of ISO 14001 EMS is described in the Copper Industry that begin the environmental activities by completely considering environment. Evaluating the environmental impacts of business, it is presented the process including EMS so as to dispose of waste, the creation of process, the application difficulties and the benefits of EMS.

  6. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to

  7. Applications of air ion measurement in environmental diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper is dealing with the methods employing the measuring of naturally created air ions. The amount and mobility distribution of these ions offer hidden information about air pollution. On the other hand, the natural air ions are active in some environmental processes and they should be considered as an immediate environmental factor

  8. Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practical Application | Kelbessa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental ethics is a critical study of the normative issues and principles relevant to the relationship between humans and the natural world. It covers various fields, ranging from the welfare of animals versus ecosystems to theories of the intrinsic value of nature. There are various approaches to environmental ethics.

  9. Training for effective environmental protection in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.; Brake, J.; Hickman, C.; Tamm, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of environmental training in the delivery of effective environmental protection programs for construction projects in the nuclear industry. The paper uses a case study approach, based on Point Lepreau Generating Station's Refurbishment Project, to demonstrate how the underpinning principles of 'training, awareness and competence' can be delivered within a structured environmental management framework, to achieve sustained excellence in environmental management and performance. Key issues addressed by the paper include the early identification of different target audiences, making effective use of communication themes, and the importance of reinforcement and follow-up in support of training goals. (author)

  10. Self-discharge analysis and characterization of supercapacitors for environmentally powered wireless sensor network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hengzhao; Zhang, Ying

    2011-10-01

    A new approach is presented to characterize the variable leakage resistance, a parameter in the variable leakage resistance model we developed to model supercapacitors used in environmentally powered wireless sensor network applications. Based on an analysis of the supercapacitor terminal behavior during the self-discharge, the variable leakage resistance is modeled as a function of the supercapacitor terminal voltage instead of the self-discharge time, which is more practical for an environmentally powered wireless sensor node. The new characterization approach is implemented and validated using MATLAB Simulink with a 10 F supercapacitor as an example. In addition, effects of initial voltages and temperatures on the supercapacitor self-discharge rate and the variable leakage resistance value are explored.

  11. Environmental effects on corrosion in the Tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.

    1990-02-01

    Cortest Columbus is investigating the long-term performance of container materials used for high-level waste packages as part of the information needed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assess the Department of Energy's application to construct a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The scope of work consists of employing short-term techniques, to examine a wide range of possible failure modes. Long-term tests are being used to verify and further examine specific failure modes identified as important by the short-term studies. The original focus of the program was on the salt repository but the emphasis was shifted to the Tuff repository. This report summarizes the results of a literature survey performed under Task 1 of the program. The survey focuses on the influence of environmental variables on the corrosion behavior of candidate container materials for the Tuff repository. Environmental variables considered include: radiation, thermal and microbial effects. 80 refs., 44 figs., 44 tabs

  12. Novel, convenient, and nonpersistent radiotracer for environmental and energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A newly-available radioisotope system, 172 Hf- 172 Lu, has excellent potential for tracer applications in which nuclear data acquisition must be accomplished in real time. The 6.7-day half-life of 172 Lu is sufficient for a large fraction of tracer experiments, and should allow the direct incorporation of 172 Lu into tests that have traditionally utilized much longer-lived radionuclides. Since 172 Lu is the daughter component of a radioisotope generator, however, its effective shelf-life is determined by the half-life of its 1.9-year 172 Hf parent. Consequently, the frequency of isotope procurement need not be any more extensive than investigators would normally be accustomed to. Discussion relevant to isotope production, generator operation, and nuclide acquisition is presented

  13. Application of nuclear techniques on environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1998-01-01

    Radioanalysis and tracer techniques that can be used on environmental pollution problems. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are the two methods that are used frequently on such problems. These methods are used for metal analysis. Tracer technique with radioactive labeled compounds are used to study the fate of the pollution substances in environmental systems. It is very important to validate every new developed analysis method, due to the environmental pollution problem closely related to the low enforcement. (author)

  14. Applications of information technology in the environmental area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Page, B.

    1987-03-01

    The state of events in the environment are described by physical, chemical, meteorological and biological data. The spatially distributed information cannot be managed without technical help from automatic measuring devices, data telecommunication and process data processing. The computer-aided creation of models and simulation represent an aid involving environmental problems. One considerable extension of the possibilities will be provided by the introduction of the methods of artificial intelligence, especially expert systems. The use of information technology therefore forms an important precondition for environmental protection. The contributions illustrate the state of development of communication between scientists in the field of environmental protection. (DG) [de

  15. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  16. Research on Application of Internet of Things in the Disposal of Environmental Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things is an important part of a new generation of information technology and also an important stage of Information Age. Application of Internet of things in the disposal of environmental emergency is an inevitable trend of application of Internet of things in the field of environmental protection. This paper summarizes the principle, process and application field of Internet of things, and focuses on the general frame-work of environmental emergency disposal system based on Internet of things and further analyses the factors of restricting application of Internet of things in the disposal of environmental emergency. At last, the suggestions and countermeasures to optimize environmental emergency disposal system are proposed.

  17. Application of a predictive Bayesian model to environmental accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anex, R P; Englehardt, J D

    2001-03-30

    Environmental accounting techniques are intended to capture important environmental costs and benefits that are often overlooked in standard accounting practices. Environmental accounting methods themselves often ignore or inadequately represent large but highly uncertain environmental costs and costs conditioned by specific prior events. Use of a predictive Bayesian model is demonstrated for the assessment of such highly uncertain environmental and contingent costs. The predictive Bayesian approach presented generates probability distributions for the quantity of interest (rather than parameters thereof). A spreadsheet implementation of a previously proposed predictive Bayesian model, extended to represent contingent costs, is described and used to evaluate whether a firm should undertake an accelerated phase-out of its PCB containing transformers. Variability and uncertainty (due to lack of information) in transformer accident frequency and severity are assessed simultaneously using a combination of historical accident data, engineering model-based cost estimates, and subjective judgement. Model results are compared using several different risk measures. Use of the model for incorporation of environmental risk management into a company's overall risk management strategy is discussed.

  18. Synthesis of biomass derived carbon materials for environmental engineering and energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

    Biomass derived carbon (BC) can serve as an environmentally and cost effective material for both remediation and energy production/storage applications. The use of locally derived biomass, such as unrefined wood waste, provides a renewable feedstock for carbon material production compared to conventional unrenewable resources like coal. Additionally, energy and capital cost can be reduced through the reduction in transport and processing steps and the use of spent material as a soil amendment. However, little work has been done to evaluate and compare biochar to conventional materials such as granular activated carbon or graphite in advanced applications of Environmental Engineering. In this work I evaluated the synthesis and compared the performance of biochar for different applications in wastewater treatment, nutrient recovery, and energy production and storage. This includes the use of biochar as an electrode and filter media in several bioelectrochemical systems (BES) treating synthetic and industrial wastewater. I also compared the treatment efficiency of granular biochar as a packed bed adsorbent for the primary treatment of high strength brewery wastewater. My studies conclude with the cultivation of fungal biomass to serve as a template for biochar synthesis, controlling the chemical and physical features of the feedstock and avoiding some of the limitations of waste derived materials.

  19. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  20. Environmental Geochemistry of Cerium: Applications and Toxicology of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica T. Dahle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium is the most abundant of rare-earth metals found in the Earth’s crust. Several Ce-carbonate, -phosphate, -silicate, and -(hydroxide minerals have been historically mined and processed for pharmaceutical uses and industrial applications. Of all Ce minerals, cerium dioxide has received much attention in the global nanotechnology market due to their useful applications for catalysts, fuel cells, and fuel additives. A recent mass flow modeling study predicted that a major source of CeO2 nanoparticles from industrial processing plants (e.g., electronics and optics manufactures is likely to reach the terrestrial environment such as landfills and soils. The environmental fate of CeO2 nanoparticles is highly dependent on its physcochemical properties in low temperature geochemical environment. Though there are needs in improving the analytical method in detecting/quantifying CeO2 nanoparticles in different environmental media, it is clear that aquatic and terrestrial organisms have been exposed to CeO2 NPs, potentially yielding in negative impact on human and ecosystem health. Interestingly, there has been contradicting reports about the toxicological effects of CeO2 nanoparticles, acting as either an antioxidant or reactive oxygen species production-inducing agent. This poses a challenge in future regulations for the CeO2 nanoparticle application and the risk assessment in the environment.

  1. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act

  2. Application of environmental isotopes to characterize landfill gases and leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Baker, J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopes have been used to help characterize landfill gases and leachate for the purpose of identifying leachate and/or gas contamination in surrounding monitoring wells. Carbon isotopes (C-13/C-12 and C-14), hydrogen isotopes (H-3 and H-2/H-1) and oxygen isotopes (O-18/O-16) were used to characterize methane, carbon dioxide and leachate produced from two municipal landfills in northeastern Illinois. The isotopic results from the landfill-derived gases and leachate are compared to isotopic compositions of groundwater and gases from nearby monitoring wells. C-14 activity of landfill CH 4 is high compared to CH 4 normally found in subsurface sediments. For this study C-14 activities of the landfill methane range from 129--140 PMC. The C-14 of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the leachate samples also have relatively high activities, ranging from 126--141 PMC. The δC-13 and δD values for CH 4 from the landfills fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced by acetate-fermentation. The δC-13 of the CO 2 and the DIC are very positive, ranging from 8--14 per-thousand for CO 2 and 13--22 per-thousand for DIC. The δO-18 values of the leachates are similar to current meteoric water values, however, two of the leachate samples are significantly enriched in deuterium by approximately 65 per-thousand. Tritium values of the leachate water are generally higher than expected. For one landfill the tritium activity ranges from 227--338 TU, for the second landfill the tritium activity is approximately 1,300 TU. Compared to tritium levels in normal groundwater, these higher tritium values in the leachates indicate that this isotope has the potential to be an effective tracer for detecting leachate migration

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  4. Effects of environmental information dissemination and use on food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of Environmental Information Dissemination and use on Food Security in Gwagwalada Area Council. The objective of the study is to determine the type of environmental information available in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT.A total number of fifty questionnaires were issued and forty five ...

  5. Environmental concepts in rural Honduras: A case study of their range and application within environmental education design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert Sanders

    1998-12-01

    The rate of environmental degradation in the Third World continues to present residents of countries like Honduras with conditions that threaten the quality of life and ecological systems. How people conceptualize their environment could be a point of entry into a greater understanding of environmental problems. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, this study comprises a qualitative examination of the environmental concepts of a sample of 75 rural Hondurans. Analysis of their concepts was used to construct a tentative interpretation of the rural Honduran worldview characteristics of Self, Other, Relationship, Classification, Causality, Time, and Space. The findings of this investigation indicated that rural Hondurans conceptualize their environment through the worldview lenses of survival and poverty, leading to a sense of fatalism when confronting the complex and multifaceted problems associated with quality of life and environmental quality. Analysis of concepts and worldview also indicated that rural Hondurans generally do not believe their environmental problems are solvable, nor do they appear to understand that these problems are also cultural problems whose solutions will most likely require some revision of their current worldview. An educational approach that fosters the integration of compatible environmental concepts into the rural Honduran worldview is recommended through the application of design strategies for a prospective environmental education process.

