WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental controls oceanography

  1. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnett Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs. Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  2. Operationele Oceanografie en Rapid Environmental Assessment (Operational Oceanography and Rapid Environmental Assessment)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    te Raa, L. A; Lam, F. P; Schouten, M. W

    2008-01-01

    .... Possible applications of operational oceanography in REA include improved sonar performance predictions with three-dimensional sound speed forecasts, support of AUV mission planning with the help...

  3. Assessment of the U.S. outer continental shelf environmental studies program. 1. Physical oceanography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Federal responsibility for oil and gas development on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) resides with the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The DOI's Environmental Studies Program (ESP) is the program through which MMS conducts environmental studies on the OCS and collects information to prepare environmental impact statements (EISs). It appeared to MMS in 1986 that the time was ripe to assess the status of the present program and to explore the needs for future studies. MMS requested an evaluation of the adequacy and applicability of ESP studies, a review of the general state of knowledge in the appropriate disciplines, and recommendations for future studies. Three panels were established, one of which, the Physical Oceanography Panel, investigated the physical oceanographic aspects of the ESP, the subject of the report, which is the first of three in a series. In reviewing the ESP's physical oceanography program, the panel evaluated the quality and relevance of studies carried out in waters under federal control, which extend from the limits of state jurisdictions (3-12 miles offshore) and include the central and outer continental shelf waters and the continental slope

  4. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  5. Physical oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    The chapter on physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean is written keeping in mind the graduate students and researchers. It starts with a brief introduction (citing latest expeditions) followed by the coastal and near processes (wave climate...

  6. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  7. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  8. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  9. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.; Roeck, de Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear

  10. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    whether recent developments in operational oceanographic products are addressing these needs. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Working Group on Operational Oceanographic products for Fisheries and Environment (WGOOFE) identified a potential mismatch between user requirements......Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear...

  11. Careers in Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Charles D., Ed.

    This booklet was prepared by practicing oceanographers to help college students in their search for professional direction. The booklet: (1) points out some frontiers of current research; (2) describes five major subfields of oceanography (marine geology and geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and…

  12. Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John

    The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

  13. Introduction to fisheries oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Fisheries oceanography can be applied to fisheries ecology, fisheries management and practical fishing. Physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, currents, waves, light, oxygen and salinity) have profound effect on fish...

  14. Oceanography Branch Hydrographic Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oceanography group maintains and provides Conductivity/Temperature/Depth (CTD) instruments to all Center cruises for measuring water column profiles of...

  15. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  16. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  17. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  18. Proceedings of a workshop on environmental oceanography of the Gulf of Mexico, College Station, Texas, 15--16 March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A workshop was convened under the sponsorship of the Energy Research and Development Administration to define the most critical energy-related environmental problems in the Gulf of Mexico and develop the framework for a program of research to solve these problems. A major and immediate concern is activity related to the oil and gas industry: production, transportation (including potential superport construction), processing, and use of petroleum-derived fuels. The problems which might be posed by the development of other potential sources of energy, such as coastal and offshore nuclear power plants, were also given consideration. Several keynote speakers presented their thoughts on Gulf environmental problems from different points of view, and their remarks are recorded in Appendix I

  19. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  20. Environmental control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    During this report period, Chem Tech identified environmental control technology (ECT) as an area of emphasis for future planning and resource allocation. The Division plans to continue to perform R and D activities in ECT for external sponsors such as the DOE Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) while striving for recognition as an R and D center for ECT within the Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Complex. Chem Tech has already played supporting roles in this area for the Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) and is currently expanding its support to organizations within ORNL responsible for environmental matters. Over the long term, the Division hopes to achieve recognition as a center for R and D in ECT within the wider DOE system. Recent initiatives supporting these plans are discussed below

  1. Connecting Oceanography and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Capturing and retaining the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be difficult, no matter what type of science. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially significant, as all students are music majors. In my Introductory Oceanography course, I use a final project as a way for the students to link class material with their own interests. The students may choose any format to present their projects to the class; however, many students write and perform original music. The performances of ocean-themed music have become a huge draw of the Introductory Oceanography course. In an effort to expand the reach of this music, several colleagues and I organized the first Earth Day event at Berklee, `Earthapalooza 2015.' This event included performances of music originally written for the final projects, as well as other musical performances, poetry readings, guest talks, and information booths. Although the idea of an Earth Day event is not new, this event is unique in that student performances really resonate with the student audience. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of oceanography through music. In this presentation, I will play examples of original student compositions and show video of the live student performances. I will also discuss the benefits and challenges of the final projects and the Earth Day event. Finally, I will highlight the future plans to continue ocean-themed music at Berklee.

  2. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  4. Environmental Control Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.

  5. Environmental Control Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the Environmental Control Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA), Piracicaba , Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. Such research comprises: determination of ions and metals in waters from different sources; survey of the mineralogical composition of Amazon Basin rivers; development of specific methodologies for the determination of minerals in studies of mineral nutrition of plants and animal nutrition; development of methodologies for the determination of wood sample density, a nuclear method being developed to be applied to field conditions; study of the water flux mouvement within wood. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Argo workstation: a key component of operational oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingmei; Xu, Shanshan; Miao, Qingsheng; Yue, Xinyang; Lu, Jiawei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Operational oceanography requires the quantity, quality, and availability of data set and the timeliness and effectiveness of data products. Without steady and strong operational system supporting, operational oceanography will never be proceeded far. In this paper we describe an integrated platform named Argo Workstation. It operates as a data processing and management system, capable of data collection, automatic data quality control, visualized data check, statistical data search and data service. After it is set up, Argo workstation provides global high quality Argo data to users every day timely and effectively. It has not only played a key role in operational oceanography but also set up an example for operational system.

  7. Mechanisms in environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeneg, K.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of implementation provides methods for decentralization of decisions in societies. By using mechanisms (game forms) it is possible (in theory) to implement attractive states in different economic environments. As an example the market mechanisms can implement Pareto-efficient and individual rational allocations in an Arrow-Debreu economic environment without market failures. And even when there exists externalities the market mechanism sometime can be used if it is possible to make a market for the goods not allocated on a market already - examples are marketable emission permits, and deposit refund systems. But environmental problems can often be explained by the existence of other market failures (e.g. asymmetric information), and then the market mechanism do not work properly. And instead of using regulation or traditional economic instruments (subsidies, charges, fees, liability insurance, marketable emission permits, or deposit refund systems) to correct the problems caused by market failures, some other methods can be used to deal with these problems. This paper contains a survey of mechanisms that can be used in environmental control when the problems are caused by the existence of public goods, externalities, asymmetric information, and indivisible goods in the economy. By examples it will be demonstrated how the Clarke-Groves mechanism, the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism, and other mechanisms can be used to solve specific environmental problems. This is only theory and examples, but a recent field study have used the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism to solve the problem of lake liming in Sweden. So this subject may be of some interests for environmental policy in the future. (au) 23 refs

  8. Environmental Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  9. Mentoring Women in Physical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Lisa M.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2010-08-01

    MPOWIR Pattullo Conference; Charleston, South Carolina, 23-26 May 2010; Initiated in 2004, Mentoring Physical Oceanography Women to Increase Retention (MPOWIR) is a community-initiated and community-led program aimed at providing mentoring to junior women in physical oceanography to improve their retention in the field. The centerpiece of the MPOWIR program is the Pattullo Conference, a two-and-a-half-day mentoring event held biannually. The second conference was held in South Carolina. The conference is named for June Pattullo, the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in physical oceanography. The goals of the Pattullo Conference are to build community networks among junior and senior scientists, to provide junior scientists with feedback on their current and planned research projects, to provide advice to junior scientists on their career goals, to introduce both senior and junior scientists to aspects of professional development, and to raise awareness of issues confronting junior women among the senior scientist community.

  10. A Source Book for Teaching Chemical Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Theodore C.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    Chemical oceanography or marine chemistry are taught in many colleges and universities. This publication provides sources for instructors of such courses. The first section of this report is a detailed composite outline of a course in chemical oceanography. It includes fundamental topics taught in many chemical oceanography classes. The outline…

  11. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  12. Atlantic Oceanography. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    on the effect of environmental characteristics upon the encrusting calcareous-tube-making polychaete worm Hydroides dianthus has been begun, and it is...B. eb!Lineus. In spring 1978, work uas initiated on rearing the larvae of the calcareous encrusting tube worm Hydroides dianthus . Preliminary...larvae belonging to the coastal species, Balanus amphitrite and Hydroides dianthus and the estuarine barnacle, BaZanus ebur-neus. Some of the difficulties

  13. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  14. Fuzzy control in environmental engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for engineers, technicians and people who plan to use fuzzy control in more or less developed and advanced control systems for manufacturing processes, or directly for executive equipment. Assuming that the reader possesses elementary knowledge regarding fuzzy sets and fuzzy control, by way of a reminder, the first parts of the book contain a reminder of the theoretical foundations as well as a description of the tools to be found in the Matlab/Simulink environment in the form of a toolbox. The major part of the book presents applications for fuzzy controllers in control systems for various manufacturing and engineering processes. It presents seven processes and problems which have been programmed using fuzzy controllers. The issues discussed concern the field of Environmental Engineering. Examples are the control of a flood wave passing through a hypothetical, and then the real Dobczyce reservoir in the Raba River, which is located in the upper Vistula River basin in Southern Poland, th...

  15. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  16. Estuarine Oceanography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. F.

    Estuarine Oceanography is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. Designed for those interested in coastal oceanography or limnology, the module is structured as a laboratory supplement for undergraduate college classes but should be useful at all levels. The module has two…

  17. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  18. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  19. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  20. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  1. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  2. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  3. History of oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.

    This paper highlights history of the oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oceanographic activities during Ancient period, Medieval period, British period, Post-Independence period are briefly discussed. The role of the IIOE, IOC, UNESCO are also...

  4. CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.

    CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography being one of its kind in the country The article describes the on-going researches and projects in contributing to the science in the field of Marine science....

  5. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  6. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  7. Oceanography of the Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Luis Iriarte, José; Daneri, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the most extended fjord regions in the world that covers nearly 240,000 km 2 with an extremely complex coastline and topography in one of the least densely populated areas of the country (1-8 inhabitants every 10 km 2). In recent years, the area has been undergoing somewhat intense pressure since several commercial projects in hydroelectricity, tourism, and commercial salmon and mytilid cultures have been developed, or are in progress. Concomitantly, several large research programs have been devised to study the physical, chemical, and biological environment of Patagonia, such as the CIMAR FIORDO, and recently COPAS Sur-Austral based at Universidad de Concepcion, that attempts to close the bridge between oceanographic knowledge and its use by society. In this introductory article we summarize the collection of papers comprising this Special Issue of Continental Shelf Research. These papers deal with aspects of regional oceanography and geology, inorganic and organic geochemistry, ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms, and past changes in productivity.

  8. Environmental control medical support team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The activities conducted in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support Team during December 7, 1987 through September 30, 1988 are summarized. The majority of the ongoing support has focused on the ECLSS area. Through a series of initial meetings with the ECLSS team and technical literature review, an initial list of critical topics was developed. Subtasks were then identified or additional related tasks received as action items from the ECLSS group meetings. Although most of the efforts focused on providing MSFC personnel with information regarding specific questions and problems related to ECLSS issues, other efforts regarding identifying an ECLSS Medical Support Team and constructing data bases of technical information were also initiated and completed. The specific tasks are as follows: (1) Provide support to the mechanical design and integration of test systems as related to microbiological concerns; (2) Assist with design of Human Subjects Test Protocols; (3) Interpretation and recommendations pertaining to air/water quality requirements; (4) Assist in determining the design specifications required as related to the Technical Demonstration Program; (5) Develop a data base of all microorganisms recovered from previous subsystem testing; (6) Estimates of health risk of individual microbes to test subjects; (7) Assist with setting limits for safety of test subjects; (8) Health monitoring of test subjects; (9) Assist in the preparation of test plans; (10) Assist in the development of a QA/QC program to assure the validity, accuracy and precision of the analyses; and (11) Assist in developing test plans required for future man in the loop testing.

  9. Macroecology: A Primer for Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. K. W.

    2016-02-01

    Macroecology is the study of ecological patterns discerned at a spatial, temporal, or organization scale higher than that at which the focal entities interact. Such patterns are statistical or emergent manifestations arising from the ensemble of component entities. Although macroecology is a neologism largely based in terrestrial and avian ecology, macroscopic patterns have long been recognised in biological oceanography. Familiar examples include Redfield elemental stoichiometry, Elton trophic pyramids, Sheldon biomass spectrum, and Margalef life-forms mandala. Macroecological regularities can often be found along various continua, such as along body size in power-law scaling or along habitat temperature in metabolic theory. Uniquely in oceanography, a partition of the world ocean continuum into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces provides a spatial organization well-suited for macroecological investigations. In this rational discrete approach, fundamental processes in physical and biological oceanography that differentiate a set of non-overlapping ocean regions also appear to shape the macroecological structure of phytoplankton communities.

  10. Crucial times for Spanish physical oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep L. Pelegrí

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of physical oceanography has undergone exponential growth in Spain during the last few decades. From a handful of self-taught researchers in the late 1960s there are now several hundred physical oceanographers distributed in some 20 Spanish institutions, and many more working overseas. The First Spanish Physical Oceanography Meeting (EOF1, held in Barcelona in October 2010, was a good example of the high quality and large variety of this research. The facilities and human resources are excellent but the alarming decrease in public investment in science due to the economic crisis must lead the Spanish physical oceanography community to define its current priorities. In this introductory paper to EOF1 we revise our history and where we are now, and suggest that progress in the near future will rely on our intelligence to sustain and enhance human capital, partnership and society-oriented research.

  11. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  12. Inspection control and the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is the task of many administrative bodies, but the activity of the environmental inspection is of special importance. According to the Law on Environmental Protection, inspection's tasks in this area belong to the competence of republican bodies, ie. Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. Autonomous province and local self-government have only delegated competence in this field, under condition that this is explicitly regulated in special laws. Environmental inspection's activity consists in preventive actions, certain prior - preparatory activities and the audit itself. In addition, following the intervention of the Inspector issue of the control may be corrective or repressive. According to the Law on Inspection Control and the Law on Environmental Protection, the inspectors have a number of powers and responsibilities, which enable them to ensure the lawful and proper conduct of individuals and legal entities.

  13. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  14. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  15. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweis, M.; Kaitna, M.

    2001-01-01

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  16. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  17. Secretary of the Navy Professor of Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA; 5-10 June 2011 Attended: Algae + Fish = Ocean Mixing? Conference, La Jolla, CA; 5-6 July 2011 Attended: JASON Summer...the scientific work of Klaus Hasselmann at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology; Hamburg , Germany; 09 November 2011 Keynote Address: Nansen

  18. Oceanography for Landlocked Classrooms. Monograph V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr., Ed.; Hounshell, Paul B., Ed.

    This monograph attempts to show the importance of bringing marine biology into science classrooms, discusses what makes the ocean so important and explains why oceanography should be included in the science curriculum regardless of where students live. Section I, "Getting Started," includes discussions on the following: (1) "Why Marine Biology?";…

  19. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  20. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  1. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  2. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  3. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  4. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  5. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  6. Environmental pollution and control, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesilind, P.A.; Peirce, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the problems, principles, and solutions are presented here in a non-biased, easy-to-read format. The language used is non-technical for the most part, and the inclusion of a complete glossary aids when some technical terms must be used. The text itself is supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and examples. Major Sections: Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution; Measurement of Water Quality; Water Supply; Water Treatment; Collection of Wastewater; Wastewater Treatment; Sludge Treatment and Disposal; Nonpoint Source Water Pollution; Water Pollution Law; Solid Waste; Solid Waste Disposal; Resource Recovery; Hazardous Waste; Radioactive Waste; Solid and Hazardous Waste Law; Air Pollution; Meteorology and Air Quality; Measurement of Air Quality; Air Pollution Control; Air Pollution Law; Noise Pollution; Noise Measurement and Control; Environmental Impact; The Environmental Ethic; Appendix: Conversion Factors; Glossary and Abbreviations; Index

  7. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  8. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental control system. (a) Identification. A powered environmental control system is an AC- or battery-powered device intended for medical purposes that is used by a patient to operate an environmental control... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725...

  10. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  11. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map

  12. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Le Traon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P (CNES/NASA in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many

  13. Environmental management control. An empirical study on the use of environmental performance measures in management control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Companies increasingly adapt their accounting systems to accommodate the internal demand of environmental-related information for making decisions and control their activities in compliance with extant environmental regulation. Prior research in environmental accounting has predominantly focused on

  14. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  15. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  16. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-11-05 to 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145664)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-03-10 to 2016-06-28 (NCEI Accession 0155280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-05-17 to 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp050 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-30 to 2016-07-20 (NCEI Accession 0155979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-10-30 to 2016-02-03 (NCEI Accession 0145715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-13 to 2016-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp039 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-22 to 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0138033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-09 to 2015-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0137984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp035 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-03-31 to 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0138032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-05-01 to 2014-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0137974)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp001 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-01-12 to 2015-04-08 (NCEI Accession 0137973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-03 to 2016-05-17 (NCEI Accession 0153552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-09-15 to 2014-11-04 (NCEI Accession 0137991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-08-14 to 2015-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0137990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp050 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-02-06 to 2015-05-14 (NCEI Accession 0137988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp018 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2014-06-10 to 2014-09-21 (NCEI Accession 0138030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp053 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-08-29 to 2015-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0145713)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-11-30 to 2017-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0162197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-08-17 to 2016-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0156601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp031 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-10 to 2015-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0145667)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-11-25 to 2014-11-27 (NCEI Accession 0137979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp039 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-18 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0156570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-11-24 to 2016-03-10 (NCEI Accession 0145666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-06-28 to 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-08-13 to 2015-11-18 (NCEI Accession 0145665)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-11 to 2014-09-15 (NCEI Accession 0137978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp053 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2016-07-20 to 2016-10-20 (NCEI Accession 0156796)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp041 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-08 to 2016-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0157607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp042 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-11-04 to 2017-02-23 (NCEI Accession 0161310)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-07-28 to 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145670)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp064 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the |Coastal Waters of California from 2016-12-14 to 2017-03-29 (NCEI Accession 0162258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-12-14 to 2017-03-28 (NCEI Accession 0162257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp001 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-08-15 to 2016-11-16 (NCEI Accession 0157002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp054 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-03-17 to 2016-10-11 (NCEI Accession 0156772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-02-18 to 2016-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0153551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp052 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-06 to 2017-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0162198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-09-06 to 2016-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0157115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-06-02 to 2016-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0156569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp006 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-12-14 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0153787)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp028 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-05 to 2014-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0137981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp047 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-08-27 to 2016-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0145668)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp027 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2015-06-16 to 2015-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0145712)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-09-23 to 2015-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0137975)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp063 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-08-23 to 2016-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0156530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp011 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-04-27 to 2015-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0137976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp030 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-08-13 to 2014-11-25 (NCEI Accession 0137983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  3. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp040 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-04-09 to 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0138034)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp051 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-11-12 to 2015-01-08 (NCEI Accession 0137989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp020 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2015-12-16 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0153550)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp048 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-27 to 2015-08-27 (NCEI Accession 0145669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp025 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2015-01-08 to 2015-04-09 (NCEI Accession 0137980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp048 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-01-16 to 2014-07-29 (NCEI Accession 0138035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp047 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2014-06-23 to 2015-01-22 (NCEI Accession 0137987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp020 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2014-08-03 to 2014-12-12 (NCEI Accession 0137977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  11. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp031 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 2014-04-12 to 2014-08-02 (NCEI Accession 0138031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp018 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Solomon Sea from 2016-02-18 to 2016-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0153549)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Physical trajectory profile data from glider sp049 deployed by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the Coastal Waters of California from 2016-04-05 to 2016-06-02 (NCEI Accession 0153788)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spray glider profile data from Scripps Institution of Oceanography Instrument Development Group (supported by NOAA). The National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Oceanography related to deep sea waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In connection with studies on the feasibility of the safe disposal of radioactive waste, from a large scale nuclear power programme, either on the bed of the deep ocean or within the deep ocean bed, preparation of the present document was commissioned by the (United Kingdom) Department of the Environment. It attempts (a) to summarize the present state of knowledge of the deep ocean environment relevant to the disposal options and assess the processes which could aid or hinder dispersal of material released from its container; (b) to identify areas of research in which more work is needed before the safety of disposal on, or beneath, the ocean bed can be assessed; and (c) to indicate which areas of research can or should be undertaken by British scientists. The programmes of international cooperation in this field are discussed. The report is divided into four chapters dealing respectively with geology and geophysics, geochemistry, physical oceanography and marine biology. (U.K.)

  15. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  16. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  17. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  18. The Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study reveals the need for extensive refinement of the Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure purported in the past to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure the relationship between the psychological construct, "locus of control," and environmental action or environmentally responsible behavior. (MCO)

  19. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  20. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  1. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  2. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  3. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ingyu; Kim, Enhan; Keum, Dongkwon

    2012-04-01

    To develop the comprehensive environmental radiation management technology, - An urban atmospheric dispersion model and decision-aiding model have been developed. - The technologies for assessing the radiation impact to non-human biota and the environmental medium contamination have developed. - The analytical techniques of the indicator radionuclides related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste repository have been developed. - The national environmental radiation impact has been assessed, and the optimum management system of natural radiation has been established

  4. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  5. Environmental advertisement: An alternative policy to control consumption pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sartzetakis, Eftichios Sophocles; Xepapadeas, Anastasios P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency enhancing potential of supplementing existing policies of controlling consumption pollution with environmental advertisement. Our definition of environmental advertisement includes both information dissemination and persuasion. While incentive-based regulations that are based on coercion are effective immediately, environmental advertisement that is based on inducing voluntary action requires time. We formalise this argument by assuming that the shift of con...

  6. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  7. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  8. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  9. A concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelzl, U.

    1992-01-01

    The protection of nature is seen as a global challenge to mankind. Industrial enterprises are confronted with the question of how to contribute to the solution of environmental problems. In this study possibilities and concepts are printed out that would enable industrial enterprises to recognize and as a consequence reduce environmental pollution and risks caused by their products and production processes by means of organization. After a description of recent developments in the entrepreneur's surroundings brought about by environmental problems, and a characterization of environmental management, which can be seen as a reaction to the above mentioned developments, a concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises is developed deductively. Environmental controlling is here regarded as a sub-system of environmental management that supports the determination of environmental aims, the analysis, the planning and the control of environmental pollution, as well as the use of material and energy by installing and coordinating a specific environment information system. The main functions of environmental controlling are planning, controlling, informing, advising and some special functions. The specific functional instruments for carrying out these tasks are described in a special chapter. (author)

  10. Ocean for all, a different way to see oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Ramos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceanography as a science is still not very widespread in Brazilian society, making it difficult to strengthen the ties between society and the ocean. Thus, the creation of methodologies associated with new teaching techniques, improved with the help of technology, may build a more inclusive society and provide the experience of oceanographic phenomena for all. The extension project "Ocean for all", executed between March and July of 2016, performed an experience in oceanography to the elderly members of the Associação Catarinense para Integração do Cego (ACIC in Florianópolis (SC. In order to do so, a methodology was created to pass on knowledge about oceanography in its biological, geological, chemical and physical aspects to the visually impaired. During the execution of the experience, as well as the development of the methodology, problems in the coastal marine environment with anthropological origin were presented.

  11. An oceanography summer school in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Johnson, W.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Nyarko, E.

    2016-02-01

    Because oceanography is a global science, it clearly benefits from the existence of a world-wide network of oceanographers. As with most STEM disciplines, sub-Saharan Africa is not as well represented in the field of oceanography as it should be, given its large population. The need for oceanographers in sub-Saharan Africa is great, due to a long list of ocean-related issues affecting African development, including but not limited to fishing, oil drilling, sea level rise, coastal erosion, shipping, and piracy. We view this as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Many of the world's fastest growing economies are in sub-Saharan Africa, and STEM capacity building could further fuel this growth. With support from the US National Science Foundation, we ran an oceanography summer school from August 24-27, 2015, at the Regional Maritime University (RMU) in Ghana, West Africa. This first summer school was lecture-based, with a focus on basic chemical oceanography, basic physical oceanography, ocean modeling, and satellite oceanography. About 35 participants came to almost every lecture, and about 20 other participants came to some of the lectures as their time permitted. The participants included RMU faculty, 12 students from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, one Associate Oceanographer from the University of Ghana, and some participants from private sector companies and Ghanaian governmental agencies. There were long and lively discussions at the end of each lecture, and there was a lengthy discussion at the conclusion of the school on how to improve future summer schools. In 2016 and 2017, we plan to divide into smaller groups so that participants can pursue their particular interests in greater depth, and to allow time for student presentations. We also plan to begin exploring the potential for research partnerships, and to utilize distance learning to involve more faculty and students from locations throughout Ghana and perhaps from even other

  12. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  13. Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography (DIALOG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The DIALOG Program was founded by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), in order to reduce the historical, institutional and philosophical barriers that limit the exchange of information between limnologists and oceanographers, and to foster interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research. This was achieved by targeting a recent cohort of Ph.D. recipients whose work included a biological component of limnology or oceanography. The program included: (1) publication of the submitted Ph.D. dissertation abstracts; (2) a symposium to facilitate exchange across institutions and disciplines; and (3) establishment of a centralized data base for applicant characterization and tracking.

  14. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  15. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, M. J.; Jang, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to development of an urban atmospheric dispersion model and data assimilation technique for improving the reliability, to develop the technology for assessing the radiation impact to biota and the surface water transport model, to develop the analytical techniques for the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites and to assess of the national environmental radiation impact and establish the optimum management bases of natural radiation. The obtained results might be used; for assessing the radiological effects due to and radiological incident in an urban area, for assessing radiation doses on biota for the environmental protection from ionizing radiation with the application of new concept of the ICP new recommendation, for analyzing the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites, and for providing the natural radionuclide database of Korea to international organizations such as UNSCEAR. It can be used for emphasizing relative nuclear safety

  16. Technology of environmental pollution control, 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century is truly the environmental decade of the century because of the gravity of environmental challenges we are facing. This book covers the environmental spectrum in an attempt to update the reader on new technologies and topics regarding pollution control. Engineers, scientists, plant operators, and students studying the subject of pollution control will use the comprehensive text as a reference for technological advances, regulations, and pollution control. The major disasters witnessed in the last few years, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Ashland of tank collapse are described in detail

  17. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  18. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Environmental Licensing: an Instrument of Command and Control by Exception?

    OpenAIRE

    Sleman Chams, Juliette; Gestión Ambiental de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico-CRA, autoridad ambiental del Departamento del Atlántico,; Velásquez Muñoz, Carlos Javier; Universidad del Norte (Barranquilla)

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the situation of the most important instrument of command and control existing in the Colombian environmental legislation: the environmental license. Since its first formal regulation, on behalf of Decree 1753 of August 3, 1994, has received several modifications which, apparently, have made, in spite of its importance, in an instrument of command and control by exception. The article revises on the scope of each of the modifications and the justifications put forward by...

  20. Environmental Control System Software & Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    ECS hardware: (1) Provides controlled purge to SLS Rocket and Orion spacecraft. (2) Provide mission-focused engineering products and services. ECS software: (1) NASA requires Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs); fixed-length identifier used to identify information items. (2) CUI structure; composed of nine semantic fields that aid the user in recognizing its purpose.

  1. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  2. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  3. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  4. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  5. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  6. A study on environmental pollution control in energy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.M.; Son, J.E.; Lee, H.K.; Choi, W.K.; Baek, I.H.; Lee, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report is contained such as following contents; Preparation of the stepwise pollution control strategies to reduce pollutants in energy field, which will be satisfy to tightened emission standard in the future. Analysis of the environmental pollution control technologies level, which related to energy field in domestic and other countries. Visualization of the reduction strategies of domestic carbon dioxide emission in energy field. And, discussion and proposal of the R and D program to improve the domestic environmental pollution control technologies in energy field. (author). 99 refs., 67 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Environmental control procedures at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    New environmental control activities in the past year at SRP have included improved control and reporting procedures for chemical spills, reclamation of high-value scrap from wastes, new disposal methods for solid wastes not suitable for the sanitary landfill, improved oil containment, and reduction of sediment discharges to on-plant streams. Interdepartmental committees provide the primary routes for planning and coordinating environmental protection throughout SRP. An improved site-use coordination procedure, developed and implemented by ERDA-SR, has provided more effective control and communication pertaining to activities of the several organizations actively using the 300-square-mile SRP site. (auth)

  8. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  9. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  10. Greenhouse Environmental Control Using Optimized MIMO PID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh BOUNAAMA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate control for protected crops brings the added dimension of a biological system into a physical system control situation. The thermally dynamic nature of a greenhouse suggests that disturbance attenuation (load control of external temperature, humidity, and sunlight is far more important than is the case for controlling other types of buildings. This paper investigates the application of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO PID controller to a MIMO greenhouse environmental model with actuation constraints. This method is based on decoupling the system at low frequency point. The optimal tuning values are determined using genetic algorithms optimization (GA. The inside outsides climate model of the environmental greenhouse, and the automatically collected data sets of Avignon, France are used to simulate and test this technique. The control objective is to maintain a highly coupled inside air temperature and relative humidity of strongly perturbed greenhouse, at specified set-points, by the ventilation/cooling and moisturizing operations.

  11. Recent developments in environmental protection in India: Pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, H [NOIDA, Disst, Ghaziabad, Pin (IN)

    1989-01-01

    In India, pollution and environmental degradation have reached alarming dimensions due to poverty, deforestation, industrial development without adequate environmental safeguards, and sheer greed. Fortunately, public concern, rooted in the country's past, has revived. Major pollutants and critically affected areas have been identified. Pollution control of water, air and land has been established by both official and private organizations and the work on environmental protection is steadily growing. The Ganga purification plan is a representative case study. Poverty alleviation is a long-term process. It is India's major problem and is being tackled with help from private enterprise and by international assistance. Simultaneously environmental protection through pollution control is also receiving administrative and legislative support and fiscal assistance through direct and indirect tax incentives. The country's courts are rendering valuable help to environmentalists by pronouncing far-reaching decisions in public-interest litigation. To boost the existing environment-protection movement, greater emphasis is urgently needed for environmental education, peoples' participation, population control, and cost-effective pollution control measures.

  12. Bottom friction. A practical approach to modelling coastal oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos, Rodolfo; Jensen, Palle; Kofoed-Hansen, Henrik; Tornsfeldt Sørensen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Coastal processes imply the interaction of the atmosphere, the sea, the coastline and the bottom. The spatial gradients in this area are normally large, induced by orographic and bathymetric features. Although nowadays it is possible to obtain high-resolution bathymetry, the details of the seabed, e.g. sediment type, presence of biological material and living organisms are not available. Additionally, these properties as well as bathymetry can also be highly dynamic. These bottom characteristics are very important to describe the boundary layer of currents and waves and control to a large degree the dissipation of flows. The bottom friction is thus typically a calibration parameter in numerical modelling of coastal processes. In this work, we assess this process and put it into context of other physical processes uncertainties influencing wind-waves and currents in the coastal areas. A case study in the North Sea is used, particularly the west coast of Denmark, where water depth of less than 30 m cover a wide fringe along the coast, where several offshore wind farm developments are being carried out. We use the hydrodynamic model MIKE 21 HD and the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW to simulate atmosphere and tidal induced flows and the wind wave generation and propagation. Both models represent state of the art and have been developed for flexible meshes, ideal for coastal oceanography as they can better represent coastlines and allow a variable spatial resolution within the domain. Sensitivity tests to bottom friction formulations are carried out into context of other processes (e.g. model forcing uncertainties, wind and wave interactions, wind drag coefficient). Additionally, a map of varying bottom properties is generated based on a literature survey to explore the impact of the spatial variability. Assessment of different approaches is made in order to establish a best practice regarding bottom friction and coastal oceanographic modelling. Its contribution is also

  13. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Poli

    Full Text Available During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra, in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m-35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level, the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance

  14. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Caroline L.; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Vallarino, Adriana; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m—35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level), the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird

  15. Environmental Control for Regional Library Facilities. RR-80-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard G., Jr.

    This report presents an overview of the damage to library materials caused by uncontrollable environmental variables. The control of atmospheric pollutants, temperature, and humidity are discussed with regard to damage, standards, and the costs of deterioration due to these factors. Twelve references are listed. (FM)

  16. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility, located in the 100-N Area. This facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  17. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  18. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  19. Oceanography: 1998 Paris Meeting Abstracts: Coastal and Marginal Seas. Volume 11, Number 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, Judith

    1998-01-01

    This grant supported a successful international multidisciplinary scientific meeting addressing the topic "Coastal and Marginal Seas," hosted by The Oceanography Society and UNESCO's Intergovernmental...

  20. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  1. Google Home: smart speaker as environmental control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kenichiro

    2017-08-23

    Environmental Control Units (ECU) are devices or a system that allows a person to control appliances in their home or work environment. Such system can be utilized by clients with physical and/or functional disability to enhance their ability to control their environment, to promote independence and improve their quality of life. Over the last several years, there have been an emergence of several inexpensive, commercially-available, voice activated smart speakers into the market such as Google Home and Amazon Echo. These smart speakers are equipped with far field microphone that supports voice recognition, and allows for complete hand-free operation for various purposes, including for playing music, for information retrieval, and most importantly, for environmental control. Clients with disability could utilize these features to turn the unit into a simple ECU that is completely voice activated and wirelessly connected to appliances. Smart speakers, with their ease of setup, low cost and versatility, may be a more affordable and accessible alternative to the traditional ECU. Implications for Rehabilitation Environmental Control Units (ECU) enable independence for physically and functionally disabled clients, and reduce burden and frequency of demands on carers. Traditional ECU can be costly and may require clients to learn specialized skills to use. Smart speakers have the potential to be used as a new-age ECU by overcoming these barriers, and can be used by a wider range of clients.

  2. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  3. ON THE OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dávalos Chuquipoma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is studied the optimal control of distributed parameter systems applied to an environmental pollution problem. The model consists of a differential equation partial parabolic modeling of a pollutant transport in a fluid. The model is considered the speed with which the pollutant spreads in the environment and degradation that suffers the contaminant by the presence of a factor biological inhibitor, which breaks the contaminant at a rate that is not dependent on space and time. Using the method of Lagrange multipliers is possible to prove the existence solving the problem of control and obtaining optimality conditions for optimal control.

  4. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  5. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  6. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Zaretsky, Uri; Grinberg, Orly; Davidovich, Tomer; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2010-01-01

    Climate chambers have been widely used in in vitro and in vivo studies which require controlled environmental temperature and humidity conditions. This article describes a new desktop climate chamber that was developed for application of respiratory airflows on cultured nasal epithelial cells (NEC) under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Flow experiments were performed by connecting the climate chamber to an airflow generator via a flow chamber with cultured NEC. Experiments at two controlled climate conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% relative humidity (RH) and 37 degrees C and 80%RH, were conducted to study mucin secretion from the cultures inresponse to the flow. The new climate chamber is a relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus which can easily be connected to any flow system for climate controlled flow experiments. This chamber can be easily adjusted to various in vitro experiments, as well as to clinical studies with animals or human subjects which require controlled climate conditions.

  7. Environmental management: a re-emerging vector control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vector control may be accomplished by environmental management (EM), which consists of permanent or long-term modification of the environment, temporary or seasonal manipulation of the environment, and modifying or changing our life styles and practices to reduce human contact with infective vectors. The primary focus of this paper is EM in the control of human malaria, filariasis, arboviruses, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis. Modern EM developed as a discipline based primarily in ecologic principles and lessons learned from the adverse environmental impacts of rural development projects. Strategies such as the suppression of vector populations through the provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation, solid waste management facilities, sewerage and excreta disposal systems, water manipulation in dams and irrigation systems, vector diversion by zooprophylaxis, and vector exclusion by improved housing, are discussed with appropriate examples. Vectors of malaria, filariasis, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis have been controlled by drainage or filling aquatic breeding sites, improved housing and sanitation, the use of expanded polystyrene beads, zooprophylaxis, or the provision of household water supplies. Community participation has been effective in the suppression of dengue vectors in Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Alone or combined with other vector control methods, EM has been proven to be a successful approach to vector control in a number of places. The future of EM in vector control looks promising.

  8. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  9. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  10. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  11. Soil bioengineering applied to the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil bioengineering is a discipline characterised by the capability of associating geo-technical approaches (e.g. soil stabilisation) with naturalistic rehabilitation and creation of biotopes. It is extremely suitable for the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills, especially of area and depression landfills, mainly through soil protection and stabilisation measures. Its increasing notoriety is mainly due to the great variety and specificity of its techniques, to the capability of joining technical matters with naturalistic aspects, and to the reduced cost of some interventions. Nevertheless, its application to environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills is still scarce in Italy. Only 3% of 87 closed landfills analysed, whose rehabilitation projects adopt natural techniques for soil stabilisation and protection, explicitly refers to Soil Bioengineering [it

  12. Significance of technical rules for environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Technical rules for environmental pollution control are very important in times of intensified technical progress and especially in view of the alterations of the legislative basis of the European Market in 1992. In the fields of jurisprudence, science and technology they serve as a decision-making aid for authorities, specialists in plant development and operation and the preparatory stages of international legislation. The topic is explained by the development of guidelines with the VDI-Commission on Air Pollution Prevention. (orig.) [de

  13. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  14. Diploma of Higher Studies in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents four courses for the diploma of higher studies in oceanography conducted by the Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt. These courses are organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). Each course is designed to be taught in one academic year…

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  16. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  17. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program; Usina Nuclear de Angra: programa de controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, E; Cruz, E.S. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs.

  18. System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    System Identification, Environmetric Modelling, and Control Systems Design is dedicated to Professor Peter Young on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume is comprised of a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as ...

  19. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  20. Bidding for blocks and environmental control; Licitacao de blocos e o controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Magila Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    With the coming of the Constitutional Emend n. 9/95, the Brazilian market of oil and natural gas stopped being monopolized by PETROBRAS. Since then, the concession of blocks began to be preceded by the public tender procedure realized by ANP- National Agency of Oil. The activities of oil exploration and production are potentially damaging to environment, what brings necessary the environmental licence and the previous study of the environmental impacts caused in this activity. Considering that the environmental licence must be done after the tender process, the enterprises that bought the blocks would assume the risk of not being allowed to practice their activities because of the absence of the environmental licence. To avoid that the It's offered blocks in not viable areas for oil exploration, the ANP, responsible for the public tender must accomplish a previous environmental control, to assure to the enterprises involved the environmental viability of the blocks offered. This project will touch the question of how has been realized the previous environmental control of the blocks offered by ANP into the public tender process, detaching, the control done at the 6. Round. (author)

  1. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  2. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  3. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  4. Presentation of Coastal Environmental Management Plan by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The provision of environment management plan and ... environmental management plan of the eastern coasts of Mazandaran Province. ..... REFERENCE ... Department of oceanography, texas A&M university. An online textbook.

  5. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  6. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls

  7. Quality control activities in the environmental radiology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, M.; Quesada, D.; Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Zapata, D.

    2006-01-01

    During the last twenty years many analytical laboratories have implemented quality assurance systems. A quality system implementation requires documentation of all activities (technical and management), evaluation of these activities and its continual improvement. Implementation and adequate management of all the elements a quality system includes are not enough to guarantee quality of the analytical results generated at a time. That is the aim of a group of specific activities labelled as quality control activities. The Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (Environmental Radiology Laboratory; LRA) at the University of Barcelona was created in 1984 to carry out part of the quality control assays of the Environmental Radiology Monitoring Programs around some of the Spanish nuclear power plants, which are developed by the Servei Catala d'Activitats Energetiques (SCAR) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), organisations responsible for nuclear security and radiological protection. In these kind of laboratories, given the importance of the results they give, quality control activities become an essential aspect. In order to guarantee the quality of its analytical results, the LRA Direction decided to adopt the international standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 for its internal quality system and to accreditate some of the assays it carries out. In such as system, it is established, the laboratory shall monitor the validity of tests undertaken and data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable. The present work shows the activities carried out in this way by the LRA, which are: Equipment control activities which in the special case of radiochemical techniques include measurement of backgrounds and blanks as well as periodical control of efficiency and resolution. Activities to assure the specifications settled by method validation, which are testing of reference materials and periodical analysis of control samples. Evaluation of the laboratory work quality

  8. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  9. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  11. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  12. The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government has the following general aims: 1. To lay the foundation for better understanding of the role of the ocean as a climate factor and repercussions on the ocean from climate change as a basis for future preventive and protective action. 2. Identification of natural and anthropogenous factors of stress to the coastal seas, the coastal regions and the open ocean, research into their dynamics and impact, and development of bases, methods and concepts for describing and evaluating the condition of the coastal seas, coastal regions and open ocean and for projecting and/or remedying relative changes. 3. Development of methods and techniques for climate and environment-related research into and monitoring of the oceans and for careful exploitation of living and non-living resources. (orig.) [de

  13. JARE-43 Tangaroa marine science cruise report (Physical oceanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Aoki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the seasonal variation of biological and biogeochemical cycles in the seasonal ice zone in the Southern Ocean, the cruise of JARE-STAGE (Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition-Studies on Antarctic Ocean and Global Environment was conducted in February 2002 with R/V Tangaroa. Physical oceanography implementations of the cruise are described. The results of the manufacturers' CTD conductivity calibrations were consistent between before and after the cruise, and the difference in salinity estimate was expected to be within 0.0014. Two casts were made to validate the XCTD accuracy and comparisons with the CTD are discussed. Generally, it is concluded that reasonably accurate observations were completed in this cruise.