  6. Environmental Effects Of Ecotourism In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Butarbutar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecotourism is global issues who most talked lately in Indonesia, it is one of the activities special tourist interest which low impacts on natural tourism.The presence of ecotourism in the era of sustainable and tourism development mission should be minimum negative impacts, both on the environment resources and on socio-cultural local values.  Ecotourism activities were more oriented on the utilization of natural resources, the natural ecosystems and have not been polluted yet.  However, when all of tourism development can not be separated from the negative impacts, such as ecosystem distress in ecotourism object when visited by large number of tourists, there are many conflicts of interest between the ecotourism management with local communities, especially regarding the benefits sharing and its accessibilities.  The purpose of this paper is to identify the environmental impacts arising as a result of ecotourism activities and to find out alternative efforts in mitigating the environmental impact of ecotourism activities. Carrying capacity of ecotourism is not just limited to the number of visits, but also covers other aspects, such as: (1 ecological capacity that is ability of natural environment in providing the needs of tourists, (2 physical capacity, that is ability of facilities and infrastructure in providing the needs of tourists,  (3 social capacity, that is ability to absorb tourism activities without the negative impacts on the local communities, (4 the economic capacity, that is ability to absorb destination commercial efforts and accommodateany interests of the local economy. Keywords: Ecotourism, environmental impacts, carrying capacity.

  7. Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Eric

    2011-11-16

    The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  8. Development of Dynamic Environmental Effect Calculation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2010-01-01

    The short-term, long-term decay heat, and radioactivity are considered as main environmental parameters of SF and HLA. In this study, the dynamic calculation models for radioactivity, short-term decay heat, and long-term heat load of the SF are developed and incorporated into the Doneness code. The spent fuel accumulation has become a major issue for sustainable operation of nuclear power plants. If a once-through fuel cycle is selected, the SF will be disposed into the repository. Otherwise, in case of fast reactor or reuse cycle, the SF will be reprocessed and the high level waste will be disposed

  9. Possible applications of neutron activation analysis at the RB reactor for the environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, D.; Pesic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Dasic, N.; Antic, D.; Kostic, Lj.; Ljubenov, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the possibilities of performing neutron activation analysis in Yugoslavia for the purpose of environmental pollution monitoring. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an established method for the determination of trace elements in a broad range of samples. It is non-destructive method used in a routine manner with gamma-ray spectrometry for various applications in biology, environmental toxicology, radiation assessment, mineral exploration, trace elements monitoring regarding human health studies. As a complex, powerful analytical tool, it might give results even when other analytical methods fail. NAA has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (NET), the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, for various applications in the reactor physics research. The samples are irradiated in the RB research reactor, which is the zero-power, bear, heavy water critical facility utilising three fuel element types. The reactor system is very flexible and allows for different core configurations, resulting in various neutron fields, with energy spectra ranging from thermal to fast (in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE). There are several vertical and horizontal experimental channels available for sample's irradiation. The achievable thermal neutron flux is approximately 1 0 7 n/(cm 2 s) per 1 W of fission power. We believe the RB reactor could be successfully used for neutron activation analysis of trace elements in the environmental samples, comprising short-lived isotopes. Although the flux level and restricted irradiation time pose a certain limitation to NAA applications at the RB reactor, it can be compensated by the specific methodology advancement. That involves overcoming the main sources of error in the instrumental NAA evaluation methodology which utilises generally valid k 0 , and Q 0 factors. In particular, the computational accuracy of required nuclear parameters (e.g. neutron flux distribution, effective nuclear cross sections) can

  10. 75 FR 63450 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Hydroelectric Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of.... Applicant: Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company. e. Name of Project: W. Kerr Scott Hydropower Project. f...

  11. 75 FR 4058 - CRD Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of.... Applicant: CRD Hydroelectric, LLC. e. Name of Project: Red Rock Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  12. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance to... renewal of a nuclear power plant operating license. Applicants should use this regulatory guide when...

  13. The application of extraction chromatography to the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Delle Site, A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describe the application of extraction chromatography to the determination of several alpha and beta emitters in biological and environmental samples. Both column extraction chromatography and batch extraction process have been used to isolate the radionuclides from the samples. The effect of several parameters (extractant concentration, support granulometry, stirring time, temperature, presence of a complexing agent) on the extraction and elution has been examined. The application of redox extraction chromatography is also described. A very simple and rapid determination of the activity retained on the column can be obtained by transferring the slurry to a counting vial and by adding the scintillation liquid for a direct detection of the α or β emission. The counting efficiencies obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with ion exchange resins. The organic polymers used for the extraction chromatography give about 100% counting efficiency. The conventional ion exchange resin cannot be used to this purpose because of their strong light absorption. (T.G.)

  14. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  15. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  16. Environmental Effects on Non-oxide Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    Non-oxide ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are promising materials for a wide range of high temperature applications. These include such diverse applications as components for heat engines, high temperature electronics, and re-entry shields for space vehicles. Table I lists a number of selected applications. Most of the emphasis here will be on SiC and Si3N4. Where appropriate, other non-oxide materials such as aluminum nitride (AlN) and boron nitride (BN) will be discussed. Proposed materials include both monolithic ceramics and composites. Composites are treated in more detail elsewhere in this volume, however, many of the oxidation/corrosion reactions discussed here can be extended to composites. In application these materials will be exposed to a wide variety of environments. Table I also lists reactive components of these environments.It is well-known that SiC and Si3N4 retain their strength to high temperatures. Thus these materials have been proposed for a variety of hot-gas-path components in combustion applications. These include heat exchanger tubes, combustor liners, and porous filters for coal combustion products. All combustion gases contain CO2, CO, H2, H2O, O2, and N2. The exact gas composition is dependent on the fuel to air ratio or equivalence ratio. (Equivalence ratio (EQ) is a fuel-to-air ratio, with total hydrocarbon content normalized to the amount of O2 and defined by EQ=1 for complete combustion to CO2 and H2O). Figure 1 is a plot of equilibrium gas composition vs. equivalence ratio. Note that as a general rule, all combustion atmospheres are about 10% water vapor and 10% CO2. The amounts of CO, H2, and O2 are highly dependent on equivalence ratio.

  17. Is a Voluntary Approach an Effective Environmental Policy Instrument? A Case for Environmental Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arimura, Toshi; Hibiki, Akira; Katayama, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Using Japanese facility-level data from an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development survey, we estimate the effects of implementation of ISO14001 and publication of environmental reports on the facilities’ environmental performance. While most previous studies focused on an index of emissions toxicity, this study examines three areas of impacts, none of which have been explored in the literature: natural resource use, solid waste generation, and wastewater effluent. The study is...

  18. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company's regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses

  19. Application of environmental isotopes to groundwater investigations in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.; Payne, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been used to study the dynamic behaviour of the groundwater systems in Qatar. The aim was to identify the mixing processes between the shallow phreatic aquifer, the deep confined aquifers and seawater. Environmental tritium was used to estimate the average recharge of the shallow freshwater aquifer. The results of the environmental isotope study, supplemented by hydrochemical data, have clearly indicated that in the south western part of the peninsula the shallow aquifer is in direct hydraulic connection with the deeper artesian aquifers. Furthermore, the poor quality of water in that area is mainly due to substantial upward leakage of water from the deeper aquifers. In some parts of the peninsula seawater was identified as an additional source of salinity. A model was developed for estimating the turnover rate and average recharge of the phreatic aquifer from the tritium data. The results of this model provide an independent estimate of the average annual recharge. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of environmental isotopes to groundwater investigations in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.; Payne, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been used to study the dynamic behaviour of the groundwater systems in Qatar. The aim was to identify the mixing processes between the shallow phreatic aquifer, the deep confined aquifers and sea-water. Environmental tritium was used to estimate the average recharge of the shallow fresh-water aquifer. The results of the environmental isotope study, supplemented by hydrochemical data, have clearly indicated that in the southwestern part of the peninsula the shallow aquifer is in direct hydraulic connection with the deeper artesian aquifers. Furthermore, the poor quality of water in that area is mainly due to substantial upward leakage of water from the deeper aquifers. In some parts of the peninsula sea-water was identified as an additional source of salinity. A model was developed for estimating the turnover rate and average recharge of the phreatic aquifer from the tritium data. The results of this model provide an independent estimate of the average annual recharge. (author)

  1. Intelligence systems in environmental management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sari, İrem

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive reference guide to intelligence systems in environmental management. It provides readers with all the necessary tools for solving complex environmental problems, where classical techniques cannot be applied. The respective chapters, written by prominent researchers, explain a wealth of both basic and advanced concepts including ant colony, genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy multi-criteria decision making tools, particle swarm optimization, agent-based modelling, artificial neural networks, simulated annealing, Tabu search, fuzzy multi-objective optimization, fuzzy rules, support vector machines, fuzzy cognitive maps, cumulative belief degrees, and many others. To foster a better understanding, all the chapters include relevant numerical examples or case studies. Taken together, they form an excellent reference guide for researchers, lecturers and postgraduate students pursuing research on complex environmental problems. Moreover, by extending all the main aspec...

  2. Assessment and prognosis of environmental state and development of environmentally effective technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovko, A.; Polichtchouk, Y.; Ivanov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Despite of the decrease in oil production in Russia, the negative effects of the oil industry wastes on the environment still remain. The authors examine the main sources of the environmental pollution and suggest the assessment of technogenic impact which requires large volumes of ecological, cartographic and other data through the application of geographic information systems (GIS). Suggested technology includes software means for simulating the technogenic impact on natural environment. By overlapping the zones of technogenic impact on the landscape map using GIS, the relative areas of the polluted landscape complexes can be calculated. A developed method for oil product containment in water surface based on natural and synthetic fibrous adsorbents is presented. The isotherms of adsorption of oil, diesel fuel and gasoline are given. The efficiency of water purification from the oil products in solutions depends of their initial concentrations. The efficiency of adsorption from the microemulsions, however, increases with increasing adsorbent-solution ratio. The efficiency of the purification of oily sewage may be evaluated using the data in the Table obtained for oil products adsorption on multilayered adsorbents. (YU-INIS Centre)

  3. Evaluation of Economic, Social and Environmental Effects of Low-Emission Energy Technologies Development in Poland: A Multi-Criteria Analysis with Application of a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ligus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission as well as the Polish government are promoting sustainable use of energy sources as a part of the dominating sustainable development paradigm. The development of low-emission energy sources engages the challenges of gradual depletion of coal, oil and natural gas reserves, as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect. The energy policy should take into account development of low-emission energy technologies that contribute mostly to meeting the goals of sustainable development in three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. This study aims to assess the extent to which five low-emission energy technologies contribute to social welfare in the scope of the concept of sustainable development. Heuristic methods, including fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP are used to resolve the multi-goal problem in order to achieve the aim of this research. Research results show that economic goal is still the most important to the development of various low-emission energy technologies in Poland, followed by the social and environmental goals. Secondly, renewable energy technologies should be utilized instead of nuclear energy to meet sustainable development policy goals. Photovoltaics, followed by biomass and biogas are perceived as the most suitable renewable energy sources. Wind on-shore and wind of-shore are on third and fourth place, respectively.

  4. Designing Base and Subbase to Resist Environmental Effects on Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    MnDOTs current pavement thickness design procedures do not characterize the effects of subgrade soil frost susceptibility. Previous research indicates frost action is the most severe environmental factor on pavement performance. The most accepted ...

  5. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on the Ecosystem of Old ... intensity and temperature of explosive dissolution in the mine environment shows that TNT ... based on their physical/chemical properties as: gelatin.