  14. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  15. Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars at Texas A&M University Funded through the NSF S-STEM (Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. J.; Gardner, W. D.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last seven years we have led the creation and implementation of the Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars programs at Texas A&M University. Through these programs we have been able to provide scholarship support for 92 undergraduates in Geosciences and 29 graduate students in Oceanography. Fifty-seven undergraduate scholars have graduated in Geosciences: 30 undergraduate students in Meteorology, 7 in Geology, and 20 in Environmental Geosciences. Two students have graduated in other STEM disciplines. Twenty-four students are in the process of completing their undergraduate degrees in STEM disciplines. Twenty-three students have graduated with MS or PhD degrees in Oceanography and five PhD students are completing their dissertations. As specified in the program solicitation all of the scholars are academically talented students with demonstrated financial need as defined by the FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid). We have endeavored to recruit students from underrepresented groups. One-third of the undergraduate scholars were from underrepresented groups; 28% of the graduate students. We will present the challenges and successes of these programs.

  16. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  17. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  18. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  19. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  20. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  1. Ranking serials in oceanography: An analysis based on the Indian contributions and their citations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.; Maheswarappa, B.S.

    An analysis of serials preferred and cited in various communications by the Indian oceanographers during 1963 to 1992 is presented. A shift in preference of serials from general sciences to oceanography (interdisciplinary) and to core subject...

  2. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Geological Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of California San Diego (UCSD) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS)...

  3. Feed an food from desert environments. [Controlled environmental agricultural technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    Research programs on controlled environmental agricultural technology to allow a broad range of conventional and unconventional crops to be grown with very limited supplies of fresh or brackish water are reviewed. The use of water derived from the sea, from saline lakes, or from waste water treatment for crops in arid lands is discussed. Plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional value of food crops and irrigation systems to improve plant productivity are discussed. The production of liquid hydrocarbons and lubricating oils from plant species such as Euphorbic and Jojoba, and the use of leguminous plants such as mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), and other native plants, which thrive in arid regions, as important sources of proteins and carbohydrates are cited as examples of the productive potential of arid lands. 41 references.

  4. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  5. Dynamic environmental control mechanisms for pneumatic foil constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Jan-Frederik; Wu, Yupeng; Beccarelli, Paolo; Chilton, John

    2017-11-01

    Membrane and foil structures have become over the last decades an attractive alternative to conventional materials and building systems with increasing implementation in different typologies and scale. The development of transparent, light, flexible and resistant materials like Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) has triggered a rethinking of the building envelope in the building industry towards lightweight systems. ETFE foil cushions have proven to fulfil the design requirements in terms of structural efficiency and aesthetic values. But the strategies to satisfy increasing demands of energy efficiency and comfort conditions are still under development. The prediction and manipulation of the thermo-optical behaviour of ETFE foil cushion structures currently remain as one of the main challenges for designers and manufacturers. This paper reviews ongoing research regarding the control of the thermo-optical performance of ETFE cushion structures and highlights challenges and possible improvements. An overview of different dynamic and responsive environmental control mechanisms for multilayer foil constructions is provided and the state of the art in building application outlined by the discussion of case studies.

  6. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  7. Environmental Radiological Impact of Nuclear Power. Monitoring and Control Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment and public exposure to ionizing radiation may result from releases from programmed or accidental operations in regulated activities, or they may be due to preexisting situations such as contamination caused by past accidents, radioactive rain caused by nuclear tests, or increased natural radioactivity resulting from human activities. In many cases, both the emission sources and the environment should be monitored to determine the risk to the population and verify to what extent the limits and conditions established by competent authorities are being observed. Monitoring can be divided into three categories: monitoring of the emission source, of the receiving medium and of members of the public; individual monitoring of the population is extremely rare and would only be considered when estimated doses substantially exceed the annual public dose limit. In practices likely to produce significant radioactive releases, as is the case of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the limits and conditions for monitoring and controlling them and the requirements for environmental radiological monitoring are established in the licensing process. Programs implemented during normal operation of the facilities form the basis for monitoring in the event of accidents. in addition to environmental radiological monitoring associated with facilities, different countries have monitoring programs outside the facilities zones of influence, in order to ascertain the nationwide radiological fund and determine possible increases in this fund. In Spain, the facilities that generate radioactive waste have effluent storage, treatment and removal systems and radiological monitoring programs based on site and discharge characteristics. The environmental radiological monitoring system is composed of the network implemented by the owners in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities zones of influence, and by nationwide monitoring networks managed by the Consejo de

  8. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  9. Operationele Oceanografie en Rapid Environmental Assessment (Operational Oceanography and Rapid Environmental Assessment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Datum Auteur (s) november 2008 dr. LA. teRaa dr. I.PA. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten Rubricering rappon Vastgesteld door Vastgesteld d.d. I ltd...DenV@tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008A418 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. L.A. te Raa dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten...verdamping. Een oceaanmodel is gebaseerd op wiskundige vergelijkingen die de dynamica en thermodynamica van de oceaan beschrijven. In theorie geven deze

  10. Implications for the inter-organizational design of environmental care when changing environmental control points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Seuring, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we try to bridge the gap between two lines of thought within the environmental care literature. We differentiate between two major clusters in this literature; (1) environmental management and (2) strategic approach to environmental care. Although both approaches focus on the same

  11. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  12. Simple Instrumental and Visual Tests for Nonlaboratory Environmental Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Eksperiandova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed are simple and available techniques that can be used for rapid and reliable environmental control specifically of natural water by means of instrumental and visual tests in outdoor conditions. Developed are the chemical colorimetric modes for fast detection of socially dangerous trace impurities in water such as Co(II, Pd(II, and Rh(III as well as NO2--ions and Fe(III serving as model impurities. Application of portable digital devices and scanner allows estimating the color coordinates and increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the tests. The combination of complex formation with preconcentration of colored complexes replaces the sensitive but time-consuming and capricious kinetic method that is usually used for this purpose at the more convenient and reliable colorimetric method. As the test tools, the following ones are worked out: polyurethane foam tablets with sorbed colored complexes, the two-layer paper sandwich packaged in slide adapter and saturated by reagents, and polyethylene terephthalate blister with dried reagents. Fast analysis of polyurethane foam tablets is realized using a pocket digital RGB-colorimeter or portable photometer. Express analysis of two-layer paper sandwich or polyethylene terephthalate blister is realized by visual and instrumental tests. The metrological characteristics of the developed visual and instrumental express analysis techniques are estimated.

  13. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Bejan, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs

  14. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and... environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). The EA considers the... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato infestations. We are...

  15. A speech-controlled environmental control system for people with severe dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Mark S; Enderby, Pam; Green, Phil; Cunningham, Stuart; Brownsell, Simon; Carmichael, James; Parker, Mark; Hatzis, Athanassios; O'Neill, Peter; Palmer, Rebecca

    2007-06-01

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) can provide a rapid means of controlling electronic assistive technology. Off-the-shelf ASR systems function poorly for users with severe dysarthria because of the increased variability of their articulations. We have developed a limited vocabulary speaker dependent speech recognition application which has greater tolerance to variability of speech, coupled with a computerised training package which assists dysarthric speakers to improve the consistency of their vocalisations and provides more data for recogniser training. These applications, and their implementation as the interface for a speech-controlled environmental control system (ECS), are described. The results of field trials to evaluate the training program and the speech-controlled ECS are presented. The user-training phase increased the recognition rate from 88.5% to 95.4% (p<0.001). Recognition rates were good for people with even the most severe dysarthria in everyday usage in the home (mean word recognition rate 86.9%). Speech-controlled ECS were less accurate (mean task completion accuracy 78.6% versus 94.8%) but were faster to use than switch-scanning systems, even taking into account the need to repeat unsuccessful operations (mean task completion time 7.7s versus 16.9s, p<0.001). It is concluded that a speech-controlled ECS is a viable alternative to switch-scanning systems for some people with severe dysarthria and would lead, in many cases, to more efficient control of the home.

  16. A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

  17. Tactile Digital Video Globes: a New Way to Outreach Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteau, A.; Claustre, H.; Scheurle, C.; Jessin, T.; Fontana, C.

    2016-02-01

    One objective of the "Ocean Autonomous Observation" team of the Laboratory of Oceanography of Villefranche-sur-mer is to develop new means to outreach our science activities to various audiences. Besides the scientific community, this includes students and targets the general public, school pupils, and stakeholders. In this context, we have acquired a digital video globe with tactile capabilities and we will present here the various applications that we have been developing. A first type of products concerns the visualization of oceanic properties (SST, salinity, density, Chla, O2, NO3, irradiance) by diving from the surface (generally from satellite data) into the Ocean interior (through the use of global data bases, Argo, WOA). In second place, specific applications deal with surface animations allowing highlighting the seasonality of some properties (Chla, SST, ice cover, currents; based on satellite as well as modeling outputs). Finally, we show a variety of applications developed using the tactile functionality of the spherical display. In particular real-time vertical profiles acquired by Bio-Argo floats become directly accessible for the entire open ocean. Such a new tool plus its novel applications has been presented to school children, and to the wider public (at the so-called "fête de la science") as well as to potential sponsors of our science-outreach activities. Their feedback has always been highly positive and encouraging in terms of impact. From the scientists point of view, the use of this new support can easily compete with the classical PowerPoint, is much more attractive and fun and undeniably helps to outreach the various aspects of our pluridisciplinary science.

  18. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  19. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  20. Controls on the Environmental Fate of Compounds Controlled by Coupled Hydrologic and Reactive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2017-12-01

    Current understanding of how compounds interact with hydrologic processes or reactive processes have been well established. However, the environmental fate for compounds that interact with hydrologic AND reactive processes is not well known, yet critical in evaluating environmental risk. Evaluations of risk are often simplified to homogenize processes in space and time and to assess processes independently of one another. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reactivities complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and is further complicated by the interaction of these processes, limiting our ability to accurately predict risk. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  1. Pollution control and environmental management measures in NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Modern industrial activities have severely interfered with the natural environment either through deforestation or through discharge of solid and liquid effluents and gaseous emissions. Power generation, though important in achievement economic self-reliance, has interface with the natural surroundings with serious impacts the world over. National Thermal Power Corporation shares the concern for environmental issues for sustainable growth of power sectors and has been incorporating various environmental protection measures in all its business decisions and activities

  2. Government’s Responsibility for Control of Agricultural Environmental Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfang; CHEN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the current situation of agricultural environmental pollution caused by the increase of chemicals input in agriculture in China was analyzed,and it is found that agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies,urban-rural economic structure,funds input in pollution control,comprehensive environmental management,laws of pollution control,and so forth. To control agricultural pollution effectively,it is needed to implement integration of agricultural and environmental policies,establish environmentally friendly agricultural technology popularizing system,implement integrated planning and management of a basin,and set up and improve legislation to protect agricultural environment.

  3. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Silva, R.A. da.

    1986-01-01

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Environmental controls on barium incorporation into planktic foraminifer, Globorotalia truncatulinoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. N.; Reynolds, C. E.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Ba/Ca of planktic foraminifera in marine sediment cores has been used primarily to track changes in riverine input over time, and thus may be a potentially powerful proxy for reconstructing past changes in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. Using Ba/Ca as a proxy for riverine freshwater input requires the assumption that Ba/Ca in foraminiferal calcite reflects the Ba/Ca of seawater, and that the partition coefficient for barium between seawater and foraminiferal calcite is independent of the influence of temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity and light availability. Although it has been shown that this partition coefficient is nearly identical for common species of spinose planktic foraminifera (e.g., Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer), some non-spinose species have been demonstrated to have Ba/Ca ratios that are much higher than that of co-occurring spinose specimens. We investigate environmental controls on Ba/Ca in the tests of Globorotalia truncatulinoides, a planktic species of foraminifera with a unique life history in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). G. truncatulinoides experiences 92% of its annual flux to the sediment trap during winter (JFM) in the GoM. The Mg/Ca and ∂18O of the ontogenetic calcite suggests that primary calcification occurs within the surface mixed layer (0-150 meters), and a thick secondary crust is added at depths below the thermocline. We use LA-ICP-MS to analyze the Ba/Ca of both encrusted and non-encrusted G. truncatulinoides from a sediment trap time series in the GoM and find that the Ba/Ca in ontogenetic calcite of non-encrusted specimens varies between 10 and 200 mmol/mol, while the Ba/Ca of the secondary crust varies between 0 and 3 mmol/mol. The Ba/Ca of the non-encrusted G. truncatulinoides specimens is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of co-occurring spinose planktic foraminifera (O. universa and G. ruber) in the GoM sediment trap, while the secondary crust has Ba/Ca similar to

  5. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)

  6. A Retrospective Self-Assessment of the SURFO Summer Internship Program in Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next

  7. Utilizing social media for informal ocean conservation and education: The BioOceanography Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, J.

    2016-02-01

    Science communication through the use of social media is a rapidly evolving and growing pursuit in academic and scientific circles. Online tools and social media are being used in not only scientific communication but also scientific publication, education, and outreach. Standards and usage of social media as well as other online tools for communication, networking, outreach, and publication are always in development. Caution and a conservative attitude towards these novel "Science 2.0" tools is understandable because of their rapidly changing nature and the lack of professional standards for using them. However there are some key benefits and unique ways social media, online systems, and other Open or Open Source technologies, software, and "Science 2.0" tools can be utilized for academic purposes such as education and outreach. Diverse efforts for ocean conservation and education will continue to utilize social media for a variety of purposes. The BioOceanography project is an informal communication, education, outreach, and conservation initiative created for enhancing knowledge related to Oceanography and Marine Science with an unbiased yet conservation-minded approach and in an Open Source format. The BioOceanography project is ongoing and still evolving, but has already contributed to ocean education and conservation communication in key ways through a concerted web presence since 2013, including a curated Twitter account @_Oceanography and BioOceanography blog style website. Social media tools like those used in this project, if used properly can be highly effective and valuable for encouraging students, networking with researchers, and educating the general public in Oceanography.

  8. Strategies for Assessing Learning Outcomes in an Online Oceanography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students

  9. Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. By Emery, W.J. and Thomson, R.E.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    . 729-730 September 1999 Book Reviews DATA ANALYSIS METHODS IN PHYSICAL O~EAN~GRAFWY. By Wil- liam J. Emery and Richard E. Thomson. PERGAMON Else&r Sci- ence. 1998. 400 p. U.S. $112 / NLG 177.00. The book Data Analysis Methods in Physical... Oceanography pro- vides a comprehensive and practical compilation of the essential information and analysis techniques required for the advanced processing and interpretation of digital spat&temporal data in physical oceanography, as well as in other...

  10. Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. By Emery, W.J. and Thomson, R.E.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    in Physical Oceanography. Page 1 of 1 file://C:\\My Documents\\articles30.htm 2/11/05 William J. Emery and Richard E. Thomson. Pergamon Elsevier Science. 1998. hardbound. 400 pp. ISBN: 0-08-031434-1. Price: US$ 112/NLG 177.00 This book provides a comprehensive... and practical compilation of the essential information and analysis techniques required for the advanced processing and interpretation of digital spatio-temporal data in physical oceanography, as well as in other branches of the geophysical sciences. The book...

  11. Shedding Light on the Sea: André Morel's Legacy to Optical Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  12. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  13. Cutting edge SRU control : improved environmental compliance with Jacobs advanced burner control+ (ABC+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, G. [Jacobs Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Henning, A.; Kobussen, S. [Jacobs Nederland BV, Hoogvliet (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands bitumen contains approximately 4 to 5 per cent sulphur by weight and the bitumen is upgraded to produce lighter fractions. During coking the bitumen is heated and cracked into lighter molecules and a mixture of kerosene, naphtha and gas oil is recovered via fractionation. Then, the vapors leaving the fractionator are processed through hydrodesulphurization, followed by removal by amine based sweetening units. The acid gas from the ASUs is sent to the sulphur recovery units (SRUs) where most of the sulphur is recovered as elemental sulphur. The oil sands industry faces many challenges with respect to environmental impact, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions including the recovery of sulphur and minimizing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the oil sands production facilities. In order to improve the SRU control response to acid gas feed variations, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions implemented advanced burner control+ (ABC+) at Suncor's Simonette Gas Plant's SRU in northern Alberta. This control system used an acid gas feed analyzer and dynamic algorithms to control the combustion air to the reaction furnace. The analyzer measures H{sub 2}S, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) accurately and quickly, which is important for having effective and fast air-to-acid gas ratio control. The paper provided background information on the Suncor Simonette Gas Plant and discussed ABC+ versus conventional control. An overview of the simplified ABC and ABC+ systems was then illustrated and presented. The ABB multiwave process photometer was also explained. Last, a dynamic simulation of the potential benefits of ABC+ was discussed and the ABC+ benefits for oil sands were presented. It was concluded that ABC+ provides improved SRU performance, reduced SO{sub 2} emissions and violations, and reduced flaring. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  15. Effluent controls and environmental monitoring programs for uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Controls will reduce gaseous, particulate, and liquid discharges. Monitoring programs are used to determine effectiveness. The controls and programs discussed are used at Cotter Corporation's Canon City Mill in Colorado. 3 refs

  16. Overview: Applicability of U.S. environmental control technologies for Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S.W. [DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the applicability of US environmental control technologies for Korea is presented in outline form. The following topics are discussed: PETC coal research activities, environmental costs, environmental challenges, Clean Air Act requirements, additional regulations for air toxics, clean coal technologies (CCT) approach, CCT help meet environmental challenges, utility options, research goals for advanced power systems, PETC Programs, the NO{sub x} SO process, flue gas cleanup program, air toxics emissions, and retrofit NO{sub x} control for coal-burning boilers.

  17. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  18. Environmental control of Tinto and Odiel river basins by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Lopez-Tarrida, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the elemental concentrations of sediments of the rivers Tinto and Odiel, in Huelva, Spain, has been performed using PIXE. Thirteen samples have been collected, seven in the Tinto and six in the Odiel. Concentrations of 19 elements have been determined in each of them. The analysis of the data illustrates the environmental impact of the mining and fertilizer plants in the area. (orig.)

  19. Research and Teaching: Implementation of Interactive Engagement Teaching Methods in a Physical Oceanography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…

  20. Short Training Course in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course in oceanography intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates in physics, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, botany or geology to give them the minimum qualifications required to work in any of the marine science stations. This 14-week course, organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and…

  1. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauro, Frederico; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Cullen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Microbial Oceanography has long been an extremely expensive discipline, requiring ship time for sample collection and thereby economically constraining the number of samples collected. This is especially true for under-sampled water bodies such as the Indian Ocean. Specialised scientific equipmen...

  2. Syllabus for an Associate Degree Program in Applied Marine Biology and Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tapan

    Included is a detailed outline of the content of each course required or offered as an elective in the associate degree program. With an 18 or 19 unit load each semester the program requires two years, and includes 64 hours at sea every semester. In addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and oceanography courses, there is a required course in…

  3. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. The objective of the GISC development project is to support these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs

  4. Zeolites as catalyzer to environmental control. Nitric oxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, C.; Zapata N, M; Villa H, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Zeolites and the microporous materials related to them are a class of environmental catalysts, it which are used to remove the produced gases in combustion process (as mobile sources). In this work the importance that has catalysis for environment improvement is emphasized. A review of recent progress in the use of certain zeolitic material as catalysts for nitric oxide elimination of combustion systems is presented. More used nitric oxide removal methods are presented, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, it is emphasized on the need of accomplishing more investigation projects on the development of an active catalyst for the decomposition of the nitric oxide in its elements (N and O)

  5. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  6. Digital Environmental Governance in China: Information Disclosure, Pollution Control, and Environmental Activism in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese water bureaucracy increasingly utilises information and communications technology (ICT in order to strengthen interaction with the population, which is severely affected by industrial pollution. Government webpages, mailboxes, and online interviews with officers have become prevalent tools for environmental governance, including information disclosure, and a virtual communication forum between the state and its citizens. The present study employs a mixed methods approach with a qualitative emphasis to explore the process of communication and interaction between government agencies and local residents in Dongying, Shandong Province. The results show that information disclosure of pollution data remains far from being transparent, despite the fact that the local government has implemented digital environmental governance, as encouraged by the central Chinese state. Internet technologies empower resource-poor environmental activists in Dongying to strengthen their social network and build communication with the authorities. The application of bureaucratic techniques, however, is key for them to enter the communication interface with government agencies in order to influence political decisions. Results suggest that local cadres tend to send mixed signals to activists and display wariness towards them. They also tend to take preventive measures to keep the situation under control when environmental disputes arise. The proposed communication interface approach sheds a clearer light on the complexity among the emergent ICTs, environmental activism, and digital governance.

  7. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  8. Proceedings of a workshop on physical oceanography related to the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    At this workshop a group of expert scientists: (1) assessed the current state of knowledge with regard to the physical oceanographic questions that must be answered generally if high level nuclear waste is to be disposed of on or under the seabed; (2) discussed physical oceanographic science necessarily related to the US Subseabed Disposal Program; (3) recommended necessary research; and (4) identified other ongoing programs with which important liaisons should be made and continued. This report is a collection of workshop presentations, and recommendations, and a synthesis of topical group recommendations into a unified statement of research needs. The US Seabed Disposal Program is described. The goal is to assess the technical, environmental and engineering feasibility of seabed disposal. The environmental studies program will assess possible ecosystem and health effects from radionuclides which may be released due to accidental leakage. Discussion on the following topics are also included: bottom boundary layer; mixing across isopycnal surfaces; circulation modeling; mesoscale dispersion; deep circulation of the Pacific Ocean; vertical transport at edges; instrumentation; chemical oceanography; plutonium distribution in the Pacific; biology report; chemical dumping report; and low-level waste report

  9. Environmental controls on multiscale spatial patterns of salt marsh vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    In coastal environments, biogeographic patterns are generally influenced by surface elevation and horizontal distance from sea water. However, it is still unclear whether these major topographic factors are significant controls of vegetation patterns across spatial scales at which different physi...

  10. Analytical quality control in studies of environmental exposure to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Prosenc, N.; Smerke, J.; Horvat, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work of the laboratory for quality control in this co-ordinated project for the period from November 1993 to June 1994 is presented. The major effort was devoted to assisting in establishing the homogeneity and total methylmercury levels in two new hair reference materials prepared as control materials for the project, numbered 085 (spiked) and 086 (natural level). Results for some hair materials from participants are also given. (author)

  11. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid... beetle from the western United States, into the eastern United States for use as a biological control...

  12. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY..., into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) infestations. HWA, an...

  13. Tsunami 2004 and the biological oceanography of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Rahman, H.; Karuppasamy, P.K.; Nair, K.K.C.

    in the fishery causing public alarm. Marine Biologists are faced with environmental crisis of new complexity, properties and consequences which are to be closely monitored. PROC. NATIONAL COMMEMORATIVE CONFERENCE ON TSUNAMI. MADURAl. - 28-29, DEC, 2006 23 Fig. 1...

  14. Smart City Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Design Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Bohong, Zheng; Qinpei, Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Due to increasingly serious urban pollution, this paper proposes an environmental pollution prevention and control system in combination with Internet of things. The system transfers data through the Internet, which also utilizes sensor, pH sensor and smoke sensor to obtain environmental data. Besides, combined with the video data acquired through monitoring, the data are transferred to data center to analyze the haze pollution, water pollution and fire disaster in environment. According to the results, multi-purpose vehicles are mobilized to complete the tasks such as spraying water to relieve haze, water source purification and fire fighting in city environment. Experiments show that the environmental pollution prevention and control system designed in this paper can automatically complete the urban environmental pollution detection, prevention and control, which thus reduces human and material resources and improves the efficiency of pollution prevention and control. Therefore, it possesses greatly practical significance to the construction of smart city.

  15. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  16. Predictive control techniques for energy and indoor environmental quality management in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 3, Romanou str., 73133, Hania, Crete (Greece); Pouliezos, A. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece); Stavrakakis, G.; Lazos, C. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present paper is to present a model-based predictive controller, combined with a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). The overall system predicts the indoor environmental conditions of a specific building and selects the most appropriate actions so as to reach the set points and contribute to the indoor environmental quality by minimizing energy costs. The controller is tested using a BEMS installation in Hania, Crete, Greece. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  18. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods

  19. Environmental control and waste management system design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Passive device contains both solid and liquid animal waste matter for extended period without being cleaned and without contaminating animal. Constant airflow dries solid waste and evaporates liquid matter. Technique will maintain controlled atmospheric conditions and cage cleanliness during periods of 6 months to 1 year.

  20. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  2. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  3. Pollution control through innovation and technological development. Environmental policy concepts of the BDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, E

    1987-02-01

    Increasing acceptance of pollution control tasks call for enhanced innovative power both of industry and politics. One pre-requisite of boosting innovation is an environmental policy concept fit into the framework of the economic policy: A clear environmental strategy stating priorities and foreseeable, fixed data for the required adjustment of industry, selection of pollution control measures by means of verifiable cost-benefit analyses in cooperation with industry, embedding environmental policy in the context of the free market system and harmonization of means and methods on an international level. (orig./HSCH).

  4. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  5. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  6. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  7. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Lareau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can be significantly higher than the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in northern California, the Bald Fire and the Rocky Fire. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualize the lidar and radar observations, and enable estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A noteworthy finding is that in these cases, the convective condensation level, not the lifted condensation level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  8. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  10. Fiscal federalism approach for controlling global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is found that optimal international carbon taxes are country specific and we can decompose a tax on a domestically produced carbon-intensive commodity into a revenue tax, a tax to control local atmospheric pollution and an international carbon tax. It shows that an institutional arrangement for the world economy similar to the fiscal federalism in the federal countries can be useful to internalize the global externalities of atmospheric pollution. 18 refs

  11. An optical brain computer interface for environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Bunce, Scott; Onaral, Banu

    2011-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system that translates neurophysiological signals detected from the brain to supply input to a computer or to control a device. Volitional control of neural activity and its real-time detection through neuroimaging modalities are key constituents of BCI systems. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new BCI design that utilizes intention-related cognitive activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using functional near infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy. fNIR is a noninvasive, safe, portable and affordable optical technique with which to monitor hemodynamic changes, in the brain's cerebral cortex. Because of its portability and ease of use, fNIR is amenable to deployment in ecologically valid natural working environments. We integrated a control paradigm in a computerized 3D virtual environment to augment interactivity. Ten healthy participants volunteered for a two day study in which they navigated a virtual environment with keyboard inputs, but were required to use the fNIR-BCI for interaction with virtual objects. Results showed that participants consistently utilized the fNIR-BCI with an overall success rate of 84% and volitionally increased their cerebral oxygenation level to trigger actions within the virtual environment.

  12. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks, such as the cleanup of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. In addition, hazardous operations, which in the past have been completed by technicians, are under scrutiny because of the high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Traditional remote operations have, unfortunately, proven to also have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. However, recent advances in the integration of sensors and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment has shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems by providing faster and safer remote systems. The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the generic intelligent system controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. The GISC employs a highly modular architecture employing distributed real-time computing resources for speed and efficiency of computation. Currently, the graphics interface of GISC has been implemented on a Unix-based Silicon Graphics computer using commercial animation graphics software modified for real-time updating from sensory systems. A first implementation of GISC has been completed and is currently in use at Hanford, Washington, as part of the underground storage tank robotics technology development program

  13. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Srivastava, R.C.; Ghorai, A.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield

  15. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Srivastava, R C [Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR), Bhubaneswar (India); Ghorai, A K [CRIJAF (ICAR), Barrackpore, West Bengal (India); Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India)

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield.

  16. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  17. Design and quality control of an environmental data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FANJIRINDRATOVO, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the design of a microcontroller based measurement system and the control quality to validate it. So, a mobile instrument called DALENPA was designed to measure and log the following data: atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air dose rate, geographical coordinates by an embedded GPS receiver. The instrument is autonomous in energy by solar panel and can be connected to a PC directly or by modem. After, the quality control is based on the calibartion in a secondary laboratory. The target is to get its calibration curve and the estimation of global uncertainties. This estimation wants to include all sources of uncertainty belonging to the instrument and the secondary laboratory, and follows the method estabilished by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The calibration curve is fitted by the least squares method with uncertainties in the two variables. We got an efficient instrument with uncertainties under the limits estabilished by the regulating standards [fr

  18. Cooperative Control of Mobile Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring: An Event-Triggered Finite-Time Control Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Han, Qing-Long; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongliang; Liu, Shirong

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of environmental monitoring by developing an event-triggered finite-time control scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed control scheme can be executed by each sensor node independently and consists of two parts: one part is a finite-time consensus algorithm while the other part is an event-triggered rule. The consensus algorithm is employed to enable the positions and velocities of sensor nodes to quickly track the position and velocity of a virtual leader in finite time. The event-triggered rule is used to reduce the updating frequency of controllers in order to save the computational resources of sensor nodes. Some stability conditions are derived for mobile sensor networks with the proposed control scheme under both a fixed communication topology and a switching communication topology. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for the problem of environmental monitoring.

  19. Assessing environmental DNA detection in controlled lentic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Gregory R; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hill, Jeffrey E; Shea, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling strategies for rare species. The certainty of species detection relies on understanding false positive and false negative error rates. We used artificial ponds together with logistic regression models to assess the detection of African jewelfish eDNA at varying fish densities (0, 0.32, 1.75, and 5.25 fish/m3). Our objectives were to determine the most effective water stratum for eDNA detection, estimate true and false positive eDNA detection rates, and assess the number of water samples necessary to minimize the risk of false negatives. There were 28 eDNA detections in 324, 1-L, water samples collected from four experimental ponds. The best-approximating model indicated that the per-L-sample probability of eDNA detection was 4.86 times more likely for every 2.53 fish/m3 (1 SD) increase in fish density and 1.67 times less likely for every 1.02 C (1 SD) increase in water temperature. The best section of the water column to detect eDNA was the surface and to a lesser extent the bottom. Although no false positives were detected, the estimated likely number of false positives in samples from ponds that contained fish averaged 3.62. At high densities of African jewelfish, 3-5 L of water provided a >95% probability for the presence/absence of its eDNA. Conversely, at moderate and low densities, the number of water samples necessary to achieve a >95% probability of eDNA detection approximated 42-73 and >100 L, respectively. Potential biases associated with incomplete detection of eDNA could be alleviated via formal estimation of eDNA detection probabilities under an occupancy modeling framework; alternatively, the filtration of hundreds of liters of water may be required to achieve a high (e.g., 95%) level of certainty that African jewelfish eDNA will be detected at low densities (i.e., <0.32 fish/m3 or 1.75 g/m3).

  20. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  1. Trade off between costs and environmental effects of weed control on pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Horst, van der C.L.M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Leemans, K.J.M.; Bannink, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    An actor-participative project on sustainable weed control on pavements was started in 2000 in the Netherlands. The aim of the project was to develop a new concept of weed management that provides cost-effective and environmentally sound weed control. Early in 2002, practical guidelines were drawn

  2. The control and prevention of seizures in children, a developmental and environmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of neurophysiological and developmental factors in controlling and preventing seizure mechanisms is detailed. It is shown that as cortical control advances with maturation, it requires increasingly severe environmental adversity to release this residual defensive reflex mechanism. Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is discouraged because of possible undesirable neuronal effects on the very young brain.

  3. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO 2 control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  4. Environmental control technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the research, development, and demonstration of emerging energy technologies and the promotion of energy conservation. An integral and significant part of that responsibility includes the balancing of energy goals with environmental requirements to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation. This requires that environmental effects be considered and mitigating measures be taken in all energy processes through incorporation of environmental and safety controls which are developed as an integral part of energy system design. This inventory of environmental control technology activities was initiated by the Administrator, ERDA, prior to the incorporation of that administration within the Department of Energy. This compilation of total Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) environmental control technology activities, and associated funding, related to environmental control technology identifies the resources committed by ERDA to demonstrate its objective to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of energy systems. Only ERDA research, development, and demonstration activities are covered in this report. The compilation for FY 1978 will encompass all of the DOE activities

  5. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  6. Environmental forcing, invasion and control of ecological and epidemiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, J V; Norman, R A

    2007-08-07

    Destabilising a biological system through periodic or stochastic forcing can lead to significant changes in system behaviour. Forcing can bring about coexistence when previously there was exclusion; it can excite massive system response through resonance, it can offset the negative effect of apparent competition and it can change the conditions under which the system can be invaded. Our main focus is on the invasion properties of continuous time models under periodic forcing. We show that invasion is highly sensitive to the strength, period, phase, shape and configuration of the forcing components. This complexity can be of great advantage if some of the forcing components are anthropogenic in origin. They can be turned into instruments of control to achieve specific objectives in ecology and disease management, for example. Culling, vaccination and resource regulation are considered. A general analysis is presented, based on the leading Lyapunov exponent criterion for invasion. For unstructured invaders, a formula for this exponent can typically be written down from the model equations. Whether forcing hinders or encourages invasion depends on two factors: the covariances between invader parameters and resident populations and the shifts in average resident population levels brought about by the forcing. The invasion dynamics of a structured invader are much more complicated but an analytic solution can be obtained in quadratic approximation for moderate forcing strength. The general theory is illustrated by a range of models drawn from ecology and epidemiology. The relationship between periodic and stochastic forcing is also considered.

  7. The Connection between Environmental Attitude-Behavior Gap and Other Individual Inconsistencies: A Call for Strengthening Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Ignacio; Puelles, María

    2017-01-01

    What is going on with environmental education, which is currently unable to promote pro-environmental behaviors as effectively as it promotes pro-environmental attitudes? A tentative answer is that the environmental attitude-behavior gap observed in some individuals is just one manifestation of their lack of self-control for maintaining…

  8. The Pale Blue Dot: Utilizing Real World Globes in High School and Undergraduate Oceanography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience classrooms have benefitted greatly from the use of interactive, dry-erasable globes to supplement instruction on topics that require three-dimensional visualization, such as seismic wave propagation and the large-scale movements of tectonic plates. Indeed, research by Bamford (2013) demonstrates that using three-dimensional visualization to illustrate complex processes enhances student comprehension. While some geoscience courses tend to bake-in lessons on visualization, other disciplines of earth science that require three-dimensional visualization, such as oceanography, tend to rely on students' prior spatial abilities. In addition to spatial intelligence, education on the three-dimensional structure of the ocean requires knowledge of the external processes govern the behavior of the ocean, as well as the vertical and lateral distribution of water properties around the globe. Presented here are two oceanographic activities that utilize RealWorldGlobes' dry-erase globes to supplement traditional oceanography lessons on thermohaline and surface ocean circulation. While simultaneously promoting basic plotting techniques, mathematical calculations, and unit conversions, these activities touch on the processes that govern global ocean circulation, the principles of radiocarbon dating, and the various patterns exhibited by surface ocean currents. These activities challenge students to recognize inherent patterns within their data and synthesize explanations for their occurrence. Spatial visualization and critical thinking are integral to any geoscience education, and the combination of these abilities with engaging hands-on activities has the potential to greatly enhance oceanography education in both secondary and postsecondary settings

  9. Cost-effectiveness of environmental management for vector control in resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, R

    1991-01-01

    Vector control methods are traditionally divided in chemical, biological and environmental management approaches, and this distinction also reflected in certain financial and economic aspects. This is particularly true for environmental modification, usually engineering or other structural works. It is highly capital intensive, as opposed to chemical and biological control which require recurrent expenditures, and discount rates are therefore a prominent consideration in deciding for one or the other approach. Environmental manipulation requires recurrent action, but can often be carried out with the community participation, which raises the issue of opportunity costs. The incorporation of environmental management in resource projects is generally impeded by economic considerations. The Internal Rate of Return continues to be a crucial criterion for funding agencies and development banks to support new projects; at the same time Governments of debt-riden countries in the Third World will do their best to avoid additional loans on such frills as environmental and health safeguards. Two approaches can be recommended to nevertheless ensure the incorporation of environmental management measures in resource projects in an affordable way. First, there are several examples of cases where environmental management measures either have a dual benefit (increasing both agricultural production and reducing vector-borne disease transmission) or can be implemented at zero costs. Second, the additional costs involved in structural modifications can be separated from the project development costs considered in the calculations of the Internal Rate of Return, and financial support can be sought from bilateral technical cooperation agencies particularly interested in environmental and health issues. There is a dearth of information in the cost-effectiveness of alternative vector control strategies in the developing country context. The process of integrating vector control in the

  10. Vehicle navigation in populated areas using predictive control with environmental uncertainty handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of navigating an autonomous vehicle using environmental dynamics prediction. The usefulness of the Game Against Nature formalism adapted to modelling environmental prediction uncertainty is discussed. The possibility of the control law synthesis on the basis of strategies against Nature is presented. The properties and effectiveness of the approach presented are verified by simulations carried out in MATLAB.

  11. Advance Planning, Programming and Production Control as key Activities Now the Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the evolution of Planning, Programming and Control of Production (PPCP as essential activities of the company towards the insertion of environmental education. The approach is based on an exploratory research and a critical bibliographic revision. Two main objectives were established: i a new way of production organization, by considering cleaner production from company utilities to production capacity, technology and outsourcing and ii infrastructure changes related to market attendance and environmental education dissemination. Needs that arise can be grouped as follows: utilities adequacy, cleaner technologies and ecochains implementation; instruction and dissemination of environmental education; and necessity of the adoption of new paradigms.

  12. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  13. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the waste management and related environmental controls applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia is described. Major uranium deposits occur in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, a world heritage tropical wetland area with deep significance to Aboriginal people. The formulation of environmental controls took into consideration the unique features of the region in addition to experiences from earlier uranium mining operations. A description is given of the operations at Rum Jungle, the pollutants released and their effects on the environment. Commonwealth and State responsibilities for waste management and environmental control and the establishment of Codes of Practice are noted and proposed water management and tailings management programs at the four Alligator Rivers sites are described

  14. Computer-controlled environmental test systems - Criteria for selection, installation, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Applications for presently marketed, new computer-controlled environmental test systems are suggested. It is shown that capital costs of these systems follow an exponential cost function curve that levels out as additional applications are implemented. Some test laboratory organization changes are recommended in terms of new personnel requirements, and facility modification are considered in support of a computer-controlled test system. Software for computer-controlled test systems are discussed, and control loop speed constraints are defined for real-time control functions. Suitable input and output devices and memory storage device tradeoffs are also considered.

  15. Effects of environmental factors on child survival in Bangladesh: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, J T; Chowdhury, U K; Ali, M; el Arifeen, S; Sack, R B

    1999-03-01

    The need for further studies on relationships between deaths and environmental variables has been reported in the literature. This case-control study was, therefore, carried out to find out the associations between several social and environmental variables and deaths of children due to infectious diseases such as those leading to diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, measles and other diseases. Six hundred and twenty-five deaths (cases) and an equal number of matched living children (controls) aged 1-59 months, were studied in rural Matlab. An analysis of crude and adjusted odds ratio showed differential associations. Sources of drinking water, amount of stored water, conditions of latrines, number of persons sleeping with the child and the type of cooking site were statistically significantly associated with deaths due to infectious diseases after controlling for breast feeding, immunization, and the family size. Significant associations were also observed between: (i) the sources of drinking water and deaths due to ARI, and (ii) conditions of latrines and deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases, after controlling for the confounding variables. Several other environmental factors also showed associations with these various death groups, but they were not statistically significant. The size of the samples in death groups (small) and the prevalence of more or less homogeneous environmental health conditions probably diminished the magnitude of the effects. The results of the study reconfirm the importance of environmental health intervention in child survival, irrespective of breast-feeding, immunization, and selected social variables.

  16. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferman, S.L. (ed.)

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  17. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  18. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  19. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  20. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  1. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  2. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although controlled traffic farming (CTF is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG, conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser use efficiency. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the European Commission Soil Framework Directive, the choice of and the weighting of the impact of each of the environmental benefits were made. The framework was validated using data from three selected farms. For Colworth farm (Unilever, UK, the framework predicted the largest overall environmental benefit of 59.3% of the theoretically maximum achievable benefits (100%, as compared to the other two farms in Scotland (52% and Australia (47.3%. This overall benefit could be broken down into: reducing soil compaction (24%, tillage energy requirement (10% and GHG emissions (3%, enhancing soil biodiversity (7% and erosion control (6%, conserving organic matter (6%, and improving fertiliser use efficiency (3%. Similar evaluation can be performed for any farm worldwide, providing that data on soil properties, topography, machinery, and weather are available.