  6. Prediction uncertainty of environmental change effects on temperate European biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, C.; Schweiger, O.; Arens, P.F.P.; Augenstein, I.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Baudry, J.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Cerny, M.; Cock, de R.; Blust, de G.; DeFilippi, R.; Diekotter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Durka, W.; Edwards, P.J.; Frenzel, M.; Hamersky, R.; Hendrickx, F.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Koolstra, B.J.H.; Lausch, A.; Coeur, Le D.; Liira, J.; Maelfait, J.P.; Opdam, P.; Roubalova, M.; Schermann, A.; Schermann, N.; Schmidt, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Speelmans, M.; Simova, P.; Verboom, J.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Zobel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Observed patterns of species richness at landscape scale (gamma diversity) cannot always be attributed to a specific set of explanatory variables, but rather different alternative explanatory statistical models of similar quality may exist. Therefore predictions of the effects of environmental

  7. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G.; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S.; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A.; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be

  8. Genetic and environmental effects of mortality before age 70 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is a familial influence on risk of many diseases and on mortality in general, which, according to studies of twins, is due to a combination of genetic and environmental effects. Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately...... the genetic and environmental effects on rate of dying. METHODS:: The genetic influence on the rate of dying before age 70 years was investigated by estimation of the associations in total and cause-specific mortality of Danish adoptees and their biologic full and half siblings. Familial environmental...

  9. Application of the neutron activation analysis to environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Bozhi.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a nuclear analysis technology. It has been developed in recent times. By this means, the paper analyzes the element contents of leaves, soil and atmospheric dust-fall from the eastern and the western suburbs of Chengdu, then makes a comparison between the two areas and approaches some problems on environmental pollution

  10. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The

  11. Measuring Social Capital among Youth: Applications in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Kalbacker, Leigh; Stedman, Richard C.; Russ, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Although critiqued for circular reasoning and lack of definitional and analytic clarity, social capital has garnered widespread interest in two areas relevant to environmental education (EE): the impact of family and community-level social capital on positive youth development and of community-level social capital in fostering collective action to…

  12. Biomedical and environmental applications of laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... In this paper, we report the preliminary observations we obtained using LIBS for clinical and environmental samples. Elemental analysis has been done qualitatively in human teeth samples which show encouraging results. It has also been demonstrated in this paper that LIBS can be very well utilized in ...

  13. Dendroecological applications in air pollution and environmental chemistry: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel B. McLaughlin; Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, dendrochronology has evolved in new dimensions that have helped address both the extent and causes of impacts of regional scale environmental pollution on the productivity and function of forest ecosystems. Initial focus on the magnitude and timing of alterations of baseline growth levels of individual forest trees has now broadened to...

  14. Application of radiochemical separation procedures to environmental and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-06-15

    The measurement of low levels of radionuclides in environmental and biological materials often depends on separation of the nuclide of interest from a bulky matrix containing interfering radioelements. In such case, however sophisticated and elegant the counting technique, the quality of the final data will

  15. Building and application of environmental radioactivity data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumicak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The main characteristics and the way of functioning of the complex system of acquisition, storage and processing of data on environmental radioactivity of a data bank type are described. Its advantages and disadvantages and possible ways of its utilization in different fields are shown. (author)

  16. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S

    2006-01-01

    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  17. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  18. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Prosen

    2014-01-01

    Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several...

  19. Discussion of environmental impact assessment for the nuclear technology application in hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaoting; Xu Zhongyang

    2010-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiation has become the greatest artificial radiation in the world. Based on the characteristics of the nuclear technology application in hospital the content of the environmental impact assessment has been stated, including identification of the environmental impact factor, the standard, the environmental impact, control of the pollution as well. The dose of the medical staff which engaged in interventional operation and the accompanies of the patients which received nuclear medicine treatment should be focused on. (authors)

  20. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica

  1. Laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas; Dreier, Thomas; Chen, Weidong; Kearny, Sean; Kulatilaka, Waruna

    2017-04-10

    This Applied Optics feature issue on laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at the LACSEA 2016 Fifteenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America.

  2. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  3. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Suraya, F

    2015-12-01

    Environmental air pollution has become a leading health concern especially in the developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and rapidly growing population. Prolonged exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental air pollution on progression of cardiovascular problems. In this study, we identified 6880 published articles through a systematic database including ISI-Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. The allied literature was searched by using the key words such as environmental pollution, air pollution, particulate matter pollutants PM 2.5 μm-PM 10 μm. Literature in which environmental air pollution and cardiac diseases were discussed was included. Descriptive information was retrieved from the selected literature. Finally, we included 67 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Environmental pollution can cause high blood pressure, arrhythmias, enhanced coagulation, thrombosis, acute arterial vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and even heart failure. Environmental air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Environmental pollution exerts its detrimental effects on the heart by developing pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic changes. Environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Standards applicable to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; liability coverage requirements--Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule and notice of extension of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-13

    The effective date for qualifications of insurers providing liability insurance used to satisfy liability coverage requirements applicable to owners or operators of hazardous waste management facilities, as such requirements are included in 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265, is extended from July 15, 1982, to October 16, 1982. The effective date for the rest of the liability coverage requirements remains July 15, 1982. This extension is being provided to allow 6 months between the date of promulgation and the effective date for the insurer qualification provision, in accordance with Section 3010(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended. During the period between July 15 and October 16, 1982, owners or operators may use certificates of insurance or policy endorsements that do not certify to the qualifications of the insurer.

  5. Off-line supercritical fluid extraction-capillary GC applications in environmental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, F.; Verschuere, M.; Sandra, P.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The successful application of supercrit. fluid extn. for environmental samples requires that the extn. for environmental samples requires that the extn. conditions detd. for spiked samples must be optimized in order to overcome the solute-matrix interactions that are responsible for lower recoveries

  6. 75 FR 65620 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The project would be... ready for environmental analysis at this time. l. The proposed 2.0-megawatt Inglis Hydropower Project...

  7. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  8. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  9. Environmental effects of energy forest (short rotation willow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with environmental effects of producing and combusting energy forest fuel. Energy forest means short rotation willow (Salix). Supposed effects of sewage sludge application are discussed as well. Energy forestry on agricultural land implies both advantages and disadvantages for the environment. Leaf litter (humified leaves) increases the humus content in the top soil. The soil fauna is also positively affected. Until now performed studies about nitrogen leakage from fields cultivated with energy forest (Salix), have not given any distinct results. A retarded drainage within energy forest fields is on the other hand noticed. While the root system of Salix is active during a long period of the year, the nitrogen leakage become less compared to traditional cultivation. The content of plant nutrients and organic matter in sewage sludge make a resource that can be useful for agricultural purposes, especially for energy forest cultivation. The content of heavy metals and organic emissions contradicts sludge application to agricultural land. Sewage sludge with todays quality increases somewhat the content of heavy metals in the soil. This condition can be counteracted to a certain extent by growing energy forest. It has been established that Salix has high ability to heavy metal uptake, especially cadmium. Growing energy forest on drained farm land is connected with a risk for root penetration into the drainage system. With enough water and plant nutrients in the top soil the risk is reduced. Shallow depth of the pipes increases the risk. Combustion of wood chip from energy forests (and other types of biomass) gives especially two advantages. It does not give any net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulphur discharge will be minimal since the sulphur content in wood fuels is low. Discharge of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons may give some problems. These can be reduced by technological measures when combusting. 27 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Moderating Effects of Trust on Environmentally Significant Behavior in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gin Moon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.

  11. Environmental policy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weenink, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions, resulting from human activity, are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. This is causing an additional average warming of the Earth's surface. This article presents an overview of recent developments in the international discussion on climate change, taking into account the work of other organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The long term and global character of the climate change problem requires an international long term strategy based on internationally agreed principles such as sustainable development and the precautionary principle. Research is needed to further develop risk assessment and environmental quality standards, from which emission targets can be derived. As a first step, governments of many industrialized countries have already set provisional national CO 2 emission targets, aimed at stabilization at present levels by the year 2000 and in some cases, reductions thereafter. Under the auspices of United Nations, negotiations have begun on an international framework climate convention and associated agreements, on, for example, greenhouse gas emissions, forestry and funding mechanisms. Obligations imposed on individual nations may be expected to reflect their responsibility for greenhouse warming; this paper presents some views on the equity of burden sharing. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  12. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  13. Age and Environmental Concern: Some Specification of Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnold, Julie A.

    1984-01-01

    Distinguishes possible aging, cohort, and period effects, explaining time series differences by age groups in the General Social Survey data. Results indicate that the decline in environmental concern among most age groups can be accounted for by period effects, but an aging effect is important among young adults. (Author/JN)

  14. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  15. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ABANDONED PROPERTIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Effects observed include pollution, health problem, city's financial loss, obscenity, crime, property value decline, ... fundamental preoccupation of planning for public purpose; is to ... are found with slum characteristics. ... Results and Discussion.

  17. Neutron applications in earth, energy and environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Liyuan; Schober, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This text is a comprehensive overview of neutron scattering techniques that enhance the study of materials at the micro and nanoscale. The well structured volume provides introductions to various neutron applications from leading experts in the field.

  18. Potential Nano-Enabled Environmental Applications for Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about nanotechnology materials and processes that may be applicable when cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites or materials, and presents a snapshot of lessons learned in nano-science and engineering.

  19. The effect of environmental information on investment allocation decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Holm, Claus

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of environmental information in investment decision making. The research approach employed is based on an experiment where three groups of final year finance students were asked to allocate investment funds between two companies based on financial accounts...... information categories affect their decision making. Hence, this has implications for how the potential value of environmental information is to be assessed. Finally, experimental studies as a methodology seem to be better suited to indicate actual effects of different types of information on decision making...... and information material from these companies in which environmental information was included in varying degrees. The overall conclusion is that the qualitative environmental information affects short term allocation decisions, hence indicating a risk reduction potential of environmental information comparable...

  20. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities

  1. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bionindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for 125 I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of 125 I and 131 I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of 125 I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  4. Application of gamma-ray spectroscopy in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.B.; Kanipe, L.G.; Clayton, W.R.; Belvin, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is used as the primary analytical method in the Tennessee Valley Authority's environmental radiation monitoring program. Routine sample screening is done by means of least-squares analysis of spectra from NaI(Tl) detectors. Nonroutine or suspicious samples are analyzed by means of Ge(Li) spectral analysis. A laboratory quality control program provides internal and external checks on the reliability of analyses

  5. SPERA 98: radioactivity and the environment, environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Presentations were grouped around the themes of soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways and foodchains, sediment studies and atmospheric radon. This volume contains extended abstracts. A list of participants is also included

  6. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  7. Sorption models and their application in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Nariman H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were found in some environmental soils not high enough to pose problems for human health. The health may be affected by increasing of NORM at some environmental soils. Four soil samples obtained from certain coastal regions in Egypt. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of the uranium ( 238 U) series, thorium ( 232 Th) series and the radioactive isotope of potassium ( 40 K) were measured. The soil samples were selected from the situations where the radionuclide concentrations are significantly higher than the average level of other sites. It were chemically analyzed for the uranium, silicon aluminum and iron. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined, it was found lower in the presence of Fe-silicates suggested that Fe-hydroxide had precipitin at the exchangeable edge sites of the clay minerals. The pH of the solid particles at which the net total surface charge is zero was known as the point of zero charge (PZC). The PZC is very important in determining the affinity of the soil samples for different cations and anions. The aim of this work is to determine the natural radiological hazardous of radionuclide at four environmental coastal soil samples in Egypt. The point of zero surface charge was determined using titration tests. Sorption model was developed for this purpose. (author)

  8. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  9. Microbial Electrochemistry and its Application to Energy and Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Jason Thomas