  3. Environmental control and control of the environment: the basis of longevity in bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Doris; Philipp, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Longevity and ageing are two sides of a coin, leaving the question open as to which one is the cause and which one the effect. At the individual level, the physiological rate of ageing determines the length of life (= individual longevity, as long as death results from old age and not from disease or other impacts). Individual longevity depends on the direct influence of environmental conditions with respect to nutrition, and the possibility for and timing of reproduction, as well as on the energetic costs animals invest in behavioural and physiological stress defence. All these environmental effectors influence hormonal and cellular signalling pathways that modify the individual physiological condition, the reproductive strategy, and the rate of ageing. At the species level, longevity (= maximum lifespan) is the result of an evolutionary process and, thus, largely determined by the species' behavioural and physiological adaptations to its ecological niche. Specifically, reproductive and breeding strategies have to be optimized in relation to local environmental conditions in different habitats. As a result of adaptive and evolutionary processes, species longevity is genetically underpinned, not necessarily by a few ageing genes, but by an evolutionary process that has hierarchically shaped and optimized species genomes to function in a specific niche or environmental system. Importantly, investigations and reviews attempting to unravel the mechanistic basis of the ageing process need to differentiate clearly between the evolutionary process shaping longevity at the species level and the regulatory mechanisms that alter the individual rate of ageing. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  5. From Proposal Writing to Data Collection to Presentation: Physical Oceanography Laboratory Class Students Explore the Fundamentals of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsman, M. C.; Church, I.; Haydel, J.; Martin, K. M.; Shiller, A. M.; Wallace, D. J.; Blancher, J.; Foltz, A.; Griffis, A. M.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Kincketootle, A.; Pierce, E.; Young, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    To better prepare first-year Department of Marine Science MSc students of the University of Southern Mississippi for their science careers, we plan to execute a semester-long Physical Oceanography laboratory class that exposes the enrolled students to all aspects of interdisciplinary research: writing a proposal, planning a cruise, collecting and analyzing data, and presenting their results. Although some of these aspects may be taught in any such class, the incorporation of all these aspects makes this class unique.The fieldwork will be conducted by boat in the Rigolets in Louisiana, a 13-km long tidal strait up to 1 km wide connecting the Mississippi Sound with Lake Pontchartrain. The students have the opportunity to collect ADCP, CTD, multibeam sonar, sediment and water samples.A second novel characteristic of this class is that the instructor partnered with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation, a not for profit environmental advocacy group. The foundation will give an hour-long seminar on the natural history of the study area and its environmental problems. This information provides context for the students' research proposals and allows them to formulate research questions and hypotheses that connect their research objectives to societally relevant issues, such as coastal erosion, salt water intrusion, and water quality. The proposal writing and cruise planning is done in the first month of the 3.5-month long semester. In the second month two surveys are conducted. The remainder of the semester is spent on analysis and reporting. Whenever possible we teach Matlab for the students to use in their data analysis. In this presentation, we will report on the successes and difficulties associated with teaching such a multi-faceted class.

  6. Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included

  7. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  10. Impact of cruise control on traffic safety, energy consumption and environmental pollution : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Brouwer, R.F.T.; Malone, K.; Klunder, G.; et al

    2006-01-01

    In this subproject, the impact of Cruise Control (CC) was analysed with respect to traffic safety, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. In order to work on this topic from a European perspective, a team of European experts in the fields of driver assistance systems, human factors,

  11. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. W. Donnelly

    2001-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's industrial hygiene field services facility, located in the 100-N Area. The facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  12. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  13. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  14. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  15. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  16. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  17. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  18. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  19. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobweb disease of button mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepnović Miloš; Milijašević-Marčić Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Nikolić-Bujanović Ljiljana; Čekerevac Milan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield), effectiveness (disease control) ...

  20. Oceanography at coastal scales: Introduction to the special issue on results from the EU FP7 FIELD_AC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Wolf, Judith; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2014-09-01

    The high-resolution and coupled forecasting of wind, waves and currents, in restricted coastal domains, offer a number of important challenges; these limit the quality of predictions, in the present state-of-the-art. This paper presents the main results obtained for such coastal domains, with reference to a variety of modelling suites and observing networks for: a) Liverpool Bay; b) German Bight; c) Gulf of Venice; and d) the Catalan coast. All of these areas are restricted domains, where boundary effects play a significant role in the resulting inner dynamics. This contribution addresses also the themes of the other papers in this Special Issue, ranging from observations to simulations. Emphasis is placed upon the physics controlling such restricted areas. The text deals also with the transfer to end-users and other interested parties, since the requirements on resolution, accuracy and robustness must be linked to their applications. Finally, some remarks are included on the way forward for coastal oceanography and the synergetic combination of in-situ and remote measurements, with high-resolution 3D simulations.

  1. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data set with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained

  2. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  3. Financial and environmental costs of manual versus automated control of end-tidal gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S; Weinberg, L; Peyton, P; Story, D; Briedis, J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies that reduce the economic and environmental costs of anaesthesia have had limited assessment. We hypothesised that automated control of end-tidal gases, a new feature in anaesthesia machines, will consistently reduce volatile agent consumption cost and greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the planned replacement of anaesthesia machines in a tertiary hospital, we performed a prospective before and after study comparing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane when using manual versus automated control of end-tidal gases. We analysed 3675 general anaesthesia cases with inhalational agents: 1865 using manual control and 1810 using automated control. Volatile agent cost was $18.87/hour using manual control and $13.82/hour using automated control: mean decrease $5.05/hour (95% confidence interval: $0.88-9.22/hour, P=0.0243). The 100-year global warming potential decreased from 23.2 kg/hour of carbon dioxide equivalents to 13.0 kg/hour: mean decrease 10.2 kg/hour (95% confidence interval: 2.7-17.7 kg/hour, P=0.0179). Automated control reduced costs by 27%. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 44%, a greater than expected decrease facilitated by a proportional reduction in desflurane use. Automated control of end-tidal gases increases participation in low flow anaesthesia with economic and environmental benefits.

  4. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: Seagoing Oceanography for Middle School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, D.; Foley, S.; Knox, R. A.; Mauricio, P.

    2007-12-01

    Now in its fourth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with National Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Naval Research (ONR), National Science Foundation (NSF), San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum encourages active inquiry with intellectually stimulating problem-solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role- models. Recent science test scores with IFRR students have shown significant increases in classes where this curriculum has been implemented as compared to other classes where the traditional curriculum has been used. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens - a benefit for a country that depends

  5. Requirements for quality control of analytical data for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was established for the investigation and remediation of inactive US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities that have been declared surplus in terms of their previous uses. The purpose of this document is to Specify ER requirements for quality control (QC) of analytical data. Activities throughout all phases of the investigation may affect the quality of the final data product, thus are subject to control specifications. Laboratory control is emphasized in this document, and field concerns will be addressed in a companion document Energy Systems, in its role of technical coordinator and at the request of DOE-OR, extends the application of these requirements to all participants in ER activities. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, participants are encouraged to discuss any questions with the ER Quality Assurance (QA) Office, the Analytical Environmental Support Group (AESG), or the Analytical Project Office (APO)

  6. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  8. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Environmental control and electrical power system performance models requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Software design specifications for developing environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and electrical power system (EPS) programs into interactive computer programs are presented. Specifications for the ECLSS program are at the detail design level with respect to modification of an existing batch mode program. The FORTRAN environmental analysis routines (FEAR) are the subject batch mode program. The characteristics of the FEAR program are included for use in modifying batch mode programs to form interactive programs. The EPS program specifications are at the preliminary design level. Emphasis is on top-down structuring in the development of an interactive program.

  9. National Spill Control School. A pilot program in environmental training. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.

  10. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures.

  11. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  12. Temporal Variability of Canopy Light Use Efficiency and its Environmental Controls in a Subtropical Mangrove Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove wetlands play an important role in global carbon cycle due to their strong carbon sequestration resulting from high plant carbon assimilation and low soil respiration. However, temporal variability of carbon sequestration in mangrove wetlands is less understood since carbon processes of mangrove wetlands are influenced by many complicated and concurrent environmental controls including tidal activities, site climate and soil conditions. Canopy light use efficiency (LUE), is the most important plant physiological parameter that can be used to describe the temporal dynamics of canopy photosynthesis, and therefore a better characterization of temporal variability of canopy LUE will improve our understanding in mangrove photosynthesis and carbon balance. One of our aims is to study the temporal variability of canopy LUE and its environmental controls in a subtropical mangrove wetland. Half-hourly canopy LUE is derived from eddy covariance (EC) carbon flux and photosynthesis active radiation observations, and half-hourly environmental controls we measure include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, tidal height, salinity, etc. Another aim is to explore the links between canopy LUE and spectral indices derived from near-surface tower-based remote sensing (normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, photochemical reflectance index, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, etc.), and then identify potential quantitative relationships for developing remote sensing-based estimation methods of canopy LUE. At present, some instruments in our in-situ observation system have not yet been installed (planned in next months) and therefore we don't have enough measurements to support our analysis. However, a preliminary analysis of our historical EC and climate observations in past several years indicates that canopy LUE shows strong temporal variability and is greatly affected by environmental factors such as tidal activity. Detailed and

  13. The Central Role of the Mississippi River and its Delta in the Oceanography, Ecology and Economy of the Gulf of Mexico: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Chu, P. Y.; Taylor, C.; Roberts, B. J.; Renfro, A. A.; Peyronnin, N.; Fitzpatrick, C.

    2017-12-01

    While it has long been recognized that the Mississippi River is the largest source of freshwater, nutrients and sediments to the Gulf of Mexico, many questions remain unanswered about the impacts of the material on oceanography of the system. Here we report on the results of a regional synthesis study that examined how the Mississippi River and its delta influence the oceanography, ecology and the economy of the Gulf of Mexico. By employing a series of expert-opinion working groups, and using multi-dimensional numerical physical oceanographic models coupled to in-situ environmental data, this project is working to quantify how variability in discharge, meteorological forcings, and seasonal conditions influence the spatial distribution of the Mississippi River plume and its influence. Results collected to date indicate that the dimensions of the river plume are closely coupled to discharge, but in a non-linear fashion, that incorporates fluxes, flow distributions, offshore and meteorological forcings in the context of the local bathymetry. Ongoing research is using these human and numerical tools to help further elucidate the impacts of this river on the biogeochemistry of the region, and the distribution of key macrofauna. Further work by this team is examining how the delta's impacts on the ecology of the region, and the role that the delta plays as both a source of material for key offshore fauna, and a barrier to dispersal. This information is being used to help further the development of a research agenda for the northern Gulf of Mexico that will be useful through the mid-21st century.

  14. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  15. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  16. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  17. Scope of application of bio-technology for fire control and ameliorating environmental pollution of coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    A few technology knowledge gaps in the control of mine fires and environmental pollution control and abatement programmes have been identified and examined the scope of application of bio-technological approach in resolving them. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Nuclear techniques for the study of environmental pollution and control: experience and facilities at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Butt, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem. Developed countries have already gone in the clutches of pollution. Now the rapid industrialization and modernization process has also started in the developing countries. This is posing a serious threat to their own environment. One of the important factors in the pollution control measures is to investigate the levels of environmental pollution, from time to time, by effective and reliable methods. Nuclear techniques due to their high sensitivities play an important role in this regard. These techniques have the potential to determine the concentration of pollutants in trace level quantities (ppm and ppb) and for locating the possible pollution sources such as power plants, refineries, municipal waste, industries etc. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) has qualified and experienced scientists and has nearly all the major nuclear facilities that are needed for environmental research such as mass spectrometry, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) etc. This paper discusses the importance of environmental pollution with a particular reference to the pollution aspects in Pakistan and the associated environmental research experience based on nuclear methods available at PINSTECH. 308 refs. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Environmental control policy change in the EU between ideas and reality; Umweltpolitischer Steuerungswechsel in der EU zwischen Ideen und Realitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumader, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The study on the environmental policy change in the EU covers the following issues: theoretical frame work: the scientific policy debate on political control and governance; boom of ideas: development in the discussion on European environmental policy; discrepancies: the change of political control between intention and realization; case studies: EU policy concerning the enhancement of energy efficiency, the groundwater guideline, waste policy and waste stream priorities, the European emission trading system, access to jurisdiction for environmental issues, the soil protection guideline.

  2. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Nikki; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Klein, Nigel; Spratt, David A

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of viral etiology are costly and can have a major impact on patient care. Many viruses are known to persist in the inanimate environment and may pose a risk to patients and health care workers. We investigate the frequency of environmental contamination with common health care-associated viruses and explore the use of torque-teno virus as a marker of environmental contamination. Environmental screening for a variety of clinically relevant viruses was carried out over 3 months in a UK pediatric hospital using air sampling and surface swabbing. Swabs were tested for the presence of virus nucleic acid by quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Viral nucleic acid was found on surfaces and in the air throughout the screening period, with adenovirus DNA being the most frequent. Door handles were frequently contaminated. Torque-teno virus was also found at numerous sites. Evidence of environmental contamination with viral pathogens is present in health care environments and may be indicative of an infectious virus being present. Screening for viruses should be included in infection control strategies. Torque-teno virus may provide a better marker of contamination and reduce time and cost of screening for individual viruses. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of the waste management and related environmental controls currently applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia, reflecting three decades of experience. The Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry of the mid-1970s was, inter alia, a focus for the expression of public concerns over the environmental effects of uranium mining. The report of the Inquiry established a framework for controls over uranium mining in the Northern Territory and, by association, in other States of the Commonwealth. The interaction between Federal and State jurisdictions, and the establishment of Codes of Practice and their implications are briefly described. Current procedures are based on the experience of other countries but are much influenced by studies of the environmental impact of uranium production in Australia during the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, laboratory investigations have been made of specific processes, such as the impact of heavy metal contaminants on biota and the uptake of radium in the human food cycle. Such studies are continuing and research is being expanded, particularly in relation to Northern Territory developments. Australia is contributing the results of this work to appropriate international forums. (author)

  4. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  5. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  6. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  7. Software and Human-Machine Interface Development for Environmental Controls Subsystem Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the next premier launch vehicle for NASA. It is the next stage of manned space exploration from American soil, and will be the platform in which we push further beyond Earth orbit. In preparation of the SLS maiden voyage on Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), the existing ground support architecture at Kennedy Space Center required significant overhaul and updating. A comprehensive upgrade of controls systems was necessary, including programmable logic controller software, as well as Launch Control Center (LCC) firing room and local launch pad displays for technician use. Environmental control acts as an integral component in these systems, being the foremost system for conditioning the pad and extremely sensitive launch vehicle until T-0. The Environmental Controls Subsystem (ECS) required testing and modification to meet the requirements of the designed system, as well as the human factors requirements of NASA software for Validation and Verification (V&V). This term saw significant strides in the progress and functionality of the human-machine interfaces used at the launch pad, and improved integration with the controller code.

  8. District heating systems' control for cost effective and environmentally compatible operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balati, J.

    1999-01-01

    District heating systems are being developed in accordance with the growing of large European cities. These systems are formed by enlarging networks of heat distribution from heat sources to heat consumers and, simultaneously, by gradually connecting newly built heat sources. District heating control consists in optimum control of the output of heat sources and in control of heat distribution and consumption. The aim of the paper is to inform about the works in the field of creating a mathematical-physical model of extensive hot water and steam supply circle network and heat sources for the purpose of creating unconventional control algorithms for the complex control of the technological sequence ''heat production distribution- consumption''. For the optimum control algorithms the artificial intelligence methods are also utilised. The aim of the complex access to the solution of new control algorithms will be to decrease the cost of the consumed heat unit and increase environmental protection. The function of the Extensive Heating System District Heating System (DHS) is to ensure permanently the economically justified requirements of heat supply for all consumers with minimum cost per heat supply unit and with enhanced level of environmental protection. The requirements of heat consumers have to be in harmony with the requirements of the maximum possible economy of the whole DHS when adhering to the required qualitative parameters of supplied energy. Therefore, it offers the application of optimised control methods as artificial intelligence methods for the control of the operational circle of DHS heat networks. It is obvious that a higher level of DHS control is required from the technological, economic and ecological point of view. (author)

  9. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  10. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  11. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  12. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Lunar Module ECS (Environmental Control System) - Design Considerations and Failure Modes. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Design considerations and failure modes for the Lunar Module (LM) Environmental Control System (ECS) are described. An overview of the the oxygen supply and cabin pressurization, atmosphere revitalization, water management and heat transport systems are provided. Design considerations including reliability, flight instrumentation, modularization and the change to the use of batteries instead of fuel cells are discussed. A summary is provided for the LM ECS general testing regime.

  14. Evaluation of environmentally friendly products for control of fungal diseases of grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, A.M.C.; Gillett, J.M.; Sysak, R.W.; Wise, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Various environmentally friendly products were tested for efficacy in controlling powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis bunch rot in grapes over several years. The products tested were: JMS stylet oil (paraffinic oil), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), Croplife (citrus and coconut extract) + Plant food (foliar fertilizer), Armicarb (potassium bicarbonate), Elexa (chitosan), Milsana (giant knotweed extract), and AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqua/is). JMS Stylet Oil, Armicarb, Se...

  15. Dataset on usnic acid from Cladonia substellata Vainio (Lichen) schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and environmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade de Araújo, Hallysson Douglas; Dos Santos Silva, Luanna Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Williams Nascimento; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; de Albuquerque Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça; Barroso Martins, Mônica Cristina; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia

    2018-04-01

    This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A. salina mortality.

  16. Design of a Clean Room for Quality Control of an Environmental Sampling in KINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jongho; Ahn, Gil Hoon; Seo, Hana; Han, Kitek; Park, Il Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of environmental sampling and analysis for safeguards is to characterize the nuclear materials handled and the activities conducted at the specific locations. The KINAC is responsible for the conclusions drawn from the analytical results provided by the analytical laboratories. To assure the KINAC of the continuity of the quality of the analytical results provided by the laboratories, the KINAC will implement a quality control(QC) programme. One of the QC programme is to prepare QC samples. The establishment of a clean room is needed to handle QC samples due to stringent control of contamination. The KINAC designed a clean facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 6, the Clean Room for Estimation and Assay of trace Nuclear materials(CREAN) to meet conflicting requirements of a clean room and for handling of nuclear materials according to Korean laws. The clean room will be expected to acquire of a radiation safety license under these conditions in this year and continue to improve it. The construction of the CREAN facility will be completed by the middle of 2015. In terms of QC programme, the establishment of a clean room is essential and will be not only very helpful for setting of quality control system for the national environmental sampling programme but also be applied for the environmental sample analysis techniques to the nuclear forensics

  17. Speech-driven environmental control systems--a qualitative analysis of users' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Simon; Robertson, Zoë; Hawley, Mark; Enderby, Pam

    2009-05-01

    To explore users' experiences and perceptions of speech-driven environmental control systems (SPECS) as part of a larger project aiming to develop a new SPECS. The motivation for this part of the project was to add to the evidence base for the use of SPECS and to determine the key design specifications for a new speech-driven system from a user's perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 users of SPECS from around the United Kingdom. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative method based on framework analysis. Reliability is the main influence on the use of SPECS. All the participants gave examples of occasions when their speech-driven system was unreliable; in some instances, this unreliability was reported as not being a problem (e.g., for changing television channels); however, it was perceived as a problem for more safety critical functions (e.g., opening a door). Reliability was cited by participants as the reason for using a switch-operated system as back up. Benefits of speech-driven systems focused on speech operation enabling access when other methods were not possible; quicker operation and better aesthetic considerations. Overall, there was a perception of increased independence from the use of speech-driven environmental control. In general, speech was considered a useful method of operating environmental controls by the participants interviewed; however, their perceptions regarding reliability often influenced their decision to have backup or alternative systems for certain functions.

  18. The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites

  19. Chemical oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    biogeochemical conditions affect the cycling of climatically important gases viz. carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)), nitrous oxide (N sub(2)O) and methane. Surface waters are normally supersaturated with CO sub(2) in the Arabian Sea and undersaturated in some parts...

  20. Different Phylogenetic and Environmental Controls of First-order Root Morphological and Chemical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Yu, G.; He, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fine roots are the most distal roots that act as the primary belowground organs in acquiring limiting nutrients and water from the soil. However, limited by the inconsistency in definitions of fine roots and the different protocols among studies, knowledge of root system traits has, to date, still lagged far behind our understanding of above-ground traits. In particular, whether variation in fine root traits among the plant species along a single root economics spectrum and this underlying mechanism are still hotly debated. In this study, we sampled the first-order root using the standardized protocols, and measured six important root traits related to resource use strategies, from 181 plant species from subtropical to boreal forests. Base on this large dataset, we concluded that different phylogenetic and environmental factors affected on root thickness and nutrient, resulting in the decoupled pattern between them. Specifically, variation in species-level traits related to root thickness (including root diameter, RD and specific root length, SRL) was restricted by common ancestry and little plastic to the changing environments, whereas the large-scale variation in woody root nutrient was mainly controlled by environmental differences, especially soil variables. For community-level traits, mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly influenced the community-level root thickness through the direct effect of changes in plant species composition, while soil P had a positive influence effect on community-level root nitrogen concentration (CWM_RN), reflecting the strong influence of soil fertility on belowground root nutrient. The different environmental constraints and selective pressures acting between root thickness and nutrient traits allows for multiple ecological strategies to adapt to complex environmental conditions. In addition, strong relationships between community-level root traits and environmental variables, due to environmental filters, indicate that in contrast

  1. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  2. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  3. Analytical quality control in environmental analysis - Recent results and future trends of the IAEA's analytical quality control programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Heinonen, J

    1973-12-01

    The significance of analytical results depends critically on the degree of their reliability, an assessment of this reliability is indispensable if the results are to have any meaning at all. Environmental radionuclide analysis is a relatively new analytical field in which new methods are continuously being developed and into which many new laboratories have entered during the last ten to fifteen years. The scarcity of routine methods and the lack of experience of the new laboratories have made the need for the assessment of the reliability of results particularly urgent in this field. The IAEA, since 1962, has provided assistance to its member states by making available to their laboratories analytical quality control services in the form of standard samples, reference materials and the organization of analytical intercomparisons. The scope of this programme has increased over the years and now includes, in addition to environmental radionuclides, non-radioactive environmental contaminants which may be analysed by nuclear methods, materials for forensic neutron activation analysis, bioassay materials and nuclear fuel. The results obtained in recent intercomparisons demonstrate the continued need for these services. (author)

  4. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Tozan, Y; Singer, B H

    2001-09-01

    Roll back malaria (RBM) aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and cost-effective control strategies. But the evidence base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is the discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified multiple malaria control programmes that incorporated environmental management as the central feature. Prominent among them are programmes launched in 1929 and implemented for two decades at copper mining communities in Zambia. The full package of control measures consisted of vegetation clearance, modification of river boundaries, draining swamps, oil application to open water bodies and house screening. Part of the population also was given quinine and was sleeping under mosquito nets. Monthly malaria incidence rates and vector densities were used for surveillance and adaptive tuning of the environmental management strategies to achieve a high level of performance. Within 3-5 years, malaria-related mortality, morbidity and incidence rates were reduced by 70-95%. Over the entire 20 years of implementation, the programme had averted an estimated 4173 deaths and 161,205 malaria attacks. The estimated costs per death and malaria attack averted were US$ 858 and US$ 22.20, respectively. Over the initial 3-5 years start-up period, analogous to the short-duration of cost-effectiveness analyses of current studies, we estimated that the costs per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted were US$ 524-591. However, the strategy has a track record of becoming cost-effective in the longer term, as maintenance costs were much lower: US$ 22-92 per DALY averted. In view of fewer adverse ecological effects, increased sustainability and better uses of local resources and knowledge, environmental management--integrated with pharmacological, insecticidal and bednet interventions

  5. Environmental controls on the elemental composition of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Roleda, Michael Y.; Armstrong, Evelyn; Law, Cliff S.; Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    2018-01-01

    A series of semi-continuous incubation experiments were conducted with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain NIWA1108 (Southern Ocean isolate) to examine the effects of five environmental drivers (nitrate and phosphate concentrations, irradiance, temperature, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)) on both the physiological rates and elemental composition of the coccolithophore. Here, we report the alteration of the elemental composition of E. huxleyi in response to the changes in these environmental drivers. A series of dose-response curves for the cellular elemental composition of E. huxleyi were fitted for each of the five drivers across an environmentally representative gradient. The importance of each driver in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi was ranked using a semi-quantitative approach. The percentage variations in elemental composition arising from the change in each driver between present-day and model-projected conditions for the year 2100 were calculated. Temperature was the most important driver controlling both cellular particulate organic and inorganic carbon content, whereas nutrient concentrations were the most important regulator of cellular particulate nitrogen and phosphorus of E. huxleyi. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had the greatest influence on cellular particulate inorganic carbon to organic carbon ratio, resulting in a decrease in the ratio. Our results indicate that the different environmental drivers play specific roles in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi with wide-reaching implications for coccolithophore-related marine biogeochemical cycles, as a consequence of the regulation of E. huxleyi physiological processes.

  6. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  7. Sailing for Science: on board experiences for transferring knowledge on Historical Oceanography for Future Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvani, Sara; Carmisciano, Cosmo; Locritani, Marina; Grossi, Luigi; Mori, Anna; Stroobant, Mascha; Schierano, Erika; De Strobel, Federico; Manzella, Giuseppe; Muzi, Enrico; Leccese, Dario; Sinapi, Luigi; Morellato, Claudio; La Tassa, Hebert; Talamoni, Roberta; Coelho, Emanuel; Nacini, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Smart, sustainable and inclusive Blue Growth means also knowing past technology and the paths followed by ancients in order to understand and monitor marine environments. In general, history of Science is a matter that is not enough explored and explained or promoted in high schools or university official programmes, and, usually, scientist do not consider it as an important part of their curricula. However, bad or good ideas, abandoned or forgotten beliefs, concepts, opinions, do still have a great potential for inspiring present and future scientists, no matter in which historical period they may have been formulated: they should be always be taken into consideration, critically examined and observed by a very close point of view, not just as part of the intellectual framework of some obsolete 'Cabinet of Curiosities' with limited access except for the chosen few. Moreover, history of Science should be transmitted in a more practical way, with hands-on labs showing the limits and challenges that prior generations of ocean explorers, investigators and seafarers had to face in order to answer to crucial questions as self-orientation in open sea, understanding main currents and waves, predicting meteorological conditions for a safe navigation. Oceanography is a relatively young branch of science, and still needs further approvals and knowledge (National Science Foundation, 2000). The Scientific Dissemination Group (SDG) "La Spezia Gulf of Science" - made up by Research Centres, Schools and Cultural associations located in La Spezia (Liguria, Italy) - has a decadal experience in initiatives aimed at people and groups of people of all ages, who are keen on science or who can be guided in any case to take an interest in scientific matters (Locritani et al., 2015). Amongst the SDG activities, the tight relationship with the Historical Oceanography Society, the Italian Navy and the Naval Technical Museum (that collects a rich heritage of civilization, technology and

  8. A cost/schedule and control system for the environmental restoration program Albuquerque Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, Wanda S.; Bischoff, Edward L.; Rea, Kenneth H.; Dwain Farley, P.; Biedermann, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office Albuquerque (AL), Environmental Restoration Project Office (ERPO), has developed a project management system used to plan, document, and control Environmental Restoration (ER) work at eight installations and one superfund site managed by AL. This system emphasizes control of the cost, schedule, and technical elements of the Program. It supports programmatic documentation such as the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Five-Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, and budget requests. The System provides information used to manage the ER Program at all levels of management (i.e., from low-level day-to-day activities to high-level upper management). The System requires substantial effort to ensure reliability; however, the benefit to ERPO is an effective, proactive project management tool. This paper provides an overview of the ERPO System, an explanation of how it is implemented, and lessons learned from this process. Application of the System to cost estimating, annual and five-year budget preparation, resource projections, scheduling, and cost/schedule performance measurement is discussed. Also discussed are cost/schedule review procedures, along with variance identification and resolution. Examples are taken from the Pinellas ER Program. (author)

  9. Microfluidic study of environmental control of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Minjun; Ghoreishilangroudi, Seyedehdelaram; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert; Hagen, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus mutans has the ability to enter a transient state of genetic competence in which it can integrate exogenous DNA. It regulates the competent state in response to several environmental inputs that include two quorum sensing peptides (CSP and XIP) as well as pH and other variables. However the interplay of these variables in regulating the competent state is poorly understood. We are using microfluidics to isolate and control environmental inputs and examine how the competence regulatory circuit responds at the single cell level. Our studies reveal that the pH of the growth environment plays a critical role in determining how cells respond to the quorum sensing signals: The response to both peptides is sharply tuned to a narrow window of near-neutral pH. Within this optimal pH range, a population responds unimodally to a XIP stimulus, and bimodally to CSP; outside this range the response to both signals is suppressed. Because a growing S. mutans culture acidifies its medium, our findings suggest that the passage of the pH through the sensitivity window transiently activates the competence circuit. In this way a sharply tuned environmental response gives S. mutans fine control over the duration of its competent state. This work is supported by the NIH under NIDCR awards R01 DE023339.

  10. Computerized effluent control and evaluation of environmental impact for an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de Angulo, L.F.; Garcia Gutierrez, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Growing public interest and concern for the environment is translated at official level into regulatory standards to limit, control and evaluate the environmental impact produced by polluting facilities. This paper seeks to demonstrate the convenience of automatizing all these computerized systems. This philosophy has been put into practice to computerize processes in the industry with the most complex standards: the nuclear industry. The application used has the capacity to store and manage data on all the discharges, evaluate the effect produced by them and generate information to be sent periodically to the competent authority. The conceptual definition of the application can be adapted to any industrial or public utility facility releasing polluting effluents which must undergo control, monitoring and analysis of the environmental impact by the relevant regulatory body, bearing in mind the environmental standard applicable to the category of the facility and the type of polluting substance released. The application can be run interactively in a personal computer on the basis of menus and screens, under a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). Its implementation is independent of the DBMS used and the hardware with supports it. (author)

  11. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  12. Adding sub-hourly occupancy prediction, occupancy-sensing control and manual environmental control to ESP-r

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). School of Architecture; Hand, J.; Macdonald, I. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Energy Systems Research Unit; Reinhart, C. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Institute for Research in Construction

    2004-07-01

    There are several whole building energy simulation programs that require input of casual gain loads such as heat discharged from occupants or lighting and equipment loads. Variations in casual gains in offices are attributed to absenteeism, occupant environmental preference and energy management features. This paper discussed energy simulation programs which offer sub-hourly simulation time-steps, diversity profiles of occupancy and associated gains such as lighting and equipment. In particular, it focused on the different events that occur in buildings at sub-hourly frequencies, such as manually adjusting blinds and lights in response to illuminance variations. These short-term changes affect electrical energy demand because they generate evident shifts in instantaneous solar and equipment loads. However, it is a challenge to model these complex sub-hourly changes. This paper reviews various models predicting occupancy, occupancy-sensing control and manual environmental controls. Their addition to whole building energy simulations were then outlined with particular reference to the ESP-r. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Environmental radioactivity: the importance of controlling exposure of the public: some experiences in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power is offering considerable advantages, it is considering the option to produce energy and the economy has moved in favour of the nuclear power. Therefore, the security is important within of the industry because ensures the control of public exposure and the environment and it plays a crucial role. Public exposure refers to exposure that is not of the direct work with ionizing radiation or the application of nuclear techniques in medical treatment and diagnosis. There are potential sources of discharges into the environment as the spent fuel and the waste disposal. Some of the routes of exposure are atmospheric discharge, liquid discharge, irrigation, environment, decomposition of the rain, food chains, etc. International regulations on subject of radiological safety are set by the IAEA and have a hierarchical order: fundamentals, requirements and guidelines. The International Commission of Radiological Protection and the Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations are described in the research. The action is exposed in Cuba with regard to nuclear programs that have been realized or that are executed in relation to the control of the exposure of the public in existing applications. It mentions the centralized management of radioactive rights generated, the control of other sources of exposure, and the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental. It also includes numerical data of studies realized on the extent of the sources of public exposure, the external doses received by the Cuban population product of environmental sources of radiation, the estimating of the doses received by the Cuban population by the incorporation of radionuclides present in the water and food. Likewise, the radioactive environmental funds; the phosphate mining; the protection and extraction of oil and the presence of radon inside the house are shown. The exposure to gamma radiation in thermal spas; the exposure to environmental sources of radiation

  14. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  15. The Pied Piper of the ghetto: Lyndon Johnson, environmental justice, and the politics of rat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    When Congress rejected President Lyndon Johnson’s Rat Extermination and Control Bill in the summer of 1967, in a mood of growing conservatism, it inadvertently sparked a heated political controversy that brought the desperate conditions of life in inner-city America into sharp focus. This article focuses on the issue of rat infestation to explore the conditions of “urban blight” that disproportionately afflicted ghetto communities in the United States during the 1960s and that represented a form of environmental inequality linked to racial marginalization and poverty. It is suggested that a growing awareness of environmental aspects of inequality increasingly fueled ghetto discontent, feeding the outbreak of riots during the “long, hot summers,” and spurring liberals to think of new ways to understand the problems of inner-city poverty.

  16. Cost effective malaria risk control using remote sensing and environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdel Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Malaria transmission in many part of the world specifically in Bangladesh and southern African countries is unstable and epidemic. An estimate of over a million cases is reported annually. Malaria is heterogeneous, potentially due to variations in ecological settings, socio-economic status, land cover, and agricultural practices. Malaria control only relies on treatment and supply of bed networks. Drug resistance to these diseases is widespread. Vector control is minimal. Malaria control in those countries faces many formidable challenges such as inadequate accessibility to effective treatment, lack of trained manpower, inaccessibility of endemic areas, poverty, lack of education, poor health infrastructure and low health budgets. Health facilities for malaria management are limited, surveillance is inadequate, and vector control is insufficient. Control can only be successful if the right methods are used at the right time in the right place. This paper aims to improve malaria control by developing malaria risk maps and risk models using satellite remote sensing data by identifying, assessing, and mapping determinants of malaria associated with environmental, socio-economic, malaria control, and agricultural factors.

  17. Partitioning controls on Amazon forest photosynthesis between environmental and biotic factors at hourly to interannual timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Guan, Kaiyu; Hayek, Matthew; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Wiedemann, Kenia T; Xu, Xiangtao; Wehr, Richard; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Miao, Guofang; da Silva, Rodrigo; de Araujo, Alessandro C; Oliviera, Raimundo C; Camargo, Plinio B; Monson, Russell K; Huete, Alfredo R; Saleska, Scott R

    2017-03-01

    Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in tropical forests varies both with the environment and with biotic changes in photosynthetic infrastructure, but our understanding of the relative effects of these factors across timescales is limited. Here, we used a statistical model to partition the variability of seven years of eddy covariance-derived GEP in a central Amazon evergreen forest into two main causes: variation in environmental drivers (solar radiation, diffuse light fraction, and vapor pressure deficit) that interact with model parameters that govern photosynthesis and biotic variation in canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency associated with changes in the parameters themselves. Our fitted model was able to explain most of the variability in GEP at hourly (R 2  = 0.77) to interannual (R 2  = 0.80) timescales. At hourly timescales, we found that 75% of observed GEP variability could be attributed to environmental variability. When aggregating GEP to the longer timescales (daily, monthly, and yearly), however, environmental variation explained progressively less GEP variability: At monthly timescales, it explained only 3%, much less than biotic variation in canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency, which accounted for 63%. These results challenge modeling approaches that assume GEP is primarily controlled by the environment at both short and long timescales. Our approach distinguishing biotic from environmental variability can help to resolve debates about environmental limitations to tropical forest photosynthesis. For example, we found that biotically regulated canopy photosynthetic light-use efficiency (associated with leaf phenology) increased with sunlight during dry seasons (consistent with light but not water limitation of canopy development) but that realized GEP was nonetheless lower relative to its potential efficiency during dry than wet seasons (consistent with water limitation of photosynthesis in given assemblages of leaves). This work

  18. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingna Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  19. Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO x ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl 2 and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  1. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  2. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  3. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prieto

    Full Text Available A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa. Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.

  4. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anne Woolnough

    Full Text Available Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The 'switch' that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  5. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  6. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Didier

    2018-04-25

    Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA). T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  7. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Salmon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria. In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs, rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA. T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control : Assessing Self-Control with the ASEBA Self-Control Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Yayouk E; Dolan, Conor V.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; de Zeeuw, Eveline L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Finkenauer, Catrin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182572382

    This study used a theoretically-derived set of items of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop the Achenbach Self-Control Scale (ASCS) for 7-16 year olds. Using a large dataset of over 20,000 children, who are enrolled in the Netherlands Twin Register, we demonstrated the

  9. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  10. High-precision GPS autonomous platforms for sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Olsson, M.; Rodwell, S.; James, A.; Hagan, B.; Hwang, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gerdes, R.; Johannessen, J.; Wadhams, P.; Nettles, M.; Padman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Project "Arctic Ocean sea ice and ocean circulation using satellite methods" (SATICE), is the first high-rate, high-precision, continuous GPS positioning experiment on sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The SATICE systems collect continuous, dual-frequency carrier-phase GPS data while drifting on sea ice. Additional geophysical measurements also collected include ocean water pressure, ocean surface salinity, atmospheric pressure, snow-depth, air-ice-ocean temperature profiles, photographic imagery, and others, enabling sea ice drift, freeboard, weather, ice mass balance, and sea-level height determination. Relatively large volumes of data from each buoy are streamed over a satellite link to a central computer on the Internet in near real time, where they are processed to estimate the time-varying buoy positions. SATICE system obtains continuous GPS data at sub-minute intervals with a positioning precision of a few centimetres in all three dimensions. Although monitoring of sea ice motions goes back to the early days of satellite observations, these autonomous platforms bring out a level of spatio-temporal detail that has never been seen before, especially in the vertical axis. These high-resolution data allows us to address new polar science questions and challenge our present understanding of both sea ice dynamics and Arctic oceanography. We will describe the technology behind this new autonomous platform, which could also be adapted to other applications that require high resolution positioning information with sustained operations and observations in the polar marine environment, and present results pertaining to sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography.

  11. Environmental control and radioprotection in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenachi, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Monitoring Programs in Itataia and Lagoa Real uranium mines were initiated in 1982. In the actual pre-operational phase of this Programs, are being collected samples of air, surface and underground waters, stream sediments, soil, field products, and milk. Environmental contamination of air is controlled by thermoluminescent dosimeters, distributed around the mines. Instantaneous radiation measures in this stations are made with scintillometer calibrated in Radioprotection Laboratory Department-CDTN. Photographic dosimeters are used for monitoring external radiation exposures in workers. Radiation levels evaluation, air and surface contamination measures, were effectuated in installations, trenches, and research galleries. Another factors which are now being studied: climate, meteorology, and hidrology. (author) [pt

  12. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  13. Application of tracer techniques to industrial troubleshooting and environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The field applications of tracer technology are reviewed and three specific examples each are given for use of the technology for industrial troubleshooting and for environmental pollution control. Each example examines the background, the experimental details and the result, particularly with regard to the cost benefits. Specific areas covered are: leak studies in a chemical reactor; wear studies in jet aircraft fuel pump, mass balance studies in gold refining; ocean dispersion of iron rich wastes; pollution discharges of mine waste water; and flow patterns and retention times in waste waster treatment lagoons. (author). 18 refs

  14. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  15. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  16. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  17. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  18. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  3. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  4. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  5. Assisting Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Actively Reduces Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the…

  6. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  7. RENDAC: Integrated System Data for the Information Control the Environmental Radiological Surveillance the National Network in Cuban Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.

    1998-01-01

    With the objective to evaluate, process, control and to store the information that is generated in the National Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network, it is designed and I program the on-line RENDAC system that allows to capture and evaluate the parameters that characterize the environmental radiological situation

  8. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new

  9. Economic–environmental hierarchical frequency management of a droop-controlled islanded microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Navid; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling the steady-state frequency of the droop-controlled microgrids. • Precise formulation the hierarchical control levels of islanded microgrids. • Economic–environmental frequency management using mixed-integer linear programming. • Proposing a novel objective function based on the microgrid daily frequency profile. • Scheduling primary and secondary control reserves using a stochastic optimization. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel energy management system (EMS) for a microgrid to enhance the power system security in a cost-effective manner. Small size of the islanded microgrids, high levels of intermittency and energy fluctuations, lower inertia potential of inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs) makes the frequency a vital factor in the microgrid energy management system that should be managed subject to the economic–environmental policies of the microgrid EMS. The proposed model is based on precise energy and reserve scheduling of the DERs in a droop-controlled islanded microgrid to manage the possible microgrid frequency excursions. The expected value of the microgrid frequency excursions stem from system power deviations is employed as a new objective function in this study, which is aimed to be minimized using a two stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming method. In order to model the hierarchical control structure of the islanded microgrid, the frequency dependent behavior of the droop-controlled inverter-interfaced DERs is formulated thoroughly. The proposed model is applied to a typical microgrid test system. The primary and secondary frequency control reserves are appropriately scheduled over a 24 h period. A methodology based on the Monte-Carlo simulation strategy is adapted to generate some random scenarios corresponding to renewable generation variations, load consumption deviations and contingencies of line/unit outages. The generated scenarios are reduced and applied to the

  10. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY... radiata, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity... of an alternative biological control agent, an encyrtid wasp, (Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis). However...