    Microbial electrochemistry forms the basis of a wide range of topics from microbial fuel cells to fermentation of carbon food sources. The ability to harness microbial electron transfer processes can lead to a greener and cleaner future. This study focuses on microbial electron transfer for liquid fuel production, novel electrode materials, subsurface environments and removal of unwanted byproducts. In the first chapter, exocellular electron transfer through direct contact utilizing passive electrodes for the enhancement of bio-fuel production was tested. Through the application of microbial growth in a 2-cell apparatus on an electrode surface ethanol production was enhanced by 22.7% over traditional fermentation. Ethanol production efficiencies of close to 95% were achieved in a fraction of the time required by traditional fermentation. Also, in this chapter, the effect of exogenous electron shuttles, electrode material selection and resistance was investigated. Power generation was observed using the 2-cell passive electrode system. An encapsulation method, which would also utilize exocellular transfer of electrons through direct contact, was hypothesized for the suspension of viable cells in a conductive polymer substrate. This conductive polymer substrate could have applications in bio-fuel production. Carbon black was added to a polymer solution to test electrospun polymer conductivity and cell viability. Polymer morphology and cell viability were imaged using electron and optical microscopy. Through proper encapsulation, higher fuel production efficiencies would be achievable. Electron transfer through endogenous exocellular protein shuttles was observed in this study. Secretion of a soluble redox active exocellular protein by Clostridium sp. have been shown utilizing a 2-cell apparatus. Cyclic voltammetry and gel electrophoresis were used to show the presence of the protein. The exocellular protein is capable of reducing ferrous iron in a membrane separated

  10. Environmental effects of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlitzky, M.; Friedrich, R.; Unger, H.

    1986-02-01

    Reviewing critically the present literature, the effects of thermal power plants on the environment are studied. At first, the loads of the different power plant types are compiled. With regard to the effects of emission reduction proceedings the pollutant emissions are quantified. The second chapter shows the effects on the ecological factors, which could be caused by the most important emission components of thermal power plants. Where it is possible, relations between immissions respectively depositions and their effects on climate, man, flora, fauna and materials will be given. This shows that many effects depend strongly on the local landscape, climate and use of natural resources. Therefore, it appears efficient to ascertain different load limits. The last chapter gives a suggestion for an ecological compatibility test (ECT) of thermal power plants. In modular form the ECT deals with the emission fields, waste heat, pollution burden of air and water, noise, loss of area and aesthetical aspects. Limits depending on local conditions and use of area will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Since 1981 WHO has been studying and reporting on the effects of nuclear war on health and health services. This report provides information on the subject and refers to earlier related work of WHO. It forms the basis for a request from WHO to the International Court of Justice regarding the legality of the use of nuclear weapons. 15 refs

  12. Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the SEA also achieved significant successes in terms of 'indirect outputs', such as a more holistic approach to water management, facilitated more effective public participation and contributed to broader strategic planning in the department. The paper concludes by making recommendations to improve the quality ...

  13. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  14. Overview: Applicability of U.S. environmental control technologies for Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S.W. [DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the applicability of US environmental control technologies for Korea is presented in outline form. The following topics are discussed: PETC coal research activities, environmental costs, environmental challenges, Clean Air Act requirements, additional regulations for air toxics, clean coal technologies (CCT) approach, CCT help meet environmental challenges, utility options, research goals for advanced power systems, PETC Programs, the NO{sub x} SO process, flue gas cleanup program, air toxics emissions, and retrofit NO{sub x} control for coal-burning boilers.

  15. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  16. THEORETICAL ASPECTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENDITURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLT ALINA GEORGIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air and water quality are vital for human life and our societies devote large sums of money to reduce pollution and conserve a healthy environment. Much of the financial resources mobilized to finance environmental protection come from private sources - entrepreneurs pay to eliminate environmentally harmful waste safely, or to mitigate the effects of polluting production processes. But while technology standards, environmental permits, pollution taxes play an important role in correcting the behavior of society, public expenditure presents also a very important variable in efforts to support the environment.

  17. Application of X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliment, V.; Kliman, J.; Turzo, I.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the X-ray fluorescence analysis principles and of its possibilities in the study of environmental pollution impact. Experiments with X-ray fluorescence analysis using 241-Am and a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector are discussed. The reproducibility of determinations in dependence on the sample preparation and the evaluation of peak surfaces of characteristic radiation is shown. The dependence of the peak surface on the elemental contents in the sample was linear. Detection limits of the investigated elements ranged in tenths of μg for 300 s measurement. (author)

  18. The application of recycled aluminum and plastics in environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tepić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a serious problem facing the modern world. Precisely for this reason, in this work, the authors explore its different aspects. From the perspective of conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the replacement of primary materials through recycling is explored as a potential solution in the elementary processes related to the parasol production. Such parasols would be used in designing “urban forest” solutions, which significantly contribute to the protection of the planet from global warming, as well as the preservation of life and survival.

  19. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  20. Health effects of carbon monoxide environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Carbon monoxide's (CO) chronic effects on man, its sources, and measuring methods are reviewed, and guidelines to determine health criteria are considered. The European data exchange included CO measuring methods in air and blood and their use in survey and experimental work, atmospheric CO pollution and sampling methods in urban thoroughfares and road tunnels in the European countries, a population survey of carboxyhemoglobin levels from cigarette smoking and atmospheric exposure, and physiological kinetics (uptake, distribution, and elimination) of CO inhalation. Additional topics are CO and the central nervous system, effects of moderate CO exposure on the cardiovascular system and on fetal development, and the current views on existing air quality criteria for CO.

  1. Environmental effects on properties of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion data are presented for several austenitic and ferritic steels exposed at temperatures between 700 and 755 K in flowing lithium and Pb-17Li environments. The results indicate that dissolution rates for both steels are an order of magnitude greater in Pb-Li than in lithium. Tensile data for cold-worked type 316 stainless steel show that a flowing environment has no effect on the tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel at temperatures between 473 and 773 K

  2. Study of thermal, radiation and environmental effects on serpentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Kalekar, Bhupesh B.; Dubey, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of a material, such as particle size surface area, magnetic properties, water content, radiation and thermal stability, viscosity, porosity, are responsible for their specific applications. Serpentine is a greenish, layer structured phyllosilicate, known as magnesium hydroxy silicate. The availability of large number of hydroxyl group makes serpentine a potential candidate for nuclear shielding material. Hence present studies have been carried out to understand the stability of serpentine with the variation in thermal, radiation and environmental parameters. Serpentine samples were received from Reactor Projects Division, BARC. An accurately weighed sample was subjected to simultaneous TG - DTA - EGA measurements in air as well as inert atmosphere at the heating rate of 10 °C/min. The sample was heated from room temperature to 1000 °C with a gas flow rate of 100 mL/min in Netzsch thermal analyzer (Model STA409 PC LUXX) connected to Bruker FTIR system (Model - Tensor27) via a 1m long capillary. The sample was subjected to gamma radiation in the range of 10 - 100 kGy using 60 Co gamma source in gamma chamber and was subjected to TG measurements to understand the effect of radiation on the thermal stability of serpentine and the results are being discussed here

  3. Effective and Environmentally Friendly Nickel Coating on the Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škugor Rončević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The low density and good mechanical properties make magnesium and its alloys attractive construction materials in the electronics, automotive, and aerospace industry, together with application in medicine due to their biocompatibility. Magnesium AZ91D alloy is an alloy with a high content of aluminum, whose mechanical properties overshadow the low corrosion resistance caused by the composition of the alloy and the existence of two phases: α magnesium matrix and β magnesium aluminum intermetallic compound. To improve the corrosion resistance, it is necessary to find an effective protection method for the alloy surface. Knowing and predicting electrochemical processes is an essential for the design and optimization of protective coatings on magnesium and its alloys. In this work, the formations of nickel protective coatings on the magnesium AZ91D alloy surface by electrodeposition and chemical deposition, are presented. For this purpose, environmentally friendly electrolytes were used. The corrosion resistance of the protected alloy was determined in chloride medium using appropriate electrochemical techniques. Characterization of the surface was performed with highly sophisticated surface-analytical methods.

  4. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials

  5. 18 CFR 157.9 - Notice of application and notice of schedule for environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of application and notice of schedule for environmental review. 157.9 Section 157.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC...

  6. 77 FR 21551 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing And Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public...

  7. 77 FR 16023 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available...

  8. Some applications of fractal mathematics in the evaluation of environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H. F.; Poon, D. C.; McCormack, M.

    1997-11-01

    Application of fractal mathematics to commonly occurring environmental problems in the petroleum industry is discussed. Examples are provided to illustrate application of the technique. The specific examples cited involve the interpretation of mercury contamination data at a gas plant and the determination of the optimal volume of soil excavation at a contaminated site. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  9. 75 FR 352 - Enloe Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of... Utility District No. 1 of Okanogan County. e. Name of Project: Enloe Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...

  10. Using a Hydrological Model to Determine Environmentally Safer Windows for Herbicide Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; D.G. Neary; W.P. Fowler; D.J. Turton

    1996-01-01

    A modification of the GLEAMS model was used to determine application windows which would optimise efficacy and environmental safety for herbicide application to a forest site. Herbicide/soil partition coefficients were determined using soil samples collected from the study site for two herbicides (imazapyr, Koc=46, triclopyr ester, K

  11. 2nd European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Amílcar; Froidevaux, Roland

    1999-01-01

    The Second European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Ap­ plications took place in Valencia, November 18-20, 1998. Two years have past from the first meeting in Lisbon and the geostatistical community has kept active in the environmental field. In these days of congress inflation, we feel that continuity can only be achieved by ensuring quality in the papers. For this reason, all papers in the book have been reviewed by, at least, two referees, and care has been taken to ensure that the reviewer comments have been incorporated in the final version of the manuscript. We are thankful to the members of the scientific committee for their timely review of the scripts. All in all, there are three keynote papers from experts in soil science, climatology and ecology and 43 contributed papers providing a good indication of the status of geostatistics as applied in the environ­ mental field all over the world. We feel now confident that the geoENV conference series, seeded around a coffee table almost six...

  12. Application for review, Section 61, Environmental Bill of Rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspun, D.; Forman, G.; Hutton, A.; Muter, M.; Stewart, K.; Wilkins, H.

    2006-01-01

    Health and environmental groups have filed a request with the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Energy to review its government policies on transboundary smog, mercury emissions and climate change in light of the abandonment of plans to close all of the province's highly polluting coal-fired power plants by 2009. The groups have requested that the Ministries identify the measures that will be taken to eliminate the health, social and environmental impacts caused by this decision. The representatives of Ontario's registered nurses, physicians, community groups and environment groups want to know how the decision will affect Ontario's compliance with the terms of the Ozone Annex to the 1991 United States-Canada Air Quality Agreement, Ontario's compliance with the proposed Canada Wide Standard on Mercury, and efforts to combat climate change. Concerns that the government has weakened its position in dealing with the United States over transboundary smog were expressed. Smog, climate change and mercury pollution pose significant risks to the health of Ontarians. The original plan to replace coal-fired generation was the single largest greenhouse gas reduction initiative in Canada. It was argued that the abandonment of that plan represents a major challenge in meeting Kyoto targets. refs

  13. Resilience and sustainability: Similarities and differences in environmental management applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Dayton; Reynolds, Erin; Bates, Matthew E; Morgan, Heather; Clark, Susan Spierre; Linkov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    In recent years there have been many disparate uses of the terms sustainability and resilience, with some framing sustainability and resilience as the same concept, and others claiming them to be entirely different and unrelated. To investigate similarities, differences, and current management frameworks for increasing sustainability and resilience, a literature review was undertaken that focused on integrated use of sustainability and resilience in an environmental management context. Sustainability was defined through the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic system considerations. Resilience was viewed as the ability of a system to prepare for threats, absorb impacts, recover and adapt following persistent stress or a disruptive event. Three generalized management frameworks for organizing sustainability and resilience were found to dominate the literature: (1) resilience as a component of sustainability, (2) sustainability as a component of resilience, and (3) resilience and sustainability as separate objectives. Implementations of these frameworks were found to have common goals of providing benefits to people and the environment under normal and extreme operating conditions, with the best examples building on similarities and minimizing conflicts between resilience and sustainability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  15. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  16. MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Organisms living on the earth are exposed to solar radiation, including its ultraviolet (UV) components (for general reviews, the reader is referred to Smith [1] and Young et al. [2]). UV wavelength regions present in sunlight are frequently designated as UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). In today's solar spectrum, UVA is the principal UV component, with UVB present at much lower levels. Ozone depletion will increase the levels of UVB reaching the biosphere, but the levels of UVA will not be changed significantly [3]. Because of the high efficiency of UVB in producing damage in biological organisms in the laboratory experiments, it has sometimes been assumed that UVA has little or no adverse biological effects. However, accumulating data [4, 5], including action spectra (efficiency of biological damage as a function of wavelength of radiation; see Section 5) for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings [6], in human skin [7], and for a variety of plant damages (Caldwell, this volume) indicate that UVA can induce damage in DNA in higher organisms. Thus, understanding the differential effects of UVA and UVB wavebands is essential for estimating the biological consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  17. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects.

  18. Remote sensing sensors and applications in environmental resources mapping and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Assefa M.; Weng, Qihao; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2007-01-01

    The history of remote sensing and development of different sensors for environmental and natural resources mapping and data acquisition is reviewed and reported. Application examples in urban studies, hydrological modeling such as land-cover and floodplain mapping, fractional vegetation cover and impervious surface area mapping, surface energy flux and micro-topography correlation studies is discussed. The review also discusses the use of remotely sensed-based rainfall and potential evapotranspiration for estimating crop water requirement satisfaction index and hence provides early warning information for growers. The review is not an exhaustive application of the remote sensing techniques rather a summary of some important applications in environmental studies and modeling.

  19. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sauco

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd and salinity controls (SC: without canal water. CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses.

  20. Genetic and environmental effects on performance traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic and environmental effects on performance traits of Simmentaler cattle on the Transvaal Highveld. Tina Rust*. Highveld Region Agricultural Development Institute, .... ef'fect of the mtt' management system (m = 1,2,3,4),. bW = linear regression of the appropriate deviation from the mean of individual age at weaning (in ...

  1. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  2. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Laumann Kjaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO database as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study 2, the approach was used as basis for an Environmental Profit and Loss account for the healthcare company, Novo Nordisk A/S. Case study 3 used the approach for life cycle assessment of a tanker ship. We conclude that EIO-based analyses offer a holistic view of environmental performance, provide a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results, including how to measure and monitor the effect of the different actions. Thus, future research should include more detailed models to support decision-making.

  3. Prediction methods environmental-effect reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.J.; Koester, H.W.

    1987-12-01

    This report provides a survey of prediction methods which can be applied to the calculation of emissions in cuclear-reactor accidents, in the framework of environment-effect reports (dutch m.e.r.) or risk analyses. Also emissions during normal operation are important for m.e.r.. These can be derived from measured emissions of power plants being in operation. Data concerning the latter are reported. The report consists of an introduction into reactor technology, among which a description of some reactor types, the corresponding fuel cycle and dismantling scenarios - a discussion of risk-analyses for nuclear power plants and the physical processes which can play a role during accidents - a discussion of prediction methods to be employed and the expected developments in this area - some background information. (aughor). 145 refs.; 21 figs.; 20 tabs

  4. Environmental Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Osmel; Zarauza, Dario; Cardenas, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    Gamma rays bursts, coming from very massive stars, are the most powerful explosions in our Universe. Some authors have linked them to some of the climatic changes and consequent biological mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic eon. However, the consequences of their direct impact on primitive Earth, is today a hot topic of debate. On the other hand, it is usually assumed that they were more common in earlier stages of our galaxy. So it is important to evaluate its potential effects on terrestrial paleoenvironments. We outline some simple models to estimate their influence mainly on the primordial atmospheric chemistry of Earth and on the climate in general. To do that, we consider different scenarios where the atmospheric composition diverges substantially from the atmosphere today, and compute the evolution of principal chemical species under the intense radiational stress of a gamma ray burst. Furthermore, the possible impact on the isotopic composition, geochemistry and the biosphere are mentioned in general way

  5. Conversion to biofuel based heating systems - local environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2003-01-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems today is the global warming, i.e.climate changes caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases originate from combustion of fossil fuels and changes the atmospheric composition. As a result of the climate change, the Swedish government has decided to make a changeover of the Swedish energy system. This involves an increase of the supply of electricity and heating from renewable energy sources and a decrease in the amount electricity used for heating, as well as a more efficient use of the existing electricity system. Today, a rather large amount electricity is used for heating in Sweden. Furthermore, nuclear power will be phased out by the year 2010 in Sweden. Bio fuels are a renewable energy source and a conceivable alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, an increase of bio fuels will be seen the coming years. Bio fuels have a lot of environmental advantages, mainly for the global environment, but might also cause negative impacts such as depletion of the soils where the biomass is grown and local deterioration of the air quality where the bio fuels are combusted. These negative impacts are a result of the use of wrong techniques and a lack of knowledge and these factors have to be improved if the increase of the use of bio fuels is to be made effectively. The aim of this master thesis is to evaluate the possibilities for heating with bio fuel based systems in housing areas in the municipalities of Trollhaettan, Ulricehamn and Goetene in Vaestra Goetalands County in the South West of Sweden and to investigate which environmental and health effects are caused by the conversion of heating systems. The objective is to use the case studies as examples on preferable bio fuel based heating systems in different areas, and to what environmental impact this conversion of heating systems might cause. The housing areas for this study have been chosen on the basis of present heating system, one area

  6. An automated digital imaging system for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Velasco, Miguel; Vogel, John

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the affordability and availability of high-resolution digital cameras, data loggers, embedded computers, and radio/cellular modems have advanced the development of sophisticated automated systems for remote imaging. Researchers have successfully placed and operated automated digital cameras in remote locations and in extremes of temperature and humidity, ranging from the islands of the South Pacific to the Mojave Desert and the Grand Canyon. With the integration of environmental sensors, these automated systems are able to respond to local conditions and modify their imaging regimes as needed. In this report we describe in detail the design of one type of automated imaging system developed by our group. It is easily replicated, low-cost, highly robust, and is a stand-alone automated camera designed to be placed in remote locations, without wireless connectivity.

  7. A Method to Test the Effect of Environmental Cues on Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-17

    An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior. The assay consists of a small mating arena containing food medium and a mating couple. The mating frequency for each couple is continuously monitored for 24 h. Here we present the applicability of this assay to test environmental compounds from an external source through a pressurized air system as well as manipulation of the environmental components directly in the mating arena. The use of a pressurized air system is especially useful to test the effect of very volatile compounds, while manipulating components directly in the mating arena can be of value to ascertain a compound's presence. This assay can be adapted to answer questions about the influence of genetic and environmental cues on mating behavior and fecundity as well as other male and female reproductive behaviors.

  8. The application of disperse systems in environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povrenović Dragan S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of spouted and spout-fluid bed investigations and their application in waste treatment in the food industry and the fluid-mechanical investigations of a co-current spouted bed with the aim of its application in water treatment, with immobilized microorganism systems. The Investigated systems were applied in animal blood and plasma drying, as a possible ecological solution in the meat-processing industry and brewery yeast drying. These waste materials are very dangerous pollutants for natural recipients. The concept of a co-current spouted bed as a basis for microbiological water treatment in the nitrification process of ammonium nitrogen is presented in the second part of this paper.

  9. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year

  10. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  11. Application of the observational approach to environmental restoration at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, S.B. II; Holm, L.A.; Riddle, S.P.

    1992-07-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) manages the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Since ORNL's beginning in the 1940's, a variety of solid and liquid low-level radioactive waste, hazardous waste, and mixed waste has been generated. These wastes primarily have been disposed of on-site by shallow land burial, which has caused the contamination of soil, surface water, sediments, and groundwater. The Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) was initiated to remediate this legacy of contamination and to eliminate the associated risk to the public and the environment. In an effort to streamline the process and accelerate remediation activities, DOE, EPA, and TDEC agreed to utilize the Observational Approach in order to reduce time and cost and to use limited resources more effectively and efficiently. This paper briefly explains the Observational Approach, discusses its use in long-range planning and Remedial Investigations, and describes several specific applications

  12. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).

  13. Predicting environmental aspects of CCSR leachates through the application of scientifically valid leaching protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of solid wastes from energy production, particularly solid wastes from coal conversion processes, requires a thorough understanding of the waste material as well as the disposal environment. Many coal conversion solid residues (CCSRs) have chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties advantageous for use as engineering construction materials and in other industrial applications. If disposal is to be the final disposition of CCSRs from any source, the very properties that can make ash useful also contribute to behavior that must be understood for scientifically logical and environmentally responsible disposal. This paper describes the application of scientifically valid leaching and characterization tests designed to predict field phenomena. The key to proper characterization of these unique materials is the recognition of and compensation for the hydration reactions that can occur during long-term leaching. Many of these reactions, such as the formation of the mineral ettringite, can have a profound effect on the concentration of potentially problematic trace elements such as boron, chromium, and selenium. The mobility of these elements, which may be concentrated in CCSRs due to the conversion process, must be properly evaluated for the formation of informed and scientifically sound decisions regarding safe disposal. Groundwater is an extremely important and relatively scarce resource. Contamination of this resource is a threat to life, which is highly dependent on it, so management of materials that can impact groundwater must be carefully planned and executed. The application of scientifically valid leaching protocols and complete testing are critical to proper waste management

  14. Environmental pollution and lung effects in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Rabinovitch, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    Studies over the last 2 years have added important new information on the relationship between air pollution and asthma incidence and severity. Outdoor air pollution has been associated with asthma exacerbations, including emergency department visits and hospitalizations, as well as with the onset of asthma. Possible mechanisms mediating both incidence and severity effects include the induction of oxidative stress, and/or allergic sensitization, as well as increased susceptibility to viral infections. Some of these mechanisms may be occurring in utero including epigenetic changes that may increase risk for development of asthma. Factors related to increased susceptibility for air pollution-related asthma severity include age, season and genetic polymorphisms related to antioxidant enzymes. Ambient pollution levels may be associated with both asthma incidence and severity. Susceptibility to air pollution may be higher in children with genetic polymorphisms related to the 'oxidant stress pathways'. Potential interventions for susceptible children at risk for asthma development and/or severity include decreased exposure on high air pollution days, especially in the summer months, and antioxidant supplementation. On the population level, changes in school and home zoning to increase distance from busy roadways may help reduce both asthma incidence and severity.