  11. Hybrid neuro-fuzzy system for power generation control with environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Krishna Teerth; Pandit, Manjaree; Srivastava, Laxmi

    2008-01-01

    The real time controls at the central energy management centre in a power system, continuously track the load changes and endeavor to match the total power demand with total generation in such a manner that the operating cost is least. However due to the strict government regulations on environmental protection, operation at minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for dispatching electrical power. The idea behind the environmentally constrained combined economic dispatch formulation is to estimate the optimal generation allocation to generating units in such a manner that fuel cost and harmful emission levels are both simultaneously minimized for a given load demand. Conventional optimization techniques are cumbersome for such complex optimization tasks and are not suitable for on-line use due to increased computational burden. This paper proposes a neuro-fuzzy power dispatch method where the uncertainty involved with power demand is modeled as a fuzzy variable. Then Levenberg-Marquardt neural network (LMNN) is used to evaluate the optimal generation schedules. This model trains almost hundred times faster that the popular BP neural network. The proposed method has been tested on two test systems and found to be suitable for on-line combined environmental economic dispatch

  12. Evaluation of tecniques for controlling UF6 release clouds in the GAT environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies designed to characterize the reaction between UF 6 and atmospheric moisture, evaluate environmental variables of UF 6 cloud formation and ultimate cloud fate, and UF 6 release cloud control procedure have been conducted in the 1200 cu. ft. GAT environmental chamber. In earlier chamber experiments, 30 separate UF 6 release tests indicated that variations of atmospheric conditions and sample sizes had no significant effect on UO 2 F 2 particle size distribution, release cloud formation, or cloud settling rates. During the past year, numerous procedures have been evaluated for accelerating UF 6 cloud knockdown in a series of 37 environmental chamber releases. Knockdown procedures included: coarse water spray; air jet; steam spray (electrostatically charged and uncharged); carbon dioxide; Freon-12; fine water mist (uncharged); boric acid mist (charged and uncharged); and an ionized dry air stream. UF 6 hydrolysis cloud settling rates monitored by a laser/powermeter densitometer, indicated the relative effectiveness of various cloud knockdown techniques. Electrostatically charged boric acid/water mist, and electrostatically ionized dry air were both found to be very effective, knocking down the UO 2 F 2 release cloud particles in two to five minutes. Work to adapt these knockdown techniques for use under field conditions is continuing, taking into account recovery of the released uranium as well as nuclear criticality constraints

  13. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  14. Environmental controls on the elemental composition of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of semi-continuous incubation experiments were conducted with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain NIWA1108 (Southern Ocean isolate to examine the effects of five environmental drivers (nitrate and phosphate concentrations, irradiance, temperature, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 on both the physiological rates and elemental composition of the coccolithophore. Here, we report the alteration of the elemental composition of E. huxleyi in response to the changes in these environmental drivers. A series of dose–response curves for the cellular elemental composition of E. huxleyi were fitted for each of the five drivers across an environmentally representative gradient. The importance of each driver in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi was ranked using a semi-quantitative approach. The percentage variations in elemental composition arising from the change in each driver between present-day and model-projected conditions for the year 2100 were calculated. Temperature was the most important driver controlling both cellular particulate organic and inorganic carbon content, whereas nutrient concentrations were the most important regulator of cellular particulate nitrogen and phosphorus of E. huxleyi. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had the greatest influence on cellular particulate inorganic carbon to organic carbon ratio, resulting in a decrease in the ratio. Our results indicate that the different environmental drivers play specific roles in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi with wide-reaching implications for coccolithophore-related marine biogeochemical cycles, as a consequence of the regulation of E. huxleyi physiological processes.

  15. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  16. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  17. Environmental control and life support - Partially closed system will save big money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Although the NASA space station has not yet been completely defined, realistic estimates may be made of the environmental control and life support system requirements entailed by a crew of eight, a resupply interval of 90 days, an initial launch which includes expendables for the first resupply interval, 7.86 lb/day of water per person, etc. An appraisal of these requirements is presented which strongly suggests the utility of a partially closed life support system. Such a scheme would give the crew high quality water to drink, and recycle nonpotable water from hand washing, bathing, clothes and dish washing, and urinal flushing. The excess recovery process water is electrolyzed to provide metabolic and leakage oxygen. The crew would drink electrolysis water and atmospheric humidity control moisture-derived water.

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  19. Emergency strategy optimization for the environmental control system in manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxiang; Pang, Liping; Liu, Meng; Fang, Yufeng; Zhang, Helin

    2018-02-01

    It is very important for a manned environmental control system (ECS) to be able to reconfigure its operation strategy in emergency conditions. In this article, a multi-objective optimization is established to design the optimal emergency strategy for an ECS in an insufficient power supply condition. The maximum ECS lifetime and the minimum power consumption are chosen as the optimization objectives. Some adjustable key variables are chosen as the optimization variables, which finally represent the reconfigured emergency strategy. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is adopted to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. Optimization processes are conducted at four different carbon dioxide partial pressure control levels. The study results show that the Pareto-optimal frontiers obtained from this multi-objective optimization can represent the relationship between the lifetime and the power consumption of the ECS. Hence, the preferred emergency operation strategy can be recommended for situations when there is suddenly insufficient power.

  20. Environmental and occupational risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvan, Irene; Lees, Peter S J; Cunningham, Christopher R; Rai, Shesh N; Cambon, Alexander C; Standaert, David G; Marras, Connie; Juncos, Jorge; Riley, David; Reich, Stephen; Hall, Deborah; Kluger, Benzi; Bordelon, Yvette; Shprecher, David R

    2016-05-01

    The cause of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is largely unknown. Based on evidence for impaired mitochondrial activity in PSP, we hypothesized that the disease may be related to exposure to environmental toxins, some of which are mitochondrial inhibitors. This multicenter case-control study included 284 incident PSP cases of 350 cases and 284 age-, sex-, and race-matched controls primarily from the same geographical areas. All subjects were administered standardized interviews to obtain data on demographics, residential history, and lifetime occupational history. An industrial hygienist and a toxicologist unaware of case status assessed occupational histories to estimate past exposure to metals, pesticides, organic solvents, and other chemicals. Cases and controls were similar on demographic factors. In unadjusted analyses, PSP was associated with lower education, lower income, more smoking pack-years, more years of drinking well water, more years living on a farm, more years living 1 mile from an agricultural region, more transportation jobs, and more jobs with exposure to metals in general. However, in adjusted models, only more years of drinking well water was significantly associated with PSP. There was an inverse association with having a college degree. We did not find evidence for a specific causative chemical exposure; higher number of years of drinking well water is a risk factor for PSP. This result remained significant after adjusting for income, smoking, education and occupational exposures. This is the first case-control study to demonstrate PSP is associated with environmental factors. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Environmental controls on stable isotopes of precipitation in Lanzhou, China: An enhanced network at city scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fenli; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiu, Xue; Du, Mingxia

    2017-12-31

    Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation are very sensitive to environmental changes, and can record evolution of water cycle. The Lanzhou city in northwestern China is jointly influenced by the monsoon and westerlies, which is considered as a vital platform to investigate the moisture regime for this region. Since 2011, an observation network of stable isotopes in precipitation was established across the city, and four stations were included in the network. In 2013, six more sampling stations were added, and the enhanced network might provide more meaningful information on spatial incoherence and synoptic process. This study focused on the variations of stable isotopes (δ 18 O and δD) in precipitation and the environmental controls based on the 1432 samples in this enhanced network from April 2011 to October 2014. The results showed that the precipitation isotopes had great spatial diversity, and the neighboring stations may present large difference in δD and δ 18 O. Based on the observation at ten sampling sites, an isoscape in precipitation was calculated, and the method is useful to produce isoscape for small domains. The temperature effect and amount effect was reconsidered based on the dataset. Taking meteorological parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, water vapor pressure and dew point temperature) as variables in a multi-linear regression, the result of coefficients for these meteorological parameters were calculated. Some cases were also involved in this study, and the isotopic characteristics during one event or continuous days were used to understand the environmental controls on precipitation isotopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1979-11-01

    Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes 232 U and 233 U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; Gemma Husmillo; Kristine Lowe; J. Robert Paterek; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-12-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Various chemicals that inhibit the growth and/or the metabolism of corrosion-associated microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria were evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion in experiments utilizing pure and mixed bacterial cultures, and planktonic cultures as well as mature biofilms. Planktonic cultures are easier to inhibit than mature biofilms but several compounds were shown to be effective in decreasing the amount of metal corrosion. Of the compounds tested hexane extracts of Capsicum pepper plants and molybdate were the most effective inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria, bismuth nitrate was the most effective inhibitor of nitrate reducing bacteria, and 4-((pyridine-2-yl)methylamino)benzoic acid (PMBA) was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria. All of these compounds were demonstrated to minimize corrosion due to MIC, at least in some circumstances. The results obtained in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion. This approach of controlling MIC by controlling the metabolism of biofilms is more environmentally benign than the current approach involving the use of potent biocides, and warrants further investigation.

  4. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobwebdisease of button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield, effectiveness (disease control and type of interactions between them and the fungicide prochloraz-manganese were evaluated. Black peat/lime casing soil was applied to a colonized substrate with the white button mushroom strain 737, then inoculated with C. dendroides and treated with the fungicide prochloraz-manganse and two environmentally friendly disinfectants based on peracetic acid and colloidal silver. The effects of fungicides on mushroom productivity were evaluated as biological efficacy and calculated as a ratio of fresh weight of total mushroom yield to the weight of dry substrate. Fungicide effectiveness and synergy factor were calculated by Abbott’s (1925 formula. Tests for synergism between prochloraz-manganese and both other substances were performed using Limpel’s formula. The highest biolgical efficacy, exceeding 92.00, was achieved in treatments with prochlorazmanganese, applied alone or in combination with both other disinfectants. The highest effectiveness of 93.33% was attained in treatments with peracetic acid combined with prochloraz-manganese. Trials against cobweb disease revealed a synergistic reaction between the fungicide and peracetic acid and antagonistic between the fungicide and colloidal silver. Peracetic acid provided better disease control, compared to colloidal silver applied alone or in combination with the fungicide. Based on these findings, peracetic acid should be recomended as an environmentally friendly casing soil disinfectant against cobweb disease of A. bisporus.

  5. Association between Prenatal Environmental Factors and Child Autism: A Case Control Study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Xi, Qian Qian; Wu, Jun; Han, Yu; Dai, Wei; Su, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the association between autism and prenatal environmental risk factors. A case-control study was conducted among 193 children with autism from the special educational schools and 733 typical development controls matched by age and gender by using questionnaire in Tianjin from 2007 to 2012. Statistical analysis included quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST) and logistic regression in SPSS 20.0. There were four predictors by QUEST and the logistic regression analysis, maternal air conditioner use during pregnancy (OR=0.316, 95% CI: 0.215-0.463) was the single first-level node (χ²=50.994, P=0.000); newborn complications (OR=4.277, 95% CI: 2.314-7.908) and paternal consumption of freshwater fish (OR=0.383, 95% CI: 0.256-0.573) were second-layer predictors (χ²=45.248, P=0.000; χ²=24.212, P=0.000); and maternal depression (OR=4.822, 95% CI: 3.047-7.631) was the single third-level predictor (χ²=23.835, P=0.000). The prediction accuracy of the tree was 89.2%. The air conditioner use during pregnancy and paternal freshwater fish diet might be beneficial for the prevention of autism, while newborn complications and maternal depression might be the risk factors. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Organizing pneumonia and occupational and environmental risk factors: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobard, Stéphanie; Chaigne, Benjamin; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Lasfargues, Gérard; Diot, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    A single-center case-control study was carried out to investigate the relationship between occupational and environmental exposure and organizing pneumonia (OP). Thirty-seven cases of OP, including 25 cases of cryptogenic OP, and 111 controls were included. Occupational exposure was assessed retrospectively by an industrial hygienist and an occupational physician, through semi-quantitative estimates of exposure. An exposure score was calculated for each subject, based on probability, intensity, daily frequency, and duration of exposure for each period of employment. The final cumulative exposure score was obtained by summing exposure scores for all periods of employment. Significant associations with all-cause OP were observed for exposure to tetrachloroethylene (OR 13.33, CI 95% 1.44-123.5) and silica (OR 6.61, CI 95% 1.16-37.71). A significant association with cryptogenic OP was observed only for tetrachloroethylene (OR 31.6, CI 95% 1.64-610.8). No associations were found for environmental exposure. Despite its low statistical power, this work suggests that occupational risk factors could be involved in OP.

  7. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  8. Science review of the Beaufort Institute of Oceanography, the Halifax Fisheries Research Laboratory, and the St. Andrews Biological Station, 1990-91. Revue des sciences de l'Institut oceanographique de Bedford, du Laboratoire de recherche halieutique de Halifax, et de la Station biologique de St. Andrews, 1990-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T E; Cook, J [eds.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the research and survey programs being undertaken in 1990-91 at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, the Halifax Fisheries Research Laboratory, and the St. Andrews Biological Station (all in Nova Scotia). The broad objectives of these programs are to perform applied research leading to the provision of advice on the management of marine and freshwater environments, including fisheries and offshore hydrocarbon resources; to perform targeted basic research in accordance with the mandates of Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Environment Canada, and Energy, Mines and Resources; to perform surveys and cartographic work; and to respond to major marine environmental emergencies. The research and survey work encompasses the fields of marine geology and geophysics, physical oceanography, marine chemistry, biological oceanography, fisheries research, seabird research, and navigational surveys and cartography. Topics of specific projects reviewed include marine pollution detection, phytoplankton profiling, seal populations, ocean mapping, geographic information systems, fish and invertebrate nutrition, shellfish culture, lobster habitat ecology, physics and biology of the Georges Bank frontal system, water-level instrumentation, data acquisition techniques, sea ice monitoring, salmon management, nearshore sedimentary processes, and oil/gas distribution in offshore basins. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three project reports from this review.

  9. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  12. Study on the relationship between the opening of environmental tax and the prevention and control of air pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guilin; Wang, Tianyi

    2018-03-01

    This article systematically expounds the status quo and sources of air pollution, the experience of foreign environmental tax policy, the advantages and disadvantages of environmental taxes levied in our country through literature research, historical analysis and comparative analysis and put forward recommendations on tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution by combining with the specific national conditions in our country. As one of the basic means of national macro-control, the tax policy is the major countermeasure that cannot be ignored in the prevention and control of air pollution. Studying the tax policy of prevention and control of air pollution will help to effectively control air pollution, develop a green economy and recycle economy and achieve the goal of improving environmental quality.

  13. NODC Standard Product: Climatic atlas of the Arctic Seas 2004 - Database of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas - Oceanography and marine biology (NODC Accession 0098061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas presents primary data on meteorology, oceanography, and hydrobiology from the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas, which were collected during the...

  14. Meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and other parameters collected at fixed locations in the open ocean from the OceanSITES network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection comprises data covering meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean...

  15. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Rhode Island (URI) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), Marine Geological Samples Laboratory (MGSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Geological Samples Laboratory (MGSL) of the Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), University of Rhode Island is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  16. Applications of 14C-AMS on archaeology, climate, environment, geology, oceanography and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Macario, K.D.; Santos, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The first experiment discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. In the southern Brazilian coast there is a high density of these shellmounds, dated in general between 6,000 and 2,000 BP. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7,860±80 years BP. This is an unexpected result that pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling, located in Arraial do Cabo, R.J., with applications in the fields of Oceanography and Marine Ecology. We assess the contribution of the wind-driven coastal upwelling of Arraial do Cabo to the local biological production. The variation of the carbon isotopic compositions was investigated in a population of a seaweed. Upwelling events were simulated in the laboratory, in order to study three regimes: total upwelling (SACW), partial upwelling (mixed water) and no-upwelling (TW). Water samples were collected at 70 m depth (SACW) and at 10 m (TW). The seaweed was cultivated during seven days, in controlled conditions, into the three mentioned types of water. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in the seaweed tissue show a clear indication of difference in the isotopic signature of the water sources, allowing to infer the differences of the water sources. We believe that the present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. The next reported experiment is on climate at the Amazon region. An increase in the Hg flux is a strong indicator of disturbance in a forest ecosystem related to abrupt changes in the water balance, and its changes reflect changes in the ocean and average regional temperatures. In regions where the geological background of mercury is

  17. Environmental control of U concentration and 234U/238U in speleothems at subannual resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    Trace element and isotope variability in speleothems encodes a range of information about the past environment, although its interpretation is often problematic. U concentration and isotopes have frequently been analysed in speleothems in order to provide chronology, but their use as environmental proxies in their own right has not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, we have investigated the environmental controls of U in a stalagmite from the Central Yangtze Valley in China. This stalagmite grew rapidly throughout the Holocone and contains visible annual layers about 300microns thick. Analysis of a portion of the stalagmite corresponding to the 1970s by electron probe, LA-ICP-MS, and by physical subsampling indicate clear annual cycles in Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca. The reasonably open cave structure and the correlation of Sr/Ca with Mg/Ca suggest that temperature exerts considerable control over these trace element variations. U/Ca also varies seasonally by up to 42 % and shows a clear anti-correlation with Mg/Ca (correlation coefficient -0.64). Based on the inverse relationship between U/Ca and temperature exhibited in other carbonates (e.g. corals) the speleothem U/Ca is suggested to be controlled primarily by temperature and may provide a paleo cave thermometer with less rainfall influence than Mg/Ca. Ongoing monitoring of the cave temperature and humidity will assess the robustness of this conclusion and the sensitivity of speleothem U/Ca to temperature. (234U/238U) in this stalagmite range from 1.733 to 1.872 during the Holocene. The U concentration is high enough (typically 0.48 ppm) and growth rate fast enough, that (234U/238U) can also be measured at a subannual resolution. The expected alpha-recoil control of excess 234U supply suggests that these measurements may provide a measure of the transit time of recharge waters to the stalagmite during the seasonal cycle. Such a proxy would enable deconvolution of temperature and recharge-rate control

  18. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  19. Expression of squid iridescence depends on environmental luminance and peripheral ganglion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bellido, P T; Wardill, T J; Buresch, K C; Ulmer, K M; Hanlon, R T

    2014-03-15

    Squid display impressive changes in body coloration that are afforded by two types of dynamic skin elements: structural iridophores (which produce iridescence) and pigmented chromatophores. Both color elements are neurally controlled, but nothing is known about the iridescence circuit, or the environmental cues, that elicit iridescence expression. To tackle this knowledge gap, we performed denervation, electrical stimulation and behavioral experiments using the long-fin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We show that while the pigmentary and iridescence circuits originate in the brain, they are wired differently in the periphery: (1) the iridescence signals are routed through a peripheral center called the stellate ganglion and (2) the iridescence motor neurons likely originate within this ganglion (as revealed by nerve fluorescence dye fills). Cutting the inputs to the stellate ganglion that descend from the brain shifts highly reflective iridophores into a transparent state. Taken together, these findings suggest that although brain commands are necessary for expression of iridescence, integration with peripheral information in the stellate ganglion could modulate the final output. We also demonstrate that squid change their iridescence brightness in response to environmental luminance; such changes are robust but slow (minutes to hours). The squid's ability to alter its iridescence levels may improve camouflage under different lighting intensities.

  20. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Filgueira D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a susceptible commercial variety, through an environmental controlled conditions system. Infection and sporulation were observed at different temperatures in a range of from 4 to 40°C. Infection with the absence of or very low sporulation was observed at 4°C. The most favorable pathogen responses were between 15 and 18°C in terms of inoculum concentration and sporulation percentage. There was no infection or leaflet change above 35°C. According to the results, sporulation can occur from 4 to 33°C, confirming the fact that P. sparsa is able to reproduce throughout a wide temperature range.

  1. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow redistribution becomes dependent on sympathetic activation affecting not only skin and splanchnic blood flow, but also flow to skeletal muscles and the brain. This review addresses the hypothesis that deviations from normovolaemia significantly influence these cardiovascular responses.

  2. Indoor environmental risk factors in young asthmatics: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, A; Wickman, M; Hedlin, G; Pershagen, G; Rietz, H; Nordvall, S L

    1995-11-01

    One hundred and ninety three children with asthma and 318 controls aged 1-4 years were evaluated for atopic heredity and exposure to possible indoor risk factors for asthma-for example exposure to furred pets, tobacco smoke, and home dampness. A subgroup of cases were classified as cat and/or dog allergic on the basis of skin prick tests. Heredity for asthma was a significant risk factor (odds ratio (OR) 3.0, confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 4.6). Environmental tobacco smoke was associated with an excess risk for asthma (OR 1.7, CI 1.1 to 2.3) and signs of home dampness tended to increase this risk (OR 1.3, CI 0.9 to 2.0). High dose exposure to cat and/or dog resulted in an increased risk only in asthma cases sensitised to cat and/or dog (OR 2.7, CI 1.0 to 7.3). A combination of high dose exposure to cat and/or dog, environmental tobacco smoke and damp housing was associated with an OR of 8.0 (CI 1.9 to 34.1). Raised indoor humidity has been shown to reflect low air exchange, which may also lead to increased doses of inhaled aeroallergens and tobacco smoke, and contribute to the interaction between the three risk factors.

  3. EVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan; Kristine M. H. Cruz; Kristine L. Lowe; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-04-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing of pepper extracts resulted in preliminary data indicating that some pepper extracts inhibit the growth of some corrosion-associated microorganisms. This quarter additional tests were performed to more specifically investigate the ability of three pepper extracts to inhibit the growth, and to influence the metal corrosion caused by two microbial species: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Comomonas denitrificans. All three pepper extracts rapidly killed Desulfovibrio vulgaris, but did not appear to inhibit Comomonas denitrificans. While corrosion rates were at control levels in experiments with Desulfovibrio vulgaris that received pepper extract, corrosion rates were increased in the presence of Comomonas denitrificans plus pepper extract. Further testing with a wider range of pure bacterial cultures, and more importantly, with mixed bacterial cultures should be performed to determine the potential effectiveness of pepper extracts to inhibit MIC.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed to determine if chemical compounds other than pepper extracts could inhibit the growth of corrosion-associated microbes and to determine if pepper extracts and other compounds can inhibit corrosion when mature biofilms are present. Several chemical compounds were shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of corrosion-associated microorganisms, and all of these compounds limited the amount of corrosion caused by mature biofilms to a similar extent. It is difficult to control corrosion caused by mature biofilms, but any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion.

  5. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  6. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

    2013-10-15

    Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change.

  8. Petroleum environmental research forum field study on biofilters for control of volatile hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leson, G.; Smith, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study on the treatment of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) by biofiltration was conducted by the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) between 1992 and 1994. Its objective was to assess the technical, regulatory, and economic feasibility of biofiltration for off-gases from petroleum processing and soil remediation equipment. It involved three small-scale biofilters provided by US vendors, treating off-gas from two soil vapor extraction sites and a source of refinery wastewater. Comprehensive monitoring of biofilter operating parameters and performance was conducted. Typically more than 95% of aromatic compounds such as benzene, and odorous reduced sulfur compounds can be removed at residence times of one minute or less, while removal of more than 70% of light aliphatics will require residence times of several minutes, and will thus require correspondingly large filter volumes and higher capital expenditure. The high percentage removal of aromatic hazardous air pollutants (HAP) and odors can generally be accomplished at comparatively short residence times while the need for high-percentage removal, particular of light aliphatics ( 5 ) will generally render biofiltration noncompetitive. Finally, a preliminary economic comparison of biofilters and established control technologies suggested that biofiltration may, for a representative design case involving off-gas from a refinery wastewater treatment operation, offer considerable savings in total cost of air pollution control for petroleum hydrocarbon streams if regulations require the control of aromatic HAP or odors

  9. Realization of the Energy Saving of the Environmental Examination Device Temperature Control System in Consideration of Temperature Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogaki, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shuichi

    The temperature control of the environmental examination device has loss of the energy consumption to cool it while warming it. This paper proposed a tempareture control system method with energy saving for the enviromental examination device without using cooling in consideration of temperature characteristics.

  10. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  11. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  12. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2004-10-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  13. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems technology options for Space Station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Sage, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous assessments regarding the suitability of candidate technologies for manned Space Stations will be needed over the next several years to obtain a basis for recommending the optimum system for an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which is to be launched in the early 1990's. This paper has the objective to present analysis programs, the candidate recommendations, and the recommended approach for integration these candidates into the NASA Space Station reference configuration. Attention is given to ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) technology assessment program, an analysis approach for candidate technology recommendations, mission model variables, a candidate integration program, metabolic oxygen recovery, urine/flush water and all waste water recovery, wash water and condensate water recovery, and an integration analysis.

  14. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  15. NASA Environmental Control and Life Support Technology Development and Maturation for Exploration: 2015 to 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Walter F.; Gatens, Robyn L.; Anderson, Molly S.; Broyan, James L.; MaCatangay, Ariel V.; Shull, Sarah A.; Perry, Jay L.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Over the last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has continued to refine the understanding and prioritization of technology gaps that must be closed in order to achieve Evolvable Mars Campaign objectives and near term objectives in the cislunar proving ground. These efforts are reflected in updates to the technical area roadmaps released by NASA in 2015 and have guided technology development and maturation tasks that have been sponsored by various programs. This paper provides an overview of the refined Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) strategic planning, as well as a synopsis of key technology and maturation project tasks that occurred in 2014 and early 2015 to support the strategic needs. Plans for the remainder of 2015 and subsequent years are also described.

  16. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  17. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  18. Full scale impact testing for environmental and safety control of energy material shipping container systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagren, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Heavily-shielded energy material shipping systems, similar in size and weight to those presently employed to transport irradiated reactor fuel elements, are being destructively tested under dynamic conditions. In these tests, the outer and inner steel shells interact in a complex manner with the massive biological shielding in the system. Results obtained from these tests provide needed information for new design concepts. Containment failure (and the resulting release of radioactive material to the environment which might occur in an extremely severe accident) is most likely through the seals and other ancillary features of the shipping systems. Analyses and experiments provide engineering data on the behavior of these shipping systems under severe accident conditions and information for predicting potential survivability and environmental control with a rational margin of safety

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  20. Environmental control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in the gassy sediments of Eckernforde Bay (German Baltic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Kruger, M.; Boetius, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of seasonal environmental changes on the rate and distribution of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in Eckernforde Bay sediments (German Baltic Sea) and identified organisms that are likely to be involved in the process. Surface sediments were sampled during September...... of methane were measured in vitro. AOM changed seasonally within the upper 20 cm of the sediment, with rates being between 1 and 14 nmol cm(-3) d(-1). Its distribution is suggested to be controlled by oxygen and sulfate penetration, temperature, as well as methane supply, leading to a shallow AOM zone during...... AOM in Eckerntorde Bay. These archaea are known also from other marine methane-rich locations. However, they were not directly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. AOM is possibly mediated solely by these archaea that show a mesophilic physiology according to the seasonal temperature changes...

  1. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  2. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  3. Hydrology and Oceanography Analysis Regarding The NPP Site Screening Process at Banten Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarianto-S-Budi-Susilo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding the NPP development in the future, it is needed to make inventory of potential site in the Java Island as well as in the outside Java Island. The NPP site inventory availability is to answer the energy demand challenge. Site screening process should be performed in accordance with the IAEA safety standard regarding the site selection, investigating several aspects related to the NPP safety (exclusion, safety and suitability factor) in the large area to obtain potential site candidates. For the site survey stage of hydrology and oceanography aspects, the analysis are more focused on the tidal phenomena along the north coastline, bathymetry, water resource, and hydrology system in the Banten Province. The method used are secondary data collection, field confirmation and internet searching. The result of the study showed that Tanjung Pujut and Tanjung Pasir are suitable based on the bathymetry and water intake facility consideration. Meanwhile Tanjung Kait and Tanjung Pasir more suitable considering tsunami aspects that may be generated by Krakatau Volcano. (author)

  4. The ecology of plankton in biological oceanography: a tribute to Marta Estrada’s task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plankton ecology has been the object of intense research and progress in the last few decades. This has been partly due to technological advances that have facilitated the multidisciplinary and high-resolution sampling of ecosystems and improved experimentation and analytical methodologies, and to sophisticated modelling. In addition, exceptional researchers have had the vision to integrate all these innovative tools to form a solid theoretical background in ecology. Here we provide an overview of the outstanding research work conducted by Professor Marta Estrada and her pioneering contribution to different areas of research in the last four decades. Her research in biological oceanography has mainly focussed on phytoplankton ecology, taxonomy and physiology, the functional structure of plankton communities, and physical and biological interactions in marine ecosystems. She has combined a variety of field and laboratory approaches and methodologies, from microscopy to satellite observations, including in-depth statistical data analysis and modelling. She has been a reference for scientists all over the world. Here, her contributions to plankton ecology are summarized by some of her students and closest collaborators, who had the privilege to share their science and everyday experiences with her.

  5. Use of ERTS-1 pictures in coastal oceanography in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, J. F. R.

    1973-01-01

    The ERTS-1 color composite picture of the Vancouver-Victoria region illustrates the value of ERTS data for coastal oceanography. The water of the Fraser River plume which is so clearly visible in the center of the scene has been of interest to oceanographers on the west coast of Canada for a long time as an easily visible tracer of surface water circulation in the strait of Georgia. Maps of the plume at different states of the tide and with different river flow and weather were compiled from oblique aerial photographs in 1950 and used in the siting of sewage and other outfalls in the Vancouver area. More recently high level aerial photomosaics have been used to map the plume area, but the plume can spread over distances of 30 to 40 miles and many photographs, with the uneven illumination inherent in wide angle coverage, are needed for the mosaic. The ERTS satellite gives the first complete view of the plume area. Electronic enhancement of the images shows that the satellite's narrow angle coverage allows very weak surface turbidity features to be made visible to give information on surface currents over a wide area.

  6. The application of standard definitions of sound to the fields of underwater acoustics and acoustical oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, William M.

    2004-05-01

    Recent societal concerns have focused attention on the use of sound as a probe to investigate the oceans and its use in naval sonar applications. The concern is the impact the use of sound may have on marine mammals and fishes. The focus has changed the fields of acoustical oceanography (AO) and underwater acoustics (UW) because of the requirement to communicate between disciplines. Multiple National Research Council publications, Dept. of Navy reports, and several monographs have been written on this subject, and each reveals the importance as well as the misapplication of ASA standards. The ANSI-ASA standards are comprehensive, however not widely applied. The clear definition of standards and recommendations of their use is needed for both scientists and government agencies. Traditionally the U.S. Navy has been responsible for UW standards and calibration; the ANSI-ASA standards have been essential. However, recent changes in the Navy and its laboratory structure may necessitate a more formal recognition of ANSI-ASA standards and perhaps incorporation of UW-AO in the Bureau of Standards. A separate standard for acoustical terminology, reference levels, and notation used in the UW-AO is required. Since the problem is global, a standard should be compatible and cross referenced with the International Standard (CEI/IEC 27-3).

  7. Experiences of ocean literacy with different users of operational oceanography services and with high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Paola; Coppini, Giovanni; Martinelli, Sara; Bonarelli, Roberto; Lecci, Rita; Pinardi, Nadia; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Federico, Ivan; Mannarini, Gianandrea; Verri, Giorgia; Jansen, Eric; Lusito, Letizia; Macchia, Francesca; Montagna, Fabio; Buonocore, Mauro; Marra, Palmalisa; Tedesco, Luca; Cavallo, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    According to a common definition, ocean literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on people and people influence on the ocean. An ocean-literate person is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. To this aim, this paper presents operational oceanographic tools developed to meet the needs of different users, and activities performed in collaboration with high school students to support new developments of the same tools. Operational oceanography allows to deal with societal challenges such as maritime safety, coastal and marine environment management, climate change assessment and marine resources management. Oceanographic products from the European Copernicus Marine Monitoring Service - CMEMS are transformed and communicated to public and stakeholders through adding-value chains (downstreaming), which consider advanced visualization, usage of multi-channels technological platforms and specific models and algorithms. Sea Situational Awareness is strategically important for management and safety purposes of any marine domain and, in particular, the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal areas. Examples of applications for sea situational awareness and maritime safety are here presented, through user-friendly products available both by web and mobile channels (that already reach more than 100.000 users in the Mediterranean area). Further examples of ocean literacy are web bulletins used to communicate the technical contents and information related to oceanographic forecasts to a wide public. They are the result of a collaboration with high school students, with whom also other activities on improving products visualization and online communication have been performed.

  8. An electronic atlas on the oceanography of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostov, I. D.; Moroz, V. V.; Rudykh, N. I.; Rostov, V. I.

    2009-12-01

    The digital atlas on CD ROM includes a set of generalized data on the South China Sea oceanography. The data is presented in the form of spreadsheets, graphics, and text. The atlas contains a brief annotated description of the main physical-geographical characteristics and the particularities of the hydrological regime, water masses, tidal phenomena, and water mass circulation. The atlas is an interactive information-reference system including elements of dynamic data visualization. It contains a body of data on the long-term observations of the temperature and salinity; gridded blocks of the average annual, seasonal, and monthly data at the standard depth horizons; and data on the hydrochemical characteristics and water currents obtained by automatic buoy stations (ABS). A list of existing open access data bases and web sites is given where additional online and archived information on a range of special issues and problems related to regional studies and exploitation is provided. The system allows for fast access to specifically selected online or generalized reference information (via the Internet) and for its imaging.

  9. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Darling Flood Control Project, Souris River, North Dakota and Final Feature Environmental Impact Statement, Velva Flood Control, Velva, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    1500-1508) identify a process called "tiering" and define it as "...the coverage of general matters in broader environmental impact statements (such as...Mr. John Clouse Mr. C. R. Danks Sherwood, ND 58782 Rural Route Route 2 Foxholm, ND 58738 King’s Court Minot, ND 58701 Dr. A. B. Brudirk Mrs. Veronica

  10. Effects of control technology on the projected krypton-85 environmental inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, E.E.

    1973-01-01

    Growth projections for the USA nuclear power industry may be used to make projections of future radioactive material inventories available for potential release to the environment. Since krypton-85 is produced in reactors, the potential routes of release to the environment are at the reactors or the fuel reprocessing plants. The present generation of reactors and fuel reprocessing plants do not use any systems to limit the release of krypton-85 into the biosphere. Clean-up systems are currently being designed and could be introduced when necessary. The cumulative inventory of krypton-85 in the environment is dependent upon the time of introduction of these clean-up systems and their efficiencies, in addition to the total quantity produced. Annual and cumulative inventories of krypton-85 are projected to increase dramatically over the next 50 years. If controls are assumed to be initiated at various years, a series of graphs of different cumulative environmental inventories and the associated doses and health effects are drawn. Varying the year of introduction and the efficiency of these systems allows one to speculate as to the optimum time for control implementation

  11. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  12. Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alcaraz-Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional controls of biodiversity patterns have been traditionally evaluated using structural and compositional components at the species level, but evaluation of the functional component at the ecosystem level is still scarce. During the last decades, the role of ecosystem functioning in management and conservation has increased. Our aim was to use satellite-derived Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs, patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics to characterize the regional patterns of ecosystem functional diversity and to evaluate the environmental and human controls that determine EFT richness across natural and human-modified systems in temperate South America. The EFT identification was based on three descriptors of carbon gain dynamics derived from seasonal curves of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI: annual mean (surrogate of primary production, seasonal coefficient of variation (indicator of seasonality and date of maximum EVI (descriptor of phenology. As observed for species richness in the southern hemisphere, water availability, not energy, emerged as the main climatic driver of EFT richness in natural areas of temperate South America. In anthropogenic areas, the role of both water and energy decreased and increasing human intervention increased richness at low levels of human influence, but decreased richness at high levels of human influence.

  13. Environmental controls on sap flow in black locust forest in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changkun; Luo, Yi; Shao, Mingan; Li, Xiangdong; Sun, Lin; Jia, Xiaoxu

    2017-10-13

    Black locust accounts for over 90% of artificial forests in China's Loess Plateau region. However, water use of black locust is an uphill challenge for this semi-arid region. To accurately quantify tree water use and to explain the related hydrological processes, it is important to collect reliable data for application in the estimation of sap flow and its response to environmental factors. This study measured sap flow in black locust in the 2015 and 2016 growth seasons using the thermal dissipation probes technique and laboratory-calibrated Granier's equation. The study showed that the laboratory calibrated coefficient α was much larger than the original value presented by Granier, while the coefficient β was similar to the original one. The average daily transpiration was 2.1 mm day -1 for 2015 and 1.6 mm day -1 for 2016. Net solar radiation (Rn) was the key meteorological factor controlling sap flow, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and then temperature (T). VPD had a threshold control on sap flow at threshold values of 1.9 kPa for 2015 and 1.6 kPa for 2016. The effects of diurnal hysteresis of Rn, VPD and T on sap flow were evident, indicating that black locust water use was conservative.

  14. Control of Greenhouse Environmental Conditions with IOT Based Monitoring and Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Çaylı

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks applications and inter-machine communication (M2M, called the Internet of Things, help decision-makers to control complex systems thanks to the low data-rate and cost-effective data collection and analysis. These technologies offer new possibilities to monitor environmental management and agricultural policies, and to improve agricultural production, especially in low-income rural areas. In this study, IoT is proposed with a low cost, flexible and scalable data collection and analysis system. For this purpose, open source hardware microprocessor cards and sensors are stored in the greenhouse computer database using the IEEE 802.15.4 Zigbee wireless communication protocol. The data can be analyzed by greenhouse computer analysis software, which is developed with the PHP programming language. It is possible to monitor the real time data from the greenhouse computer. Also alert rules definitions can be made and the system was tested in greenhouse conditions. It has been observed that it performs operations steadily such as data transfer, sensor measurements and data processing. The proposed system may be useful for monitoring indoor climate and controlling ventilation, irrigation and heating systems, especially for small enterprises due to the modular structure.

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Hardware Commonality for Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn; Anderson, Molly

    2012-01-01

    In August 2011, the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) technical community, along with associated stakeholders, held a workshop to review NASA s plans for Exploration missions and vehicles with two objectives: revisit the Exploration Atmospheres Working Group (EAWG) findings from 2006, and discuss preliminary ECLSS architecture concepts and technology choices for Exploration vehicles, identifying areas for potential common hardware or technologies to be utilized. Key considerations for selection of vehicle design total pressure and percent oxygen include operational concepts for extravehicular activity (EVA) and prebreathe protocols, materials flammability, and controllability within pressure and oxygen ranges. New data for these areas since the 2006 study were presented and discussed, and the community reached consensus on conclusions and recommendations for target design pressures for each Exploration vehicle concept. For the commonality study, the workshop identified many areas of potential commonality across the Exploration vehicles as well as with heritage International Space Station (ISS) and Shuttle hardware. Of the 36 ECLSS functions reviewed, 16 were considered to have strong potential for commonality, 13 were considered to have some potential commonality, and 7 were considered to have limited potential for commonality due to unique requirements or lack of sufficient heritage hardware. These findings, which will be utilized in architecture studies and budget exercises going forward, are presented in detail.

  16. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  17. Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the primary goals of this research effort was to document and compare the economic and environment benefits of using natural gas for pollution control in boilers, furnaces and internal combustion engines, with conventional control technologies. The study indicated that replacement of 15% of the coal used in coal-fired boilers employed in the generation of electric power in the US, with natural gas, would considerably reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and do so in a cost-effect manner. The reductions achieved were also in concordance with the reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions mandated by the new Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. The combustion of natural gas would also produce less carbon dioxide as compared to the combustion of coal with an equivalent amount of heat content. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, i.e., it is believed to play a major role in global warming. Natural gas technology therefore presents a cost-effective step in the eventual mitigation of two of the main environmental problems presently facing us, acid rain, and global warming

  18. Home Environmental Interventions for the Prevention or Control of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases: What Really Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Paulus, Hélène; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Frain, Sophie; Gangneux, Jean Pierre

    Home health care workers interventions have been implemented in western countries to improve health status of patients with respiratory diseases especially asthma and allergic illnesses. Twenty-six controlled studies dealing with prevention and control of these diseases through home environmental interventions were reviewed. After a comprehensive description of the characteristics of these studies, the effectiveness of each intervention was then evaluated in terms of participants' compliance with the intervention program, improvement of quality of the indoor environment, and finally improvement of health outcomes, in detailed tables. Limitations and biases of the studies are also discussed. Overall, this review aims at giving a toolbox for home health care workers to target the most appropriate measures to improve health status of the patient depending on his and/or her environment and disease. Only a case-by-case approach with achievable measures will warrant the efficacy of home interventions. This review will also provide to the research community a tool to better identify targets to focus in future evaluation studies of home health care workers action. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez-Manjarrez Candi Ashanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and technological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

  20. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.