  15. Developing effective environmental and oil spill management for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Wardrop, J.; Kilborn, A.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, Exploration and Production (E and P) operators' environmental philosophy was a consequence of environmental damages, actual and perceived, caused by hydrocarbon spills. Pertamina/Maxus Southeast Sumatra, Inc. (Maxus), the largest offshore E and P operator in Indonesia has adopted a proactive philosophy as they operate offshore production and shipping facilities immediately adjacent to the Pulau Seribu (Thousand Island) National Marine Park and approximately 30 kilometers from the Southeast Sumatra coast. These ecosystems are of great concern to Indonesia and Maxus as they comprise approximately 250 km of tropical, sparsely inhabited coastline, 106 coral and lagoon islands, and habitats for numerous endangered species. This paper describes the contract zone within which Maxus operates; the environmental risks associated with E and P in this region; and Maxus' response to management of those risks. A significant component of Maxus' overall response has been the ESACOC project (Environmental Sensitivity and Characterization of Crude) undertaken during 1993. ESACOC is described here in regard to the use and interrelation of remote sensing, in-depth laboratory studies, and development of new sensitivity rankings techniques into one computer program for effective environmental and oil spill management. ESACOC illustrates the synthesis of seemingly diverse and unrelated data to develop an effective environmental management plan

  16. Bridge health monitoring with consideration of environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yuhee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Shin, Soobong; Park, Jongchil

    2012-01-01

    Reliable response measurements are extremely important for proper bridge health monitoring but incomplete and unreliable data may be acquired due to sensor problems and environmental effects. In the case of a sensor malfunction, parts of the measured data can be missing so that the structural health condition cannot be monitored reliably. This means that the dynamic characteristics of natural frequencies can change as if the structure is damaged due to environmental effects, such as temperature variations. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes a systematic procedure of data analysis to recover missing data and eliminate the environmental effects from the measured data. It also proposed a health index calculated statistically using revised data to evaluate the health condition of a bridge. The proposed method was examined using numerically simulated data with a truss structure and then applied to a set of field data measured from a cable stayed bridge

  17. Environmental context effects in conceptual explicit and implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Coyle, Anne-Marie

    2007-05-01

    Previous research has found environmental context effects for both conceptual explicit and conceptual implicit memory (Parker, Gellatly, & Waterman, 1999). The research presented here challenges these findings on methodological grounds. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of context change on category-exemplar generation (conceptual implicit memory test) and category-cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test). Experiment 2 assessed the effects of context change on word association (conceptual implicit memory test) and word associate cued recall (conceptual explicit memory test). In both experiments, study-test changes in environmental context were found to influence performance only on tests of explicit memory. It is concluded that when retrieval cues across explicit and implicit tests are matched, and the probability of explicit contamination is reduced, then only conceptual explicit test performance is reduced by study-test changes in environmental context.

  18. Bridge health monitoring with consideration of environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yuhee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Shin, Soobong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongchil [Korea Expressway Co., (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Reliable response measurements are extremely important for proper bridge health monitoring but incomplete and unreliable data may be acquired due to sensor problems and environmental effects. In the case of a sensor malfunction, parts of the measured data can be missing so that the structural health condition cannot be monitored reliably. This means that the dynamic characteristics of natural frequencies can change as if the structure is damaged due to environmental effects, such as temperature variations. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes a systematic procedure of data analysis to recover missing data and eliminate the environmental effects from the measured data. It also proposed a health index calculated statistically using revised data to evaluate the health condition of a bridge. The proposed method was examined using numerically simulated data with a truss structure and then applied to a set of field data measured from a cable stayed bridge.

  19. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Tuning CNT Properties for Metal-Free Environmental Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P. Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs as metal-free catalysts is a novel approach for heterogeneous liquid phase catalytic systems. Textural and chemical modifications by liquid/gas phase or mechanical treatments, as well as solid state reactions, were successfully applied to obtain carbon nanotubes with different surface functionalities. Oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur are the most common heteroatoms introduced on the carbon surface. This short-review highlights different routes used to develop metal-free carbon nanotube catalysts with enhanced properties for Advanced Oxidation Processes.

  1. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  2. Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the...

  3. Clays and Clay Minerals and their environmental application in Food Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen; Cuéllar Antequera, Jorge; Sánchez Escribano, Vicente; Solange Lozano García, Marina; Cutillas Díez, Raul

    2013-04-01

    The clay materials have led to numerous applications in the field of public health (del Hoyo, 2007; Volzone, 2007) having been demonstrated its effectiveness as adsorbents of all contaminants. Some biodegradable materials are used for for adsorption of chemical contaminants: lignins (Valderrabano et al., 2008) and also clays and clay minerals, whose colloidal properties, ease of generating structural changes, abundance in nature, and low cost make them very suitable for this kind of applications. Among the strategies used at present to preserve the quality of the water and this way to diminish the environmental risk that supposes the chemical pollution, stands out the use of adsorbents of under cost, already they are natural or modified, to immobilize these compounds and to avoid the pollution of the water with the consequent reduction of environmental and economic costs Thanks to the development of the science and the technology of the nourishment in the last 50 years, there have revealed itself several new substances that can fulfill beneficial functions in the food, and these substances, named food additives, are today within reach of all. The food additives recover a very important role in the complex nourishing supply. The additives fulfill several useful functions in the food, which often we give for sat. Nevertheless the widespread use of food additives in the food production also influences the public health. The food industries, which are very important for the economy, spill residues proved from its activity that they have to be controlled to evaluate the environmental impact and to offer the necessary information about the quantitative evaluation of the chemical risk of the use of food additives for the public health. We have studied the adsorption of several contaminants by natural or modified clays, searching their interaction mechanisms and the possible recycling of these materials for environmental purposes and prevention of the health. References

  4. Application of SIMS to the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    As an example of surface analysis of environmental samples, SIMS was applied to airborne particulates, fish otoliths (a calcareous ear-stone) and biotites (a rock-forming aluminosilicate mineral). Airborne particulates deposited on leaf surface were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment (FAB)-SIMS using an O 2 primary neutral beam. Some metal elements, such as Pb, of aerosol origin could be detected. Local areas of a thin section of an otolith were analyzed by FAB-SIMS. Line scans and images of secondary ions revealed seasonal periodicity in Sr, Na and K concentrations in the otolith that corresponded to the annual band structure. Surface alteration of acid-treated and naturally weathered biotites was studied by SIMS depth profiling using an O - primary ion. The depth profile of the acid-treated biotite showed the formation of an altered surface layer rich in Si. In contrast a thick altered surface layer was not observed and Al was held on the surface under natural weathering

  5. Application of safeguards technology in DOE's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Baker, M.P.; Hansen, W.R.; Lucas, M.C.; Markin, J.T.; Phillips, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last two decades, the Department of Energy's Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) has supported the research and development of safeguards systems analysis methodologies and nondestructive assay (NDS) technology for characterizing, monitoring, and accounting nuclear materials. This paper discusses methodologies and NDA instrumentation developed by the DOE/OSS program that could be applied in the Environmental Restoration Program. NDA instrumentation could be used for field measurements during site characterization and to monitor nuclear materials, heavy metals, and other hazardous materials during site remediation. Systems methodologies can minimize the expenditure of resources and help specify appropriate combinations of NDA instrumentation and chemical analyses to characterize a variety of materials quickly and reduce personnel exposure in hazardous environments. A training program is available to teach fundamental and advanced principles and approaches to characterize and quantify nuclear materials properly and to organize and analyze measurement information for decision making. The ability to characterize the overall volume and distribution of materials at a waste site is difficult because of the inhomogeneous distribution of materials, the requirement for extreme sensitivity, and the lack of resources to collect and chemically analyze a sufficient number of samples. Using a systems study approach based on statistical sampling, the resources necessary to characterize a site can be enhanced by appropriately combining in situ and field NDA measurements with laboratory analyses. 35 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Application of Bayesian networks in a hierarchical structure for environmental risk assessment: a case study of the Gabric Dam, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Tayebzadeh Moghadam, Negar

    2018-04-13

    Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a commonly used, effective tool applied to reduce adverse effects of environmental risk factors. In this study, ERA was investigated using the Bayesian network (BN) model based on a hierarchical structure of variables in an influence diagram (ID). ID facilitated ranking of the different alternatives under uncertainty that were then used to evaluate comparisons of the different risk factors. BN was used to present a new model for ERA applicable to complicated development projects such as dam construction. The methodology was applied to the Gabric Dam, in southern Iran. The main environmental risk factors in the region, presented by the Gabric Dam, were identified based on the Delphi technique and specific features of the study area. These included the following: flood, water pollution, earthquake, changes in land use, erosion and sedimentation, effects on the population, and ecosensitivity. These risk factors were then categorized based on results from the output decision node of the BN, including expected utility values for risk factors in the decision node. ERA was performed for the Gabric Dam using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method to compare results of BN modeling with those of conventional methods. Results determined that a BN-based hierarchical structure to ERA present acceptable and reasonable risk assessment prioritization in proposing suitable solutions to reduce environmental risks and can be used as a powerful decision support system for evaluating environmental risks.

  7. Controlling corrosion of carbon steel in cooling water applications -- A novel environmentally acceptable approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, G.; Miller, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Cr(VI) containing salts have been in use for a long time as one of the best inhibitors for minimizing corrosion of carbon steel in cooling water applications. Irrespective of the type of system, i.e., once through, open recirculating, pressurized water reactor power plants, etc. and irrespective of the conductivity of water, i.e., low or high, Cr(VI) salts always have proven to be very effective inhibitors. However, the toxicity of chromate compounds and the consequential disposal difficulties have made it essential to look for an alternate treatment. It is however, imperative that the alternate system must provide the matching efficiency as that provided by Cr(VI) salts and that it should also be easy to maintain and be economical. While many researchers have been trying to find a suitable chromate free inhibitor system, the present authors have explored the possibility of formulating an inhibitor system containing Cr(VI) at a concentration below the safety limit for drinking water as suggested by EPA/OSHA. This is based on the assumption that EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) only regulate the discharge and exposure limits of chromium above which it is found harmful. Therefore, any new formulation containing Cr(VI) well below these safety limits should be acceptable environmentally. If such a formulation can perform similar to ones with high concentration of Cr(VI), it will also be commercially acceptable. The authors will discuss the preliminary results of such a strategy

  8. The environmental health officer's role in the determination of wind turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spode, D.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given from the Local Authority Environmental Health view point about the application for Deli Wind Farm, Delabole, Cornwall, UK, which was the first such application we received and was approved and is now operational. Subsequently we have approved the application for Cold Northcott, have refused two other applications and a further two are being processed. The account will indicate the practical problems faced by Environment Health Officers in assessing applications and advising the decision makers. An indication of the information which the author considers it is essential to have included in the noise section of an environmental assessment is given and suggestions are made on the type of conditions which should be attached to any planning consent with a view to protecting occupiers of the closest dwelling, this being particularly important where the relevant separation distances give little room for error in getting the decision right. (author)

  9. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  10. Application of probabilistic risk based optimization approaches in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general approach to site-specific risk assessments and optimization procedures. In order to account for uncertainties in the assessment of the current situation and future developments, optimization parameters are treated as probabilistic distributions. The assessments are performed within the framework of a cost-benefit analysis. Radiation hazards and conventional risks are treated within an integrated approach. Special consideration is given to consequences of low probability events such as, earthquakes or major floods. Risks and financial costs are combined to an overall figure of detriment allowing one to distinguish between benefits of available reclamation options. The probabilistic analysis uses a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The paper demonstrates the applicability of this approach in aiding the reclamation planning using an example from the German reclamation program for uranium mining and milling sites

  11. Application of petroleum markers to geochemical and environmental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Elgheit, M.A.; El-Gayar, M.S.; Hegazi, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Application of trace-metal and biological markers to geochemical studies has shown that crude oils could be correlated or differentiated according to their geologic age. The V/Ni, V/Σ Ni, Mg, Fe, and pristine to phytane (Pr/Ph) markers were almost uniform in Gulf of Suez crude oils, revealing their same origin, yet showing marked differences in Western Desert crude oils, reflecting varying degrees of their maturity and migrational history. The significance of petroleum markers was extended to monitoring of oil spill sources. Weathering of spills usually renders their source identification questionable by infrared or gas chromatography profiles. Since evaporative loss light petroleum fractions does not appreciably affect the high-Molecular Weight components with which trace metals, isoprenoids, hopanes, and steranes are associated, V/Ni, Pr/Ph, m/z 191, and m/z 217 mass chromatogram fragments were found reliable in fingerprinting oil spill sources in Mediterranean waters

  12. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  13. Application of WSP method in analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacho, M.; Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.; Sojak, S.; Krnac, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of activity in natural samples is specific especially because of its low level and high background interferences. Reduction of background interferences could be reached using low background chamber. Measurement geometry in shape of Marinelli beaker is commonly used according to low level of activity in natural samples. The Peak Net Area (PNA) method is the world-wide accepted technique for analysis of gamma-ray spectra. It is based on the net area calculation of the full energy peak, therefore, it takes into account only a fraction of measured gamma-ray spectrum. On the other hand, the Whole Spectrum Processing (WSP) approach to the gamma analysis makes possible to use entire information being in the spectrum. This significantly raises efficiency and improves energy resolution of the analysis. A principal step for the WSP application is building up the suitable response operator. Problems are put in an appearance when suitable standard calibration sources are unavailable. It may be occurred in the case of large volume samples and/or in the analysis of high energy range. Combined experimental and mathematical calibration may be a suitable solution. Many different detectors have been used to register the gamma ray and its energy. HPGe detectors produce the highest resolution commonly available today. Therefore they are they the most often used detectors in natural samples activity analysis. Scintillation detectors analysed using PNA method could be also used in simple cases, but for complicated spectra are practically inapplicable. WSP approach improves resolution of scintillation detectors and expands their applicability. WSP method allowed significant improvement of the energetic resolution and separation of "1"3"7Cs 661 keV peak from "2"1"4Bi 609 keV peak. At the other hand the statistical fluctuations in the lower part of the spectrum highlighted by background subtraction causes that this part is still not reliably analyzable. (authors)

  14. [Environmental behavior of graphene and its effect on the transport and fate of pollutants in environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen-Jie; Teng, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most popular research topics in carbon nanomaterials. Because of its special physical and chemical properties, graphene will have wide applications. As the production and application amount is increasing, graphene will be inevitably released to the environment, resulting in risks of ecological environment and human health. It is of very vital significance for evaluating environmental risks of graphene scientifically and objectively to understand its environmental behavior and fate and explore its effect on the environmental behaviors of pollutants. This paper reviewed the environmental behavior of graphene, such as colloid properties and its stability in the aqueous environment and its transport through porous media. Additionally, the paper reviewed the effect of graphene on the transport and fate of pollutants. The interactions between graphene and heavy metals or organic compounds were especially discussed. Important topics should be explored including sorption mechanisms, interactions between graphene and soil components, influence of graphene on the transport and bioavailability of pollutants in environment, as well as approaches to quantifying graphene. The review might identify potential new ideas for further research in applications of graphene.

  15. Evaluation of Environmental Effects of Wave Energy Convertor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Stakeholders and regulators in the U.S. are generally uncertain as to the potential environmental impacts posed by deployments of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, and in particular wave energy conversion (WEC) devices, in coastal waters. The first pilot-scale WEC deployments in the U.S. have had to absorb unsustainable costs and delays associated with permitting to get devices in the water. As such, there is an urgent industry need to streamline the technical activities and processes used to assess potential environmental impacts. To enable regulators and stakeholders to become more comfortable and confident with developing effective MHK environmental assessments, a better understanding of the potential environmental effects induced by arrays of WEC devices is needed. A key challenge in developing this understanding is that the assessment of the WEC effects must come prior to deployment. A typical approach in similar environmental assessments is to use numerical models to simulate the WEC devices and array layouts so that the appropriate environmental stressors and receptors can be identified and assessed. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy are fulfilling the industry-wide need to develop "WEC-friendly" open-source numerical modeling tools capable of assessing potential changes to the physical environment caused by the operation of WEC arrays. Studies using these tools will advance the nation's general knowledge of the interrelationships among the number, size, efficiency, and configuration of MHK arrays and the subsequent effects these relationships may have on the deployment environment. By better understanding these relationships, industry, stakeholders, and regulators will be able to work together to optimize WEC deployments such that environmental impacts are minimized while power output is maximized. The present work outlines the initial effort in coupling the SNL WEC-friendly tools with the environmental assessment

  16. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission.

  17. Industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Report of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The IAEA has programme the utilisation of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), in particular for industrial and environmental applications. A major purpose is to help the developing Member States apply their analytical capabilities optimally for socio-economic progress and development. A large number of institutions in Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia have established X ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma ray measurement techniques and facilities for neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been initiated in institutions in these regions. Moreover, there is a growing interest among many institutes in applying more advanced analytical techniques, such as particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and microanalytical techniques based on X ray emission induced by conventional sources or synchrotron radiation to the analysis of environmental and biological materials and industrial products. In order to define new areas of application of NATs and to extend the range of these techniques, a number of initiatives have recently been taken. It includes a workshop on industrial and environmental applications of nuclear analytical techniques, organized by the IAEA in Vienna, 7-11 September 1998. The main objectives of the workshop were as follows: (1) to review recent applications of NATs in industrial and environmental studies; (2) to identify emerging trends in methodologies and applications of NATs; (3) to demonstrate analytical capabilities of selected NATs. The following topics were reviewed during the workshop: (1) XRF and accelerator based analytical techniques; (2) portable XRF systems and their applications in industry, mineral prospecting and processing, (3) portable gamma ray spectrometers; and (4) NAA and its applications in industry and environmental studies. Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE methods and their applications in the above fields were also discussed, including aspects of synchrotron radiation induced X ray emission

  18. Bases for an environmental liability management system: application to a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tostes, Marcelo Mallat

    1999-03-01

    This thesis aims the establishment of conceptual bases for the development of Environmental Liability Management System - instruments designed to provide financial and managerial coverage to financial liabilities arising from activities that impact the environment. The document analyses the theories that link the evolution of economic thought and environment, as a means of establish the necessary framework for the development of up-to-date environmental policy instruments. From these concepts and from the analysis of environmental liability system being implemented in several countries, the bases for environmental liability systems development are drawn. Finally, a study is carried out on the application of these bases for the development of an environmental liability management system for a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  19. The application of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction to the characterization of environmental assessment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censullo, A.C.; Briden, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the results of tests on environmental assessment samples are reported on. The utility of the J.W. Criss fundamental parameters computer program is evaluated for samples in which only one standard per element was used and where the standard matrix did not strictly resemble the unknown matrix. The environmental significance of a sample is dependent not only on its elemental composition, but also on the species or phases which the elements comprise. X-ray powder diffraction may be used to advantage for speciation. Multi-phase environmental assessment samples are amenable to XRD interpretation. Some results of the application of the Joint Committee on Power Diffraction Standards computer interpretatin of typical environmental samples are discussed. They were shown to contribute to the specification of the complex samples that are encountered in environmental assessments

  20. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  2. The Effects of Argumentation Implementation on Environmental Education Self Efficacy Beliefs and Perspectives According to Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlioglu, Pinar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of argumentation implementation applied in the environmental science course on science teacher candidates' environmental education self-efficacy beliefs and perspectives according to environmental problems. In this mixed method research study, convergent parallel design was utilized.…

  3. Speciation analysis of 129I and its applications in environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    129I, a long-lived radionuclide, is important in view of geological repository of nuclear waste, and environmental tracing applications related to diverse natural processes of iodine. The environmental behaviors and bioavailability of 129I are highly related to its species. A number of methods have...... been reported for speciation analysis of 129I in a variety of environmental samples. These methods have been applied in many researches, including conversion processes of iodine species in marine and terrestrial systems, migration and retention of iodine in soil and sediment, geochemical cycling...

  4. Geo-environmental applications for permeable sand-shredded tyre mixtures; Applications geoenvironnementales de melanges sable-pneu permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbaa, A.A. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering; Cogswell, C.A. [Formely Cambridge University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, A.M.B. [Kings College London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents details and results of recent work conducted on the geo-environmental applications of permeable sand-tyre mixtures. This work is part of an extensive research programme initiated by the first author on the use of waste tyre in various geotechnical and geo-environmental applications. The paper considers sand-tyre in mixed and layered sample configurations as part of active containment or landfill leachate collection system. The paper first investigates the level of leached copper and zinc from the tyre and its capacity to absorb paraffin. It then looks at the in-situ mixing of tyre with soil using a laboratory-scale auger. The work produced encouraging results and showed that tyre is a suitable waste material for use in the above applications. (authors)

  5. THE APPLICATION OF THE METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AT RISK (EVaR IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  6. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  7. 11 the effects of environmental assaults on human physiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    adverse effects of the environment on health. Indeed one of the ... data from Africa on the whole are not available, however in ... morbidity and mortality are malaria, acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease. All three can be linked to unfavourable environmental ... substances and the glomerular filtration rate, which.

  8. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  9. Determinants of Perceived Health and Environmental Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    negative perception of environmental effects of fuelwood exploitation. Significant ... season due to climate change, bad roads due to erosion and flood, poor yield and low ..... forest resources thereby increasing migration and loss of forest habitats ... change in the atmospheric condition of the environment (global warming).

  10. Environmental effects of postfire logging: literature review and annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Lynn Starr

    2000-01-01

    The scientific literature on logging after wildfire is reviewed, with a focus on environmental effects of logging and removal of large woody structure. Rehabilitation, the practice of planting or seeding after logging, is not reviewed here. Several publications are cited that can be described as “commentaries,” intended to help frame the public debate. We review 21...

  11. Effect of Environmental Quality on Property Rental Values in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of environmental quality on rental values of residential accommodation at the peripheral neighbourhoods of Minna, Nigeria. Cluster sampling method was employed in the selection of sampled areas and, six neighbourhoods were randomly selected. Sample size of 600 was drawn out of the ...

  12. Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reptiles, accident and vagrancy. The brunt of abandonment is found to be more in the medium residential density. The study thus recommends an aggressive environmental management that offsets blighted conditions in the environment. Keywords: Effects, Buildings, Lots, Abandonment, Landed Properties, Environment ...

  13. Genetic and environmental effects on performance traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic and environmental effects on performance traits of Simmentaler cattle on the Transvaal Highveld. Tina Rust, J van der Westhuizen. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  14. Genetic and environmental effects on mortality before age 70 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a familial influence on risk of many diseases and on mortality in general, which, according to studies of twins, is due to a combination of genetic and environmental effects. Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately the genetic...

  15. Solution-derived photocatalytic films for environmental cleaning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štangar, U Lavrencic; Kete, M; Šuligoj, A; Tasbihi, M

    2012-01-01

    When photocatalytic water treatment is concerned, suspended catalyst in the aqueous phase is usually more efficient than immobilized on an inert support, but in the former case an undesirable separation/recycling step is needed. We have therefore concentrated on the preparation of immobilized catalysts in the form of films on glass and aluminium supports. The low-temperature sol-gel processing route to obtain transparent thin TiO 2 /SiO 2 films for self-cleaning purposes and thicker TiO 2 /SiO 2 coatings for efficient removal of pollutants in water and air are presented. The synthesis is based on a production of a nanocrystalline titania sol with a silica binder that after deposition does not require thermal treatment at high temperatures. Depending on the target application, some specific synthesis parameters and photocatalytic activity testing conditions are illustrated. For water-cleaning coatings fast kinetics is required, which was achieved by addition of a highly active titania powder into the sol. The same preparation procedure was used to prepare efficient air-cleaning coatings. On the other hand, self-cleaning films were thinner and transparent to keep the original appearance of the substrate and they solidified at ambient conditions. Advanced methodologies to evaluate photocatalytic activity of the films were applied.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF MICROALGAE IN POWER INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmutdin M. Abdulagatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of the study is to show the possibility and efficiency of large-scale industrial production of microalgae in the Republic of Dagestan for the development of agriculture (feed for animals and poultry and other technological applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries for the production of algalin flour (eco bread, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3, omega-6 physiologically necessary for humans, biologically active substances (astaxanthin, phycocyanin, new-generation antibiotics, biofuels and other high added value biotechnological products. The problems of using microalgae for bioremediation of the environment, in particular, purification of geothermal waters from phenols before discharging into the sewage system are considered. Methods. Microalgae are grown in closed and open type plants. Valuable algae components can be extracted using supercritical fluid technology of continuous action. Results. We give a comparative evaluation of the efficiency of using microalgae as a biological raw material in comparison with traditionally used oilseeds. Conclusion. For Dagestan, located on the shore of the Caspian Sea, with its warm climate and an abundance of solar and geothermal energy, the development of this technology is a task of great economic importance. The advantages of microalgae technologies are the basis for the creation of large-scale production of microalgae in southern Russia. Biotechnology in Dagestan can become not only profitable, but also a high-tech and innovative industry.

  17. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Marques, A.P.; Reis, M.A.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Barros, L.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors - natives and transplants - are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal - the Setubal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon - where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10x15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5x2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50x50 km, using a 10x10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively

  18. The application of system dynamics modelling to environmental health decision-making and policy - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Danielle J; Smith, Carl; Jagals, Paul

    2018-03-27

    Policy and decision-making processes are routinely challenged by the complex and dynamic nature of environmental health problems. System dynamics modelling has demonstrated considerable value across a number of different fields to help decision-makers understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of complex systems in support the development of effective policy actions. In this scoping review we investigate if, and in what contexts, system dynamics modelling is being used to inform policy or decision-making processes related to environmental health. Four electronic databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to identify studies that intersect the areas environmental health, system dynamics modelling, and decision-making. Studies identified in the initial screening were further screened for their contextual, methodological and application-related relevancy. Studies deemed 'relevant' or 'highly relevant' according to all three criteria were included in this review. Key themes related to the rationale, impact and limitation of using system dynamics in the context of environmental health decision-making and policy were analysed. We identified a limited number of relevant studies (n = 15), two-thirds of which were conducted between 2011 and 2016. The majority of applications occurred in non-health related sectors (n = 9) including transportation, public utilities, water, housing, food, agriculture, and urban and regional planning. Applications were primarily targeted at micro-level (local, community or grassroots) decision-making processes (n = 9), with macro-level (national or international) decision-making to a lesser degree. There was significant heterogeneity in the stated rationales for using system dynamics and the intended impact of the system dynamics model on decision-making processes. A series of user-related, technical and application-related limitations and challenges were identified. None of the reported limitations or challenges

  19. Contributions for the application of a phoswich detector on the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalaqua Junior, L.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of a phoswich detector and the parameters of the pulse shape descrimination system are evaluated aiming the application on environmental analysis by direct low level gamma ray spectrometry. The calibration curves and adjustments for the pulse discrimination, detector resolution and homogeneity measurements are presented. Background reduction and the 210 Pb detection eficiency on evaporated sources are evaluated. The results obtained demonstrates the application potentiality on the analysis of environmental samples due to a high detection eficiency and good geometry conditions to the measurements. (author) [pt

  20. Environmental impact of indirect subsidies. Development and application of a policy oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.; De Moor, A.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for determining the environmental impact of indirect subsidies. The point of departure is a typology of subsidies to cover the large number of different types. The large-scale subsidies will be considered first, on the assumption that these will often have extensive environmental effects. Then, the environmental effects in the Netherlands will be calculated. The restriction to the Netherlands means that no attention is given to the environmental consequences of abolishing subsidies. An earlier study showed that the most extensive indirect subsidies at world and OECD level are mainly in the energy, agriculture and transport sectors. The method is tested by calculating the environmental effects of large-scale subsidies in these three sectors and in the tourism sector.

  1. Mir Environmental Effects Payload and Returned Mir Solar Panel Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Kinard, William H.

    2000-01-01

    The MIR Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was attached to the Docking Module of the MIR space station for 18 months during calendar years 1996 and 1997 (March 1996, STS 76 to October 1997, STS 86). A solar panel array with more than 10 years space exposure was removed from the MIR core module in November 1997, and returned to Earth in January, 1998, STS 89. MEEP and the returned solar array are part of the International Space Station (ISS) Risk Mitigation Program. This space flight hardware has been inspected and studied by teams of space environmental effects (SEE) investigators for micrometeoroid and space debris effects, space exposure effects on materials, and electrical performance. This paper reports changes in cleanliness of parts of MEEP and the solar array due to the space exposures. Special attention is given to the extensive water soluble residues deposited on some of the flight hardware surfaces. Directionality of deposition and chemistry of these residues are discussed.

  2. Development of mobile electron beam plant for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kang, Wongu; Choi, Jang Seung; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Due to the necessity of pilot scale test facility for continuous treatment of wastewater and gases on site, a mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. This mobile electron beam irradiation system is designed for the individual field application with self-shielded structure of steel plate and lead block which will satisfy the required safety figures of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Shielding of a mobile electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA has been designed and examined by Monte Carlo technique. Based on a 3-D model of electron accelerator shielding which is designed with steel and lead shield, radiation leakage was examined using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) Code. Simulations with two different versions (version 4c2 and version 5) of MCNP code showed agreements within statistical uncertainties, and the highest leakage expected is 5.5061×10 −01 (1±0.0454) μSv/h, which is far below the tolerable radiation dose limit for occupational workers. This unit could treat up to 500 m 3 of liquid waste per day at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 of gases per hour at 15 kGy. - Highlights: • A mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. • It is designed for treatment of wastewater and flue gas on site. • Shielding of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA accelerator has done by a Monte Carlo technique. • It can treat up to 500 m 3 /d of liquid waste at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 /h of gas at 15 kGy.

  3. Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Moriuchi, S.; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)

  4. The environmental effect of subsidies for clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, F.P.; Nentjes, A.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental subsidies for clean technology result in a larger diffusion of such technology. However, as a result emissions can increase in imperfect markets for products. When several companies compete each other with clean and dirty technologies, production and emission will rise because of price competition.This effect will be even larger in case subsidies are applied. Therefore, subsidies are not advisable for every market. In this article an evolutionary game theory has been used with respect to the diffusion of environment-friendly innovation of products and the role of environmental policy instruments (in particular subsidies). 7 refs

  5. Environmental effects of bio energy systems in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Nour, Salah Eldin Ali

    1999-01-01

    Biomass plays a vital role in Sudan and constitutes about 87% of the total energy consumption. Firewood and charcoal are the main sources of fuel representing more than 90% of household energy. The utilization of the bio energy i.e fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural residues and animal wastes has negative and positive effects on the environment. This paper summarize the environmental impacts and health effects resulting from energy production, supply and consumption

  6. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  7. Synthesis of Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juan; Wang, Ruiyu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites (FGC) are successfully synthesized by forming a complex Fe 3+ -GO and further reducing it with NaBH4 as one step at ambient condition. The morphology and structure studies of FGC indicate that Fe nanoparticles with size of about 5 nm are finely dispersed on graphene sheets. Decolorization experiments show that the FGC hybrids display better removal capacities to decolorize methyl blue (MB), a model dye in the dyeing and printing industry, compared with bare Fe particles. On the other hand, FGC hybrids exhibit superparamagnetic properties and can be separated from MB solution leaving a colorless solution by using a magnet. All of these suggest FGC an excellent candidate for dye removal. Highlights: ► Graphene oxide (GO) and Fe 3+ are used as precursors. ► By adding NaBH 4 , Fe 3+ and GO are in situ reduced to Fe and graphene, respectively, thus forming FGC hybrids. ► Fe nanoparticles with size of about 5 nm are finely dispersed on graphene sheets. ► FGC hybrids have better decolorization capacities than bare Fe nanoparticles. - Abstract: Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites (FGC) are successfully synthesized by using graphene oxide (GO) as a supporting matrix. GO is first treated with Fe 3+ to form Fe 3+ -GO complexes. Then, by adding NaBH 4 solution, Fe 3+ and GO are simultaneously reduced in situ to Fe and graphene respectively, forming FGC hybrid composites. The structures, properties and applications of the hybrids thus obtained are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetization measurements. The hybrids are also evaluated for decolorization of methyl blue solution, a model dye in wastewater of dyeing industry. Compared with bare Fe particles, the high removal capacities of FGC are due to the

  8. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  10. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira D., Juan José; Zambrano, Angélica

    2014-01-01

    The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a ...

  11. Transboundary effects of environmental policy. Markets and emission leakages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Faehn, Taran [Research Department, Statistics Norway, Pb. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-10-15

    One of many explanations for Environmental Kuznets Curves for rich countries can be that dirty production is relocated to economies with laxer abatement regimes. If this is caused by national abatement policies, environmental stresses are transferred to other countries. Further, the economic costs of national abatement policies can be shared with foreigners to some extent, both through a lower demand for imports and losses of market shares for foreign competitors that produce cleaner products. We quantify effects internally and abroad of a growth-induced unilateral carbon tax policy in a rich open economy. We find that the environmental benefits fall, and the economic costs rise, when a global rather than a national perspective is employed. (author)

  12. Application of computational systems biology to explore environmental toxicity hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computer-based modeling is part of a new approach to predictive toxicology.Objectives: We investigated the usefulness of an integrated computational systems biology approach in a case study involving the isomers and metabolites of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT......) to ascertain their possible links to relevant adverse effects.Methods: We extracted chemical-protein association networks for each DDT isomer and its metabolites using ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database that includes both binding and gene expression data, and we explored protein-protein interactions...... using a human interactome network. To identify associated dysfunctions and diseases, we integrated protein-disease annotations into the protein complexes using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.Results: We found 175 human proteins linked to p,p´-DDT...

  13. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: sludges and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation. (author)

  14. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  15. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA {section}121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA {section}121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ``to-be-considered`` (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance.

  16. Moessbauer effect and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Arshad, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts of Moessbauer effect. The provision of extremely high energy resolution, 1 part in 10/sp 12/, is the remarkable feature of this effects. This feature can be used to solve various problems where small changes in energy are involved. This effect has been applied in various disciplines of science like astrophysics, archaeology, biology, corrosion, amorphous alloys, chemistry, metallurgy, solid state physics, magnetism, superconductivity etc. A brief description of Moessbauer effect along with some typical examples are presented to demonstrate the importance and power of this effect in solving problems in these areas. (author)

  17. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  18. General theory for environmental effects on (vertical) electronic excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2016-10-21

    Almost 70 years ago, the first theoretical model for environmental effects on electronic excitation energies has been derived. Since then, several different interpretations and refined models have been proposed for the perichromic shift of a chromophore due to its surrounding medium. Some of these models are contradictory. Here, the contributing terms are derived within the framework of long-range perturbation theory with the least approximations so far. The derivation is based on a state-specific interpretation of the interaction energies and all terms can be identified with individual properties of either the chromophore or the surroundings, respectively. Further, the much debated contribution due to transition moments coupled to the environment can be verified in the form of a non-resonant excitonic coupling to the dynamic polarizabilities in the environment. These general insights should clarify discussions and interpretations of environmental effects on electronic excitations and should foster the development of new models for the computation of these effects.

  19. Applications of electrical resistance tomography to subsurface environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Daily, W.D.

    1994-11-15

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes and to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and man-induced processes (such as tank leaks and clean-up processes such as steam injection), can create changes in a soil`s electrical properties that are readily measured. We have conducted laboratory and a variety of field experiments to investigate the capabilities and limitations of ERT for imaging underground structures and processes. In the last four years we have used ERT to successfully monitor several field processes including: a subsurface steam injection process (for VOC removal), an air injection process (below the water table) for VOC removal, water infiltration through the vadose zone, radio-frequency heating, ohmic heating, and tank and pond leaks. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: detect and locate leaks, determine the effectiveness of clean-up processes, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers.

  20. Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Romero-Hermida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed.